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Smoking and pregnancy

Tobacco smoking during pregnancy causes many detrimental effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus.

Pregnant woman smoking outside a London hospital

Because of the associated risks, people are advised not to smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not possible, however, reducing the daily number of cigarettes smoked can minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is especially true for people in developing countries, where breastfeeding is essential for the child's overall nutritional status.

Contents

Women who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant are advised to stop smoking. It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population and can have detrimental health impacts, especially among both mother and child, as a result. In 2011, approximately 10% of pregnant women in data collected from 24 U.S. states reported smoking during the last three months of their pregnancy.

According to a 1999 meta-analysis published in The American Journal of Preventative Medicine, smoking prior to pregnancy is strongly related to an increased risk of developing an ectopic pregnancy.

According to a study conducted in 2008 by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) that interviewed people in 26 states in the United States, approximately 13% of women reported smoking during the last three months of pregnancy. Of women who smoked during the last three months of pregnancy, 52% reported smoking five or fewer cigarettes per day, 27% reported smoking six to 10 cigarettes per day, and 21% reported smoking 11 or more cigarettes per day.

In the United States, women whose pregnancies were unintended are 30% more likely to smoke during pregnancy than those whose pregnancies were intended.

Effects on ongoing pregnancy

Smoking during pregnancy can lead to a plethora of health risks to both the mother and the fetus.

Women who smoke during pregnancy are about twice as likely to experience the following pregnancy complications:

  • premature rupture of membranes, which means that the amniotic sac will rupture prematurely, and will induce labour before the baby is fully developed. Although this complication generally has a good prognosis (in Western countries), it causes stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life on their own.
  • placental abruption, wherein there is premature separation of the placenta from the attachment site. The fetus can be put in distress, and can even die. The mother can lose blood and can have a haemorrhage; they may need a blood transfusion.
  • placenta previa, where in the placenta grows in the lowest part of the uterus and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix. Having placenta previa is an economic stress as well because it requires having a caesarean section delivery, which require a longer recovery period in the hospital. There can also be complications, such as maternal hemorrhage.

According to a 1999 meta-analysis published in The American Journal of Preventative Medicine, smoking during pregnancy is related to an reduced risk of developing pre-eclampsia.

Premature birth

Some studies show that the probability of premature birth is roughly 1% higher for women who smoke during pregnancy, going from around -1% to 1%.

Implications for the umbilical cord

Smoking can also impair the general development of the placenta, which is problematic because it reduces blood flow to the fetus. When the placenta does not develop fully, the umbilical cord which transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother's blood to the placenta, cannot transfer enough oxygen and nutrients to the fetus, which will not be able to fully grow and develop. These conditions can result in heavy bleeding during delivery that can endanger mother and baby, although cesarean delivery can prevent most deaths.

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

There is limited evidence that smoking reduces the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension, but not when the pregnancy is with multiple babies (i.e. it has no effect on twins, triplets, etc.).

Tic disorders

Other effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy include an increased risk for Tourette syndrome and tic disorders. There is a link between chronic tic disorders, which include Tourette syndrome and other disorders like ADHD and OCD. According to a study published in 2016 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, there is an especially high risk for children to be born with a chronic tic disorder if their mother is a heavy smoker. Heavy smoking can be defined as ten or more cigarettes each day. With this heavy smoking, researchers have found that there is an increase in risk as high as 66% for the child to have a chronic tic disorder. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with psychiatric disorders such as ADHD. Concerning the increase risk for Tourette syndrome, there is an increased risk when two or more psychiatric disorders are also existent as maternal smoking leads to a higher chance of having a psychiatric disorder.

Cleft palate

Pregnant women who smoke are at a risk of having a child with cleft palate.[citation needed]

Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child after birth

Low birth weight

Smoking during pregnancy can result in lower birth weight as well as deformities in the fetus. Smoking nearly doubles the risk of low birthweight babies. In 2004, 11.9% of babies born to smokers had low birthweight as compared to only 7.2% of babies born to nonsmokers. More specifically, infants born to smokers weigh on average 200 grams less than infants born to people who do not smoke.

The nicotine in cigarette smoke constricts the blood vessels in the placenta and carbon monoxide, which is poisonous, enters the fetus' bloodstream, replacing some of the valuable oxygen molecules carried by hemoglobin in the red blood cells. Moreover, because the fetus cannot breathe the smoke out, it has to wait for the placenta to clear it. These effects account for the fact that, on average, babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have a low birth weight (less than 2.5 kilograms or 5.5 pounds), making it more likely the baby will become ill or die.

Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong disabilities such as cerebral palsy (a set of motor conditions causing physical disabilities), intellectual disabilities and learning problems.

Sudden infant death syndrome

Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant's history. The death also remains unexplainable upon autopsy. Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of SIDS due to the increased levels of nicotine often found in SIDS cases. Infants exposed to smoke during pregnancy are up to three times more likely to die of SIDS than children born to non-smoking mothers.[quantify]

Other birth defects

Birth defects associated with smoking during pregnancy
Defect Odds ratio
cardiovascular/heart defects 1.09
musculoskeletal defect 1.16
limb reduction defects 1.26
missing/extra digits 1.18
clubfoot 1.28
craniosynostosis 1.33
facial defects 1.19
eye defects 1.25
orofacial clefts 1.28
gastrointestinal defects 1.27
gastroschisis 1.50
anal atresia 1.20
hernia 1.40
undescended testes 1.13
hypospadias 0.90
skin defects 0.82

Smoking can also cause other birth defects, reduced birth circumference, altered brainstem development, altered lung structure, and cerebral palsy. Recently the U.S. Public Health Service reported that if all pregnant women in the United States stopped smoking, there would be an estimated 11% reduction in stillbirths and a 5% reduction in newborn deaths.

Future obesity

A recent study has proposed that maternal smoking during pregnancy can lead to future teenage obesity. While no significant differences could be found between young teenagers with smoking mothers as compared to young teenagers with nonsmoking mothers, older teenagers with smoking mothers were found to have on average 26% more body fat and 33% more abdominal fat than similar aged teenagers with non-smoking mothers. This increase in body fat may result from the effects of smoking during pregnancy, which is thought to impact fetal genetic programming in relation to obesity. While the exact mechanism for this difference is currently unknown, studies conducted on animals have indicated that nicotine may affect brain functions that deal with eating impulses and energy metabolism. These differences appear to have a significant effect on the maintenance of a healthy, normal weight. As a result of this alteration to brain function, teenage obesity can in turn lead to a variety of health problems including diabetes (a condition in which the affected individual's blood glucose level is too high and the body is unable to regulate it), hypertension (high blood pressure), and cardiovascular disease (any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build-up).

Future smoking habits

Studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of offspring beginning to smoke at an early age.[citation needed]

Quitting during pregnancy

According to a 2010 study published in the European Journal of Pediatrics, the cessation of maternal smoking during any point during pregnancy reduces the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes when compared to smoking throughout the entire nine months of pregnancy, especially if it is done within the first trimester. The study found that expectant mothers who smoke at any time during the first trimester increase the risk that their child will suffer from birth defects, particularly congenital heart defects than expectant mothers who have never smoked. The study found that the risk posed to the expectant mother's child increases both with the quantity of cigarettes smoked, as well as the length of time during pregnancy during which the mother continues to smoke. This, per the study, renders a more positive outcome for women who cease smoking for the remainder of their pregnancy relative to women who continue to smoke.

There are many resources to help pregnant people quit smoking such as counseling and drug therapies. For non-pregnant smokers, an often-recommended aid to quitting smoking is through the use of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in the form of patches, gum, inhalers, lozenges, sprays or sublingual tablets. NRT, however, delivers nicotine to the expectant mother's child in utero. For some pregnant smokers, NRT might still be the most beneficial and helpful solution to quit smoking. It is important that smokers talk to doctor to determine the best course of action on an individual basis.

Infants exposed to smoke, both during pregnancy and after birth, are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS).

Breastfeeding

If one does continue to smoke after giving birth, however, it is still more beneficial to breastfeed than to completely avoid this practice altogether. There is evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against many infectious diseases, especially diarrhea. Even in babies exposed to the harmful effects of nicotine through breast milk, the likelihood of acute respiratory illness is significantly diminished when compared to infants whose mothers smoked but were formula fed. Regardless, the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risks of nicotine exposure.

Passive smoking

Passive smoking is associated with many risks to children, including, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), asthma, lung infections, impaired respiratory function and slowed lung growth, Crohn's disease, learning difficulties and neurobehavioral effects, an increase in tooth decay, and an increased risk of middle ear infections.

A grandmother who smokes during her daughter's pregnancy transmits an increased risk of asthma to her grandchildren, even if the second-generation mother does not smoke. The multigenerational epigenetic effect of nicotine on lung function has already been demonstrated.

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Smoking and pregnancy
Smoking and pregnancy Language Watch Edit Tobacco smoking during pregnancy causes many detrimental effects on health and reproduction in addition to the general health effects of tobacco A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus 1 2 3 Pregnant woman smoking outside a London hospital Because of the associated risks people are advised not to smoke before during or after pregnancy If this is not possible however reducing the daily number of cigarettes smoked can minimize the risks for both the mother and child This is especially true for people in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child s overall nutritional status 4 Contents 1 Smoking before pregnancy 2 Smoking during pregnancy 2 1 Effects on ongoing pregnancy 2 1 1 Premature birth 2 1 2 Implications for the umbilical cord 2 1 3 Pregnancy induced hypertension 2 1 4 Tic disorders 2 2 Cleft palate 2 3 Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child after birth 2 3 1 Low birth weight 2 3 2 Sudden infant death syndrome 2 3 3 Other birth defects 2 3 4 Future obesity 2 3 5 Future smoking habits 2 4 Quitting during pregnancy 3 Smoking after pregnancy 3 1 Breastfeeding 3 2 Passive smoking 4 Multigenerational effect 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksSmoking before pregnancy EditWomen who are pregnant or planning to become pregnant are advised to stop smoking 5 6 It is important to examine these effects because smoking before during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population and can have detrimental health impacts especially among both mother and child as a result In 2011 approximately 10 of pregnant women in data collected from 24 U S states reported smoking during the last three months of their pregnancy 7 According to a 1999 meta analysis published in The American Journal of Preventative Medicine smoking prior to pregnancy is strongly related to an increased risk of developing an ectopic pregnancy 6 Smoking during pregnancy EditAccording to a study conducted in 2008 by the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System PRAMS that interviewed people in 26 states in the United States approximately 13 of women reported smoking during the last three months of pregnancy Of women who smoked during the last three months of pregnancy 52 reported smoking five or fewer cigarettes per day 27 reported smoking six to 10 cigarettes per day and 21 reported smoking 11 or more cigarettes per day 8 In the United States women whose pregnancies were unintended are 30 more likely to smoke during pregnancy than those whose pregnancies were intended 9 Effects on ongoing pregnancy Edit Smoking during pregnancy can lead to a plethora of health risks to both the mother and the fetus Women who smoke during pregnancy are about twice as likely to experience the following pregnancy complications 10 premature rupture of membranes which means that the amniotic sac will rupture prematurely and will induce labour before the baby is fully developed Although this complication generally has a good prognosis in Western countries it causes stress as the premature child may have to stay in the hospital to gain health and strength to be able to sustain life on their own placental abruption wherein there is premature separation of the placenta from the attachment site The fetus can be put in distress and can even die The mother can lose blood and can have a haemorrhage they may need a blood transfusion placenta previa where in the placenta grows in the lowest part of the uterus and covers all or part of the opening to the cervix 11 Having placenta previa is an economic stress as well because it requires having a caesarean section delivery which require a longer recovery period in the hospital There can also be complications such as maternal hemorrhage According to a 1999 meta analysis published in The American Journal of Preventative Medicine smoking during pregnancy is related to an reduced risk of developing pre eclampsia 6 Premature birth Edit Some studies show that the probability of premature birth is roughly 1 higher for women who smoke during pregnancy going from around 1 to 1 12 Implications for the umbilical cord Edit Smoking can also impair the general development of the placenta which is problematic because it reduces blood flow to the fetus When the placenta does not develop fully the umbilical cord which transfers oxygen and nutrients from the mother s blood to the placenta cannot transfer enough oxygen and nutrients to the fetus which will not be able to fully grow and develop These conditions can result in heavy bleeding during delivery that can endanger mother and baby although cesarean delivery can prevent most deaths 13 Pregnancy induced hypertension Edit There is limited evidence that smoking reduces the incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension 14 but not when the pregnancy is with multiple babies i e it has no effect on twins triplets etc 15 Tic disorders Edit Other effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy include an increased risk for Tourette syndrome and tic disorders There is a link between chronic tic disorders which include Tourette syndrome and other disorders like ADHD and OCD According to a study published in 2016 in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry there is an especially high risk for children to be born with a chronic tic disorder if their mother is a heavy smoker Heavy smoking can be defined as ten or more cigarettes each day With this heavy smoking researchers have found that there is an increase in risk as high as 66 for the child to have a chronic tic disorder Maternal smoking during pregnancy is also associated with psychiatric disorders such as ADHD Concerning the increase risk for Tourette syndrome there is an increased risk when two or more psychiatric disorders are also existent as maternal smoking leads to a higher chance of having a psychiatric disorder 16 Cleft palate Edit Pregnant women who smoke are at a risk of having a child with cleft palate citation needed Effects of smoking during pregnancy on the child after birth Edit Low birth weight Edit Smoking during pregnancy can result in lower birth weight as well as deformities in the fetus 17 18 Smoking nearly doubles the risk of low birthweight babies In 2004 11 9 of babies born to smokers had low birthweight as compared to only 7 2 of babies born to nonsmokers More specifically infants born to smokers weigh on average 200 grams less than infants born to people who do not smoke 19 The nicotine in cigarette smoke constricts the blood vessels in the placenta and carbon monoxide which is poisonous enters the fetus bloodstream replacing some of the valuable oxygen molecules carried by hemoglobin in the red blood cells Moreover because the fetus cannot breathe the smoke out it has to wait for the placenta to clear it These effects account for the fact that on average babies born to smoking mothers are usually born too early and have a low birth weight less than 2 5 kilograms or 5 5 pounds making it more likely the baby will become ill or die 20 Premature and low birth weight babies face an increased risk of serious health problems as newborns have chronic lifelong disabilities such as cerebral palsy a set of motor conditions causing physical disabilities intellectual disabilities and learning problems Sudden infant death syndrome Edit Sudden infant death syndrome SIDS is the sudden death of an infant that is unexplainable by the infant s history The death also remains unexplainable upon autopsy Infants exposed to smoke both during pregnancy and after birth are found to be more at risk of SIDS due to the increased levels of nicotine often found in SIDS cases Infants exposed to smoke during pregnancy are up to three times more likely to die of SIDS than children born to non smoking mothers quantify 21 Other birth defects Edit Birth defects associated with smoking during pregnancy 22 Defect Odds ratiocardiovascular heart defects 1 09musculoskeletal defect 1 16limb reduction defects 1 26missing extra digits 1 18clubfoot 1 28craniosynostosis 1 33facial defects 1 19eye defects 1 25orofacial clefts 1 28gastrointestinal defects 1 27gastroschisis 1 50anal atresia 1 20hernia 1 40undescended testes 1 13hypospadias 0 90skin defects 0 82 Smoking can also cause other birth defects reduced birth circumference altered brainstem development altered lung structure and cerebral palsy Recently the U S Public Health Service reported that if all pregnant women in the United States stopped smoking there would be an estimated 11 reduction in stillbirths and a 5 reduction in newborn deaths 19 Future obesity Edit A recent study has proposed that maternal smoking during pregnancy can lead to future teenage obesity While no significant differences could be found between young teenagers with smoking mothers as compared to young teenagers with nonsmoking mothers older teenagers with smoking mothers were found to have on average 26 more body fat and 33 more abdominal fat than similar aged teenagers with non smoking mothers This increase in body fat may result from the effects of smoking during pregnancy which is thought to impact fetal genetic programming in relation to obesity While the exact mechanism for this difference is currently unknown studies conducted on animals have indicated that nicotine may affect brain functions that deal with eating impulses and energy metabolism These differences appear to have a significant effect on the maintenance of a healthy normal weight As a result of this alteration to brain function teenage obesity can in turn lead to a variety of health problems including diabetes a condition in which the affected individual s blood glucose level is too high and the body is unable to regulate it hypertension high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease any affliction related to the heart but most commonly the thickening of arteries due to excess fat build up 23 Future smoking habits Edit Studies indicate that smoking during pregnancy increases the likelihood of offspring beginning to smoke at an early age citation needed Quitting during pregnancy Edit According to a 2010 study published in the European Journal of Pediatrics the cessation of maternal smoking during any point during pregnancy reduces the risk of negative pregnancy outcomes when compared to smoking throughout the entire nine months of pregnancy especially if it is done within the first trimester The study found that expectant mothers who smoke at any time during the first trimester increase the risk that their child will suffer from birth defects particularly congenital heart defects than expectant mothers who have never smoked The study found that the risk posed to the expectant mother s child increases both with the quantity of cigarettes smoked as well as the length of time during pregnancy during which the mother continues to smoke This per the study renders a more positive outcome for women who cease smoking for the remainder of their pregnancy relative to women who continue to smoke 13 There are many resources to help pregnant people quit smoking such as counseling and drug therapies For non pregnant smokers an often recommended aid to quitting smoking is through the use of nicotine replacement therapy NRT in the form of patches gum inhalers lozenges sprays or sublingual tablets NRT however delivers nicotine to the expectant mother s child in utero For some pregnant smokers NRT might still be the most beneficial and helpful solution to quit smoking It is important that smokers talk to doctor to determine the best course of action on an individual basis 24 Smoking after pregnancy EditInfants exposed to smoke both during pregnancy and after birth are found to be more at risk of sudden infant death syndrome SIDS 21 Breastfeeding Edit Main article Smoking and breastfeeding If one does continue to smoke after giving birth however it is still more beneficial to breastfeed than to completely avoid this practice altogether There is evidence that breastfeeding offers protection against many infectious diseases especially diarrhea Even in babies exposed to the harmful effects of nicotine through breast milk the likelihood of acute respiratory illness is significantly diminished when compared to infants whose mothers smoked but were formula fed 25 Regardless the benefits of breastfeeding outweigh the risks of nicotine exposure Passive smoking Edit Main article Risk to children of passive smoking Passive smoking is associated with many risks to children including sudden infant death syndrome SIDS 26 27 asthma 28 29 lung infections 30 31 32 33 impaired respiratory function and slowed lung growth 10 Crohn s disease 34 learning difficulties and neurobehavioral effects 35 36 an increase in tooth decay 37 and an increased risk of middle ear infections 38 39 1 Multigenerational effect EditMain article Epigenetic effects of smoking A grandmother who smokes during her daughter s pregnancy transmits an increased risk of asthma to her grandchildren even if the second generation mother does not smoke 40 The multigenerational epigenetic effect of nicotine on lung function has already been demonstrated 40 See also Edit Medicine portal Health effects of tobacco Alcohol and pregnancyReferences Edit a b Avsar TS McLeod H Jackson L 26 March 2021 Health outcomes of smoking during pregnancy and the postpartum period an umbrella review BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 21 1 254 doi 10 1186 s12884 021 03729 1 PMC 7995767 PMID 33771100 Ness Roberta B Grisso Jeane Ann Hirschinger Nancy Markovic Nina Shaw Leslie M Day Nancy L Kline Jennie 1999 Cocaine and Tobacco Use and the Risk of Spontaneous Abortion New England Journal of Medicine 340 5 333 9 doi 10 1056 NEJM199902043400501 PMID 9929522 Oncken Cheryl Kranzler Henry O Malley Paulette Gendreau Paula Campbell Winston 2002 The effect of cigarette smoking on fetal heart rate characteristics Obstetrics and Gynecology 99 5 Pt 1 751 5 doi 10 1016 S0029 7844 02 01948 8 PMID 11978283 S2CID 38760373 Najdawi F Faouri M 1999 Maternal smoking and breastfeeding Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 5 3 450 6 doi 10 26719 1999 5 3 450 PMID 10793823 S2CID 30513271 McDonough Mike 2015 Update on medicines for smoking cessation Australian Prescriber 38 4 106 111 doi 10 18773 austprescr 2015 038 ISSN 0312 8008 PMC 4653977 PMID 26648633 a b c Castles Anne Adams E Kathleen Melvin Kathy L Kelsch Christopher Boulton Matthew April 1999 Effects of smoking during pregnancy Five meta analyses American Journal of Preventive Medicine 16 3 208 215 doi 10 1016 S0749 3797 98 00089 0 PMID 10198660 Substance Use During Pregnancy CDC 16 July 2020 Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before During and After Pregnancy PDF Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before During and After Pregnancy CDC Department of Health and Human Services Retrieved 22 September 2016 Eisenberg Leon Brown Sarah Hart 1995 The best intentions unintended pregnancy and the well being of children and families Washington D C National Academy Press pp 68 70 ISBN 978 0 309 05230 6 a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2007 Preventing Smoking and Exposure to Secondhand Smoke Before During and After Pregnancy Archived 11 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Placenta previa Anderka Marlene Romitti Paul A Sun Lixian Druschel Charlotte Carmichael Suzan Shaw Gary 2010 Patterns of tobacco exposure before and during pregnancy Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 89 4 505 14 doi 10 3109 00016341003692261 PMC 6042858 PMID 20367429 a b Vardavas Constantine I Chatzi Leda Patelarou Evridiki Plana Estel Sarri Katerina Kafatos Anthony Koutis Antonis D Kogevinas Manolis 2010 Smoking and smoking cessation during early pregnancy and its effect on adverse pregnancy outcomes and fetal growth European Journal of Pediatrics 169 6 741 8 doi 10 1007 s00431 009 1107 9 PMID 19953266 S2CID 20429746 Zhang Jun Zeisler Jonathan Hatch Maureen C Berkowitz Gertrud 1997 Epidemiology of Pregnancy induced Hypertension Epidemiologic Reviews 19 2 218 32 doi 10 1093 oxfordjournals epirev a017954 PMID 9494784 Krotz Stephan Fajardo Javier Ghandi Sanjay Patel Ashlesha Keith Louis G 2002 Hypertensive Disease in Twin Pregnancies A Review Twin Research 5 1 8 14 doi 10 1375 1369052022848 PMID 11893276 E n d Maternal Smoking Could Lead to an Increased Risk for Tourette Syndrome and Tic Disorders Retrieved from https www elsevier com about press releases research and journals maternal smoking could lead to an increased risk for tourette syndrome and tic disorders Infographic 12 Do s and Don ts of Pregnancy Pregnancy Savvy Retrieved 25 August 2016 Smoking During Pregnancy Center of Disease Control and Prevention 29 May 2019 Retrieved 19 September 2020 a b 2004 Surgeon General s Report PDF Chapter 5 Reproductive Effects Center for Disease Control Retrieved 22 September 2016 Engebretson Joan 2013 Materinity Nursing Care Canada Nelson Education Ltd p 417 ISBN 978 1 111 54311 2 Archived from the original on 29 October 2016 a b Bajanowski T Brinkmann B Mitchell E A Vennemann M M Leukel H W Larsch K P Beike J 2008 Nicotine and cotinine in infants dying from sudden infant death syndrome International Journal of Legal Medicine 122 1 23 8 doi 10 1007 s00414 007 0155 9 PMID 17285322 S2CID 26325523 Unless else specified in table then reference is Hackshaw A Rodeck C Boniface S 2011 Maternal smoking in pregnancy and birth defects a systematic review based on 173 687 malformed cases and 11 7 million controls Human Reproduction Update 17 5 589 604 doi 10 1093 humupd dmr022 PMC 3156888 PMID 21747128 Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Childhood Obesity Archived from the original on 4 November 2016 Retrieved 6 November 2016 March Penny D and Carita Caple Smoking Cessation and Pregnancy Ed Diane Pravikoff Cinahl Information Systems 2010 Print page needed Mennella J A Yourshaw L M Morgan L K 2007 Breastfeeding and Smoking Short term Effects on Infant Feeding and Sleep Pediatrics 120 3 497 502 doi 10 1542 peds 2007 0488 PMC 2277470 PMID 17766521 McMartin Kristen I Platt Marvin S Hackman Richard Klein Julia Smialek John E Vigorito Robert Koren Gideon 2002 Lung tissue concentrations of nicotine in sudden infant death syndrome SIDS The Journal of Pediatrics 140 2 205 9 doi 10 1067 mpd 2002 121937 PMID 11865272 Milerad Joseph Vege Ashild Opdal Siri H Rognum Torleiv O 1998 Objective measurements of nicotine exposure in victims of sudden infant death syndrome and in other unexpected child deaths The Journal of Pediatrics 133 2 232 6 doi 10 1016 S0022 3476 98 70225 2 PMID 9709711 Surgeon General 2006 pp 311 9harvnb error no target CITEREFSurgeon General2006 help Blaisdell Robert J Broadwin Rachel L Vork Kathleen L 2007 Developing Asthma in Childhood from Exposure to Second hand Tobacco Smoke Insights from a Meta Regression Environmental Health Perspectives 115 10 1394 400 doi 10 1289 ehp 10155 PMC 2022647 PMID 17938726 Spencer N Coe C 2003 Parent reported longstanding health problems in early childhood a cohort study Archives of Disease in Childhood 88 7 570 3 doi 10 1136 adc 88 7 570 PMC 1763148 PMID 12818898 de Jongste JC Shields MD 2003 Cough 2 Chronic cough in children Thorax 58 11 998 1003 doi 10 1136 thorax 58 11 998 PMC 1746521 PMID 14586058 Dybing E Sanner T 1999 Passive smoking sudden infant death syndrome SIDS and childhood infections Human amp Experimental Toxicology 18 4 202 5 doi 10 1191 096032799678839914 PMID 10333302 S2CID 21365217 DiFranza Joseph R Aligne C Andrew Weitzman Michael 2004 Prenatal and Postnatal Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Children s Health Pediatrics 113 4 Suppl 1007 15 doi 10 1542 peds 113 4 S1 1007 inactive 31 October 2021 PMID 15060193 CS1 maint DOI inactive as of October 2021 link Mahid Suhal S Minor Kyle S Stromberg Arnold J Galandiuk Susan 2007 Active and Passive Smoking in Childhood Is Related to the Development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Inflammatory Bowel Diseases 13 4 431 8 doi 10 1002 ibd 20070 PMID 17206676 S2CID 46428261 Richards GA Terblanche AP Theron AJ Opperman L Crowther G Myer MS Steenkamp KJ Smith FC Dowdeswell R van der Merwe CA Stevens K Anderson R 1996 Health effects of passive smoking in adolescent children South African Medical Journal 86 2 143 7 PMID 8619139 Scientific Consensus Statement on Environmental Agents Associated with Neurodevelopmental Disorders The Collaborative on Health and the Environment s Learning and Developmental Disabilities Initiative 7 November 2007 Avsar A Darka O Topaloglu B Bek Y 2008 Association of passive smoking with caries and related salivary biomarkers in young children Archives of Oral Biology 53 10 969 74 doi 10 1016 j archoralbio 2008 05 007 PMID 18672230 Surgeon General 2006 pp 293 309harvnb error no target CITEREFSurgeon General2006 help Jacoby Peter A Coates Harvey L Arumugaswamy Ashwini Elsbury Dimity Stokes Annette Monck Ruth Finucane Janine M Weeks Sharon A Lehmann Deborah 2008 The effect of passive smoking on the risk of otitis media in Aboriginal and non Aboriginal children in the Kalgoorlie Boulder region of Western Australia The Medical Journal of Australia 188 10 599 603 doi 10 5694 j 1326 5377 2008 tb01801 x PMID 18484936 S2CID 9420655 a b Chatkin Jose Miguel Dullius Cynthia Rocha 2016 The management of asthmatic smokers Asthma Research and Practice 2 1 10 doi 10 1186 s40733 016 0025 7 ISSN 2054 7064 PMC 5142412 PMID 27965778 This article incorporates text available under the CC BY 4 0 license External links EditCDC Tobacco Use and Pregnancy Reproductive Health Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Smoking and pregnancy amp oldid 1053133274, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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