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Asphyxia

"Oxygen deprivation" redirects here. For other uses, see Hypoxia (disambiguation) and Asphyxia (disambiguation).
"Smother" and "Suffocation" redirect here. For other uses, see Smother (disambiguation) and Suffocation (disambiguation).

Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing. An example of asphyxia is choking. Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia, which affects primarily the tissues and organs. There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia, all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time. Asphyxia can cause coma or death.

Asphyxia
Other namesAsphyxiation
The neck contains several vulnerable targets for compression including the carotid arteries.
SpecialtyCritical care medicine
ComplicationsComa
Frequency9.8 million unintentional worldwide (2015)
Deaths35,600 worldwide (2015)

In 2015, about 9.8 million cases of unintentional suffocation occurred which resulted in 35,600 deaths. The word asphyxia is from Ancient Greekα- "without" andσφύξις sphyxis, "squeeze" (throb of heart).

Contents

Situations that can cause asphyxia include but are not limited to: airway obstruction, the constriction or obstruction of airways, such as from asthma, laryngospasm, or simple blockage from the presence of foreign materials; from being in environments where oxygen is not readily accessible: such as underwater, in a low oxygen atmosphere, or in a vacuum; environments where sufficiently oxygenated air is present, but cannot be adequately breathed because of air contamination such as excessive smoke.

Other causes of oxygen deficiency include but are not limited to:

Smothering

"Smother" redirects here. For other uses, see Smother (disambiguation).

Smothering is a mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the mouth and/or nostrils, for instance, by covering the mouth and nose with a hand, pillow, or a plastic bag. Smothering can be either partial or complete, where partial indicates that the person being smothered is able to inhale some air, although less than required. In a normal situation, smothering requires at least partial obstruction of both the nasal cavities and the mouth to lead to asphyxia. Smothering with the hands or chest is used in some combat sports to distract the opponent, and create openings for transitions, as the opponent is forced to react to the smothering.

In some cases, when performing certain routines, smothering is combined with simultaneous compressive asphyxia. One example is overlay, in which an adult accidentally rolls over onto an infant during co-sleeping, an accident that often goes unnoticed and is mistakenly thought to be sudden infant death syndrome. Other accidents involving a similar mechanism are cave-ins or when an individual is buried in sand or grain.

In homicidal cases, the term burking is often ascribed to a killing method that involves simultaneous smothering and compression of the torso. The term "burking" comes from the method William Burke and William Hare used to kill their victims during the West Port murders. They killed the usually intoxicated victims by sitting on their chests and suffocating them by putting a hand over their nose and mouth, while using the other hand to push the victim's jaw up. The corpses had no visible injuries, and were supplied to medical schools for money.

Compressive asphyxia

Compressive asphyxia (also called chest compression) is mechanically limiting expansion of the lungs by compressing the torso, preventing breathing. "Traumatic asphyxia" or "crush asphyxia" usually refers to compressive asphyxia resulting from being crushed or pinned under a large weight or force, or in a crowd crush. An example of traumatic asphyxia is a person who jacks up a car to work on it from below, and is crushed by the vehicle when the jack fails. Constrictor snakes such as boa constrictors kill through slow compressive asphyxia, tightening their coils every time the prey breathes out rather than squeezing forcefully. In cases of an adult co-sleeping with an infant ("overlay"), the heavy sleeping adult may move on top of the infant, causing compression asphyxia.

In fatal crowd disasters, compressive asphyxia from being crushed against the crowd causes all or nearly all deaths, rather than blunt trauma from trampling. This is what occurred at the Ibrox disaster in 1971, where 66 Rangers fans died; the 1979 The Who concert disaster where 11 died; the Luzhniki disaster in 1982, when 66 FC Spartak Moscow fans died; and at the Hillsborough disaster in 1989, 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death in an overcrowded terrace, 95 of the 96 victims died from compressive asphyxia, with 93 dying directly from it and 2 others dying from related complications. In confined spaces, people are forced to push against each other; evidence from bent steel railings in several fatal crowd accidents has shown horizontal forces over 4500 N (equivalent to a weight of approximately 450 kg or 1000 lbs). In cases where people have stacked up on each other in a human pile, it has been estimated that those at the bottom are subjected to around 380 kg (840 lbs) of compressive weight.

"Positional" or "restraint" asphyxia is when a person is restrained and left alone prone, such as in a police vehicle, and is unable to reposition themself in order to breathe. The death can be in the vehicle, or following loss of consciousness to be followed by death while in a coma, having presented with anoxic brain damage. The asphyxia can be caused by facial compression, neck compression, or chest compression. This occurs mostly during restraint and handcuffing situations by law enforcement, including psychiatric incidents. The weight of the restraint(s) doing the compression may contribute to what is attributed to positional asphyxia. Therefore, passive deaths following custody restraint that are presumed to be the result of positional asphyxia may actually be examples of asphyxia occurring during the restraint process.

Chest compression is a technique used in various grappling combat sports, where it is sometimes called wringing, either to tire the opponent or as complementary or distractive moves in combination with pinning holds, or sometimes even as submission holds. Examples of chest compression include the knee-on-stomach position; or techniques such as leg scissors (also referred to as body scissors and in budō referred to as do-jime; 胴絞, "trunk strangle" or "body triangle") where a participant wraps his or her legs around the opponent's midsection and squeezes them together.

Pressing is a form of torture or execution using compressive asphyxia.

Perinatal asphyxia

Main article: Perinatal asphyxia

Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen (hypoxia) to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm. It results most commonly from a drop in maternal blood pressure or interference during delivery with blood flow to the infant's brain. This can occur as a result of inadequate circulation or perfusion, impaired respiratory effort, or inadequate ventilation. There has long been a scientific debate over whether newborn infants with asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100% oxygen or normal air. It has been demonstrated that high concentrations of oxygen lead to generation of oxygen free radicals, which have a role in reperfusion injury after asphyxia. Research by Ola Didrik Saugstad and others led to new international guidelines on newborn resuscitation in 2010, recommending the use of normal air instead of 100% oxygen.

Mechanical asphyxia

Classifications of different forms of asphyxia vary among literature, with differences in defining the concept of mechanical asphyxia being the most obvious.

In DiMaio and DiMaio's 2001 textbook on forensic pathology, mechanical asphyxia is caused by pressure from outside the body restricting respiration. Similar narrow definitions of mechanical asphyxia have occurred in Azmak's 2006 literature review of asphyxial deaths and Oehmichen and Auer's 2005 book on forensic neuropathology. According to DiMaio and DiMaio, mechanical asphyxia encompasses positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, and "human pile" deaths.

In Shkrum and Ramsay's 2007 textbook on forensic pathology, mechanical asphyxia occurs when any mechanical means cause interference with the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body. Similar broad definitions of mechanical asphyxia have occurred in Saukko and Knight's 2004 book on asphyxia, and Dolinak and Matshes' 2005 book on forensic pathology. According to Shkrum and Ramsay, mechanical asphyxia encompasses smothering, choking, positional asphyxia, traumatic asphyxia, wedging, strangulation and drowning.

Sauvageau and Boghossian propose in 2010 that mechanical asphyxia should be officially defined as caused by "restriction of respiratory movements, either by the position of the body or by external chest compression", thus encompassing only positional asphyxia and traumatic asphyxia.

  1. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1545–1602. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31678-6. PMC5055577. PMID 27733282.
  2. GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators (October 2016). "Global, regional, and national life expectancy, all-cause mortality, and cause-specific mortality for 249 causes of death, 1980-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015". Lancet. 388 (10053): 1459–1544. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)31012-1. PMC5388903. PMID 27733281.
  3. "Asphyxia Origin". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved19 July 2015.
  4. Ferris JA. "Asphyxia". pathology.ubc.ca. Archived from the original(DOC) on June 14, 2006. RetrievedMarch 1, 2006.
  5. DiMaio V, DiMaio D (2001). "Asphyxia". Forensic Pathology (Second ed.). Boca Raton: CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-0072-1. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016. Deaths Occurring Following the Application of Choke or Carotid Holds
  6. "Burking Law & Legal Definition". definitions.uslegal.com. Retrieved2015-08-07.
  7. Ronel A (2 May 2021). "Why the Mount Meron Disaster Happened, and How to Prevent Stampedes? Scientists Explain". Haaretz. likely to die from what is called traumatic asphyxia – strong pressure on the chest
  8. "Hillsborough inquests: The 96 who died". BBC News. 26 April 2016. RetrievedFebruary 22, 2018.
  9. Fruin J. "The Causes and Prevention of Crowd Disasters". crowddynamics.com. Archived from the original on February 21, 2006. RetrievedMarch 3, 2006.
  10. Ohlenkamp N. "Principles of Judo Choking Techniques". judoinfo.com. Retrieved3 March 2006.
  11. "Classification of Waza Names". The Kodokan Judo Institute. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved4 March 2006. Do-jime is a prohibited technique in Judo nd is considered a 'slight infringement' according to IJF rules, Section 27: Prohibited acts and penalties, article 21. It should not be confused with do-osae, which is a colloquial term for the guard position
  12. "IJF Referee Rules". International Judo Federation. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved6 March 2006.
  13. Lewis B. "Katsuhiko Kashiwazaki – Shimewaza (Book Review)". www.bjj.org. Archived from the original on February 15, 2006. Retrieved4 March 2006.
  14. Davis PG, Tan A, O'Donnell CP, Schulze A (2004). "Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100% oxygen or air: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Lancet. 364 (9442): 1329–33. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17189-4. PMID 15474135. S2CID 24825982.
  15. Kutzsche S, Ilves P, Kirkeby OJ, Saugstad OD (June 2001). "Hydrogen peroxide production in leukocytes during cerebral hypoxia and reoxygenation with 100% or 21% oxygen in newborn piglets". Pediatric Research. 49 (6): 834–42. doi:10.1203/00006450-200106000-00020. PMID 11385146.
  16. ILCOR Neonatal resuscitation Guidelines 2010
  17. "Norwegian paediatrician honoured by University of Athens". Royal Norwegian Embassy in Athens. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016.
  18. Sauvageau A, Boghossian E (September 2010). "Classification of asphyxia: the need for standardization". Journal of Forensic Sciences. 55 (5): 1259–67. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2010.01459.x. PMID 20561144. S2CID 25283094.
Look up smother in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Asphyxia
Asphyxia Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Smothering Oxygen deprivation redirects here For other uses see Hypoxia disambiguation and Asphyxia disambiguation Smother and Suffocation redirect here For other uses see Smother disambiguation and Suffocation disambiguation Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing An example of asphyxia is choking Asphyxia causes generalized hypoxia which affects primarily the tissues and organs There are many circumstances that can induce asphyxia all of which are characterized by an inability of an individual to acquire sufficient oxygen through breathing for an extended period of time Asphyxia can cause coma or death AsphyxiaOther namesAsphyxiationThe neck contains several vulnerable targets for compression including the carotid arteries SpecialtyCritical care medicineComplicationsComaFrequency9 8 million unintentional worldwide 2015 1 Deaths35 600 worldwide 2015 2 In 2015 about 9 8 million cases of unintentional suffocation occurred which resulted in 35 600 deaths 1 2 The word asphyxia is from Ancient Greek a without and sfy3is sphyxis squeeze throb of heart 3 Contents 1 Cause 1 1 Smothering 1 2 Compressive asphyxia 1 3 Perinatal asphyxia 1 4 Mechanical asphyxia 2 See also 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External linksCause EditSituations that can cause asphyxia include but are not limited to airway obstruction the constriction or obstruction of airways such as from asthma laryngospasm or simple blockage from the presence of foreign materials from being in environments where oxygen is not readily accessible such as underwater in a low oxygen atmosphere or in a vacuum environments where sufficiently oxygenated air is present but cannot be adequately breathed because of air contamination such as excessive smoke Other causes of oxygen deficiency include but are not limited to Acute respiratory distress syndrome Carbon monoxide inhalation such as that from a car exhaust and the smoke s emission from a lighted cigarette carbon monoxide has a higher affinity than oxygen to the hemoglobin in the blood s red blood corpuscles bonding with it tenaciously and in the process displacing oxygen and preventing the blood from transporting oxygen around the body Contact with certain chemicals including pulmonary agents such as phosgene and blood agents such as hydrogen cyanide Drowning Drug overdose Exposure to extreme low pressure or vacuum from spacesuit damage see space exposure Hanging whether suspension or short drop hanging Self induced hypocapnia by hyperventilation as in shallow water or deep water blackout and the choking game Inert gas asphyxiation Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome or primary alveolar hypoventilation a disorder of the autonomic nervous system in which a patient must consciously breathe although it is often said that persons with this disease will die if they fall asleep this is not usually the case Respiratory diseases Sleep apnea A seizure which stops breathing activity Strangling Breaking the wind pipe Prolonged exposure to chlorine gasSmothering Edit Smother redirects here For other uses see Smother disambiguation Smothering is a mechanical obstruction of the flow of air from the environment into the mouth and or nostrils for instance by covering the mouth and nose with a hand pillow or a plastic bag 4 Smothering can be either partial or complete where partial indicates that the person being smothered is able to inhale some air although less than required In a normal situation smothering requires at least partial obstruction of both the nasal cavities and the mouth to lead to asphyxia Smothering with the hands or chest is used in some combat sports to distract the opponent and create openings for transitions as the opponent is forced to react to the smothering In some cases when performing certain routines smothering is combined with simultaneous compressive asphyxia One example is overlay in which an adult accidentally rolls over onto an infant during co sleeping an accident that often goes unnoticed and is mistakenly thought to be sudden infant death syndrome 4 Other accidents involving a similar mechanism are cave ins or when an individual is buried in sand or grain In homicidal cases the term burking is often ascribed to a killing method that involves simultaneous smothering and compression of the torso 5 The term burking comes from the method William Burke and William Hare used to kill their victims during the West Port murders They killed the usually intoxicated victims by sitting on their chests and suffocating them by putting a hand over their nose and mouth while using the other hand to push the victim s jaw up The corpses had no visible injuries and were supplied to medical schools for money 6 Compressive asphyxia Edit See also Positional asphyxia Compressive asphyxia also called chest compression is mechanically limiting expansion of the lungs by compressing the torso preventing breathing Traumatic asphyxia or crush asphyxia usually refers to compressive asphyxia resulting from being crushed or pinned under a large weight or force or in a crowd crush 7 An example of traumatic asphyxia is a person who jacks up a car to work on it from below and is crushed by the vehicle when the jack fails 5 Constrictor snakes such as boa constrictors kill through slow compressive asphyxia tightening their coils every time the prey breathes out rather than squeezing forcefully In cases of an adult co sleeping with an infant overlay the heavy sleeping adult may move on top of the infant causing compression asphyxia In fatal crowd disasters compressive asphyxia from being crushed against the crowd causes all or nearly all deaths rather than blunt trauma from trampling This is what occurred at the Ibrox disaster in 1971 where 66 Rangers fans died the 1979 The Who concert disaster where 11 died the Luzhniki disaster in 1982 when 66 FC Spartak Moscow fans died and at the Hillsborough disaster in 1989 96 Liverpool fans were crushed to death in an overcrowded terrace 95 of the 96 victims died from compressive asphyxia with 93 dying directly from it and 2 others dying from related complications 8 In confined spaces people are forced to push against each other evidence from bent steel railings in several fatal crowd accidents has shown horizontal forces over 4500 N equivalent to a weight of approximately 450 kg or 1000 lbs In cases where people have stacked up on each other in a human pile it has been estimated that those at the bottom are subjected to around 380 kg 840 lbs of compressive weight 9 Positional or restraint asphyxia is when a person is restrained and left alone prone such as in a police vehicle and is unable to reposition themself in order to breathe The death can be in the vehicle or following loss of consciousness to be followed by death while in a coma having presented with anoxic brain damage The asphyxia can be caused by facial compression neck compression or chest compression This occurs mostly during restraint and handcuffing situations by law enforcement including psychiatric incidents The weight of the restraint s doing the compression may contribute to what is attributed to positional asphyxia Therefore passive deaths following custody restraint that are presumed to be the result of positional asphyxia may actually be examples of asphyxia occurring during the restraint process Chest compression is a technique used in various grappling combat sports where it is sometimes called wringing either to tire the opponent or as complementary or distractive moves in combination with pinning holds 10 or sometimes even as submission holds Examples of chest compression include the knee on stomach position or techniques such as leg scissors also referred to as body scissors and in budō referred to as do jime 11 胴絞 trunk strangle or body triangle 12 where a participant wraps his or her legs around the opponent s midsection and squeezes them together 13 Pressing is a form of torture or execution using compressive asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia Edit Main article Perinatal asphyxia Perinatal asphyxia is the medical condition resulting from deprivation of oxygen hypoxia to a newborn infant long enough to cause apparent harm It results most commonly from a drop in maternal blood pressure or interference during delivery with blood flow to the infant s brain This can occur as a result of inadequate circulation or perfusion impaired respiratory effort or inadequate ventilation 14 There has long been a scientific debate over whether newborn infants with asphyxia should be resuscitated with 100 oxygen or normal air 14 It has been demonstrated that high concentrations of oxygen lead to generation of oxygen free radicals which have a role in reperfusion injury after asphyxia 15 Research by Ola Didrik Saugstad and others led to new international guidelines on newborn resuscitation in 2010 recommending the use of normal air instead of 100 oxygen 16 17 Mechanical asphyxia Edit Classifications of different forms of asphyxia vary among literature with differences in defining the concept of mechanical asphyxia being the most obvious 18 In DiMaio and DiMaio s 2001 textbook on forensic pathology mechanical asphyxia is caused by pressure from outside the body restricting respiration 18 Similar narrow definitions of mechanical asphyxia have occurred in Azmak s 2006 literature review of asphyxial deaths and Oehmichen and Auer s 2005 book on forensic neuropathology 18 According to DiMaio and DiMaio mechanical asphyxia encompasses positional asphyxia traumatic asphyxia and human pile deaths 18 In Shkrum and Ramsay s 2007 textbook on forensic pathology mechanical asphyxia occurs when any mechanical means cause interference with the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the body 18 Similar broad definitions of mechanical asphyxia have occurred in Saukko and Knight s 2004 book on asphyxia and Dolinak and Matshes 2005 book on forensic pathology 18 According to Shkrum and Ramsay mechanical asphyxia encompasses smothering choking positional asphyxia traumatic asphyxia wedging strangulation and drowning 18 Sauvageau and Boghossian propose in 2010 that mechanical asphyxia should be officially defined as caused by restriction of respiratory movements either by the position of the body or by external chest compression thus encompassing only positional asphyxia and traumatic asphyxia 18 See also EditAsphyxiant gas Erotic asphyxiation Intentional restriction of oxygen to the brain for sexual arousal Hypercapnia Abnormally high tissue carbon dioxide levels Respiratory acidosis Medical conditionReferences Edit a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators October 2016 Global regional and national incidence prevalence and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries 1990 2015 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 Lancet 388 10053 1545 1602 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 16 31678 6 PMC 5055577 PMID 27733282 a b GBD 2015 Disease and Injury Incidence and Prevalence Collaborators October 2016 Global regional and national life expectancy all cause mortality and cause specific mortality for 249 causes of death 1980 2015 a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 Lancet 388 10053 1459 1544 doi 10 1016 s0140 6736 16 31012 1 PMC 5388903 PMID 27733281 Asphyxia Origin Online Etymology Dictionary Retrieved 19 July 2015 a b Ferris JA Asphyxia pathology ubc ca Archived from the original DOC on June 14 2006 Retrieved March 1 2006 a b DiMaio V DiMaio D 2001 Asphyxia Forensic Pathology Second ed Boca Raton CRC Press ISBN 978 0 8493 0072 1 Archived from the original on 13 May 2016 Deaths Occurring Following the Application of Choke or Carotid Holds Burking Law amp Legal Definition definitions uslegal com Retrieved 2015 08 07 Ronel A 2 May 2021 Why the Mount Meron Disaster Happened and How to Prevent Stampedes Scientists Explain Haaretz likely to die from what is called traumatic asphyxia strong pressure on the chest Hillsborough inquests The 96 who died BBC News 26 April 2016 Retrieved February 22 2018 Fruin J The Causes and Prevention of Crowd Disasters crowddynamics com Archived from the original on February 21 2006 Retrieved March 3 2006 Ohlenkamp N Principles of Judo Choking Techniques judoinfo com Retrieved 3 March 2006 Classification of Waza Names The Kodokan Judo Institute Archived from the original on 15 April 2012 Retrieved 4 March 2006 Do jime is a prohibited technique in Judo nd is considered a slight infringement according to IJF rules Section 27 Prohibited acts and penalties article 21 It should not be confused with do osae which is a colloquial term for the guard position IJF Referee Rules International Judo Federation Archived from the original on 15 April 2012 Retrieved 6 March 2006 Lewis B Katsuhiko Kashiwazaki Shimewaza Book Review www bjj org Archived from the original on February 15 2006 Retrieved 4 March 2006 a b Davis PG Tan A O Donnell CP Schulze A 2004 Resuscitation of newborn infants with 100 oxygen or air a systematic review and meta analysis Lancet 364 9442 1329 33 doi 10 1016 S0140 6736 04 17189 4 PMID 15474135 S2CID 24825982 Kutzsche S Ilves P Kirkeby OJ Saugstad OD June 2001 Hydrogen peroxide production in leukocytes during cerebral hypoxia and reoxygenation with 100 or 21 oxygen in newborn piglets Pediatric Research 49 6 834 42 doi 10 1203 00006450 200106000 00020 PMID 11385146 ILCOR Neonatal resuscitation Guidelines 2010 Norwegian paediatrician honoured by University of Athens Royal Norwegian Embassy in Athens Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 a b c d e f g h Sauvageau A Boghossian E September 2010 Classification of asphyxia the need for standardization Journal of Forensic Sciences 55 5 1259 67 doi 10 1111 j 1556 4029 2010 01459 x PMID 20561144 S2CID 25283094 Further reading EditKay Shuttleworth JP 1834 The Physiology Pathology and Treatment of Asphyxia Longman Rees Orme Brown Green amp Longman Elsner R September 1989 Perspectives in diving and asphyxia Undersea Biomedical Research 16 5 339 44 PMID 2678664 Archived from the original on 2010 08 08 Retrieved 2008 07 04 External links EditLook up smother in Wiktionary the free dictionary Media related to Asphyxia at Wikimedia Commons Cross side to chest compression chokeClassificationDICD 10 R09 0 T71ICD 9 CM 799 0MeSH D001237DiseasesDB 969 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Asphyxia amp oldid 1051488389 Smothering, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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