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Sneakers

For other uses, see Sneaker (disambiguation).

Sneakers (also called trainers, athletic shoes, tennis shoes, gym shoes, kicks, sport shoes, flats, running shoes, skate shoes, or runners) are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise, but which are now also widely used for everyday casual wear.

Nike Air Jordan XI sneakers
A pair of Converse sneakers
Stride Rite sneakers designed for kids

Since their popularization by companies such as Converse, Nike and Spalding in the mid 20th century, they have become attire, with variety growing in many global markets exponentially. Like other parts of the global clothing industry, manufacture of shoes is heavily concentrated in Asia with nine in ten shoes produced in that region.

Contemporary sneakers are largely made from synthetic materials, and the materials and manufacturing process produce, on average, about 14 kg (31 lb) of CO2 emissions. Some companies are trying to substitute more sustainable materials in their manufacture. About 90% of shoes end up in landfills at end of life.

Contents

Reebok sneakers

The shoes have gone by a variety of names, depending on geography and changing over the decades. The term "sneakers" is most commonly used in Northeastern United States, Central and South Florida, New Zealand, and parts of Canada. However, in Australian, Canadian, and Scottish English, running shoes and runners are synonymous terms used to refer to sneakers; with the latter term also used in Hiberno-English. Tennis shoes is another term used in Australian, and North American English.

The British English equivalent of sneaker in its modern form is divided into two separate types - predominantly outdoor and fashionable trainers, training shoes or quality 'basketball shoes' and in contrast cheap rubber-soled, low cut and canvas-topped 'plimsolls'. In Geordie English, sneakers may also be called sandshoes, gym boots, or joggers; while plimsolls may be referred to as daps in Welsh English.

Several terms for sneakers exist in South Africa, including gym shoes, tennies, sports shoes, sneaks, and takkies. Other names for sneakers includes rubber shoes in Philippine English, track shoes in Singapore English, canvas shoes in Nigerian English, Camboo in Ghana English meaning Camp boot and sportex in Greece.

Plimsolls (British English) are "low-tech" athletic shoes and are also called "sneakers" in American English. The word "sneaker" is often attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney, who was an advertising agent for N. W. Ayer & Son. In 1917, he used the term because the rubber sole made the shoe's wearer stealthy. The word was already in use at least as early as 1887, when the Boston Journal made reference to "sneakers" as "the name boys give to tennis shoes." The name "sneakers" originally referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground, in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes. Someone wearing sneakers could "sneak up", while someone wearing standards could not.

Earlier, the name "sneaks" had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber-soled shoes they wore.

These shoes acquired the nickname 'plimsoll' in the 1870s, derived according to Nicholette Jones' book The Plimsoll Sensation, from the colored horizontal band joining the upper to the sole, which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship's hull. Alternatively, just like the Plimsoll line on a ship, if water got above the line of the rubber sole, the wearer would get wet.

Plimsolls were widely worn by vacationers and also began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort. Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed, and these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army. Athletic shoes were increasingly used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century - plimsolls were even found with the ill-fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911. Plimsolls were commonly worn by pupils in schools' physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s.[citation needed]

British company J.W. Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895; the shoes were spiked to allow for greater traction and speed. The company sold its high-quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world, eventually receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics. Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100 m and 400 m events, kitted out with Foster's running gear.

A pair of white athletic Nike sneakers with pink accents

This style of footwear also became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century, where they were called 'sneakers'. In 1892, the U.S. Rubber Company introduced the first rubber-soled shoes in the country, sparking a surge in demand and production. The first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907.[citation needed] The market for sneakers grew after World War I, when sports and athletics increasingly became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism. The U.S. market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor.

During the interwar period, athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports, and differentiated designs were made available for men. Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics, helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public. In 1936, a French brand, Spring Court, marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole.

Adolf "Adi" Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother's wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach, Bavaria, after his return from World War I, and went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers, Adidas. He also successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics, which helped cement his good reputation. Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200,000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II.

Post-War

A large pile of athletic shoes for sale at a market in Hong Kong

During the 1950s, leisure opportunities greatly expanded, and children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed. Sneaker sales rose so high, they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes, leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late '50s. In the 1970s, jogging for exercise became increasingly popular, and trainers designed specifically for comfort while jogging sold well. Companies also started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market. Soon, shoes were available for football, jogging, basketball, running, etc. Many sports had their relevant shoe, made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology.

During the 1990s, shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills. Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger, and marketing budgets went through the roof. Sneakers became a fashion statement and were marketed as a definition of identity and personality rather than simply athletic aids.

From 1970 (five models), to 1998 (285 models), to 2012 (3,371), the number of sport shoe models in the U.S. has grown exponentially.

Road runners New Balance 750v1 after marathon event

The term 'athletic shoes' is typically used for shoes utilized for jogging or road running and indoor sports such as basketball, but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football, which are generally known in North America as "cleats" and in British English as "boots" or "studs".

Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole, appropriate tread for the function, and ability to absorb impact. As the industry and designs have expanded, the term "athletic shoes" is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe. Today's designs include sandals, Mary Janes, and even elevated styles suitable for running, dancing, and jumping.

The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds, typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber. While the original design was basic, manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for their specific purposes. An example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running. Some of these shoes are made up to unusually large sizes for athletes with large feet.

Running shoes

Running shoes come in a range of shapes suited to different running styles/abilities. Generally, they are divided by running style: the majority are for heel-toe joggers/runners which are further subdivided into 'neutral', 'overpronation' and 'underpronation'. These are constructed with a complex structure of "rubber" with plastic/metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement. More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes, which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort.

According to the NPD Group, one in four pairs of running shoes that were sold in the United States in 2016 were bought from an online retailer.

As of 2020[update], brands with global popularity include:

A pop-up athletic shoe retailer in Florida, United States.
  • High-tops cover the ankle.
  • Low-tops or oxfords do not cover the ankle.
  • Mid-cut sneakers are in-between high-tops and low-tops.
  • Sneaker boots extend to the calf.
  • Slip-ons like low-tops/oxfords do not cover the ankle and do not have laces.
  • Low-top CVO (Circular Vamp Oxford) like low-tops do not cover the ankle but unlike low-tops have a vamp in a circular form and typically four to five eyelets.
  • High-top CVO (Circular Vamp Oxford) like high-tops cover the ankle and also have a circular vamp.
Exhibition The Rise of Sneaker Culture at the Brooklyn Museum

Sneakers have been an important part of hip hop (primarily Pumas, Nike, and Adidas) and rock 'n roll (Converse, Vans) cultures since the 1970s. Hip hop artists sign million dollar deals with major brands such as Nike, Adidas, or Puma to promote their shoes.[citation needed] Sneaker collectors, called "sneakerheads", regard sneakers as fashionable items. Sneaker companies encourage this trend by producing rare sneakers in limited numbers, often at very high retail prices. Artistically-modified sneakers can sell for upwards of $1000 at exclusive establishments like Saks Fifth Avenue. In 2005, a documentary, Just for Kicks, about the sneaker phenomenon and history was released.[citation needed]

  1. Footwear, World. "Global Footwear Industry: Positive Dynamics in 2018". World Footwear. Retrieved2020-07-30.
  2. Cheah, Lynette; Ciceri, Natalia Duque; Olivetti, Elsa; Matsumura, Seiko; Forterre, Dai; Roth, Richard; Kirchain, Randolph (2013-04-01). "Manufacturing-focused emissions reductions in footwear production". Journal of Cleaner Production. 44: 18–29. doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.037. hdl:1721.1/102070. ISSN 0959-6526.
  3. "Are Eco-Runners The Next 'It' Trainer?". British Vogue. 21 October 2019. Retrieved2021-02-19.
  4. Hoskins, Tansy E. (2020-03-21). "'Some soles last 1,000 years in landfill': the truth about the sneaker mountain". The Guardian. Retrieved2021-02-19.
  5. Katz, Josh (25 October 2016). Speaking American: How Y'all, Youse, and You Guys Talk: A Visual Guide. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0544703391. Retrieved13 July 2017.
  6. Hickey, Walter (5 June 2013). "22 Maps That Show How Americans Speak English Totally Differently From One Another". Business Insider. Retrieved2017-03-09.
  7. "Geordie Dictionary". www.englandsnortheast.co.uk. Retrieved2017-03-09.
  8. Pettman, Charles (1913). Africanderisms: A Glossary of South African Colloquial Words and Phrases and of Place and Other Names. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. p. 491. ISBN 1515051226.
  9. Mental Floss magazine, Sept-Oct 2008
  10. Robinson, Frederick William (1863). Female life in prison, by a prison matron. Hurst and Blackett. ISBN 9781341245022.
  11. Susie Dent (2011). How to Talk Like a Local: From Cockney to Geordie. Random House. p. 99. ISBN 9781409061953.
  12. Foster, Rachael. "Foster's Famous Shoes". Bolton Revisited. Retrieved15 October 2015.
  13. "Running Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis Men & Women". Your Comfy Feet. Retrieved15 October 2015.
  14. Smit, Barbara (2009). Sneaker Wars. New York: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-124658-6.
  15. "Exploring the History of Basketball Shoes". Sports Domain Lab. 18 March 2019.
  16. "How Adidas and PUMA were born". in.rediff.com. 8 November 2005. Retrieved26 September 2010.
  17. Pribut, Stephen M. "A Sneaker Odyssey". Dr. Stephen M. Pribut's Sport Pages. 2002. Web. 23 June 2010.
  18. Aichner, T. and Coletti, P. 2013. "Customers' online shopping preferences in mass customization". Journal of Direct, Data and Digital Marketing Practice, 15(1): 20-35.
  19. "Understand pronation to get the correct running shoes". Comfort Hacks. Retrieved14 October 2015.
  20. Marius Bakken. "Fitting Your Running Shoes to Your Feet". Retrieved2009-04-24.
  21. Chesto, Jon (2017-07-19). "New City Sports owners plot revival of Boston brand". The Boston Globe. Retrieved2017-07-20.
  22. Belzer, Jason. "Sneaker Wars: Kanye West Signs Deal with Adidas, Drake with Jordan Brand". Forbes. Retrieved2016-01-28.
  23. 2014 Saks Fifth Avenue catalog
  24. History of Sneakers http://theidleman.com/history-of-sneakers

Sneakers
Sneakers Article Talk Language Watch Edit For other uses see Sneaker disambiguation Sneakers also called trainers athletic shoes tennis shoes gym shoes kicks sport shoes flats running shoes skate shoes or runners are shoes primarily designed for sports or other forms of physical exercise but which are now also widely used for everyday casual wear Nike Air Jordan XI sneakers A pair of Converse sneakers Stride Rite sneakers designed for kids Since their popularization by companies such as Converse Nike and Spalding in the mid 20th century they have become attire with variety growing in many global markets exponentially Like other parts of the global clothing industry manufacture of shoes is heavily concentrated in Asia with nine in ten shoes produced in that region 1 Contemporary sneakers are largely made from synthetic materials and the materials and manufacturing process produce on average about 14 kg 31 lb of CO2 emissions 2 3 Some companies are trying to substitute more sustainable materials in their manufacture 3 About 90 of shoes end up in landfills at end of life 4 Contents 1 Names and etymology 2 History 2 1 Post War 3 Use in sports 3 1 Running shoes 4 Notable brands 5 Types and number of models 6 Sneaker culture 7 See also 8 References 9 External linksNames and etymology Reebok sneakers The shoes have gone by a variety of names depending on geography and changing over the decades The term sneakers is most commonly used in Northeastern United States Central and South Florida 5 6 New Zealand and parts of Canada However in Australian Canadian and Scottish English running shoes and runners are synonymous terms used to refer to sneakers with the latter term also used in Hiberno English Tennis shoes is another term used in Australian and North American English The British English equivalent of sneaker in its modern form is divided into two separate types predominantly outdoor and fashionable trainers training shoes or quality basketball shoes and in contrast cheap rubber soled low cut and canvas topped plimsolls In Geordie English sneakers may also be called sandshoes gym boots or joggers 7 while plimsolls may be referred to as daps in Welsh English Several terms for sneakers exist in South Africa including gym shoes tennies sports shoes sneaks and takkies 8 Other names for sneakers includes rubber shoes in Philippine English track shoes in Singapore English canvas shoes in Nigerian English Camboo in Ghana English meaning Camp boot and sportex in Greece Plimsolls British English are low tech athletic shoes and are also called sneakers in American English The word sneaker is often attributed to American Henry Nelson McKinney who was an advertising agent for N W Ayer amp Son In 1917 he used the term because the rubber sole made the shoe s wearer stealthy The word was already in use at least as early as 1887 when the Boston Journal made reference to sneakers as the name boys give to tennis shoes The name sneakers originally referred to how quiet the rubber soles were on the ground in contrast to noisy standard hard leather sole dress shoes Someone wearing sneakers could sneak up while someone wearing standards could not 9 Earlier the name sneaks had been used by prison inmates to refer to warders because of the rubber soled shoes they wore 10 HistoryThese shoes acquired the nickname plimsoll in the 1870s derived according to Nicholette Jones book The Plimsoll Sensation from the colored horizontal band joining the upper to the sole which resembled the Plimsoll line on a ship s hull Alternatively just like the Plimsoll line on a ship if water got above the line of the rubber sole the wearer would get wet 11 Plimsolls were widely worn by vacationers and also began to be worn by sportsmen on the tennis and croquet courts for their comfort Special soles with engraved patterns to increase the surface grip of the shoe were developed and these were ordered in bulk for the use of the British Army Athletic shoes were increasingly used for leisure and outdoor activities at the turn of the 20th century plimsolls were even found with the ill fated Scott Antarctic expedition of 1911 Plimsolls were commonly worn by pupils in schools physical education lessons in the UK from the 1950s until the early 1970s citation needed British company J W Foster and Sons designed and produced the first shoes designed for running in 1895 the shoes were spiked to allow for greater traction and speed The company sold its high quality handmade running shoes to athletes around the world eventually receiving a contract for the manufacture of running shoes for the British team in the 1924 Summer Olympics Harold Abrahams and Eric Liddell won the 100 m and 400 m events kitted out with Foster s running gear 12 A pair of white athletic Nike sneakers with pink accents This style of footwear also became prominent in America at the turn of the 20th century where they were called sneakers In 1892 the U S Rubber Company introduced the first rubber soled shoes in the country sparking a surge in demand and production The first basketball shoes were designed by Spalding as early as 1907 citation needed The market for sneakers grew after World War I when sports and athletics increasingly became a way to demonstrate moral fiber and patriotism The U S market for sneakers grew steadily as young boys lined up to buy sneakers endorsed by football player Jim Thorpe and Converse All Stars endorsed by basketball player Chuck Taylor During the interwar period athletic shoes began to be marketed for different sports and differentiated designs were made available for men Athletic shoes were used by competing athletes at the Olympics helping to popularise athletic shoes among the general public In 1936 a French brand Spring Court 13 marketed the first canvas tennis shoe featuring signature eight ventilation channels on a vulcanised natural rubber sole Adolf Adi Dassler began producing his own sports shoes in his mother s wash kitchen in Herzogenaurach Bavaria after his return from World War I and went on to establish one of the leading athletic shoe manufacturers Adidas 14 He also successfully marketed his shoes to athletes at the 1936 Summer Olympics which helped cement his good reputation Business boomed and the Dasslers were selling 200 000 pairs of shoes each year before World War II 15 16 Post War A large pile of athletic shoes for sale at a market in Hong Kong During the 1950s leisure opportunities greatly expanded and children and adolescents began to wear sneakers as school dress codes relaxed Sneaker sales rose so high they began to adversely affect the sales of conventional leather shoes leading to a fierce advertising war for market share in the late 50s In the 1970s jogging for exercise became increasingly popular and trainers designed specifically for comfort while jogging sold well Companies also started to target some of their products at the casual fashion market Soon shoes were available for football jogging basketball running etc Many sports had their relevant shoe made possible by podiatrist development of athletic shoe technology During the 1990s shoe companies perfected their fashion and marketing skills Sports endorsements with famous athletes grew larger and marketing budgets went through the roof Sneakers became a fashion statement and were marketed as a definition of identity and personality rather than simply athletic aids 17 From 1970 five models to 1998 285 models to 2012 3 371 the number of sport shoe models in the U S has grown exponentially 18 Use in sports Road runners New Balance 750v1 after marathon event The term athletic shoes is typically used for shoes utilized for jogging or road running and indoor sports such as basketball but tends to exclude shoes for sports played on grass such as association football and rugby football which are generally known in North America as cleats and in British English as boots or studs Attributes of an athletic shoe include a flexible sole appropriate tread for the function and ability to absorb impact As the industry and designs have expanded the term athletic shoes is based more on the design of the bottom of the shoe than the aesthetics of the top of the shoe Today s designs include sandals Mary Janes and even elevated styles suitable for running dancing and jumping The shoes themselves are made of flexible compounds typically featuring a sole made of dense rubber While the original design was basic manufacturers have since tailored athletic shoes for their specific purposes An example of this is the spiked shoe developed for track running Some of these shoes are made up to unusually large sizes for athletes with large feet Running shoes Running shoes come in a range of shapes suited to different running styles abilities Generally they are divided by running style the majority are for heel toe joggers runners which are further subdivided into neutral overpronation and underpronation 19 20 These are constructed with a complex structure of rubber with plastic metal stiffeners to restrict foot movement More advanced runners tend to wear flatter and flexible shoes which allow them to run more quickly with greater comfort According to the NPD Group one in four pairs of running shoes that were sold in the United States in 2016 were bought from an online retailer 21 Notable brandsAs of 2020 update brands with global popularity include A pop up athletic shoe retailer in Florida United States 361 Adidas Allbirds Anta ASICS Babolat Brooks Converse DC Diadora Dunlop Ethletic Feiyue Fila Hoka One One Hummel Hurley International Kappa Karhu K Swiss Keds Li Ning Lotto Merrell Mizuno New Balance Nike On Onitsuka Tiger PF Flyers Pony Pro Keds Puma Reebok Salomon Saucony Skechers Stride Rite Tisza Cipo Umbro Under Armour Vans World Balance Xtep SupraTypes and number of modelsHigh tops cover the ankle Low tops or oxfords do not cover the ankle Mid cut sneakers are in between high tops and low tops Sneaker boots extend to the calf Slip ons like low tops oxfords do not cover the ankle and do not have laces Low top CVO Circular Vamp Oxford like low tops do not cover the ankle but unlike low tops have a vamp in a circular form and typically four to five eyelets High top CVO Circular Vamp Oxford like high tops cover the ankle and also have a circular vamp Sneaker culture Exhibition The Rise of Sneaker Culture at the Brooklyn Museum Sneakers have been an important part of hip hop primarily Pumas Nike and Adidas and rock n roll Converse Vans cultures since the 1970s Hip hop artists sign million dollar deals with major brands such as Nike Adidas or Puma to promote their shoes 22 citation needed Sneaker collectors called sneakerheads regard sneakers as fashionable items Sneaker companies encourage this trend by producing rare sneakers in limited numbers often at very high retail prices Artistically modified sneakers can sell for upwards of 1000 at exclusive establishments like Saks Fifth Avenue 23 In 2005 a documentary Just for Kicks about the sneaker phenomenon and history was released 24 citation needed See alsoBiodegradable athletic footwear Comparison of orthotics List of shoe stylesReferences Footwear World Global Footwear Industry Positive Dynamics in 2018 World Footwear Retrieved 2020 07 30 Cheah Lynette Ciceri Natalia Duque Olivetti Elsa Matsumura Seiko Forterre Dai Roth Richard Kirchain Randolph 2013 04 01 Manufacturing focused emissions reductions in footwear production Journal of Cleaner Production 44 18 29 doi 10 1016 j jclepro 2012 11 037 hdl 1721 1 102070 ISSN 0959 6526 a b Are Eco Runners The Next It Trainer British Vogue 21 October 2019 Retrieved 2021 02 19 Hoskins Tansy E 2020 03 21 Some soles last 1 000 years in landfill the truth about the sneaker mountain The Guardian Retrieved 2021 02 19 Katz Josh 25 October 2016 Speaking American How Y all Youse and You Guys Talk A Visual Guide Houghton Mifflin Harcourt pp 4 5 ISBN 978 0544703391 Retrieved 13 July 2017 Hickey Walter 5 June 2013 22 Maps That Show How Americans Speak English Totally Differently From One Another Business Insider Retrieved 2017 03 09 Geordie Dictionary www englandsnortheast co uk Retrieved 2017 03 09 Pettman Charles 1913 Africanderisms A Glossary of South African Colloquial Words and Phrases and of Place and Other Names CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform p 491 ISBN 1515051226 Mental Floss magazine Sept Oct 2008 Robinson Frederick William 1863 Female life in prison by a prison matron Hurst and Blackett ISBN 9781341245022 Susie Dent 2011 How to Talk Like a Local From Cockney to Geordie Random House p 99 ISBN 9781409061953 Foster Rachael Foster s Famous Shoes Bolton Revisited Retrieved 15 October 2015 Running Shoes for Plantar Fasciitis Men amp Women Your Comfy Feet Retrieved 15 October 2015 Smit Barbara 2009 Sneaker Wars New York Harper Perennial ISBN 978 0 06 124658 6 Exploring the History of Basketball Shoes Sports Domain Lab 18 March 2019 How Adidas and PUMA were born in rediff com 8 November 2005 Retrieved 26 September 2010 Pribut Stephen M A Sneaker Odyssey Dr Stephen M Pribut s Sport Pages 2002 Web 23 June 2010 Aichner T and Coletti P 2013 Customers online shopping preferences in mass customization Journal of Direct Data and Digital Marketing Practice 15 1 20 35 Understand pronation to get the correct running shoes Comfort Hacks Retrieved 14 October 2015 Marius Bakken Fitting Your Running Shoes to Your Feet Retrieved 2009 04 24 Chesto Jon 2017 07 19 New City Sports owners plot revival of Boston brand The Boston Globe Retrieved 2017 07 20 Belzer Jason Sneaker Wars Kanye West Signs Deal with Adidas Drake with Jordan Brand Forbes Retrieved 2016 01 28 2014 Saks Fifth Avenue catalog History of Sneakers http theidleman com history of sneakersExternal links Media related to Sneakers footwear at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sneakers amp oldid 1052517762, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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