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Wikipedia

Snow White

This article is about the fairy tale. For other uses, see Snow White (disambiguation).

"Snow White" is a 19th-century German fairy tale that is today known widely across the Western world. The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms' Fairy Tales and numbered as Tale 53. The original German title was Sneewittchen, a Low German form, but the first version gave the High German translation Schneeweißchen, and the tale has become known in German by the mixed form Schneewittchen. The Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854.

Snow White
Schneewittchen by Alexander Zick
Folk tale
NameSnow White
Data
Aarne–Thompson grouping709
CountryGermany

The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror, the poisoned apple, the glass coffin, and the characters of the Evil Queen and the Seven Dwarfs. The seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and then given different names in Walt Disney's 1937 film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Grimm story, which is commonly referred to as "Snow White", should not be confused with the story of "Snow-White and Rose-Red" (in German "Schneeweißchen und Rosenrot"), another fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm.

In the Aarne–Thompson folklore classification, tales of this kind are grouped together as type 709, Snow White. Others of this kind include "Bella Venezia", "Myrsina", "Nourie Hadig", "Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree", "The Young Slave", and "La petite Toute-Belle".

Contents

The fable's antagonist the Evil Queen with the protagonist Snow White as depicted in The Sleeping Snow White by Hans Makart (1872)

At the beginning of the story, a queen sits sewing at an open window during a winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle, causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill. Then, she says to herself, "How I wish that I had a daughter that had skin as white as snow, lips as red as blood and hair as black as ebony." Sometime later, the queen gives birth to a baby daughter whom she names Snow White, but the queen dies in childbirth.

A year later, Snow White's father, the king, marries again. His new wife is very beautiful, but she is a vain and wicked woman who practices witchcraft. The new queen possesses a magic mirror, which she asks every morning, "Magic mirror on the wall, who is the fairest one of all?" The mirror always tells the queen that she is the fairest. The queen is always pleased with that response because the magic mirror never lies. But when Snow White is seven years old, her fairness surpasses that of her stepmother. When the queen asks her mirror, it tells her that Snow White is the fairest.

This gives the queen a great shock. She becomes envious, and from that moment on, her heart turns against Snow White, whom the queen grows to hate increasingly with time. Eventually, the angry queen orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the forest to be killed. As proof that Snow White is dead, the queen demands that he returns with her heart, which she will consume in order to become immortal. The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest, but after raising his dagger, he finds himself unable to kill her when Snow White learns of her stepmother's evil plan and tearfully begs, "Spare me this mockery of justice! I will run away into the forest and never come home again!" After seeing the tears in the princess's eyes, the huntsman reluctantly agrees to spare Snow White and brings the queen the heart of an animal instead.

After wandering through the forest for hours, Snow White discovers a tiny cottage belonging to a group of seven dwarfs. Since no one is at home, she eats some of the tiny meals, drinks some of their wine, and then tests all the beds. Finally, the last bed is comfortable enough for her, and she falls asleep. When the dwarfs return home, they immediately become aware that there has been a burglar in their house, because everything in their home is in disorder. Prowling about frantically, they head upstairs and discover the sleeping Snow White. She wakes up and explains to them about her stepmother's attempt to kill her, and the dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for a job as a housemaid. They warn her to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in while they are working in the mountains.

Ten years later, Snow White grows into an absolutely lovely, fair and beautiful young maiden. Meanwhile, the queen, who believes she had gotten rid of Snow White a decade earlier, asks her mirror once again: "Magic mirror on the wall, who now is the fairest one of all?" The mirror tells her that not only is Snow White still the fairest in the land, but she is also currently hiding with the dwarfs. The queen is furious when she learns that Snow White used her wits to fake her death by tricking the huntsman, and decides to kill the girl herself. First, she appears at the dwarfs' cottage, disguised as an old peddler, and offers Snow White colorful, silky laced bodices as a present. The queen laces her up so tightly that Snow White faints or collapses; the dwarfs return just in time, and Snow White revives when the dwarfs loosen the laces. Next, the queen dresses up as a comb seller and convinces Snow White to take a beautiful comb as a present; she strokes Snow White's hair with the poisoned comb. The girl is overcome by the poison from the comb, but she is again revived by the dwarfs when they remove the comb from her hair. Finally, the queen disguises herself as a farmer's wife and offers Snow White a poisoned apple. Snow White is hesitant to accept it, so the queen cuts the apple in half, eating the white (harmless) half and giving the red poisoned half to Snow White; the girl eagerly takes a bite and then falls into a coma or appearing to be dead, causing the Queen to think she has finally triumphed. This time, the dwarfs are unable to revive Snow White, and, assuming that the queen has finally killed her, they place her in a glass casket as a funeral for her.

The next day, a prince stumbles upon a seemingly-dead Snow White lying in her glass coffin during a hunting trip. After hearing her story from the Seven Dwarfs, the prince is allowed to take Snow White to her proper resting place back at her father's castle. All of a sudden, while Snow White is being transported, one of the prince's servants trips and loses his balance. This dislodges the piece of the poisoned apple from Snow White's throat, magically reviving her. The Prince is overjoyed with this miracle, and he declares his love for the now alive and well Snow White, who, surprised to meet him face to face, humbly accepts his marriage proposal. The prince invites everyone in the land to their wedding, except for Snow White's stepmother.

The queen, believing herself finally to be rid of Snow White after ten years, again asks her magic mirror who is the fairest in the land. The mirror says that there is a bride of a prince, who is yet fairer than she. The queen decides to visit the wedding and investigate. Once she arrives, the Queen becomes frozen with rage and fear when she finds out that the prince's bride is her stepdaughter, Snow White herself. The furious Queen tries to sow chaos and attempts to kill her again, but the prince recognizes her as a threat to Snow White when he learns the truth from his bride. As a punishment for the attempted murder of Snow White, the prince orders the Queen to wear a pair of red-hot iron slippers and to dance in them until she drops dead. With the evil Queen finally defeated and dead, Snow White has taken her revenge, so her wedding to the prince peacefully continues.

  • Franz Jüttner's illustrations from Sneewittchen (1905)
  • 1. The Queen asks the magic mirror

  • 2. Snow White in the forest

  • 3. The dwarfs find Snow White asleep

  • 4. The dwarfs leave Snow White in charge

  • 5. The Queen visits Snow White

  • 6. The Queen has poisoned Snow White

  • 7. The Prince awakes Snow White

  • 8. The Queen discovers and confronts Snow White at her wedding

Illustration by Otto Kubel

Many scholars have theorized about the possible origins of the tale. In 1994, a German historian named Eckhard Sander published Schneewittchen: Märchen oder Wahrheit? (Snow White: Fairy Tale or Truth?), claiming he had uncovered an account that may have inspired the story that first appeared in Grimm’s Fairy Tales. According to Sander, the character of Snow White was based on the life of Margaretha von Waldeck, a German countess born to Philip IV in 1533. At the age of 16, Margaretha was forced by her stepmother, Katharina of Hatzfeld, to move away to Brussels. There, Margaretha fell in love with a prince who would later become Philip II of Spain. Her father and stepmother disapproved of the relationship, however, deeming it ‘politically inconvenient’. Margaretha mysteriously died at the age of 21, apparently having been poisoned. Historical accounts point to the King of Spain who, in opposing the romance, may have dispatched Spanish agents to murder her.

Scholar Graham Anderson compares the story of Snow White to the Roman legend of Chione, recorded in Ovid's Metamorphoses. The name Chione means "snow" in Greek and, in the story, she is described as the most beautiful woman in the land, so beautiful that the gods Apollo and Hermes both fell in love with her. Hermes put her to sleep with the touch of his caduceus and raped her in her sleep. Then Apollo, disguised as an old crone, approached her and raped her again. These affections led Chione to openly boast that she was more beautiful than the goddess Diana herself, resulting in Diana shooting her through the tongue with an arrow.

Karlheinz Bartels, a pharmacist and scholar from Lohr am Main, a town in northwestern Bavaria, found evidence that Snow White was Maria Sophia Margarethe Catharina, Baroness von und zu Erthal, who was born in Lohr on June 25, 1725. Her father, Philipp Christoph von und zu Erthal, was the local representative of the Prince Elector of Mainz. After the death of Maria Sophia's birth mother in 1738, her father remarried in 1743. The stepmother, Claudia Elisabeth von Reichenstein, was domineering and employed her new position to the advantage of her children from her first marriage. A magic mirror referred to as “The Talking Mirror”, known as always telling the truth, can still be viewed today in the Spessart Museum in the Lohr Castle, where Maria Sophia's stepmother lived. This mirror was presumably a present from Maria Sophia's father to his second wife. It was a product of the Lohr Mirror Manufacture (Kurmainzische Spiegelmanufaktur). Her gravestone was found in 2019.

The principal studies of traditional Snow White variants are Ernst Böklen's, Schneewittchen Studien of 1910, which reprints fifty Snow White variants, and studies by Steven Swann Jones. In their first edition, the Brothers Grimm published the version they had first collected, in which the villain of the piece is Snow White's jealous biological mother. In a version sent to another folklorist prior to the first edition, additionally, she does not order a servant to take her to the woods, but takes her there herself to gather flowers and abandons her; in the first edition, this task was transferred to a servant. It is believed that the change to a stepmother in later editions was to tone down the story for children.

A popular version of Snow White is the 1937 American animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Walt Disney. Disney's variation of Snow White gave the dwarfs names and included a singing Snow White. The Disney film also is the only version in which Snow White and her prince meet before she bites the apple; in fact, it is this meeting that sets the plot in motion. Instead of her lungs and liver, as written in the original, the huntsman is asked by the queen to bring back Snow White's heart. While the heart is mentioned, it is never shown in the box. Snow White is much more mature (an adolescent). And she is discovered by the dwarfs after cleaning the house, not vandalizing it. Furthermore, in the Disney movie the evil queen tries only once to kill Snow White (by a poisoned apple) and fails (this was likely to save time). She then dies by falling down a cliff and being crushed by a boulder, after the dwarfs had chased her through the forest. In the original, the queen is forced to dance to death.

Many later versions omit the Queen's attempted cannibalism, eating what she believed to be the lungs and liver of Snow White. This may be a reference to old Slavic mythology which includes tales of witches eating human hearts.

This tale type is widespread in Europe, in America, in Africa and "in some Turkic traditions". The tale is also said to be found in the Middle East, in China, in India and in the Americas.

In regards to the Turkic distribution of the tale, parallels are also said to exist in Central Asia and Eastern Siberia, among the Mongolians and Tungusian peoples.

Studies by Sigrid Schmidt and Hasan El-Shamy point to the presence of the tale type across the African continent (North, West, Central, East and Southeast), often combined with other tale types.

Europe

A primary analysis by Celtic folklorist Alfred Nutt, in the 19th century, established the tale type, in Europe, was distributed "from the Balkan peninsula to Iceland, and from Russia to Catalonia", with the highest number of variants being found in Germany and Italy.

This geographical distribution seemed to be confirmed by scholarly studies of the 20th century. A 1957 article by Italian philologist Gianfranco D'Aronco (it) studied the most diffused Tales of Magic in Italian territory, among which Biancaneve. A scholarly inquiry by Italian Istituto centrale per i beni sonori ed audiovisivi ("Central Institute of Sound and Audiovisual Heritage"), produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s, found thirty-seven variants of the tale across Italian sources. A similar assessment was made by scholar Sigrid Schmidt, who claimed that the tale type was "particularly popular" in Southern Europe, "specially" in Italy, Greece and Iberian Peninsula. Similarly, Waldemar Liungmann suggested Italy as center of diffusion of the story.

Another study points to a wide distribution in Western Europe, specially in Ireland, Iceland and Scandinavia.

Italy

In most Italian versions the heroine is not the daughter of a king but an innkeeper, the antagonist is not her stepmother but her biological mother, and instead of dwarfs she takes refuge with robbers, as we can see in La Bella Venezia an Abruzzian version collected by Antonio De Nino, in which the mother asks her customers if they have seen a woman more beautiful than she. If they say they didn't, she only charges them half the price, if they say they did she charges them twice the price. When the customers tell her that her daughter is prettier than her, she gets jealous. In Maria, her Evil Stepmother and the Seven Robbers (Maria, die böse Stiefmutter und die sieben Räuber), a Sicilian version collected by Laura Gonzenbach the heroine also lives with robbers, but the antagonist is her stepmother and she's not an innkeeper.

Sometimes the heroine's protectors are female instead of male, as in The Cruel Stepmother (La crudel matrigna), a variant collected by Angelo de Gubernatis in which, like in the Grimm's version, Snow White's counterpart, called here Caterina, is the daughter of a king, and the antagonist is her stepmother, who orders her servants to kill her stepdaughter after she hears people commenting how much prettier Caterina is than she. One day the two women are going to mass together. Instead of a male protector, Caterina takes refuge in a house by the seashore where an old woman lives. Later a witch discovers that Caterina's still alive and where she lives, so she goes to tell the queen, who sends her back to the cottage to kill her with poisoned flowers instead of an apple. A similar version from Siena was collected by Sicilian folklorist Giuseppe Pitrè, in which the heroine, called Ermellina, runs away from home riding an eagle who takes her away to a palace inhabited by fairies. Ermellina's stepmother sends a witch disguised as her stepdaughter's servants to the fairies' palace to try to kill her twice, first with poisoned sweetmeats and the second time with an enchanted dress. Pitré also collected a variant from Palermo titled Child Margarita (La 'Nfanti Margarita) where the heroine stays in a haunted castle.

There's also a couple of conversions that combines the ATU tale type 709 with the second part of the type 410 Sleeping Beauty, in which, when the heroine is awakened, the prince's mother tries to kill her and the children she has had with the prince. Gonzenbach collected two variants from Sicily, the first one called Maruzzedda and the second Beautiful Anna; and Vittorio Imbriani collected a version titled La Bella Ostessina.

In some versions, the antagonists are not the heroine's mother or stepmother, but her two elder sisters, as in a version from Trentino collected by Christian Schneller, or a version from Bologne collected by Carolina Coronedi-Berti. In this last version, the role of both the mirror and the dwarfs is played by the Moon, which tells the elder sisters that the youngest, called Ziricochel, is the prettiest, and later hides her in his palace. When the sisters discover Ziricochel is still alive, they send an astrologer to kill her. After several attempts, she finally manages to turn her into a statue with an enchanted shirt. Ziricochel is revived after the prince's sisters take the shirt off.

Italo Calvino included the version from Bologne collected by Coronedi Berti, retitling it Giricoccola, and the Abruzzian version collected by De Nino in Italian Folktales.

France

Paul Sébillot collected two variants from Brittany in northwestern France. In the first one, titled The Enchanted Stockings (Les Bas enchantés), starts similarly to Gubernatis' version, with the heroine being the daughter of a queen, and her mother wanting to kill her after soldier marching in front of her balcony says the princess is prettier than the queen. The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by the titular stockings, and the heroine is revived after the prince's little sister takes them off when she's playing. In the second, titled La petite Toute-Belle, a servant accuses the heroine of stealing the things she stole and then throws her in a well. The heroine survives the fall and ends up living with three dragons that live at the bottom of the well. When the heroine's mother discovers her daughter is still alive, she twice sends a fairy to attempt to kill her, first with sugar almonds, which the dragons warn her are poisoned before she eats them, and then with a red dress. In another version from Brittany, this one collected by François Cadic, the heroine is called Rose-Neige (Eng: Snow-Rose) because her mother pricked her finger with a rose in a snowy day and wished to have a child as beautiful as the rose. The role of the dwarfs is played by Korrigans, dwarf-like creatures from the Breton folklore. Louis Morin collected a version from Troyes in northeastern France, where like in the Grimm's version the mother questions a magic mirror. A version from Corsica titled Anghjulina was collected by Geneviève Massignon, where the roles of both the huntsman and the dwarfs are instead a group of bandits whom Anghjulina's mother asks to kill her daughter, but they instead take her away to live with them in the woods.

Belgium and the Netherlands

A Flemish version from Antwerp collected by Victor de Meyere is quite similar to the version collected by the brothers Grimm. The heroine is called Sneeuwwitje (Snow White in Dutch), she is the queen's stepdaughter, and the stepmother questions a mirror. Instead of dwarfs, the princess is taken in by seven kabouters. Instead of going to kill Snow White herself, the queen twice sends the witch who had sold her the magic mirror to kill Sneeuwwitje, first with a comb and the second time with an apple. But the most significant difference is that the role of the prince in this version is instead Snow White's father, the king.

Another Flemish variant, this one from Hamme, differs more from Grimm’s story. The one who wants to kill the heroine, called here Mauricia, is her own biological mother. She is convinced by a demon with a spider head that if her daughter dies, she will become beautiful. The mother sends two servants to kill Mauricia, bringing as proof a lock of her hair, a bottle with her blood, a piece of her tongue and a piece of her clothes. The servants spare Mauricia’s life, as well as her pet sheep. To deceive Mauricia’s mother, they buy a goat and bring a bottle with the animal’s blood as well as a piece of his tongue. Meanwhile, Mauricia is taken in by seventeen robbers who live in a cave deep in the forest, instead of seven dwarfs. When Mauricia’s mother discovers that her daughter is still alive, she goes to the robbers’ cave disguised. She turns her daughter into a bird, and she takes her place. The plan fails and Mauricia recovers her human form, so the mother tries to kill her by using a magic ring which the demon gave her. Mauricia is awoken when a prince takes the ring off her finger. When he asks her if he would marry her, she rejects him and returns with the seventeen robbers.

Iberian Peninsula

One of the first versions from Spain, titled The Beautiful Stepdaughter (La hermosa hijastra), was collected by Manuel Milá y Fontanals, in which a demon tells the stepmother that her stepdaughter is prettier than she is when she's looking at herself in the mirror. The stepmother orders her servants to take her stepdaughter to the forest and kill her, bringing a bottle with her blood as proof. But the servants spare her life and instead kill a dog. Eight days later the demon warns her that the blood in the bottle is not her stepdaughter's, and the stepmother sends her servants again, ordering them to bring one of her toes as proof. The stepdaughter later discovers four men living in the forest, inside a rock that can open and close with the right words. Every day after she sees the men leave she enters the cave and cleans it up. Believing it must be an intruder, the men take turns to stay at the cavern, but the first one falls asleep during his watch. The second one manages to catch the girl, and they agree to let the girl live with them. Later, the same demon that told her stepmother that her stepdaughter was prettier gives the girl an enchanted ring, that has the same role that the apple in the Grimm's version. The version in Catalan included by Francisco Maspons y Labrós in the second volume of Lo Rondallayre follows that plot fairly closely, with some minor differences.

In an Aragonese version titled The Good Daughter (La buena hija) collected by Romualdo Nogués y Milagro, there's no mirror. Instead, the story starts with the mother already hating her daughter because she's prettier, and ordering a servant to kill her, bringing as proof her heart, tongue, and her little finger. The servant spares her and brings the mother the heart and tongue from a dog he ran over and says he lost the finger. The daughter is taken in by robbers living in a cavern, but despite all, she still misses her mother. One day an old woman appears and gives her a ring, saying that if she puts it on she'll see her mother. The daughter actually falls unconscious when she does put it on because the old woman is actually a witch who wants to kidnap her, but she can't because of the scapular the girl is wearing, so she locks her in a crystal casket, where the girl is later found by the prince.

In a version from Mallorca collected by Antoni Maria Alcover i Sureda titled Na Magraneta, a queen wishes to have a daughter after eating a pomegranate and calls her Magraneta. Like in the Grimm's version the queen asks her mirror who's the most beautiful. The dwarf's role is fulfilled by thirteen men who are described as big as giants, who live in a castle in the middle of the forest called "Castell de la Colometa", whose doors can open and close by command. When the queen discovers thanks to her mirror that her daughter is still alive she sends an evil fairy disguised as an old woman. The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by an iron ring.

Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Sr. collected two Spanish versions. The first one, titled Blanca Flor, is from Villaluenga de la Sagra, in Toledo. In this one the villain is the heroine's own biological mother, and like in Na Magraneta she questions a mirror if there's a woman more beautiful than she is. Instead of ordering a huntsman or servant to kill her daughter, after the mirror tells the woman her daughter has surpassed her, she tries to get rid of her daughter herself, inviting her to go for a walk in the countryside, and when they reach a rock she recites some spells from her book, making the rock swallow her daughter. Fortunately thanks to her prayers to the Virgin the daughter survives and gets out the rock, and she's later taken in by twelve robbers living in a castle. When the mother discovers her daughter is still alive, she sends a witch to kill her, who gives the daughter an enchanted silk shirt. The moment she puts it on, she falls in a deathlike state. She's later revived when a sexton takes the shirt off. The second one, titled The Envious Mother (La madre envidiosa), comes from Jaraíz de la Vera, Cáceres. Here the villain is also the heroine's biological mother, and she's an innkeeper who asks a witch whether there's a woman prettier than she is. Instead of a shirt, here the role of the apple is fulfilled by enchanted shoes. Aurelio de Llano Roza de Ampudia collected an Asturian version from Teverga titled The Envious Stepmother (La madrastra envidiosa), in which the stepmother locks her stepdaughter in a room with the hope that none will see her and think she's more beautiful. But the attempt turned out to be useless when one of her guests tells her the girl locked in a room is prettier than she is. The story ends with the men that found the heroine discussing who should marry the girl once she's revived, and she replies by telling them that she chooses to marry the servant who revived her. Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Jr. collected four versions. The first one is titled Blancanieves, is from Medina del Campo, Valladolid, and follows the plot of the Grimm's version fairly closely with barely any significant differences. The same happens with the second one, titled Blancaflor, that comes from Tordesillas, another location from Valladolid. The last two are the ones that present more significant differences, although like in Grimm's the stepmother questions a magic mirror. The Bad Stepmother (La mala madrastra) comes from Sepúlveda, Segovia, and also has instead of seven dwarfs the robbers that live in a cave deep in the forest, that can open and close at command. Here the words to make it happen are "Open, parsley!" and "Close, peppermint!" The last one, Blancaflor, is from Siete Iglesias de Trabancos, also in Valladolid, ends with the heroine buried after biting a poisoned pear, and the mirror proclaiming that, now that her stepdaughter is finally dead, the stepmother is the most beautiful again.

One of the first Portuguese versions was collected by Francisco Adolfo Coelho. It was titled The Enchanted Shoes (Os sapatinhos encantados), where the heroine is the daughter of an innkeeper, who asks muleteers if they have seen a woman prettier than she is. One day, one answers that her daughter is prettier. The daughter takes refugee with a group of robbers who live in the forest, and the role of the apple is fulfilled by the titular enchanted shoes. Zófimo Consiglieri Pedroso collected another version, titled The Vain Queen, in which the titular queen questions her maids of honor and servants who's the most beautiful. One day, when she asks the same question to her chamberlain, he replies the queen's daughter is more beautiful than she is. The queen orders her servants to behead her daughter bring back his tongue as proof, but they instead spare her and bring the queen a dog's tongue. The princess is taken in by a man, who gives her two options, to live with him as either his wife or his daughter, and the princess chooses the second. The rest of the tale is quite different from most versions, with the titular queen completely disappeared from the story, and the story focusing instead of a prince that falls in love with the princess.

British Isles

In the Scottish version Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree, queen Silver-Tree asks a trout in a well, instead of a magic mirror, who's the most beautiful. When the trout tells her that Gold-Tree, her daughter, is more beautiful, Silver-Tree pretends to fall ill, declaring that her only cure is to eat her own daughter's heart and liver. To save his daughter's life, the king marries her off to a prince, and serves his wife a goat's heart and liver. After Silver-Tree discovers that she has been deceived thanks to the trout, she visits her daughter and sticks her finger on a poisoned thorn. The prince later remarries, and his second wife removes the poisoned thorn from Gold-Tree, reviving her. The second wife then tricks the queen into drinking the poison that was meant for Gold-Tree. In another Scottish version, Lasair Gheug, the King of Ireland's Daughter, the heroine's stepmother frames the princess for the murder of the queen's firstborn and manages to make her swear she'll never tell the truth to anybody. Lasair Gheug, a name that in Gaelic means Flame of Branches, take refugee with thirteen cats, who turn out to be an enchanted prince and his squires. After marrying the prince and having three sons with him the queen discovers her stepdaughter is still alive, also thanks to a talking trout, and sends three giants of ice to put her in a death-like state. As in Gold-Tree and Silver-Tree the prince takes a second wife afterwards, and the second wife is the one who revives the heroine. Thomas William Thompson collected an English version from Blackburn simply titled Snow White which follows Grimm's plot much more closely, although with some significant differences, such as Snow White being taken in by three robbers instead of seven dwarfs.

Scandinavia

One of the first Danish versions collected was Svenhvide (Snow White), by Mathias Winther. In this variant, the stepmother is the princess' nurse, who persuades Snow White to ask her father to marry her. Because the king says he won't remarry until grass grows in the grave of the princess' mother, the nurse plants magic seeds in the grave so grass will grow quicker. Then, after the king marries the nurse, Snow White gets betrothed to a prince, who choses her over the nurse's three biological daughters, but after that the king and the prince had to leave to fight in a war. The queen seizes her opportunity to chase Snow White away, and she ends up living with the dwarfs in a mountain. When the queen finds out Snow White is still alive thanks to a magic mirror, she sends her daughters three times, each time one of them, with poisoned gifts to give them to her. With the third gift, a poisoned apple, Snow White falls into a deep sleep, and the dwarfs leave her in the forest, fearing that the king would accuse them of killing her once he comes back. When the king and the prince finally come back from the war and find Snow White's body, the king dies of sorrow, but the prince manages to wake her up. After that we see an ending quite similar to the ones in The Goose Girl and The Three Oranges of Love the prince and Snow White get married, and the prince invites the stepmother and asks her what punishment deserve someone who has heard someone as innocent as Snow White. The queen suggests for the culprit to be put inside a barrel full of needles, and the prince tells the stepmother she has pronounced her own sentence. Evald Tang Kristensen collected a version titled The Pretty Girl and the Crystal Bowls (Den Kjønne Pige og de Klare Skåle), which, like some Italian variants, combines the tale type 709 with the type 410. In this version, the stepmother questions a pair of crystal bowls instead of a magic mirror, and when they tell her that her stepdaughter is prettier, she sends her to a witch's hut where she's tricked to eat a porridge that makes her pregnant. Ashamed that her daughter has become pregnant out of wedlock she kicks her out, but the girl is taken in by a shepherd. Later a crow lets a ring fall on the huts' floor, and, when the heroine puts it on, she falls in a deathlike state. Believing she's dead the shepherd kills himself and the heroine is later revived when she gives birth to twins, each one of them with a star on the forehead, and one of them sucks the ring off her finger. She's later found by a prince, whose mother tries to kill the girl and her children.

A Swedish version titled The Daughter of the Sun and the Twelve Bewitched Princes (Solens dotter och de tolv förtrollade prinsarna) starts pretty similarly to the Grimm's version, with a queen wishing to have a child as white as snow and as red as blood, but that child turned out to be not the heroine but the villain, her own biological mother. Instead of a mirror, the queen asks the Sun, who tells her that her daughter will surpass her in beauty. Because of it the queen orders that her daughter must be raised in the countryside, away from the Royal Court, but when It's time for the princess to come back the queen orders a servant to throw her in a well before she arrives. In the bottom, the princess meets twelve princes cursed to be chimeras, and she agrees to live with them. When the queen and the servant discover she's alive, they give her poisoned candy, which she eats. After being revived by a young king she marries him and has a son with him, but the queen goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife, turns her daughter into a golden bird by sticking a needle on her head, and then the queen takes her daughter's place. After disenchanting the twelve princes with her singing, the princess returns to the court, where she's finally restored to her human form, and her mother is punished after she believed she ate her own daughter while she was still under the spell.

Greece and Mediterranean Area

French folklorist Henri Carnoy collected a Greek version, titled Marietta and the Witch her Stepmother (Marietta et la Sorcière, sa Marâtre), in which the heroine is manipulated by her governess to kill her own mother, so the governess could marry her father. Soon after she marries Marietta's father, the new stepmother orders her husband to get rid of his daughter. Marietta ends up living in a castle with forty giants. Meanwhile, Marietta's stepmother, believing her stepdaughter is dead, asks the Sun who's the most beautiful. When the Sun answers Marietta is more beautiful, she realises her stepdaughter is still alive, and, disguised as a peddler, goes to the giants' castle to kill her. She goes twice, the first trying to kill her with an enchanted ring, and the second with poisoned grapes. After Marietta is awoken and marries the prince, the stepmother goes to the prince's castle pretending to be a midwife, sticks a fork on Marietta's head to turn her into a pigeon, and then takes her place. After several transformations, Marietta recovers her human form and her stepmother is punished. Georgios A. Megas collected another Greek version, titled Myrsina, in which the antagonists are the heroine's two elder sisters, and the role of the seven dwarfs is fulfilled by the Twelve Months.

Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn collected a version from Albania, that also starts with the heroine, called Marigo, killing her mother so her governess can marry her father. But after the marriage, Marigo's stepmother asks the king to get rid of the princess, but instead of killing her the king just abandons her daughter in the woods. Marigo finds a castle inhabited by forty dragons instead of giants, that take her in as their surrogate sister. After discovering her stepdaughter is still alive thanks also to the Sun, the queen twice sends her husband to the dragons' castle to kill Marigo, first with enchanted hair-pins and the second time with an enchanted ring. In another Albanian version, titled Fatimé and collected by French folklorist Auguste Dozon, the antagonists are also the heroine's two elder sisters, as in Myrsina.

Russia and Eastern Europe

Alexander Afanasyev collected a Russian version titled The Magic Mirror, in which the reason that the heroine has to leave her parents’ house is different than the usual. Instead of being the daughter of a king, she is the daughter of a merchant, who's left with her uncle while her father and brothers travel. During their absence, the heroine’s uncle attempts to assault her, but she frustrates his plans. To get his revenge he writes a letter to the heroine’s father, accusing her of misconduct. Believing what's written in the letter, the merchant sends his son back home to kill his own sister, but the merchant’s son doesn't trust his uncle’s letter, and after discovering what's in the letter are lies, he warns her sister, who escapes and is taken in by two bogatyrs. The elements of the stepmother and the mirror are introduced much later, after the merchant returns home believing his daughter is dead and remarries the woman who owns the titular magic mirror, that tells her that her stepdaughter is still alive and is more beautiful than she is. In another Russian version the heroine is the daughter of a Tsar, and her stepmother decides to kill her after asking three different mirrors and all of them told her her stepdaughters is more beautiful than she is. The dwarfs’ role is fulfilled by twelve brothers cursed to be hawks, living at the top of a glass mountain.

Arthur and Albert Schott collected a Romanian version titled The Magic Mirror (German: Der Zauberspiegel; Romanian: Oglinda fermecată), in which the villain is the heroine’s biological mother. After the titular mirror tells her that her daughter is prettiest, she takes her to go for a walk in the woods and feeds her extremely salty bread, so her daughter will become so thirsty that she would agree to let her tear out her eyes in exchange for water. Once the daughter is blinded her mother leaves her in the forest, where she manages to restore her eyes and is taken in by twelve thieves. After discovering her daughter is still alive, the mother sends an old woman to the thieves’ house three times. The first she gives the daughter a ring, the second earrings, and the third poisoned flowers. After the heroine marries the prince, she has a child, and the mother goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife to kill both her daughter and the newborn. After killing the infant, she’s stopped before she can kill the heroine.

The Pushkin fairytale The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights bears a striking similarity to the tale of Snow White. However, the Dead Princess befriends 7 knights instead of dwarfs, and it is the Sun and Moon who aid the Prince to the resting place of the Dead Princess, where he breaks with his sword the coffin of the Tsarevna, bringing her back to life.

Americas

In a Louisiana tale, Lé Roi Pan ("The King Peacock"), a mother has a child who becomes more beautiful than her, so she orders her daughter's nurse to kill her. The daughter resigns to her fate, but the nurse spares her and gives her three seeds. After failing to drown in a well and to be eaten by an ogre, the girl eats a seed and falls into a deep sleep. The ogre family (who took her in after seeing her beauty) put her in a crystal coffin to float down the river. Her coffin is found by the titular King Peacock, who takes the seed from her mouth and awakens her.

Africa

Robert Hamill Nassau collected a tale titled The Beautiful Daughter from West Africa, where the heroine's mother tries to kill her, the dwarves are replaced for robbers, and she herself becomes stepmother to a girl who broke her sleeping curse.

The famous "Heigh-Ho" sequence from the 1937 adaption
Walt Disney introducing the Seven Dwarfs in the trailer of Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)
Snow White, 1916, full 63 minute film
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items.(March 2019)

Theatrical - Live-action

Theatrical - Animation

  • Snow-White (1933), also known as Betty Boop in Snow-White, a film in the Betty Boop series from Max Fleischer's Fleischer Studios.
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), an animated Disney film based on the fairy tale, featuring Adriana Caselotti as the voice of Snow White.
  • Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs (1943)is a Merrie Melodies animated cartoon directed by Bob Clampett. The short was released on January 16, 1943. It is all parody of the fairy tale.
  • Happily Ever After (1989) is a 1989 American animated musical fantasy film written by Robby London and Martha Moran, directed by John Howley, produced by Filmation.
  • Snow White: The Sequel (2007) is a Belgian/French/British adult animated comedy film directed by Picha. It is based on the fairy tale of Snow White and intended as a sequel to Disney's classic animated adaptation. However, like all of Picha's cartoons, the film is actually a sex comedy featuring a lot of bawdy jokes and sex scenes.
  • The Seventh Dwarf (2014) (German: Der 7bte Zwerg), is a German 3D computer-animated film, created in 2014. The film is based upon the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty and characters from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.

Direct-to-video - Animation

Animation - Television

Live-action - Television

Live-action - Direct-to-video

  • Neberte nám princeznú (1981) (English: Let the Princess Stay with Us) is a modern version of the Snowhite and the Seven Dwarfs fairytale, starring Marika Gombitová. The musical was directed by Martin Hoffmeister, and released in 1981.
  • Grimm's Snow White (2012), starring Eliza Bennett as Snow White and Jane March as the Evil Queen Gwendolyn.
  • Sonne (2001) is a music video for the song by Neue Deutsche Härte band Rammstein, where the band are dwarfs mining gold for Snow White.
  • Snow White: A Deadly Summer (2012) is an American horror film directed by David DeCoteau and starring Shanley Caswell, Maureen McCormick, and Eric Roberts. The film was released straight to DVD and digital download on March 20, 2012

Music and audio

  • Charmed (2008), an album by Sarah Pinsker, features a song called "Twice the Prince" in which Snow White realizes that she prefers a dwarf to Prince Charming.
  • The Boys (2011), Girls' Generation's third studio album, features a concept photo by Taeyeon inspired by Snow White.
  • John Finnemore’s Souvenir Programme S5E1 (2016) features a comedy sketch parodying the magic mirror scene.

In literature

  • German author Ludwig Aurbacher used the story of Snow White in his literary tale Die zwei Brüder ("The Two Brothers") (1834).
  • Snow White (1967), a postmodern novel by Donald Barthelme which describes the lives of Snow White and the dwarfs.
  • Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1971), a poem by Anne Sexton in her collection Transformations, in which she re-envisions sixteen of the Grimm's Fairy Tales.
  • Snow White in New York (1986), a picture book by Fiona French set in 1920s New York.
  • "Snow White" (1994), a short story written by James Finn Garner, from Politically Correct Bedtime Stories: Modern Tales For Our Life & Times.'
  • "Snow, Glass, Apples", a 1994 short story written by Neil Gaiman, which all but explicitly rewrites the tale to make Snow White a vampire-like entity that is opposed by the Queen, while the prince is strongly implied to have necrophiliac tastes.
  • Six-Gun Snow White (2013), a novel by Catherynne M. Valente retelling the Snow White story in an Old West setting.
  • Tímakistan (2013), a novel by Andri Snær Magnason, an adaptation of Snow White.
  • Boy, Snow, Bird (2014), a novel by Helen Oyeyemi which adapts the Snow White story as a fable about race and cultural ideas of beauty.
  • Winter (2015), a novel by Marissa Meyer loosely based on the story of Snow White.
  • Girls Made of Snow and Glass (2017), a novel by Melissa Bashardoust which is a subversive, feminist take on the original fairy tale.
  • Sadie: An Amish Retelling of Snow White (2018) by Sarah Price
  • Shattered Snow (2019), a time travel novel by Rachel Huffmire, ties together the life of Margaretha von Waldeck and the Grimm Brothers’ rendition of Snow White.
  • The Princess and the Evil Queen (2019), a novel by Lola Andrews, retells the story as a sensual love tale between Snow White and the Evil Queen.

In theatre

In comics

  • The Haunt of Fear (1953) was a horror comic which featured a gruesome re-imaging of Snow White.
  • Prétear (Prétear - The New Legend of Snow-White) is a manga (2000) and anime (2001) loosely inspired by the story of Snow White, featuring a sixteen-year-old orphan who meets seven magical knights sworn to protect her.
  • Fables (2002), a comic created by Bill Willingham, features Snow White as a major character in the series.
  • MÄR (Märchen Awakens Romance) is a Japanese manga (2003) and anime (2005) series where an ordinary student (in the real world) is transported to another reality populated by characters that vaguely resemble characters from fairy tales, like Snow White, Jack (from Jack and the Beanstalk) and Dorothy from The Wizard of Oz.
  • Snow White with the Red Hair is a manga (2006) and anime (2015) which open with a loose adaptation of the fairy tale, with a wicked prince pursuing a girl with strikingly red hair.

Video games

  • Dark Parables (2010–present), a series of computer video games featuring fairy tales. Snow White appears as a recurring character in a few installments.
  • Hitoshizuku and Yamasankakkei are two Japanese Vocaloid producers that created a song called Genealogy of Red, White and Black (2015) based upon the tale of Snow White with some differences, the song features the vocaloids Kagamine Rin/Len and Lily.

Other

In 2013, the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued a trademark to Disney Enterprises, Inc. for the name "Snow White" that covers all live and recorded movie, television, radio, stage, computer, Internet, news, and photographic entertainment uses, excluding literary works of fiction and nonfiction.

Erin Heys' "Religious Symbols" article at the website Religion & Snow White analyzes the use of numerous symbols in the story, their implications, and their Christian interpretations, such as the colours red, white, and black; the apple; the number seven; and resurrection.

The Brothers Grimm story of "Snow White" takes an unusual turn from its other fairy-tale counterparts in that it can be interpreted as a story with a lesson centered around desirable qualities for women. This includes an interpretation of the fairy tale revolving around the "realization of absolute beauty" as an ideal sought by both the Queen and Snow White. The Queen's—Snow White's step-mother—defining characteristic is her cunning, or intelligence, whereas Snow White's is her beauty. Snow White consistently foils the Queen's jealous attempts to kill her because strangers pity and help her due to her childlike innocence and beauty. For example, the huntsman, who was ordered to kill Snow White, describes her as a "pretty child" and lets her go, which carries over to when the seven dwarfs decide not to cast her out when they find Snow White in their home. Even when the Queen devises the poison apple and kills Snow White, she is saved by the Prince because he finds her to be "the fairest of them all." The Queen dies at the end of the story while Snow White lives happily ever after with the Prince, implying that the Queen's cunning was not enough to counter the power of Snow White's elegance. This suggests that the moral of the story is that beauty is more desirable than intelligence. Despite the modern connotations of this concept, one must consider the time period at which the story was written; Snow White as told by the Brothers Grimm was first published in 1812.

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Snow White
Snow White Language Watch Edit This article is about the fairy tale For other uses see Snow White disambiguation Snow White is a 19th century German fairy tale that is today known widely across the Western world The Brothers Grimm published it in 1812 in the first edition of their collection Grimms Fairy Tales and numbered as Tale 53 The original German title was Sneewittchen a Low German form but the first version gave the High German translation Schneeweisschen and the tale has become known in German by the mixed form Schneewittchen The Grimms completed their final revision of the story in 1854 1 2 Snow WhiteSchneewittchen by Alexander ZickFolk taleNameSnow WhiteDataAarne Thompson grouping709CountryGermany The fairy tale features such elements as the magic mirror the poisoned apple the glass coffin and the characters of the Evil Queen and the Seven Dwarfs The seven dwarfs were first given individual names in the 1912 Broadway play Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and then given different names in Walt Disney s 1937 film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs The Grimm story which is commonly referred to as Snow White 3 should not be confused with the story of Snow White and Rose Red in German Schneeweisschen und Rosenrot another fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm In the Aarne Thompson folklore classification tales of this kind are grouped together as type 709 Snow White Others of this kind include Bella Venezia Myrsina Nourie Hadig Gold Tree and Silver Tree 4 The Young Slave and La petite Toute Belle Contents 1 Plot 2 Inspiration 3 Variations 4 Variants 4 1 Europe 4 1 1 Italy 4 1 2 France 4 1 3 Belgium and the Netherlands 4 1 4 Iberian Peninsula 4 1 5 British Isles 4 1 6 Scandinavia 4 1 7 Greece and Mediterranean Area 4 1 8 Russia and Eastern Europe 4 2 Americas 4 3 Africa 5 Media 5 1 Theatrical Live action 5 2 Theatrical Animation 5 3 Direct to video Animation 5 4 Animation Television 5 5 Live action Television 5 6 Live action Direct to video 5 7 Music and audio 5 8 In literature 5 9 In theatre 5 10 In comics 5 11 Video games 5 12 Other 6 Trademark 7 Religious interpretation 8 Other interpretations 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External linksPlot Edit The fable s antagonist the Evil Queen with the protagonist Snow White as depicted in The Sleeping Snow White by Hans Makart 1872 At the beginning of the story a queen sits sewing at an open window during a winter snowfall when she pricks her finger with her needle causing three drops of red blood to drip onto the freshly fallen white snow on the black windowsill Then she says to herself How I wish that I had a daughter that had skin as white as snow lips as red as blood and hair as black as ebony Sometime later the queen gives birth to a baby daughter whom she names Snow White but the queen dies in childbirth 1 5 A year later Snow White s father the king marries again His new wife is very beautiful but she is a vain and wicked woman who practices witchcraft The new queen possesses a magic mirror which she asks every morning Magic mirror on the wall who is the fairest one of all The mirror always tells the queen that she is the fairest The queen is always pleased with that response because the magic mirror never lies But when Snow White is seven years old her fairness surpasses that of her stepmother When the queen asks her mirror it tells her that Snow White is the fairest 1 5 This gives the queen a great shock She becomes envious and from that moment on her heart turns against Snow White whom the queen grows to hate increasingly with time Eventually the angry queen orders a huntsman to take Snow White into the forest to be killed As proof that Snow White is dead the queen demands that he returns with her heart which she will consume in order to become immortal The huntsman takes Snow White into the forest but after raising his dagger he finds himself unable to kill her when Snow White learns of her stepmother s evil plan and tearfully begs Spare me this mockery of justice I will run away into the forest and never come home again After seeing the tears in the princess s eyes the huntsman reluctantly agrees to spare Snow White and brings the queen the heart of an animal instead 1 5 After wandering through the forest for hours Snow White discovers a tiny cottage belonging to a group of seven dwarfs Since no one is at home she eats some of the tiny meals drinks some of their wine and then tests all the beds Finally the last bed is comfortable enough for her and she falls asleep When the dwarfs return home they immediately become aware that there has been a burglar in their house because everything in their home is in disorder Prowling about frantically they head upstairs and discover the sleeping Snow White She wakes up and explains to them about her stepmother s attempt to kill her and the dwarfs take pity on her and let her stay with them in exchange for a job as a housemaid They warn her to be careful when alone at home and to let no one in while they are working in the mountains 1 5 Ten years later Snow White grows into an absolutely lovely fair and beautiful young maiden Meanwhile the queen who believes she had gotten rid of Snow White a decade earlier asks her mirror once again Magic mirror on the wall who now is the fairest one of all The mirror tells her that not only is Snow White still the fairest in the land but she is also currently hiding with the dwarfs 1 The queen is furious when she learns that Snow White used her wits to fake her death by tricking the huntsman and decides to kill the girl herself First she appears at the dwarfs cottage disguised as an old peddler and offers Snow White colorful silky laced bodices as a present The queen laces her up so tightly that Snow White faints or collapses the dwarfs return just in time and Snow White revives when the dwarfs loosen the laces 1 5 Next the queen dresses up as a comb seller and convinces Snow White to take a beautiful comb as a present she strokes Snow White s hair with the poisoned comb The girl is overcome by the poison from the comb but she is again revived by the dwarfs when they remove the comb from her hair Finally the queen disguises herself as a farmer s wife and offers Snow White a poisoned apple Snow White is hesitant to accept it so the queen cuts the apple in half eating the white harmless half and giving the red poisoned half to Snow White the girl eagerly takes a bite and then falls into a coma or appearing to be dead causing the Queen to think she has finally triumphed This time the dwarfs are unable to revive Snow White and assuming that the queen has finally killed her they place her in a glass casket as a funeral for her 1 5 The next day a prince stumbles upon a seemingly dead Snow White lying in her glass coffin during a hunting trip After hearing her story from the Seven Dwarfs the prince is allowed to take Snow White to her proper resting place back at her father s castle All of a sudden while Snow White is being transported one of the prince s servants trips and loses his balance This dislodges the piece of the poisoned apple from Snow White s throat magically reviving her 6 The Prince is overjoyed with this miracle and he declares his love for the now alive and well Snow White who surprised to meet him face to face humbly accepts his marriage proposal The prince invites everyone in the land to their wedding except for Snow White s stepmother The queen believing herself finally to be rid of Snow White after ten years again asks her magic mirror who is the fairest in the land The mirror says that there is a bride of a prince who is yet fairer than she The queen decides to visit the wedding and investigate Once she arrives the Queen becomes frozen with rage and fear when she finds out that the prince s bride is her stepdaughter Snow White herself The furious Queen tries to sow chaos and attempts to kill her again but the prince recognizes her as a threat to Snow White when he learns the truth from his bride As a punishment for the attempted murder of Snow White the prince orders the Queen to wear a pair of red hot iron slippers and to dance in them until she drops dead With the evil Queen finally defeated and dead Snow White has taken her revenge so her wedding to the prince peacefully continues Franz Juttner s illustrations from Sneewittchen 1905 1 The Queen asks the magic mirror 2 Snow White in the forest 3 The dwarfs find Snow White asleep 4 The dwarfs leave Snow White in charge 5 The Queen visits Snow White 6 The Queen has poisoned Snow White 7 The Prince awakes Snow White 8 The Queen discovers and confronts Snow White at her weddingInspiration Edit Illustration by Otto Kubel Main article Origin of the Snow White tale Many scholars have theorized about the possible origins of the tale In 1994 a German historian named Eckhard Sander published Schneewittchen Marchen oder Wahrheit Snow White Fairy Tale or Truth claiming he had uncovered an account that may have inspired the story that first appeared in Grimm s Fairy Tales According to Sander the character of Snow White was based on the life of Margaretha von Waldeck a German countess born to Philip IV in 1533 At the age of 16 Margaretha was forced by her stepmother Katharina of Hatzfeld to move away to Brussels There Margaretha fell in love with a prince who would later become Philip II of Spain Her father and stepmother disapproved of the relationship however deeming it politically inconvenient Margaretha mysteriously died at the age of 21 apparently having been poisoned Historical accounts point to the King of Spain who in opposing the romance may have dispatched Spanish agents to murder her 7 Scholar Graham Anderson compares the story of Snow White to the Roman legend of Chione recorded in Ovid s Metamorphoses The name Chione means snow in Greek and in the story she is described as the most beautiful woman in the land so beautiful that the gods Apollo and Hermes both fell in love with her Hermes put her to sleep with the touch of his caduceus and raped her in her sleep Then Apollo disguised as an old crone approached her and raped her again These affections led Chione to openly boast that she was more beautiful than the goddess Diana herself resulting in Diana shooting her through the tongue with an arrow 8 9 Karlheinz Bartels a pharmacist and scholar from Lohr am Main a town in northwestern Bavaria found evidence that Snow White was Maria Sophia Margarethe Catharina Baroness von und zu Erthal who was born in Lohr on June 25 1725 10 11 Her father Philipp Christoph von und zu Erthal was the local representative of the Prince Elector of Mainz 12 After the death of Maria Sophia s birth mother in 1738 her father remarried in 1743 The stepmother Claudia Elisabeth von Reichenstein was domineering and employed her new position to the advantage of her children from her first marriage A magic mirror referred to as The Talking Mirror known as always telling the truth can still be viewed today in the Spessart Museum in the Lohr Castle where Maria Sophia s stepmother lived This mirror was presumably a present from Maria Sophia s father to his second wife It was a product of the Lohr Mirror Manufacture Kurmainzische Spiegelmanufaktur 13 Her gravestone was found in 2019 14 Variations EditSee also Queen Snow White in derivative works The principal studies of traditional Snow White variants are Ernst Boklen s Schneewittchen Studien of 1910 which reprints fifty Snow White variants 15 and studies by Steven Swann Jones 16 In their first edition the Brothers Grimm published the version they had first collected in which the villain of the piece is Snow White s jealous biological mother In a version sent to another folklorist prior to the first edition additionally she does not order a servant to take her to the woods but takes her there herself to gather flowers and abandons her in the first edition this task was transferred to a servant 17 It is believed that the change to a stepmother in later editions was to tone down the story for children 18 19 A popular version of Snow White is the 1937 American animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs by Walt Disney Disney s variation of Snow White gave the dwarfs names and included a singing Snow White The Disney film also is the only version in which Snow White and her prince meet before she bites the apple in fact it is this meeting that sets the plot in motion Instead of her lungs and liver as written in the original the huntsman is asked by the queen to bring back Snow White s heart While the heart is mentioned it is never shown in the box Snow White is much more mature an adolescent And she is discovered by the dwarfs after cleaning the house not vandalizing it Furthermore in the Disney movie the evil queen tries only once to kill Snow White by a poisoned apple and fails this was likely to save time She then dies by falling down a cliff and being crushed by a boulder after the dwarfs had chased her through the forest In the original the queen is forced to dance to death 20 Many later versions omit the Queen s attempted cannibalism eating what she believed to be the lungs and liver of Snow White This may be a reference to old Slavic mythology which includes tales of witches eating human hearts Variants EditThis tale type is widespread in Europe in America in Africa and in some Turkic traditions 21 The tale is also said to be found in the Middle East in China in India and in the Americas 22 In regards to the Turkic distribution of the tale parallels are also said to exist in Central Asia and Eastern Siberia among the Mongolians and Tungusian peoples 23 Studies by Sigrid Schmidt and Hasan El Shamy point to the presence of the tale type across the African continent North West Central East and Southeast often combined with other tale types 24 Europe Edit A primary analysis by Celtic folklorist Alfred Nutt in the 19th century established the tale type in Europe was distributed from the Balkan peninsula to Iceland and from Russia to Catalonia with the highest number of variants being found in Germany and Italy 25 This geographical distribution seemed to be confirmed by scholarly studies of the 20th century A 1957 article by Italian philologist Gianfranco D Aronco it studied the most diffused Tales of Magic in Italian territory among which Biancaneve 26 A scholarly inquiry by Italian Istituto centrale per i beni sonori ed audiovisivi Central Institute of Sound and Audiovisual Heritage produced in the late 1960s and early 1970s found thirty seven variants of the tale across Italian sources 27 A similar assessment was made by scholar Sigrid Schmidt who claimed that the tale type was particularly popular in Southern Europe specially in Italy Greece and Iberian Peninsula 28 Similarly Waldemar Liungmann suggested Italy as center of diffusion of the story 29 Another study points to a wide distribution in Western Europe specially in Ireland Iceland and Scandinavia 30 Italy Edit In most Italian versions the heroine is not the daughter of a king but an innkeeper the antagonist is not her stepmother but her biological mother and instead of dwarfs she takes refuge with robbers as we can see in La Bella Venezia an Abruzzian version collected by Antonio De Nino in which the mother asks her customers if they have seen a woman more beautiful than she If they say they didn t she only charges them half the price if they say they did she charges them twice the price When the customers tell her that her daughter is prettier than her she gets jealous 31 In Maria her Evil Stepmother and the Seven Robbers Maria die bose Stiefmutter und die sieben Rauber a Sicilian version collected by Laura Gonzenbach the heroine also lives with robbers but the antagonist is her stepmother and she s not an innkeeper 32 33 Sometimes the heroine s protectors are female instead of male as in The Cruel Stepmother La crudel matrigna a variant collected by Angelo de Gubernatis in which like in the Grimm s version Snow White s counterpart called here Caterina is the daughter of a king and the antagonist is her stepmother who orders her servants to kill her stepdaughter after she hears people commenting how much prettier Caterina is than she One day the two women are going to mass together Instead of a male protector Caterina takes refuge in a house by the seashore where an old woman lives Later a witch discovers that Caterina s still alive and where she lives so she goes to tell the queen who sends her back to the cottage to kill her with poisoned flowers instead of an apple 34 A similar version from Siena was collected by Sicilian folklorist Giuseppe Pitre in which the heroine called Ermellina runs away from home riding an eagle who takes her away to a palace inhabited by fairies Ermellina s stepmother sends a witch disguised as her stepdaughter s servants to the fairies palace to try to kill her twice first with poisoned sweetmeats and the second time with an enchanted dress 35 Pitre also collected a variant from Palermo titled Child Margarita La Nfanti Margarita where the heroine stays in a haunted castle 36 37 There s also a couple of conversions that combines the ATU tale type 709 with the second part of the type 410 Sleeping Beauty in which when the heroine is awakened the prince s mother tries to kill her and the children she has had with the prince Gonzenbach collected two variants from Sicily the first one called Maruzzedda and the second Beautiful Anna and Vittorio Imbriani collected a version titled La Bella Ostessina 38 39 In some versions the antagonists are not the heroine s mother or stepmother but her two elder sisters as in a version from Trentino collected by Christian Schneller 40 or a version from Bologne collected by Carolina Coronedi Berti In this last version the role of both the mirror and the dwarfs is played by the Moon which tells the elder sisters that the youngest called Ziricochel is the prettiest and later hides her in his palace When the sisters discover Ziricochel is still alive they send an astrologer to kill her After several attempts she finally manages to turn her into a statue with an enchanted shirt Ziricochel is revived after the prince s sisters take the shirt off 41 Italo Calvino included the version from Bologne collected by Coronedi Berti retitling it Giricoccola and the Abruzzian version collected by De Nino in Italian Folktales France Edit Paul Sebillot collected two variants from Brittany in northwestern France In the first one titled The Enchanted Stockings Les Bas enchantes starts similarly to Gubernatis version with the heroine being the daughter of a queen and her mother wanting to kill her after soldier marching in front of her balcony says the princess is prettier than the queen The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by the titular stockings and the heroine is revived after the prince s little sister takes them off when she s playing 42 43 In the second titled La petite Toute Belle a servant accuses the heroine of stealing the things she stole and then throws her in a well The heroine survives the fall and ends up living with three dragons that live at the bottom of the well When the heroine s mother discovers her daughter is still alive she twice sends a fairy to attempt to kill her first with sugar almonds which the dragons warn her are poisoned before she eats them and then with a red dress 44 In another version from Brittany this one collected by Francois Cadic the heroine is called Rose Neige Eng Snow Rose because her mother pricked her finger with a rose in a snowy day and wished to have a child as beautiful as the rose The role of the dwarfs is played by Korrigans dwarf like creatures from the Breton folklore 45 Louis Morin collected a version from Troyes in northeastern France where like in the Grimm s version the mother questions a magic mirror 46 A version from Corsica titled Anghjulina was collected by Genevieve Massignon where the roles of both the huntsman and the dwarfs are instead a group of bandits whom Anghjulina s mother asks to kill her daughter but they instead take her away to live with them in the woods 47 Belgium and the Netherlands Edit A Flemish version from Antwerp collected by Victor de Meyere is quite similar to the version collected by the brothers Grimm The heroine is called Sneeuwwitje Snow White in Dutch she is the queen s stepdaughter and the stepmother questions a mirror Instead of dwarfs the princess is taken in by seven kabouters Instead of going to kill Snow White herself the queen twice sends the witch who had sold her the magic mirror to kill Sneeuwwitje first with a comb and the second time with an apple But the most significant difference is that the role of the prince in this version is instead Snow White s father the king 48 Another Flemish variant this one from Hamme differs more from Grimm s story The one who wants to kill the heroine called here Mauricia is her own biological mother She is convinced by a demon with a spider head that if her daughter dies she will become beautiful The mother sends two servants to kill Mauricia bringing as proof a lock of her hair a bottle with her blood a piece of her tongue and a piece of her clothes The servants spare Mauricia s life as well as her pet sheep To deceive Mauricia s mother they buy a goat and bring a bottle with the animal s blood as well as a piece of his tongue Meanwhile Mauricia is taken in by seventeen robbers who live in a cave deep in the forest instead of seven dwarfs When Mauricia s mother discovers that her daughter is still alive she goes to the robbers cave disguised She turns her daughter into a bird and she takes her place The plan fails and Mauricia recovers her human form so the mother tries to kill her by using a magic ring which the demon gave her Mauricia is awoken when a prince takes the ring off her finger When he asks her if he would marry her she rejects him and returns with the seventeen robbers 49 50 Iberian Peninsula Edit One of the first versions from Spain titled The Beautiful Stepdaughter La hermosa hijastra was collected by Manuel Mila y Fontanals in which a demon tells the stepmother that her stepdaughter is prettier than she is when she s looking at herself in the mirror The stepmother orders her servants to take her stepdaughter to the forest and kill her bringing a bottle with her blood as proof But the servants spare her life and instead kill a dog Eight days later the demon warns her that the blood in the bottle is not her stepdaughter s and the stepmother sends her servants again ordering them to bring one of her toes as proof The stepdaughter later discovers four men living in the forest inside a rock that can open and close with the right words Every day after she sees the men leave she enters the cave and cleans it up Believing it must be an intruder the men take turns to stay at the cavern but the first one falls asleep during his watch The second one manages to catch the girl and they agree to let the girl live with them Later the same demon that told her stepmother that her stepdaughter was prettier gives the girl an enchanted ring that has the same role that the apple in the Grimm s version 51 The version in Catalan included by Francisco Maspons y Labros in the second volume of Lo Rondallayre follows that plot fairly closely with some minor differences 52 In an Aragonese version titled The Good Daughter La buena hija collected by Romualdo Nogues y Milagro there s no mirror Instead the story starts with the mother already hating her daughter because she s prettier and ordering a servant to kill her bringing as proof her heart tongue and her little finger The servant spares her and brings the mother the heart and tongue from a dog he ran over and says he lost the finger The daughter is taken in by robbers living in a cavern but despite all she still misses her mother One day an old woman appears and gives her a ring saying that if she puts it on she ll see her mother The daughter actually falls unconscious when she does put it on because the old woman is actually a witch who wants to kidnap her but she can t because of the scapular the girl is wearing so she locks her in a crystal casket where the girl is later found by the prince 53 In a version from Mallorca collected by Antoni Maria Alcover i Sureda titled Na Magraneta a queen wishes to have a daughter after eating a pomegranate and calls her Magraneta Like in the Grimm s version the queen asks her mirror who s the most beautiful The dwarf s role is fulfilled by thirteen men who are described as big as giants who live in a castle in the middle of the forest called Castell de la Colometa whose doors can open and close by command When the queen discovers thanks to her mirror that her daughter is still alive she sends an evil fairy disguised as an old woman The role of the poisoned apple is fulfilled by an iron ring 54 Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Sr collected two Spanish versions The first one titled Blanca Flor is from Villaluenga de la Sagra in Toledo In this one the villain is the heroine s own biological mother and like in Na Magraneta she questions a mirror if there s a woman more beautiful than she is Instead of ordering a huntsman or servant to kill her daughter after the mirror tells the woman her daughter has surpassed her she tries to get rid of her daughter herself inviting her to go for a walk in the countryside and when they reach a rock she recites some spells from her book making the rock swallow her daughter Fortunately thanks to her prayers to the Virgin the daughter survives and gets out the rock and she s later taken in by twelve robbers living in a castle When the mother discovers her daughter is still alive she sends a witch to kill her who gives the daughter an enchanted silk shirt The moment she puts it on she falls in a deathlike state She s later revived when a sexton takes the shirt off 55 The second one titled The Envious Mother La madre envidiosa comes from Jaraiz de la Vera Caceres Here the villain is also the heroine s biological mother and she s an innkeeper who asks a witch whether there s a woman prettier than she is Instead of a shirt here the role of the apple is fulfilled by enchanted shoes 56 Aurelio de Llano Roza de Ampudia collected an Asturian version from Teverga titled The Envious Stepmother La madrastra envidiosa in which the stepmother locks her stepdaughter in a room with the hope that none will see her and think she s more beautiful But the attempt turned out to be useless when one of her guests tells her the girl locked in a room is prettier than she is The story ends with the men that found the heroine discussing who should marry the girl once she s revived and she replies by telling them that she chooses to marry the servant who revived her 57 Aurelio Macedonio Espinosa Jr collected four versions The first one is titled Blancanieves is from Medina del Campo Valladolid and follows the plot of the Grimm s version fairly closely with barely any significant differences 58 The same happens with the second one titled Blancaflor that comes from Tordesillas another location from Valladolid 59 The last two are the ones that present more significant differences although like in Grimm s the stepmother questions a magic mirror The Bad Stepmother La mala madrastra comes from Sepulveda Segovia and also has instead of seven dwarfs the robbers that live in a cave deep in the forest that can open and close at command Here the words to make it happen are Open parsley and Close peppermint 60 The last one Blancaflor is from Siete Iglesias de Trabancos also in Valladolid ends with the heroine buried after biting a poisoned pear and the mirror proclaiming that now that her stepdaughter is finally dead the stepmother is the most beautiful again 61 One of the first Portuguese versions was collected by Francisco Adolfo Coelho It was titled The Enchanted Shoes Os sapatinhos encantados where the heroine is the daughter of an innkeeper who asks muleteers if they have seen a woman prettier than she is One day one answers that her daughter is prettier The daughter takes refugee with a group of robbers who live in the forest and the role of the apple is fulfilled by the titular enchanted shoes 62 Zofimo Consiglieri Pedroso collected another version titled The Vain Queen in which the titular queen questions her maids of honor and servants who s the most beautiful One day when she asks the same question to her chamberlain he replies the queen s daughter is more beautiful than she is The queen orders her servants to behead her daughter bring back his tongue as proof but they instead spare her and bring the queen a dog s tongue The princess is taken in by a man who gives her two options to live with him as either his wife or his daughter and the princess chooses the second The rest of the tale is quite different from most versions with the titular queen completely disappeared from the story and the story focusing instead of a prince that falls in love with the princess 62 British Isles Edit In the Scottish version Gold Tree and Silver Tree queen Silver Tree asks a trout in a well instead of a magic mirror who s the most beautiful When the trout tells her that Gold Tree her daughter is more beautiful Silver Tree pretends to fall ill declaring that her only cure is to eat her own daughter s heart and liver To save his daughter s life the king marries her off to a prince and serves his wife a goat s heart and liver After Silver Tree discovers that she has been deceived thanks to the trout she visits her daughter and sticks her finger on a poisoned thorn The prince later remarries and his second wife removes the poisoned thorn from Gold Tree reviving her The second wife then tricks the queen into drinking the poison that was meant for Gold Tree 63 In another Scottish version Lasair Gheug the King of Ireland s Daughter the heroine s stepmother frames the princess for the murder of the queen s firstborn and manages to make her swear she ll never tell the truth to anybody Lasair Gheug a name that in Gaelic means Flame of Branches take refugee with thirteen cats who turn out to be an enchanted prince and his squires After marrying the prince and having three sons with him the queen discovers her stepdaughter is still alive also thanks to a talking trout and sends three giants of ice to put her in a death like state As in Gold Tree and Silver Tree the prince takes a second wife afterwards and the second wife is the one who revives the heroine 64 Thomas William Thompson collected an English version from Blackburn simply titled Snow White which follows Grimm s plot much more closely although with some significant differences such as Snow White being taken in by three robbers instead of seven dwarfs 65 Scandinavia Edit One of the first Danish versions collected was Svenhvide Snow White by Mathias Winther In this variant the stepmother is the princess nurse who persuades Snow White to ask her father to marry her Because the king says he won t remarry until grass grows in the grave of the princess mother the nurse plants magic seeds in the grave so grass will grow quicker Then after the king marries the nurse Snow White gets betrothed to a prince who choses her over the nurse s three biological daughters but after that the king and the prince had to leave to fight in a war The queen seizes her opportunity to chase Snow White away and she ends up living with the dwarfs in a mountain When the queen finds out Snow White is still alive thanks to a magic mirror she sends her daughters three times each time one of them with poisoned gifts to give them to her With the third gift a poisoned apple Snow White falls into a deep sleep and the dwarfs leave her in the forest fearing that the king would accuse them of killing her once he comes back When the king and the prince finally come back from the war and find Snow White s body the king dies of sorrow but the prince manages to wake her up After that we see an ending quite similar to the ones in The Goose Girl and The Three Oranges of Love the prince and Snow White get married and the prince invites the stepmother and asks her what punishment deserve someone who has heard someone as innocent as Snow White The queen suggests for the culprit to be put inside a barrel full of needles and the prince tells the stepmother she has pronounced her own sentence 66 Evald Tang Kristensen collected a version titled The Pretty Girl and the Crystal Bowls Den Kjonne Pige og de Klare Skale which like some Italian variants combines the tale type 709 with the type 410 In this version the stepmother questions a pair of crystal bowls instead of a magic mirror and when they tell her that her stepdaughter is prettier she sends her to a witch s hut where she s tricked to eat a porridge that makes her pregnant Ashamed that her daughter has become pregnant out of wedlock she kicks her out but the girl is taken in by a shepherd Later a crow lets a ring fall on the huts floor and when the heroine puts it on she falls in a deathlike state Believing she s dead the shepherd kills himself and the heroine is later revived when she gives birth to twins each one of them with a star on the forehead and one of them sucks the ring off her finger She s later found by a prince whose mother tries to kill the girl and her children 67 68 A Swedish version titled The Daughter of the Sun and the Twelve Bewitched Princes Solens dotter och de tolv fortrollade prinsarna starts pretty similarly to the Grimm s version with a queen wishing to have a child as white as snow and as red as blood but that child turned out to be not the heroine but the villain her own biological mother Instead of a mirror the queen asks the Sun who tells her that her daughter will surpass her in beauty Because of it the queen orders that her daughter must be raised in the countryside away from the Royal Court but when It s time for the princess to come back the queen orders a servant to throw her in a well before she arrives In the bottom the princess meets twelve princes cursed to be chimeras and she agrees to live with them When the queen and the servant discover she s alive they give her poisoned candy which she eats After being revived by a young king she marries him and has a son with him but the queen goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife turns her daughter into a golden bird by sticking a needle on her head and then the queen takes her daughter s place After disenchanting the twelve princes with her singing the princess returns to the court where she s finally restored to her human form and her mother is punished after she believed she ate her own daughter while she was still under the spell 69 Greece and Mediterranean Area Edit French folklorist Henri Carnoy collected a Greek version titled Marietta and the Witch her Stepmother Marietta et la Sorciere sa Maratre in which the heroine is manipulated by her governess to kill her own mother so the governess could marry her father Soon after she marries Marietta s father the new stepmother orders her husband to get rid of his daughter Marietta ends up living in a castle with forty giants Meanwhile Marietta s stepmother believing her stepdaughter is dead asks the Sun who s the most beautiful When the Sun answers Marietta is more beautiful she realises her stepdaughter is still alive and disguised as a peddler goes to the giants castle to kill her She goes twice the first trying to kill her with an enchanted ring and the second with poisoned grapes After Marietta is awoken and marries the prince the stepmother goes to the prince s castle pretending to be a midwife sticks a fork on Marietta s head to turn her into a pigeon and then takes her place After several transformations Marietta recovers her human form and her stepmother is punished 70 Georgios A Megas collected another Greek version titled Myrsina in which the antagonists are the heroine s two elder sisters and the role of the seven dwarfs is fulfilled by the Twelve Months 71 Austrian diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn collected a version from Albania that also starts with the heroine called Marigo killing her mother so her governess can marry her father But after the marriage Marigo s stepmother asks the king to get rid of the princess but instead of killing her the king just abandons her daughter in the woods Marigo finds a castle inhabited by forty dragons instead of giants that take her in as their surrogate sister After discovering her stepdaughter is still alive thanks also to the Sun the queen twice sends her husband to the dragons castle to kill Marigo first with enchanted hair pins and the second time with an enchanted ring 72 In another Albanian version titled Fatime and collected by French folklorist Auguste Dozon the antagonists are also the heroine s two elder sisters as in Myrsina 73 Russia and Eastern Europe Edit Alexander Afanasyev collected a Russian version titled The Magic Mirror in which the reason that the heroine has to leave her parents house is different than the usual Instead of being the daughter of a king she is the daughter of a merchant who s left with her uncle while her father and brothers travel During their absence the heroine s uncle attempts to assault her but she frustrates his plans To get his revenge he writes a letter to the heroine s father accusing her of misconduct Believing what s written in the letter the merchant sends his son back home to kill his own sister but the merchant s son doesn t trust his uncle s letter and after discovering what s in the letter are lies he warns her sister who escapes and is taken in by two bogatyrs The elements of the stepmother and the mirror are introduced much later after the merchant returns home believing his daughter is dead and remarries the woman who owns the titular magic mirror that tells her that her stepdaughter is still alive and is more beautiful than she is 74 In another Russian version the heroine is the daughter of a Tsar and her stepmother decides to kill her after asking three different mirrors and all of them told her her stepdaughters is more beautiful than she is The dwarfs role is fulfilled by twelve brothers cursed to be hawks living at the top of a glass mountain 75 Arthur and Albert Schott collected a Romanian version titled The Magic Mirror German Der Zauberspiegel Romanian Oglinda fermecată in which the villain is the heroine s biological mother After the titular mirror tells her that her daughter is prettiest she takes her to go for a walk in the woods and feeds her extremely salty bread so her daughter will become so thirsty that she would agree to let her tear out her eyes in exchange for water Once the daughter is blinded her mother leaves her in the forest where she manages to restore her eyes and is taken in by twelve thieves After discovering her daughter is still alive the mother sends an old woman to the thieves house three times The first she gives the daughter a ring the second earrings and the third poisoned flowers After the heroine marries the prince she has a child and the mother goes to the castle pretending to be a midwife to kill both her daughter and the newborn After killing the infant she s stopped before she can kill the heroine 76 The Pushkin fairytale The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights bears a striking similarity to the tale of Snow White However the Dead Princess befriends 7 knights instead of dwarfs and it is the Sun and Moon who aid the Prince to the resting place of the Dead Princess where he breaks with his sword the coffin of the Tsarevna bringing her back to life Americas Edit In a Louisiana tale Le Roi Pan The King Peacock a mother has a child who becomes more beautiful than her so she orders her daughter s nurse to kill her The daughter resigns to her fate but the nurse spares her and gives her three seeds After failing to drown in a well and to be eaten by an ogre the girl eats a seed and falls into a deep sleep The ogre family who took her in after seeing her beauty put her in a crystal coffin to float down the river Her coffin is found by the titular King Peacock who takes the seed from her mouth and awakens her 77 Africa Edit Robert Hamill Nassau collected a tale titled The Beautiful Daughter from West Africa where the heroine s mother tries to kill her the dwarves are replaced for robbers and she herself becomes stepmother to a girl who broke her sleeping curse 78 Media Edit Snow White in the trailer of Walt Disney s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 The famous Heigh Ho sequence from the 1937 adaption Walt Disney introducing the Seven Dwarfs in the trailer of Walt Disney s Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 Play media Snow White 1916 full 63 minute film This list is incomplete you can help by adding missing items March 2019 Theatrical Live action Edit Snow White 1902 a lost silent film made in 1902 It was the first time the classic 1812 Brothers Grimm fairy tale was made into a film Snow White 1916 a silent film by Famous Players Lasky produced by Adolph Zukor and Daniel Frohman directed by J Searle Dawley and starring Marguerite Clark Creighton Hale and Dorothy Cumming I sette nani alla riscossa The Seven Dwarfs to the Rescue 1951 an Italian film based on the fairy tale Lumikki ja 7 jatkaa The Snow White and the 7 Dudes 1953 a Finnish musical comedy film directed by Ville Salminen loosely based on the fairy tale 79 Schneewittchen und die sieben Zwerge 1955 a German live action adaptation of the fairy tale Snow White and the Seven Fellows 1955 a Hong Kong film as Chow Sze luk Lo Yu kei Dirs Snow White and the Three Stooges 1961 starring the Three Stooges with Carol Heiss as Snow White and Patricia Medina as the Evil Queen Snow White 1962 an East German fairy tale film directed by Gottfried Kolditz The New Adventures of Snow White 1969 a West German sex comedy film directed by Rolf Thiele and starring Marie Liljedahl Eva Reuber Staier and Ingrid van Bergen The film puts an erotic spin on three classic fairy tales Snow White Cinderella and Sleeping Beauty Pamuk Prenses ve 7 Cuceler 1970 a Turkish live action remake of the 1937 Disney film Snow White 1987 starring Diana Rigg as the Evil Queen and Nicola Stapleton and Sarah Patterson both as Snow White Schneewittchen und das Geheimnis der Zwerge 1992 a German adaptation of the fairy tale Snow White A Tale of Terror 1997 starring Sam Neill as Snow White s father Sigourney Weaver as the Evil Queen and Monica Keena as Snow White 7 Dwarves Men Alone in the Wood 7 Zwerge Manner allein im Wald 2004 a German comedy film The Brothers Grimm 2005 an adventure fantasy film directed by Terry Gilliam and starring Matt Damon Heath Ledger and Lena Headey 7 Dwarves The Forest Is Not Enough 7 Zwerge Der Wald ist nicht genug 2006 sequel to the 2004 German film 7 Dwarves Men Alone in the Wood Sydney White 2007 a modernization starring Amanda Bynes Blancanieves 2012 a silent Spanish film based on the fairy tale Mirror Mirror 2012 starring Julia Roberts as the Evil Queen Clementianna 80 Lily Collins as Snow White Armie Hammer as Prince Andrew Alcott and Nathan Lane as Brighton the Queen s majordomo 81 The Huntsman series Snow White and the Huntsman 2012 starring Kristen Stewart Charlize Theron Chris Hemsworth and Sam Claflin The Huntsman Winter s War 2016 which features Snow White as a minor character Theatrical Animation Edit Snow White 1933 also known as Betty Boop in Snow White a film in the Betty Boop series from Max Fleischer s Fleischer Studios Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1937 an animated Disney film based on the fairy tale featuring Adriana Caselotti as the voice of Snow White Coal Black and de Sebben Dwarfs 1943 is a Merrie Melodies animated cartoon directed by Bob Clampett The short was released on January 16 1943 It is all parody of the fairy tale Happily Ever After 1989 is a 1989 American animated musical fantasy film written by Robby London and Martha Moran directed by John Howley produced by Filmation Snow White The Sequel 2007 is a Belgian French British adult animated comedy film directed by Picha It is based on the fairy tale of Snow White and intended as a sequel to Disney s classic animated adaptation However like all of Picha s cartoons the film is actually a sex comedy featuring a lot of bawdy jokes and sex scenes The Seventh Dwarf 2014 German Der 7bte Zwerg is a German 3D computer animated film created in 2014 The film is based upon the fairy tale Sleeping Beauty and characters from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs Direct to video Animation Edit Amada Anime Series Super Mario Bros 1989 a three part OVA series featuring Mario characters in different fairy tales Snow White and the Magic Mirror 1994 produced by Fred Wolf films Dublin Happily N Ever After 2 Snow White Another Bite the Apple 2009 an American German computer animated direct to video film and sequel to Happily N Ever After Charming 2018 an animated film featuring Snow White as one of the princesses featuring the voice of Avril Lavigne Red Shoes and the Seven Dwarfs 2019 a Korean American animated film based on the fairy tale featuring the voice of Chloe Grace Moretz 82 Animation Television Edit A Snow White Christmas is a Christmas animated television special produced by Filmation and telecast December 19 1980 on CBS A 1984 episode of Alvin amp the Chipmunks called Snow Wrong is based on the fairy tale with Brittany of The Chipettes as Snow White Season 7 of Garfield and Friends had a two part story parodying the fairy tale called Snow Wade and the 77 Dwarfs The Rugrats also act out the fairy tale with Angelica Pickles as The Evil Queen Susie Carmichael as Snow White and Tommy Pickles Dil Pickles Kimi Finister Chuckie Finister Phil and Lil DeVille and Spike the Dog as The Seven Dwarfs RWBY 2013 is a web series which features characters called Weiss Schnee and Klein Sieben German for White Snow and Small Seven grammatically incorrect though since it would be Weisser Schnee and Kleine Sieben Muppet Babies 1984 TV series parodied the tale in Snow White and the Seven Muppets with the Muppet babies acting out the story In The Simpsons episode Four Great Women and a Manicure Lisa tells her own variation of the tale with herself as Snow White Live action Television Edit Snow White The Fairest of Them All 2001 starring Kristin Kreuk as Snow White and Miranda Richardson as Queen Elspeth Schneewittchen 2009 a German made for television film starring Laura Berlin as Snow White Faerie Tale Theatre 1984 has an episode based on the fairy tale starring Vanessa Redgrave as the Evil Queen Elizabeth McGovern as Snow White and Vincent Price as the Magic Mirror The 10th Kingdom 2000 is a TV miniseries featuring Snow White as a major character Once Upon a Time 2011 is a TV series featuring Snow White Prince Charming their daughter Emma Swan and the Evil Queen as the main characters Blanche Neige 2009 France TV movieLive action Direct to video Edit Neberte nam princeznu 1981 English Let the Princess Stay with Us is a modern version of the Snowhite and the Seven Dwarfs fairytale starring Marika Gombitova The musical was directed by Martin Hoffmeister and released in 1981 Grimm s Snow White 2012 starring Eliza Bennett as Snow White and Jane March as the Evil Queen Gwendolyn Sonne 2001 is a music video for the song by Neue Deutsche Harte band Rammstein where the band are dwarfs mining gold for Snow White Snow White A Deadly Summer 2012 is an American horror film directed by David DeCoteau and starring Shanley Caswell Maureen McCormick and Eric Roberts The film was released straight to DVD and digital download on March 20 2012Music and audio Edit Charmed 2008 an album by Sarah Pinsker features a song called Twice the Prince in which Snow White realizes that she prefers a dwarf to Prince Charming The Boys 2011 Girls Generation s third studio album features a concept photo by Taeyeon inspired by Snow White John Finnemore s Souvenir Programme S5E1 2016 features a comedy sketch parodying the magic mirror scene 83 84 85 In literature Edit German author Ludwig Aurbacher used the story of Snow White in his literary tale Die zwei Bruder The Two Brothers 1834 86 Snow White 1967 a postmodern novel by Donald Barthelme which describes the lives of Snow White and the dwarfs Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1971 a poem by Anne Sexton in her collection Transformations in which she re envisions sixteen of the Grimm s Fairy Tales 87 Snow White in New York 1986 a picture book by Fiona French set in 1920s New York Snow White 1994 a short story written by James Finn Garner from Politically Correct Bedtime Stories Modern Tales For Our Life amp Times Snow Glass Apples a 1994 short story written by Neil Gaiman which all but explicitly rewrites the tale to make Snow White a vampire like entity that is opposed by the Queen while the prince is strongly implied to have necrophiliac tastes Six Gun Snow White 2013 a novel by Catherynne M Valente retelling the Snow White story in an Old West setting Timakistan 2013 a novel by Andri Snaer Magnason an adaptation of Snow White Boy Snow Bird 2014 a novel by Helen Oyeyemi which adapts the Snow White story as a fable about race and cultural ideas of beauty 88 Winter 2015 a novel by Marissa Meyer loosely based on the story of Snow White Girls Made of Snow and Glass 2017 a novel by Melissa Bashardoust which is a subversive feminist take on the original fairy tale 89 Sadie An Amish Retelling of Snow White 2018 by Sarah Price Shattered Snow 2019 a time travel novel by Rachel Huffmire ties together the life of Margaretha von Waldeck and the Grimm Brothers rendition of Snow White The Princess and the Evil Queen 2019 a novel by Lola Andrews retells the story as a sensual love tale between Snow White and the Evil Queen In theatre Edit Snovit 1950 play by Astrid Lindgren The story of Snow White is a popular theme for British pantomime Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs 1912 a play by Jessie BrahamIn comics Edit The Haunt of Fear 1953 was a horror comic which featured a gruesome re imaging of Snow White Pretear Pretear The New Legend of Snow White is a manga 2000 and anime 2001 loosely inspired by the story of Snow White featuring a sixteen year old orphan who meets seven magical knights sworn to protect her Fables 2002 a comic created by Bill Willingham features Snow White as a major character in the series MAR Marchen Awakens Romance is a Japanese manga 2003 and anime 2005 series where an ordinary student in the real world is transported to another reality populated by characters that vaguely resemble characters from fairy tales like Snow White Jack from Jack and the Beanstalk and Dorothy from The Wizard of Oz Snow White with the Red Hair is a manga 2006 and anime 2015 which open with a loose adaptation of the fairy tale with a wicked prince pursuing a girl with strikingly red hair Video games Edit Dark Parables 2010 present a series of computer video games featuring fairy tales Snow White appears as a recurring character in a few installments Hitoshizuku and Yamasankakkei are two Japanese Vocaloid producers that created a song called Genealogy of Red White and Black 2015 based upon the tale of Snow White with some differences the song features the vocaloids Kagamine Rin Len and Lily Other Edit The Pucca Spring Summer 2011 fashion show was inspired by Snow White and her wicked step mother the Queen The opening model Stella Maxwell was dressed as a Lolita esque modern day Snow White in hoody miniskirt and high heels 90 Due to her towering shoes she fell on the catwalk and dropped the red apple she was carrying 91 Joanne Eccles an equestrian acrobat won the title of Aerobatic World Champion International Jumping of Bordeaux in 2012 She interpreted Snow White during the first part of the event In the doll franchise Ever After High Snow White has a daughter named Apple White and the Queen has a daughter named Raven Queen The Wolf Among Us 2013 the Telltale Games video game based on the comic book series Fables Twisted Wonderland is a game present by Disney in the game Pomefiore Dorm is based on Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs In the Efteling amusement park Snow White and the dwarfs live in the Fairytale Forest adjoining the castle of her mother in law Trademark EditIn 2013 the United States Patent and Trademark Office issued a trademark to Disney Enterprises Inc for the name Snow White that covers all live and recorded movie television radio stage computer Internet news and photographic entertainment uses excluding literary works of fiction and nonfiction 92 Religious interpretation EditErin Heys 93 Religious Symbols article at the website Religion amp Snow White analyzes the use of numerous symbols in the story their implications and their Christian interpretations such as the colours red white and black the apple the number seven and resurrection 94 Other interpretations EditThe Brothers Grimm story of Snow White takes an unusual turn from its other fairy tale counterparts in that it can be interpreted as a story with a lesson centered around desirable qualities for women This includes an interpretation of the fairy tale revolving around the realization of absolute beauty as an ideal sought by both the Queen and Snow White 95 The Queen s Snow White s step mother defining characteristic is her cunning or intelligence whereas Snow White s is her beauty 96 Snow White consistently foils the Queen s jealous attempts to kill her because strangers pity and help her due to her childlike innocence and beauty For example the huntsman who was ordered to kill Snow White describes her as a pretty child and lets her go which carries over to when the seven dwarfs decide not to cast her out when they find Snow White in their home Even when the Queen devises the poison apple and kills Snow White she is saved by the Prince because he finds her to be the fairest of them all The Queen dies at the end of the story while Snow White lives happily ever after with the Prince implying that the Queen s cunning was not enough to counter the power of Snow White s elegance This suggests that the moral of the story is that beauty is more desirable than intelligence Despite the modern connotations of this concept one must consider the time period at which the story was written Snow White as told by the Brothers Grimm was first published in 1812 See also Edit Children s literature portal Germany portal The Glass Coffin Sleeping Beauty a princess cursed into a death like sleep Snow White Fire Red an Italian fairy tale Snezana a Slavic female name meaning snow woman with a similar connotation to Snow White Snegurochka a Russian folk tale often translated as Snow White Udea and her Seven Brothers The Tale of the Dead Princess and the Seven Knights Alexander Pushkin s fairy tale in verse form References Edit a b c d e f g h Jacob Grimm amp Wilhelm Grimm Kinder und Hausmarchen Band 1 7 Ausgabe children s and households fairy tales volume 1 7th edition Dietrich Gottingen 1857 page 264 273 Jacob Grimm Wilhelm Grimm 2014 10 19 The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm The Complete First ISBN 9781400851898 Retrieved 2016 04 05 Bartels Karlheinz 2012 Schneewittchen Zur Fabulologie des Spessarts Geschichts und Museumsverein Lohr a Main Lohr a Main pp 56 59 ISBN 978 3 934128 40 8 Heidi Anne Heiner Tales Similar to Snow White and the 7 Dwarfs Retrieved 22 September 2010 a b c d e f English translation of the original Grimm Jacob Grimm Wilhelm 2014 Zipes Jack ed The Original Folk and Fairy Tales of the Brothers Grimm the complete first edition Princeton Princeton University Press ISBN 9780691160597 OCLC 879662315 I pp 184 85 Sander Eckhard 1994 Schneewittchen Marchen oder Wahrheit ein lokaler Bezug zum Kellerwald Ovid Metamorphoses Book XI 289 Anderson Graham 2000 Fairytale in the ancient world Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 23702 4 Retrieved 4 May 2017 Bartels Karlheinz 2012 Schneewittchen Zur Fabulologie des Spessarts Geschichts und Museumsverein Lohr a Main Lohr a Main second edition ISBN 978 3 934128 40 8 Vorwerk Wolfgang 2015 Das Lohrer Schneewittchen Zur Fabulologie eines Marchens Ein Beitrag zu Christian Grandl Kevin J McKenna eds Bis dat qui cito dat Gegengabe in Paremiology Folklore Language and Literature Honoring Wolfgang Mieder on His Seventieth Birthday Peter Lang Frankfurt am Main Bern Bruxelles New York Oxford Warszawa Wien pp 491 503 ISBN 978 3 631 64872 8 Loibl Werner 2016 Der Vater der furstbischoflichen Erthals Philipp Christoph von und zu Erthal 1689 1748 Geschichts und Kunstverein Aschaffenburg e V Aschaffenburg 2016 ISBN 978 3 87965 126 9 Loibl Werner 2012 Die kurmainzische Spiegelmanufaktur Lohr am Main 1698 1806 Geschichts und Kunstverein Aschaffenburg Aschaffenburg 2012 ISBN 978 3 87965 116 0 ISBN 978 3 87965 117 7 Snow White gravestone surfaces in Germany Fox News 6 August 2019 Ernst Boklen Schneewittchenstudien Erster Teil Funfundsiebzig Varianten im ergen Sinn Leipzig J C Hinrichs 1910 Steven Swann Jones The Structure of Snow White Fabula 24 1983 56 71 reprinted and slightly expanded inFairy Tales and Society Illusion Allusion and Paradigm ed by Ruth B Bottigheimer Philadelphia University of Philadelphia Press 1986 pp 165 84 The material is also repeated in a different context in hisThe New Comparative Method Structural and Symbolic Analysis of the Allomotifs of Snow White Helsinki Academia Scientiarum Fennica 1990 Kay Stone Three Transformations of Snow White in The Brothers Grimm and Folktale ed by James M McGlathery Urbana University of Illinois Press 1988 pp 52 65 pp 57 58 ISBN 0 252 01549 5 Maria Tatar The Hard Facts of the Grimms Fairy Tales p 36 ISBN 0 691 06722 8 Orbach Israel 1960 The Emotional Impact of Frightening Stories on Children Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 1 3 379 389 doi 10 1111 j 1469 7610 1993 tb00999 x PMID 8463375 Grimm s Complete Fairy Tales p 194 ISBN 978 1 60710 313 4 Haney Jack V The Complete Folktales of A N Afanas ev Volume II Black Art and the Neo Ancestral Impulse Jackson University Press of Mississippi 2015 pp 536 556 muse jhu edu book 42506 Meder Theo Sneeuwwitje In Van Aladdin tot Zwaan kleef aan Lexicon van sprookjes ontstaan ontwikkeling variaties 1ste druk Ton Dekker amp Jurjen van der Kooi amp Theo Meder Kritak Sun 1997 p 336 Backer Jorg 2008 Zhaos Mergen und Zhanglihua Kato Weibliche Initiation Schamanismus und Barenkult in einer daghuro mongolischen Schneewittchen Vorform In Fabula 49 288 324 10 1515 FABL 2008 022 Schmidt Sigrid Snow White in Africa In Fabula 49 no 3 4 2008 268 269 https doi org 10 1515 FABL 2008 021 Nutt Alfred The Lai of Eliduc and the Marchen of Little Snow White In Folk Lore Volume 3 London David Nutt 1892 p 30 1 D Aronco Gianfranco Le Fiabe Di Magia In Italia Udine Arti Grafiche Friulane 1957 pp 88 92 Discoteca di Stato 1975 Alberto Mario Cirese Liliana Serafini eds Tradizioni orali non cantate primo inventario nazionale per tipi motivi o argomenti Oral and Non Sung Traditions First National Inventory by Types Motifs or Topics in Italian and English Ministero dei beni culturali e ambientali pp 156 157 Schmidt Sigrid Snow White in Africa In Fabula 49 no 3 4 2008 272 https doi org 10 1515 FABL 2008 021 Pino Saavedra Yolando Folktales of Chile University of Chicago Press 1967 p 268 Meder Theo Sneeuwwitje In Van Aladdin tot Zwaan kleef aan Lexicon van sprookjes ontstaan ontwikkeling variaties 1ste druk Ton Dekker amp Jurjen van der Kooi amp Theo Meder Kritak Sun 1997 p 336 De Nino Antonio Usi e costumi abruzzesi Volume Terzo Firenze Tipografia di G Barbera 1883 pp 253 257 Gonzenbach Laura Sicilianische Marchen vol 1 Leipzig Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann 1870 pp 4 7 Zipes Jack The Robber with the Witch s Head More Story from the Great Treasury of Sicilian Folk and Fairy Tales Collected by Laura Gonzenbach New York and London Routledge 2004 pp 22 25 De Gubernatis Angelo Le Novellino di Santo Stefano Torino Augusto Federico Negro 1869 pp 32 35 Crane Thomas Frederick Italian Popular Tales Boston and New York Houghton Mifflin and Company 1885 pp 326 331 Pitre Giuseppe Fiabe novelle e racconti popolari siciliane Volume Secondo Palermo Luigi Pedone Lauriel 1875 pp 39 44 Zipes Jack The Collected Sicilian Folk and Fairy Tales of Giuseppe Pitre Volume 1 New York and London Routledge 2009 pp 260 263 Imnbriani Vittorio La Novellaja Fiorentina Livorno Coi tipi di F Vigo 1877 pp 239 250 Monnier Marc Les Contes Populaires en Italie Paris G Charpentier 1880 pp 341 357 Schneller Christian Marchen und Sagen aus Walschtirol Innsbruck Wagner 1867 pp 55 59 Coronedi Berti Carolina Favelo bolognesi Monti 1883 pp 8 10 Sebillot Paul Contes Populaires de la Haute Bretagne Paris G Charpentier 1880 pp 146 150 Tatar Maria The Fairest of Them All Snow White and Other 21 Tales of Mothers and Daughters Harvard University Press 2020 pp 89 93 Sebillot Paul Contes des Landes et des greves Rennes Hyacinthe Cailliere 1900 pp 144 152 Cadic Francois Contes et legendes de Bretagne Tome Second Rennes Terre de Brume University Press 1999 pp 293 299 Morin Louis Revue des Traditions Populaires Volume 5 Paris J Maisonneuve 1890 pp 725 728 Massignon Genevieve Contes Corses Paris Picard 1984 pp 169 171 de Meyere Victor 1927 CLXXX Sneeuwwitje De Vlaamsche vertelselschat Deel 2 in Dutch Antwerpen De Sikkel pp 272 279 Retrieved 23 June 2021 Roelans J 1924 XLI Mauricia In de Mont Pol de Cock Alphons eds Wondervertelsels uit Vlaanderen in Dutch 2 ed Zutphen W J Thieme amp CIE pp 313 319 Retrieved 29 June 2021 Lox Harlinda Flamische Marchen Munich Diederichs 1999 p 36 nº 11 Mila y Fontanals Manuel Observaciones sobre la poesia popular Barcelona Imprenta de Narciso Ramirez 1853 pp 184 185 Maspons y Labros Francisco Lo Rondallayre Quentos Populars Catalans Vol II Barcelona Llibreria de Alvar Verdaguer 1871 pp 83 85 Nogues y Milagro Romualdo Cuentos para gente menuda Madrid Imprenta de A Perez Dubrull 1886 pp 91 96 Alcover Antoni Maria Aplec de Rondaies Mallorquines S Galayut 1915 pp 80 92 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos Populares Espanoles Standford University Press 1924 pp 227 230 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos Populares Espanoles Standford University Press 1924 pp 230 231 Llano Roza de Ampudia Aurelio Cuentos Asturianos Recogidos de la Tradicion Oral Madrid Cario Ragio 1925 pp 91 92 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon Volumen 1 Madrid CSIC 1987 pp 331 334 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon Volumen 1 Madrid CSIC 1987 pp 334 336 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon Volumen 1 Madrid CSIC 1987 pp 337 342 Espinosa Aurelio Macedonio Cuentos populares de Castilla y Leon Volumen 1 Madrid CSIC 1987 pp 342 346 a b Zipes Jack The Golden Age of Folk and Fairy Tales From the Brothers Grimm to Andrew Lang Indianapolis Hackett Publishing Company 2013 pp 580 582 Jacobs Joseph Celtic Fairy Tales London David Nutt 1892 pp 88 92 Bruford Alan and Donald A MacDonald Scottish Traditional Tales Edinburgh Polygon 1994 pp 98 106 Briggs Katharine Mary A Dictionary of British Folktales in the English Language London Routledge amp Kegan Paul 1970 pp 494 495 Winter Mathias Danske folkeeventyr 1823 pp 40 47 Tang Kristensen Evald AEventyr fra Jylland Vol III Kjobehavn Trykt hos Konrad Jorgensen i Kolding 1895 pp 273 277 Badman Stephen Folk and Fairy Tales from Denmark vol 1 2015 pp 263 267 Sanavio Annuska Palme Fiabe popolari svedesi Milano Rizzoli 2017 Tale nº 7 Carnoy Henri et Nicolaides Jean Traditions populaires de l Asie Mineure Paris 1889 pp 91 106 Megas Georgios A Folktales of Greece Chicago and London University of Chicago Press pp 106 113 1970 Hahn Johann Georg von Griechische und Albanesische Marchen Zweiter Theil Leipzig Wilhelm Engelmann 1864 pp 134 143 Dozon Auguste Contes Albanais Paris Ernst Leroux 1881 pp 1 6 Haney Jack V The Complete Folktales of A N Afanas ev Volume II University Press of Mississippi 2015 nº 211 Lowis of Menar August von Russische Volksmarchen Jena Eugen Diederichs 1927 pp 123 134 Schott Arthur und Albert Rumanische Volkserzahlungen aus dem Banat Bukarest Kriterion 1975 pp 34 42 Fortier Alcee Louisiana Folk Tales Memoirs of the American Folk Lore Society Vol 2 Boston and New York Houghton Mifflin and Company 1895 pp 56 61 Nassau Robert Hamill Fetichism in West Africa Forty Years Observations of Native Customs and Superstitions New York Charles Scribner s Sons 1904 pp 337 346 Lumikki ja 7 jatkaa 1953 IMDb Retrieved 1 September 2020 Update Relativity Confirms Julia Roberts In Snow White Pic Deadline com Breznican Anthony 2011 03 26 Armie Hammer cast as prince in Snow White Entertainment Weekly Retrieved 2011 03 28 Red Shoes and The 7 Dwarfs 2019 Repelis in Spanish Retrieved 2019 12 19 BBC Radio 4 John Finnemore s Souvenir Programme Series 5 Episode 1 John Finnemore s Souvenir Programme Series 1 8 January 2011 https archive org download JFSP56 0501 mp3 Aurbacher Aurbacher Ein Buchlein fur die Jugend Stuttgart Tubingen Munchen 1834 pp 252 264 Anne Sexton 2001 Transformations ISBN 9780618083435 Retrieved 2016 04 05 Helen Oyeyemi s Boy Snow Bird turns a fairy tale inside out LA Times 2014 02 27 Retrieved 2016 04 05 Girls Made of Snow and Glass www goodreads com Retrieved 2021 05 15 Davis Mari Concept Korea Spring 2011 Annabella Winsteald 17 March 2019 Model Stella Maxwell FALLS during Pucca by Kwak Hyun Joo Spring Summer 2011 3 ANGLES OF VIEW via YouTube US Patent and Trademark Office Snow White trademark status Retrieved June 28 2013 Heys Erin Home Religion amp Snow White Archived from the original on October 23 2014 CS1 maint unfit URL link Heys Erin Religious Symbols Religion amp Snow White Archived from the original on October 28 2014 CS1 maint unfit URL link Takenaka Nanae September 4 2016 The Realization of Absolute Beauty An Interpretation of the Fairytale Snow White Journal of Analytical Psychology 61 4 497 514 doi 10 1111 1468 5922 12237 PMID 27530170 Takenaka Nanae 2016 The realization of absolute beauty an interpretation of the fairytale Snow White Journal of Analytical Psychology 61 4 497 514 doi 10 1111 1468 5922 12237 ISSN 1468 5922 PMID 27530170 Further reading EditGrimm Jacob and Wilhelm amp Applebaum Stanley Editor and Translator 2003 01 01 Selected Folktales Ausgewahlte Marchen A Dual Language Book Mineola New York Dover Publications Inc ISBN 0 486 42474 X CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Jones Steven Swann 1990 The New Comparative Method Structural and Symbolic Analysis of the allomotifs of Snow White Helsinki FFC N 247 Walt Disney s Snow White and the seven dwarfs an art in its making featuring the collection of Stephen H Ison 1st ed Indianapolis Museum of Art 28 October 1994 ISBN 0786861444 Backer Jorg December 2008 Zhaos Mergen und Zhanglihua Kato Weibliche Initiation Schamanismus und Barenkult in einer daghuro mongolischen Schneewittchen Vorform Fabula 49 3 4 288 324 doi 10 1515 FABL 2008 022 ISSN 0014 6242 S2CID 161591972 da Silva Francisco Vaz 2007 Red as Blood White as Snow Black as Crow Chromatic Symbolism of Womanhood in Fairy Tales Marvels amp Tales 21 2 240 252 ISSN 1521 4281 JSTOR 41388837 Retrieved June 20 2020 via JStor Hemming Jessica 2012 Red White and Black in Symbolic Thought The Tricolour Folk Motif Colour Naming and Trichromatic Vision Folklore 123 3 310 329 doi 10 1080 0015587X 2012 716599 ISSN 0015 587X JSTOR 41721562 S2CID 161420857 Retrieved June 20 2020 via JStor Kropej Monika 2008 12 01 Snow White in West and South Slavic Tradition Fabula 49 3 4 218 243 doi 10 1515 FABL 2008 018 ISSN 0014 6242 S2CID 161178832 Joisten Charles 1978 Une version savoyarde du conte de Blanche Neige Le Monde alpin et rhodanien Revue regionale d ethnologie 6 3 171 174 doi 10 3406 mar 1978 1063 via Persee Oriol Carme December 2008 The Innkeeper s Beautiful Daughter A Study of Sixteen Romance Language Versions of ATU 709 Fabula 49 3 4 244 258 doi 10 1515 FABL 2008 019 ISSN 0014 6242 S2CID 162252358 Raufman Ravit 2017 11 10 Red as a Pomegranate Jewish North African versions of Snow White Fabula in German 58 3 4 294 318 doi 10 1515 fabula 2017 0027 ISSN 1613 0464 Schmidt Sigrid December 2008 Snow White in Africa Fabula 49 3 4 268 287 doi 10 1515 FABL 2008 021 ISSN 0014 6242 S2CID 161823801 Kawan Christine Shojaei Innovation persistence and self correction the case of snow white In E L O n 11 12 2005 06 pp 237 252 ISSN 0873 0547 http hdl handle net 10400 1 1671 Kawan Christine Shojaei December 2008 A Brief Literary History of Snow White Fabula 49 3 4 325 342 doi 10 1515 FABL 2008 023 ISSN 0014 6242 S2CID 161939712 External links Edit Works related to Snow White at Wikisource Media related to Snow White at Wikimedia Commons Text of Little Snow white from Household Tales by Brothers Grimm on Project Gutenberg Retrieved from https en 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