fbpx
Wikipedia

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism refers to various societal practices around the world and defined by scholars in Western Europe and North America in the 1870s that applied biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology, economics and politics. Social Darwinism posits that the strong see their wealth and power increase while the weak see their wealth and power decrease. Various social Darwinist schools of thought differ on which groups of people are the strong and which are the weak, and also differ on the precise mechanisms that reward strength and punish weakness. Many such views stress competition between individuals in laissez-faire capitalism, while others, emphasizing struggle between national or racial groups, support authoritarianism, eugenics, racism, imperialism and/or fascism. The ideology of social Darwinism was brought into play by the perpetrators of genocides including the Armenian genocide.[citation needed]

Social Darwinism declined in popularity as a purportedly scientific concept following the First World War, and was largely discredited by the end of the Second World War—partially due to its association with Nazism and partially due to a growing scientific consensus that it was scientifically groundless. Later hypotheses that were categorized as social Darwinism were generally described as such as a critique by their opponents; their proponents did not identify themselves by such a label. Creationists have frequently maintained that social Darwinism—leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive—is a logical consequence of "Darwinism" (the theory of natural selection in biology). Biologists and historians have stated that this is a fallacy of appeal to nature, since the theory of natural selection is merely intended as a description of a biological phenomenon and should not be taken to imply that this phenomenon is good or that it ought to be used as a moral guide in human society. While most scholars recognize some historical links between the popularisation of Darwin's theory and forms of social Darwinism, they also maintain that social Darwinism is not a necessary consequence of the principles of biological evolution. Social Darwinism is generally accepted to be a pseudoscience not based on any empirical data or truth.

Scholars debate the extent to which the various social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin's own views on human social and economic issues. His writings have passages that can be interpreted as opposing aggressive individualism, while other passages appear to promote it. Darwin's early evolutionary views and his opposition to slavery ran counter to many of the claims that social Darwinists would eventually make about the mental capabilities of the poor and colonial indigenes. After the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859, one strand of Darwin's followers, led by Sir John Lubbock, argued that natural selection ceased to have any noticeable effect on humans once organised societies had been formed. However, some scholars argue that Darwin's view gradually changed and came to incorporate views from other theorists such as Herbert Spencer. Spencer published his Lamarckian evolutionary ideas about society before Darwin first published his hypothesis in 1859, and both Spencer and Darwin promoted their own conceptions of moral values. Spencer supported laissez-faire capitalism on the basis of his Lamarckian belief that struggle for survival spurred self-improvement which could be inherited. An important proponent in Germany was Ernst Haeckel, who popularized Darwin's thought and his personal interpretation of it, and used it as well to contribute to a new creed, the monist movement.

Contents

The term Darwinism was coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in his March 1861 review of On the Origin of Species, and by the 1870s it was used to describe a range of concepts of evolution or development, without any specific commitment to Charles Darwin's theory of natural selection.

The phrase "social Darwinism" first appeared in Joseph Fisher's 1877 article on The History of Landholding in Ireland, which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. Fisher was commenting on how a system for borrowing livestock called "tenure" had led to the false impression that the early Irish had already evolved or developed land tenure;

These arrangements did not in any way affect that which we understand by the word " tenure", that is, a man's farm, but they related solely to cattle, which we consider a chattel. It has appeared necessary to devote some space to this subject, inasmuch as that usually acute writer Sir Henry Maine has accepted the word " tenure " in its modern interpretation and has built up a theory under which the Irish chief " developed " into a feudal baron. I can find nothing in the Brehon laws to warrant this theory of social Darwinism, and believe the further study will show that the Cáin Saerrath and the Cáin Aigillne relate solely to what we now call chattels, and did not in any way affect what we now call the freehold, the possession of the land.

Joseph Fisher

Despite the fact that Social Darwinism bears Charles Darwin's name, it is also linked today with others, notably Herbert Spencer, Thomas Malthus, and Francis Galton, the founder of eugenics. In fact, Spencer was not described as a social Darwinist until the 1930s, long after his death. The social Darwinism term first appeared in Europe in 1880, and journalist Emilie Gautier had coined the term with reference to a health conference in Berlin 1877. Around 1900 it was used by sociologists, some being opposed to the concept. The American historian Richard Hofstadter popularized the term in the United States in 1944. He used it in the ideological war effort against fascism to denote a reactionary creed that promoted competitive strife, racism, and chauvinism. Hofstadter later also recognized (what he saw as) the influence of Darwinist and other evolutionary ideas upon those with collectivist views, enough to devise a term for the phenomenon, Darwinist collectivism. Before Hofstadter's work the use of the term "social Darwinism" in English academic journals was quite rare. In fact,

... there is considerable evidence that the entire concept of "social Darwinism" as we know it today was virtually invented by Richard Hofstadter. Eric Foner, in an introduction to a then-new edition of Hofstadter's book published in the early 1990s, declines to go quite that far. "Hofstadter did not invent the term Social Darwinism", Foner writes, "which originated in Europe in the 1860s and crossed the Atlantic in the early twentieth century. But before he wrote, it was used only on rare occasions; he made it a standard shorthand for a complex of late-nineteenth-century ideas, a familiar part of the lexicon of social thought."

Jeff Riggenbach

Usage

Social Darwinism has many definitions, and some of them are incompatible with each other. As such, social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy, which does not lead to any clear political conclusions. For example, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics states:

Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to 'survival of the fittest' entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine. A 'social Darwinist' could just as well be a defender of laissez-faire as a defender of state socialism, just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist.

The term "social Darwinism" has rarely been used by advocates of the supposed ideologies or ideas; instead it has almost always been used pejoratively by its opponents. The term draws upon the common meaning of Darwinism, which includes a range of evolutionary views, but in the late 19th century was applied more specifically to natural selection as first advanced by Charles Darwin to explain speciation in populations of organisms. The process includes competition between individuals for limited resources, popularly but inaccurately described by the phrase "survival of the fittest", a term coined by sociologist Herbert Spencer.

Creationists have often maintained that social Darwinism—leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive—is a logical consequence of "Darwinism" (the theory of natural selection in biology). Biologists and historians have stated that this is a fallacy of appeal to nature and should not be taken to imply that this phenomenon ought to be used as a moral guide in human society. While there are historical links between the popularization of Darwin's theory and forms of social Darwinism, social Darwinism is not a necessary consequence of the principles of biological evolution.

While the term has been applied to the claim that Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection can be used to understand the social endurance of a nation or country, social Darwinism commonly refers to ideas that predate Darwin's publication of On the Origin of Species. Others whose ideas are given the label include the 18th-century clergyman Thomas Malthus, and Darwin's cousin Francis Galton who founded eugenics towards the end of the 19th century.

The massive expansion in Western colonialism during the New Imperialism era fitted in with the broader notion of social Darwinism used from the 1870s onwards to account for the phenomenon of "the Anglo-Saxon and latin overflowing his boundaries", as phrased by the late-Victorian sociologist Benjamin Kidd in Social Evolution, published in 1894. The concept also proved useful to justify what was seen by some as the inevitable "disappearance" of "the weaker races... before the stronger" not so much "through the effects of … our vices upon them" as "what may be called the virtues of our civilisation." Winston Churchill, a political proponent of eugenics, maintained that if fewer ‘feebleminded’ individuals were born, less crime would take place.

Herbert Spencer's ideas, like those of evolutionary progressivism, stemmed from his reading of Thomas Malthus, and his later theories were influenced by those of Darwin. However, Spencer's major work, Progress: Its Law and Cause (1857), was released two years before the publication of Darwin's On the Origin of Species, and First Principles was printed in 1860.

In The Social Organism (1860), Spencer compares society to a living organism and argues that, just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection, society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes.

In many ways, Spencer's theory of cosmic evolution has much more in common with the works of Lamarck and Auguste Comte's positivism than with Darwin's.

Jeff Riggenbach argues that Spencer's view was that culture and education made a sort of Lamarckism possible and notes that Herbert Spencer was a proponent of private charity. However, the legacy of his social Darwinism was less than charitable.

Spencer's work also served to renew interest in the work of Malthus. While Malthus's work does not itself qualify as social Darwinism, his 1798 work An Essay on the Principle of Population, was incredibly popular and widely read by social Darwinists. In that book, for example, the author argued that as an increasing population would normally outgrow its food supply, this would result in the starvation of the weakest and a Malthusian catastrophe.

According to Michael Ruse, Darwin read Malthus' famous Essay on a Principle of Population in 1838, four years after Malthus' death. Malthus himself anticipated the social Darwinists in suggesting that charity could exacerbate social problems.

Another of these social interpretations of Darwin's biological views, later known as eugenics, was put forth by Darwin's cousin, Francis Galton, in 1865 and 1869. Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people, the same could be said for mental qualities (genius and talent). Galton argued that social morals needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision, to avoid both the over-breeding by less fit members of society and the under-breeding of the more fit ones.

In Galton's view, social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing inferior humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more "superior" humans in respectable society, and if corrections were not soon taken, society would be awash with "inferiors". Darwin read his cousin's work with interest, and devoted sections of Descent of Man to discussion of Galton's theories. Neither Galton nor Darwin, though, advocated any eugenic policies restricting reproduction, due to their Whiggish distrust of government.

Friedrich Nietzsche's philosophy addressed the question of artificial selection, yet Nietzsche's principles did not concur with Darwinian theories of natural selection. Nietzsche's point of view on sickness and health, in particular, opposed him to the concept of biological adaptation as forged by Spencer's "fitness". Nietzsche criticized Haeckel, Spencer, and Darwin, sometimes under the same banner by maintaining that in specific cases, sickness was necessary and even helpful. Thus, he wrote:

Wherever progress is to ensue, deviating natures are of greatest importance. Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening. The strongest natures retain the type, the weaker ones help to advance it. Something similar also happens in the individual. There is rarely a degeneration, a truncation, or even a vice or any physical or moral loss without an advantage somewhere else. In a warlike and restless clan, for example, the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone, and may therefore become quieter and wiser; the one-eyed man will have one eye the stronger; the blind man will see deeper inwardly, and certainly hear better. To this extent, the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to me to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a man or of a race.

Ernst Haeckel's recapitulation theory was not Darwinism, but rather attempted to combine the ideas of Goethe, Lamarck and Darwin. It was adopted by emerging social sciences to support the concept that non-European societies were "primitive", in an early stage of development towards the European ideal, but since then it has been heavily refuted on many fronts. Haeckel's works led to the formation of the Monist League in 1904 with many prominent citizens among its members, including the Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Ostwald.

The simpler aspects of social Darwinism followed the earlier Malthusian ideas that humans, especially males, require competition in their lives to survive. Further, the poor should have to provide for themselves and not be given any aid. However, amidst this climate, most social Darwinists of the early 20th century actually supported better working conditions and salaries. Such measures would grant the poor a better chance to provide for themselves yet still distinguish those who are capable of succeeding from those who are poor out of laziness, weakness, or inferiority.[citation needed]

Further information: Sociocultural evolution

"Social Darwinism" was first described by Eduard Oscar Schmidt of the University of Strasbourg, reporting at a scientific and medical conference held in Munich in 1877. He noted how socialists, although opponents of Darwin's theory, used it to add force to their political arguments. Schmidt's essay first appeared in English in Popular Science in March 1879. There followed an anarchist tract published in Paris in 1880 entitled "Le darwinisme social" by Émile Gautier. However, the use of the term was very rare—at least in the English-speaking world (Hodgson, 2004)—until the American historian Richard Hofstadter published his influential Social Darwinism in American Thought (1944) during World War II.

Hypotheses of social evolution and cultural evolution were common in Europe. The Enlightenment thinkers who preceded Darwin, such as Hegel, often argued that societies progressed through stages of increasing development. Earlier thinkers also emphasized conflict as an inherent feature of social life. Thomas Hobbes's 17th-century portrayal of the state of nature seems analogous to the competition for natural resources described by Darwin. Social Darwinism is distinct from other theories of social change because of the way it draws Darwin's distinctive ideas from the field of biology into social studies.

Darwin, unlike Hobbes, believed that this struggle for natural resources allowed individuals with certain physical and mental traits to succeed more frequently than others, and that these traits accumulated in the population over time, which under certain conditions could lead to the descendants being so different that they would be defined as a new species.

However, Darwin felt that "social instincts" such as "sympathy" and "moral sentiments" also evolved through natural selection, and that these resulted in the strengthening of societies in which they occurred, so much so that he wrote about it in Descent of Man:

The following proposition seems to me in a high degree probable—namely, that any animal whatever, endowed with well-marked social instincts, the parental and filial affections being here included, would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well, or nearly as well developed, as in man. For, firstly, the social instincts lead an animal to take pleasure in the society of its fellows, to feel a certain amount of sympathy with them, and to perform various services for them.

The Committee of Union and Progress in the Ottoman Empire adopted Social Darwinist ideology. Belief that there was a life-or-death between Turks and other ethnicities motivated them to carry out genocides and ethnic cleansing campaigns against the Armenians, Assyrians, Kurds, Greeks and other groups. Social Darwinism enabled them to view extermination of entire population groups and the murder of women and children as a necessary and justified course of action.

Social Darwinism was also an aspect of Kemalism.

Nazi Germany's justification for its aggression was regularly promoted in Nazi propaganda films depicting scenes such as beetles fighting in a lab setting to demonstrate the principles of "survival of the fittest" as depicted in Alles Leben ist Kampf (English translation: All Life is Struggle). Hitler often refused to intervene in the promotion of officers and staff members, preferring instead to have them fight amongst themselves to force the "stronger" person to prevail—"strength" referring to those social forces void of virtue or principle. Key proponents were Alfred Rosenberg, who was hanged later at Nuremberg. Such ideas also helped to advance euthanasia in Germany, especially Action T4, which led to the murder of mentally ill and disabled people in Germany.

The argument that Nazi ideology was strongly influenced by social Darwinist ideas is often found in historical and social science literature. For example, the philosopher and historian Hannah Arendt analysed the historical development via social Darwinist ethics to racist ideology.

Another example is recent scholarship that portrays Ernst Haeckel's Monist League as a mystical progenitor of the Völkisch movement and, ultimately, of the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler. Scholars opposed to this interpretation, however, have pointed out that the Monists were freethinkers who opposed all forms of mysticism, and that their organizations were immediately banned following the Nazi takeover in 1933 because of their association with a wide variety of causes including feminism, pacifism, human rights, and early gay rights movements.

United States

Within American society, ideas of social Darwinism reached their greatest prominence during the Gilded Age - predominantly through the rationale of the late 19th-century industrial titans such as John D. Rockefeller (1839-1937) and Andrew Carnegie (1835-1919). Nationwide monopolists of this type applied Darwin's concept of natural selection to explain corporate dominance in their respective fields and thus to justify their exorbitant accumulations of success and social advancement. Rockefeller, for example, proclaimed: "The growth of a large business is merely a survival of the fittest...the working out of a law of nature and a law of God." Robert Bork (1927-2012) backed this notion of inherent characteristics as the sole determinant of survival in the business-operations context when he said: "In America, the rich are overwhelmingly people – entrepreneurs, small-business men, corporate executives, doctors, lawyers, etc. – who have gained their higher incomes through intelligence, imagination, and hard work." Moreover, William Graham Sumner (1840-1910) lauded this same cohort of magnates, and further extended the theory of "corporate Darwinism". Sumner argued that societal progress depended on the "fittest families" passing down wealth and genetic traits to their offspring, thus allegedly creating a lineage of superior citizens. However, contemporary social-scientists repudiate such claims and demand that economic status be considered[by whom?] not a direct function of one's inborn traits and moral worth.[citation needed]

In 1883 Sumner published a highly-influential pamphlet entitled "What Social Classes Owe to Each Other", in which he insisted that the social classes owe each other nothing, synthesizing Darwin's findings with free-enterprise capitalism for his justification.[citation needed] According to Sumner, those who feel an obligation to provide assistance to those unequipped or under-equipped to compete for resources, will lead to a country in which the weak and inferior are encouraged to breed more like themselves, eventually dragging the country down. Sumner also believed that the best equipped to win the struggle for existence was the American businessman, and concluded that taxes and regulations serve as dangers to his survival. This pamphlet makes no mention of Darwinism, and only refers to Darwin in a statement on the meaning of liberty, that "There never has been any man, from the primitive barbarian up to a Humboldt or a Darwin, who could do as he had a mind to."

Sumner never fully embraced Darwinian ideas, and some contemporary historians do not believe that Sumner ever actually believed in social Darwinism. The great majority of American businessmen rejected the anti-philanthropic implications of Sumner's theory. Instead they gave millions to build schools, colleges, hospitals, art institutes, parks and many other institutions. Andrew Carnegie, who admired Spencer, was the leading philanthropist in the world in the period from 1890 to 1920, and a major leader against imperialism and warfare.

The Englishman H. G. Wells (1866-1946) was heavily influenced by Darwinist thought, but reacted against social Darwinism. American novelist Jack London (1876-1916) wrote stories of survival that incorporated his views on social Darwinism. American film-director Stanley Kubrick (1928-1999)has been described as "just an old-fashioned social Darwinist".

On the basis of U.S. theory and practice, commercial Darwinism operates in markets worldwide, pitting corporation against corporation in struggles for survival.

Japan

Social Darwinism has influenced political, public health and social movements in Japan since the late 19th and early 20th century. Social Darwinism was originally brought to Japan through the works of Francis Galton and Ernst Haeckel as well as United States, British and French Lamarckian eugenic written studies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Eugenism as a science was hotly debated at the beginning of the 20th century, in Jinsei-Der Mensch, the first eugenics journal in the empire. As Japan sought to close ranks with the west, this practice was adopted wholesale along with colonialism and its justifications.

China

Social Darwinism was formally introduced to China through the translation by Yan Fu of Huxley's Evolution and Ethics, in the course of an extensive series of translations of influential Western thought. Yan's translation strongly impacted Chinese scholars because he added national elements not found in the original. Yan Fu criticized Huxley from the perspective of Spencerian social Darwinism in his own annotations to the translation. He understood Spencer's sociology as "not merely analytical and descriptive, but prescriptive as well", and saw Spencer building on Darwin, whom Yan summarized thus:

Peoples and living things struggle for survival. At first, species struggle with species; they as [people] gradually progress, there is a struggle between one social group and another. The weak invariably become the prey of the strong, the stupid invariably become subservient to the clever."

By the 1920s, social Darwinism found expression in the promotion of eugenics by the Chinese sociologist Pan Guangdan. When Chiang Kai-shek started the New Life movement in 1934, he "...harked back to theories of Social Darwinism", writing that "only those who readapt themselves to new conditions, day by day, can live properly. When the life of a people is going through this process of readaptation, it has to remedy its own defects, and get rid of those elements which become useless. Then we call it new life."

Central America

Aztec and Mayan region of Central America The Aztecs were not the first civilization in Mesoamerica to practice human sacrifice of the weak, disabled and infirm such as a down syndrome child, as a way to strengthen the population and remove non productive members.That was probably the Olmec civilization (1200-300 BCE) which first began such rituals atop their sacred pyramids. Other civilizations such as the Maya and Toltecs continued the practice. The Aztecs did, however, take sacrifice to an unprecedented scale, it is thought that hundreds, perhaps even thousands, of victims were sacrificed each year

Germany

In the 1860s and 1870s, social Darwinism began to take shape in interaction between Charles Darwin and his German advocates, namely August Schleicher, Max Müller and Ernst Haeckel. Evolutionary linguistics was taken as a platform to construe a Darwinian theory of mankind. Since it was thought at the time that the orangutan and human brain were roughly the same size, Darwin and his colleagues suspected that only the invention of language could account for differentiation between humans and other Great Apes. It was suggested that the evolution of language and the mind must go hand in hand. From this perspective, empirical evidence from languages from around the world was interpreted by Haeckel as supporting the idea that nations, despite having rather similar physiology, represented such distinct lines of 'evolution' that mankind should be divided into nine different species. Haeckel constructed an evolutionary and intellectual hierarchy of such species. In a similar vein, Schleicher regarded languages as different species and sub-species, adopting Darwin's concept of selection through competition to the study of the history and spread of nations. Some of their ideas, including the concept of living space were adopted to the Nazi ideology after their deaths.

Social evolution theories in Germany gained large popularity in the 1860s and had a strong antiestablishment connotation first. Social Darwinism allowed people to counter the connection of Thron und Altar, the intertwined establishment of clergy and nobility, and provided as well the idea of progressive change and evolution of society as a whole. Ernst Haeckel propagated both Darwinism as a part of natural history and as a suitable base for a modern Weltanschauung, a world view based on scientific reasoning in his Monist League. Friedrich von Hellwald had a strong role in popularizing it in Austria. Darwin's work served as a catalyst to popularize evolutionary thinking.

A sort of aristocratic turn, the use of the struggle for life as a base of social Darwinism sensu stricto came up after 1900 with Alexander Tille's 1895 work Entwicklungsethik (Ethics of Evolution), which asked to move from Darwin till Nietzsche. Further interpretations moved to ideologies propagating a racist and hierarchical society and provided ground for the later radical versions of social Darwinism.

Social Darwinism came to play a major role in the ideology of Nazism, which combined it with a similarly pseudo-scientific theory of racial hierarchy to identify the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race. Nazi social Darwinist beliefs led them to retain business competition and private property as economic engines. Nazism likewise opposed social welfare based on a social Darwinist belief that the weak and feeble should perish. This association with Nazism, coupled with increasing recognition that it was scientifically unfounded, contributed to the broader rejection social Darwinism after the end of World War II.

Multiple incompatible definitions

Social Darwinism has many definitions, and some of them are incompatible with each other. As such, social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy, which does not lead to any clear political conclusions. For example, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics states:

Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to "survival of the fittest" entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine. A "social Darwinist" could just as well be a defender of laissez-faire as a defender of state socialism, just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist.

Nazism, eugenics, fascism, imperialism

Social Darwinism was predominantly found in laissez-faire societies where the prevailing view was that of an individualist order to society. A different form of social Darwinism was part of the ideological foundations of Nazism and other fascist movements. This form did not envision survival of the fittest within an individualist order of society, but rather advocated a type of racial and national struggle where the state directed human breeding through eugenics. Names such as "Darwinian collectivism" or "Reform Darwinism" have been suggested to describe these views to differentiate them from the individualist type of social Darwinism.

As mentioned above, social Darwinism has often been linked to nationalism and imperialism. During the age of New Imperialism, the concepts of evolution justified the exploitation of "lesser breeds without the law" by "superior races". To elitists, strong nations were composed of white people who were successful at expanding their empires, and as such, these strong nations would survive in the struggle for dominance. With this attitude, Europeans, except for Christian missionaries, seldom adopted the customs and languages of local people under their empires.

Peter Kropotkin and mutual aid

Peter Kropotkin argued in his 1902 book Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution that Darwin did not define the fittest as the strongest, or most clever, but recognized that the fittest could be those who cooperated with each other. In many animal societies, "struggle is replaced by co-operation".

It may be that at the outset Darwin himself was not fully aware of the generality of the factor which he first invoked for explaining one series only of facts relative to the accumulation of individual variations in incipient species. But he foresaw that the term [evolution] which he was introducing into science would lose its philosophical and its only true meaning if it were to be used in its narrow sense only—that of a struggle between separate individuals for the sheer means of existence. And at the very beginning of his memorable work he insisted upon the term being taken in its "large and metaphorical sense including dependence of one being on another, and including (which is more important) not only the life of the individual, but success in leaving progeny." [Quoting Origin of Species, chap. iii, p. 62 of first edition.]

While he himself was chiefly using the term in its narrow sense for his own special purpose, he warned his followers against committing the error (which he seems once to have committed himself) of overrating its narrow meaning. In The Descent of Man he gave some powerful pages to illustrate its proper, wide sense. He pointed out how, in numberless animal societies, the struggle between separate individuals for the means of existence disappears, how struggle is replaced by co-operation, and how that substitution results in the development of intellectual and moral faculties which secure to the species the best conditions for survival. He intimated that in such cases the fittest are not the physically strongest, nor the cunningest, but those who learn to combine so as mutually to support each other, strong and weak alike, for the welfare of the community. "Those communities", he wrote, "which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members would flourish best, and rear the greatest number of offspring" (2nd edit., p. 163). The term, which originated from the narrow Malthusian conception of competition between each and all, thus lost its narrowness in the mind of one who knew Nature.

Noam Chomsky discussed briefly Kropotkin's views in an 8 July 2011 YouTube video from Renegade Economist, in which Kropotkin

...argued that on Darwinian grounds, you would expect cooperation and mutual aid to develop leading towards community, workers' control and so on. Well, you know, he didn't prove his point. It's at least as well argued as Herbert Spencer is ...

Kropotkin, an anarchist, described how co-operation exists in nature, and that it too must serve a purpose in natural selection. This is only social Darwinism in that the case for mutual aid in society is made by appealing to evolutionary biology. To Kropotkin, the state is "unnatural" in the sense that it prevents the realisation of what he deemed to be the next stage of human social evolution: anarcho-communism. Though there are similarities, this position differs from dialectical materialism.

Fabianism

In contrast, Fabians in the early 1900s sought to use the state as the means through which a collectivist social Darwinism was to be put into effect. The common Fabian views of the time reconciled a specific form of state socialism and the goal of reducing poverty with eugenics policies.

"[These policies] imply a total disregard for any idea of individual self-fulfilment as the aim of a socialist society...These policies also implied a notion of the person as a set of genetically fixed qualities, where experience and environment came a very poor second by comparison with innate characteristics. In the debate between nature and nurture, the former was seen to have a massive advantage."

Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title.(November 2017) ()
  1. Riggenbach, Jeff (2011-04-24) The Real William Graham Sumner, Mises Institute
  2. Williams, Raymond (2000). "Social Darwinism". In John Offer (ed.). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessment. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 186–199. ISBN 9780415181846.
  3. Gregory Claeys (2000). The "Survival of the Fittest" and the Origins of Social Darwinism. Journal of the History of Ideas 61 (2):223–240.
  4. Bowler 2003, pp. 298–299
  5. Leonard, Thomas C. (2009) Origins of the Myth of Social Darwinism: The Ambiguous Legacy of Richard Hofstadter's Social Darwinism in American Thought Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization 71, p.37–51
  6. "Social Darwinism". History.com. Retrieved31 May 2019.
  7. Bannister, Robert C. (2000). "Social Darwinism". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000. Archived from the original on 2 October 2019.
  8. Hodgson 2004, pp. 428–430
  9. Paul, Diane B. in Gregory Radick (5 March 2009). The Cambridge Companion to Darwin. Cambridge University Press. pp. 219–20. ISBN 978-0-521-71184-5. Like many foes of Darwinism, past and present, the American populist and creationist William Jennings Bryan thought a straight line ran from Darwin's theory ('a dogma of darkness and death') to beliefs that it is right for the strong to crowd out the weak
  10. Sailer, Steve (30 October 2002). "Q&A: Steven Pinker of 'Blank Slate'". UPI. Archived from the original on 5 December 2015. Retrieved5 December 2015.
  11. Schoijet, Mauricio (1 August 2009). "On Pseudoscience". Critique. 37 (3): 425–439. doi:10.1080/03017600902989856. S2CID 218548769 – via Taylor and Francis+NEJM.
  12. "Science and pseudoscience in postmodern societies, Željko Pavić via University of Osijek".
  13. Dennis, Rutledge M. (1995). "Social Darwinism, Scientific Racism, and the Metaphysics of Race". TJNE. 64 (3): 243–252. doi:10.2307/2967206. JSTOR 2967206 – via JSTOR.
  14. Still, Arthur; Dryden, Windy (21 May 2004). "The Social Psychology of "Pseudoscience": A Brief History". Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour. 34 (3): 265–290. doi:10.1111/j.0021-8308.2004.00248.x – via Wiley Online Library.
  15. Bowler 2003, pp. 300–01
  16. Adrian Desmond and, James Richard Moore (2009). Darwin's Sacred Cause: How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin's Views on Human Evolution. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  17. Eddy, Matthew Daniel (2017). "The Politics of Cognition: Liberalism and the Evolutionary Origins of Victorian Education". British Journal for the History of Science. 50 (4): 677–699. doi:10.1017/S0007087417000863. PMID 29019300.
  18. Claeys, Gregory (2000). "The 'Survival of the Fittest' and the Origins of Social Darwinism". Journal of the History of Ideas. 61 (2): 223–40. doi:10.1353/jhi.2000.0014. S2CID 146267804.
  19. Spencer, Herbert (1852). "4"A Theory of Population, Deduced from the General Law of Human Fertility". Westminster Review. 57: 468–501.
  20. Bowler 2003, pp. 301–02
  21. Huxley, T.H. (April 1860). "ART. VIII. – Darwin on the origin of Species". Westminster Review. pp. 541–70. Retrieved19 June 2008. What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular?
  22. Bowler 2003, p. 179
  23. Fisher, Joseph (1877). "The History of Landholding in Ireland". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. V: 228–326. doi:10.2307/3677953. JSTOR 3677953., as quoted in the Oxford English Dictionary
  24. Fisher 1877, pp. 249–50 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFisher1877 (help)
  25. Hodgson
  26. Ward, Lester F (1907). "Social Darwinism". American Journal of Sociology. 12 (5): 709–10. doi:10.1086/211544.
  27. Hodgson 2004, pp. 445–46
  28. McLean, Iain (2009). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford University: Oxford University Press. p. 490. ISBN 9780199207800.
  29. Benjamin Kidd, Social Evolution, Kessinger Publishing, LLC, 2007, 400 pages, ISBN 978-0548805237, p. 47.
  30. King, D. (1999). In the name of liberalism: illiberal social policy in Britain and the United States (Oxford: Oxford University Press).
  31. Spencer, Herbert. 1860. 'The Social Organism', originally published in The Westminster Review. Reprinted in Spencer's (1892) Essays: Scientific, Political and Speculative. London and New York.
  32. Paul, Diane B. (2003). The Cambridge Companion to Darwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-521-77197-9.
  33. Paul, Diane (2006). "Darwin, social Darwinism and eugenics"(PDF). In Hodge, Jonathan; Radick, Gregory (eds.). The Cambridge companion to Darwin. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 230. ISBN 9780511998690.
  34. Barbara Stiegler, Nietzsche et la biologie, PUF, 2001, p. 90. ISBN 2-13-050742-5. See, for ex., Genealogy of Morals, III, 13 here [1]
  35. Friedrich Nietzsche, Human, All Too Human, §224
  36. Scott F. Gilbert (2006). "Ernst Haeckel and the Biogenetic Law". Developmental Biology, 8th edition. Sinauer Associates. Archived from the original on 3 February 2008. Retrieved3 May 2008. Eventually, the Biogenetic Law had become scientifically untenable.
  37. Schmidt, Oscar; J. Fitzgerald (translator) (March 1879). "Science and Socialism". Popular Science Monthly. 14: 577–91. ISSN 0161-7370. Darwinism is the scientific establishment of inequality
  38. but see Wells, D. Collin (1907). "Social Darwinism". American Journal of Sociology. 12 (5): 695–716. doi:10.1086/211544. JSTOR 2762378.
  39. Descent of Man, chapter 4 ISBN 1-57392-176-9
  40. "The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime (1915–1916) | Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance – Research Network". Extermination-ottoman-armenians-young-turk-regime-1915-1916.HTML. 25 January 2016. the subsciption of the Young Turks to Social Darwinism (the theory of the application to humans of the survival-of-the-fittest in the animal world) had convinced them that the construction of the Turkish nation would be realized through the elimination of the Armenians
  41. Kurt, Umit; Gurpinar, Dogan (2016). "The Young Turk Historical Imagination in the Pursuit of Mythical Turkishness and its Lost Grandeur (1911–1914)". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 43 (4): 560–574. doi:10.1080/13530194.2016.1139443. S2CID 159857101.
  42. Kieser, Hans-Lukas (2010). "Germany and the Armenian genocide of 1915–17". In Friedman, Jonathan C. (ed.). The Routledge History of the Holocaust. Taylor & Francis. doi:10.4324/9780203837443.ch3. ISBN 978-1-136-87060-6.
  43. Suny, Ronald Grigor (2015). "They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else": A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press. pp. 149, 245. ISBN 978-1-4008-6558-1. Lay summary.
  44. Kieser, Hans-Lukas (2018). Talaat Pasha: Father of Modern Turkey, Architect of Genocide. Princeton University Press. pp. 7, 61, 85, 264–265, passim. ISBN 978-1-4008-8963-1. Lay summary. [Talat's] belief in social Darwinism and a total war– jihad made the annihilation of civilians, including women and children, acceptable for him.
  45. Ter-Matevosyan, Vahram (2015). "Turkish Experience with Totalitarianism and Fascism: Tracing the Intellectual Origins". Iran and the Caucasus. 19. pp. 387–401. doi:10.1163/1573384X-20150408.
  46. Bloxham, Donald (2005). The Great Game of Genocide: Imperialism, Nationalism, and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians. Oxford University Press. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-19-922688-7.
  47. Ter-Matevosyan, Vahram (2019). Turkey, Kemalism and the Soviet Union: Problems of Modernization, Ideology and Interpretation. Springer International Publishing. p. 163. ISBN 978-3-319-97403-3. Both the Young Turks and the Kemalists had an elitist conception of society; they saw themselves as the nation’s “social physicians,” the only ones capable of enlightening the “masses.”78 Other defnitions and fashionable currents of thought that defned different facets of fascism—biological materialism, positivism, social Darwinism, and the quest for magic formulas—were also incorporated by both regimes in Turkey.7
  48. Zurcher, Erik-Jan (2013). "Ottoman sources of Kemalist thought". Late Ottoman Society. Routledge. pp. 36–49. doi:10.4324/9780203481387-10. ISBN 978-0-203-48138-7.
  49. "The Nazis: A Warning from History". 10 September 1997 – via IMDb.
  50. "T4 Program | Definition and History". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved26 August 2020.
  51. E.g. Weingart, P., J. Kroll, and K. Bayertz, Rasse, Blut, und Gene. Geschichte der Eugenik und Rassenhygiene in Deutschland (Frankfurt: Suhrkamp, 1988).
  52. Arendt, H.: Elements of Totalitarianism, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: New York 1951. pp. 178–179
  53. Weikart, Richard (2002). "Evolutionäre Aufklärung"? Zur Geschichte des Monistenbundes. Wissenschaft, Politik und Öffentlichkeit: von der Wiener Moderne bis zur Gegenwart. Wien: WUV-Universitätsverlag. pp. 131–48. ISBN 3-85114-664-6.
  54. "Constitutional Rights Foundation". www.crf-usa.org. Retrieved27 June 2020. Captains of industry like John D. Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie made fortunes. They also preached 'survival of the fittest' in business.
  55. Reich, Robert (20 November 2005). "The Two Darwinisms". The American Prospect. Retrieved27 June 2020.
  56. Felix, Elving. Rockefeller%20once%20claimed.&text=Through%20Standard%20Oil,%20Rockefeller%20controlled, powerful%20businessmen%20in%20American%20history. "Research Guides: John D. Rockefeller: Topics in Chronicling America: Introduction" Check |url= value (). guides.loc.gov. Retrieved27 June 2020.
  57. Reich, Robert B. (2005). Reason: Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America. Vintage Books. ISBN 978-1-4000-7660-4.
  58. Reich, Robert (20 November 2005). "The Two Darwinisms". The American Prospect. Retrieved30 September 2021. Scientists who are legitimized by peer review and published research are unanimous in their view that evolution is a fact, not a theory. Social Darwinism, meanwhile, is hogwash. Social scientists have long understood that one's economic status in society is not a function of one's moral worth. It depends largely on the economic status of one's parents, the models of success available while growing up, and educational opportunities along the way.
  59. The Project Gutenberg eBook of What Social Classes Owe To Each Other, by William Graham Sumner. www.gutenberg.org. 16 June 2006. Retrieved15 April 2018.
  60. "A careful reading of the theories of Sumner and Spencer exonerates them from the century-old charge of social Darwinism in the strict sense of the word. They did not themselves advocate the application of Darwin's theory of natural selection." The Social Meaning of Modern Biology: From Social Darwinism to Sociobiology
  61. "At least a part—and sometimes a generous part" of the great fortunes went back to the community through many kinds of philanthropic endeavor, says Bremner, Robert H. (1988). American Philanthropy (2nd ed.). p. 86. ISBN 978-0-226-07324-8.
  62. Page, Michael R. (2012). "'Dim Outlines on a Desolate Beach': H.G. Wells". The Literary Imagination from Erasmus Darwin to H.G. Wells: Science, Evolution, and Ecology. London: Routledge (published 2016). p. 162. ISBN 9781317025276. Retrieved30 September 2021. The Traveller's conjectures allow Wells to make a startling critique of social Darwinism [...] and to suggest an alternative evolutionary trajectory that moves beyond the desire for utopia: in the end, human evolution will reverse itself and witness an inevitable decline; progress itself must inevitably result in degeneration.
  63. "Borrowing from Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, social Darwinists believed that societies, as do organisms evolve over time. Nature then determined that the strong survive and the weak perish. In Jack London's case, he thought that certain favored races were destined for survival, mainly those that could preserve themselves while supplanting others, as in the case of the White race." The philosophy of Jack London Archived 27 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine
  64. Herr, Michael (2000).Kubrick. Grove Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8021-3818-7. Retrieved20 February 2016. He was just an old-fashioned social Darwinist (seemingly) [...].
  65. Vengrow, Jeffrey; Voehl, Frank (26 August 2020). "Value Stream Quality System". In Stein, Martin; Voehl, Frank (eds.). Macrologistics Management: A Catalyst for Organizational Change (reprint ed.). CRC Press (published 2020). ISBN 9781000162240. Retrieved30 September 2021. In the global marketplace, commercial Darwinism is alive and well. Survival of the fittest in this sense has little to do with genetics, but it has everything to do with developing a competitive advantage. [...] Survival is often associated with adaptation and change.
  66. Otsubo, S.; Bartholomew, J. R. (1998). "Eugenics in Japan: some ironies of modernity, 1883–1945". Sci Context. 11 (3–4): 545–65. doi:10.1017/S0269889700003203. PMID 15168677.
  67. Jonathan D. Spence. The Search for Modern China". W.W. Norton, 1990, p. 301.
  68. Jin, Xiaoxing (2019). "Translation and transmutation: The Origin of Species in China". The British Journal for the History of Science. 52 (1): 117–141. doi:10.1017/S0007087418000808. PMID 30587253. S2CID 58605626.
  69. Ibid.
  70. Ibid., 414–15.
  71. Richards, R. J. (2013). Was Hitler a Darwinian?: Disputed Questions in the History of Evolutionary Theory. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-05893-1.
  72. Aronoff, Mark (2017). "Darwinism tested by the science of language". In Bowern; Horn; Zanuttini (eds.). On Looking into Words (and Beyond): Structures, Relations, Analyses. SUNY Press. pp. 443–456. ISBN 978-3-946234-92-0. Retrieved3 March 2020.
  73. Puschner, Uwe (2014). Sozialdarwinismus als wissenschaftliches Konzept und politisches Programm, in: Gangolf Hübinger (ed.), Europäische Wissenschaftskulturen und politische Ordnungen in der Moderne (1890–1970) (= Schriften des Historischen Kollegs, Kolloquien 77), München 2014, pp. 99–121 (in German). Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG. ISBN 9783110446784.
  74. Baum, Bruce David (2006). The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race: A Political History of Racial Identity. New York City/London: New York University Press. p. 156.
  75. Barkai, Avaraham 1990. Nazi Economics: Ideology, Theory and Policy. Oxford Berg Publisher.
  76. Hayes, Peter. 1987 Industry and Ideology IG Farben in the Nazi Era. Cambridge University Press.
  77. Evans, Richard J. (2005). The Third Reich in Power. New York: Penguin Books. pp. 483–84. ISBN 978-0-14-303790-3.
  78. McLean, Iain (2009). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics. Oxford University: Oxford University Press. p. 490. ISBN 9780199207800.
  79. Leonard, Thomas C. (2005) Mistaking Eugenics for Social Darwinism: Why Eugenics is Missing from the History of American Economics History of Political Economy, Vol. 37 supplement: 200–233
  80. Perry, Marvin; Chase, Myrna; Jacob, Margaret; Jacob, James; Daly, Jonathan W.; Von Laue, Theodore H. (2014). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Volume II: Since 1600 (11th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning. pp. 634–635. ISBN 978-1-305-09142-9. LCCN 2014943347. OCLC 898154349. Retrieved1 February 2016. The most extreme ideological expression of nationalism and imperialism was Social Darwinism. In the popular mind, the concepts of evolution justified the exploitation by the 'superior races' of 'lesser breeds without the law.' This language of race and conflict, of superior and inferior people, had wide currency in the Western nations. Social Darwinists vigorously advocated empires, saying that strong nations—by definition, those that were successful at expanding industry and empire—would survive and others would not. To these elitists, all white peoples were more fit than nonwhites to prevail in the struggle for dominance. Even among Europeans, some nations were deemed more fit than others for the competition. Usually, Social Darwinists thought their own nation the best, an attitude that sparked their competitive enthusiasm. ...In the 19th century, in contrast to the 17th and 18th centuries, Europeans, except for missionaries, rarely adopted the customs or learned the languages of local people. They had little sense that other cultures and other peoples deserved respect. Many Westerners believed that it was their Christian duty to set an example and to educate others. Missionaries were the first to meet and learn about many peoples and the first to develop writing for those without a written language. Christian missionaries were ardently opposed to slavery....|volume= has extra text ()
  81. Kropotkin, kniaz' Petr Alekseevich. "Mutual Aid: A Factor of Evolution".
  82. Chomsky, Noam (8 July 2011). "Noam Chomsky – on Darwinism". Archived from the original on 2 November 2021.
  83. Shaw, Christopher (1987). "Eliminating the Yahoo Eugenics, Social Darwinism and Five Fabians". History of Political Thought. 8 (3): 521–544. ISSN 0143-781X. JSTOR 26213235. PMID 11620187.

Primary sources

Secondary sources

Social Darwinism
Social Darwinism Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Social Darwinist Social Darwinism refers to various societal practices around the world and defined by scholars in Western Europe and North America in the 1870s that applied biological concepts of natural selection and survival of the fittest to sociology economics and politics 1 2 Social Darwinism posits that the strong see their wealth and power increase while the weak see their wealth and power decrease Various social Darwinist schools of thought differ on which groups of people are the strong and which are the weak and also differ on the precise mechanisms that reward strength and punish weakness Many such views stress competition between individuals in laissez faire capitalism while others emphasizing struggle between national or racial groups support authoritarianism eugenics racism imperialism and or fascism 3 4 5 The ideology of social Darwinism was brought into play by the perpetrators of genocides including the Armenian genocide citation needed Social Darwinism declined in popularity as a purportedly scientific concept following the First World War and was largely discredited by the end of the Second World War partially due to its association with Nazism and partially due to a growing scientific consensus that it was scientifically groundless 6 7 Later hypotheses that were categorized as social Darwinism were generally described as such as a critique by their opponents their proponents did not identify themselves by such a label 8 7 Creationists have frequently maintained that social Darwinism leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive is a logical consequence of Darwinism the theory of natural selection in biology 9 Biologists and historians have stated that this is a fallacy of appeal to nature since the theory of natural selection is merely intended as a description of a biological phenomenon and should not be taken to imply that this phenomenon is good or that it ought to be used as a moral guide in human society 10 While most scholars recognize some historical links between the popularisation of Darwin s theory and forms of social Darwinism they also maintain that social Darwinism is not a necessary consequence of the principles of biological evolution Social Darwinism is generally accepted to be a pseudoscience not based on any empirical data or truth 11 12 13 14 Scholars debate the extent to which the various social Darwinist ideologies reflect Charles Darwin s own views on human social and economic issues His writings have passages that can be interpreted as opposing aggressive individualism while other passages appear to promote it 15 Darwin s early evolutionary views and his opposition to slavery ran counter to many of the claims that social Darwinists would eventually make about the mental capabilities of the poor and colonial indigenes 16 After the publication of On the Origin of Species in 1859 one strand of Darwin s followers led by Sir John Lubbock argued that natural selection ceased to have any noticeable effect on humans once organised societies had been formed 17 However some scholars argue that Darwin s view gradually changed and came to incorporate views from other theorists such as Herbert Spencer 18 Spencer published 19 his Lamarckian evolutionary ideas about society before Darwin first published his hypothesis in 1859 and both Spencer and Darwin promoted their own conceptions of moral values Spencer supported laissez faire capitalism on the basis of his Lamarckian belief that struggle for survival spurred self improvement which could be inherited 20 An important proponent in Germany was Ernst Haeckel who popularized Darwin s thought and his personal interpretation of it and used it as well to contribute to a new creed the monist movement Contents 1 Origin of the term 1 1 Usage 2 Proponents 3 Hypotheses relating social change and evolution 4 Young Turks 5 Nazi Germany 6 Other regional distributions 6 1 United States 6 2 Japan 6 3 China 6 4 Central America 6 5 Germany 7 Criticism and controversy 7 1 Multiple incompatible definitions 7 2 Nazism eugenics fascism imperialism 7 3 Peter Kropotkin and mutual aid 7 4 Fabianism 8 See also 9 References 9 1 Primary sources 9 2 Secondary sources 10 External linksOrigin of the term EditThe term Darwinism was coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in his March 1861 review of On the Origin of Species 21 and by the 1870s it was used to describe a range of concepts of evolution or development without any specific commitment to Charles Darwin s theory of natural selection 22 The phrase social Darwinism first appeared in Joseph Fisher s 1877 article on The History of Landholding in Ireland which was published in the Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 23 Fisher was commenting on how a system for borrowing livestock called tenure had led to the false impression that the early Irish had already evolved or developed land tenure 24 These arrangements did not in any way affect that which we understand by the word tenure that is a man s farm but they related solely to cattle which we consider a chattel It has appeared necessary to devote some space to this subject inasmuch as that usually acute writer Sir Henry Maine has accepted the word tenure in its modern interpretation and has built up a theory under which the Irish chief developed into a feudal baron I can find nothing in the Brehon laws to warrant this theory of social Darwinism and believe the further study will show that the Cain Saerrath and the Cain Aigillne relate solely to what we now call chattels and did not in any way affect what we now call the freehold the possession of the land Joseph Fisher 24 Despite the fact that Social Darwinism bears Charles Darwin s name it is also linked today with others notably Herbert Spencer Thomas Malthus and Francis Galton the founder of eugenics In fact Spencer was not described as a social Darwinist until the 1930s long after his death 25 The social Darwinism term first appeared in Europe in 1880 and journalist Emilie Gautier had coined the term with reference to a health conference in Berlin 1877 23 Around 1900 it was used by sociologists some being opposed to the concept 26 The American historian Richard Hofstadter popularized the term in the United States in 1944 He used it in the ideological war effort against fascism to denote a reactionary creed that promoted competitive strife racism and chauvinism Hofstadter later also recognized what he saw as the influence of Darwinist and other evolutionary ideas upon those with collectivist views enough to devise a term for the phenomenon Darwinist collectivism 5 Before Hofstadter s work the use of the term social Darwinism in English academic journals was quite rare 27 In fact there is considerable evidence that the entire concept of social Darwinism as we know it today was virtually invented by Richard Hofstadter Eric Foner in an introduction to a then new edition of Hofstadter s book published in the early 1990s declines to go quite that far Hofstadter did not invent the term Social Darwinism Foner writes which originated in Europe in the 1860s and crossed the Atlantic in the early twentieth century But before he wrote it was used only on rare occasions he made it a standard shorthand for a complex of late nineteenth century ideas a familiar part of the lexicon of social thought Jeff Riggenbach 1 Usage Edit Social Darwinism has many definitions and some of them are incompatible with each other As such social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy which does not lead to any clear political conclusions For example The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics states Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to survival of the fittest entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine A social Darwinist could just as well be a defender of laissez faire as a defender of state socialism just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist 28 The term social Darwinism has rarely been used by advocates of the supposed ideologies or ideas instead it has almost always been used pejoratively by its opponents 8 The term draws upon the common meaning of Darwinism which includes a range of evolutionary views but in the late 19th century was applied more specifically to natural selection as first advanced by Charles Darwin to explain speciation in populations of organisms The process includes competition between individuals for limited resources popularly but inaccurately described by the phrase survival of the fittest a term coined by sociologist Herbert Spencer Creationists have often maintained that social Darwinism leading to policies designed to reward the most competitive is a logical consequence of Darwinism the theory of natural selection in biology 9 Biologists and historians have stated that this is a fallacy of appeal to nature and should not be taken to imply that this phenomenon ought to be used as a moral guide in human society 10 While there are historical links between the popularization of Darwin s theory and forms of social Darwinism social Darwinism is not a necessary consequence of the principles of biological evolution While the term has been applied to the claim that Darwin s theory of evolution by natural selection can be used to understand the social endurance of a nation or country social Darwinism commonly refers to ideas that predate Darwin s publication of On the Origin of Species Others whose ideas are given the label include the 18th century clergyman Thomas Malthus and Darwin s cousin Francis Galton who founded eugenics towards the end of the 19th century The massive expansion in Western colonialism during the New Imperialism era fitted in with the broader notion of social Darwinism used from the 1870s onwards to account for the phenomenon of the Anglo Saxon and latin overflowing his boundaries as phrased by the late Victorian sociologist Benjamin Kidd in Social Evolution published in 1894 29 The concept also proved useful to justify what was seen by some as the inevitable disappearance of the weaker races before the stronger not so much through the effects of our vices upon them as what may be called the virtues of our civilisation Winston Churchill a political proponent of eugenics maintained that if fewer feebleminded individuals were born less crime would take place 30 Proponents Edit Herbert Spencer Herbert Spencer s ideas like those of evolutionary progressivism stemmed from his reading of Thomas Malthus and his later theories were influenced by those of Darwin However Spencer s major work Progress Its Law and Cause 1857 was released two years before the publication of Darwin s On the Origin of Species and First Principles was printed in 1860 In The Social Organism 1860 Spencer compares society to a living organism and argues that just as biological organisms evolve through natural selection society evolves and increases in complexity through analogous processes 31 In many ways Spencer s theory of cosmic evolution has much more in common with the works of Lamarck and Auguste Comte s positivism than with Darwin s Jeff Riggenbach argues that Spencer s view was that culture and education made a sort of Lamarckism possible 1 and notes that Herbert Spencer was a proponent of private charity 1 However the legacy of his social Darwinism was less than charitable 32 Thomas Malthus Spencer s work also served to renew interest in the work of Malthus While Malthus s work does not itself qualify as social Darwinism his 1798 work An Essay on the Principle of Population was incredibly popular and widely read by social Darwinists In that book for example the author argued that as an increasing population would normally outgrow its food supply this would result in the starvation of the weakest and a Malthusian catastrophe According to Michael Ruse Darwin read Malthus famous Essay on a Principle of Population in 1838 four years after Malthus death Malthus himself anticipated the social Darwinists in suggesting that charity could exacerbate social problems Another of these social interpretations of Darwin s biological views later known as eugenics was put forth by Darwin s cousin Francis Galton in 1865 and 1869 Galton argued that just as physical traits were clearly inherited among generations of people the same could be said for mental qualities genius and talent Galton argued that social morals needed to change so that heredity was a conscious decision to avoid both the over breeding by less fit members of society and the under breeding of the more fit ones Francis Galton In Galton s view social institutions such as welfare and insane asylums were allowing inferior humans to survive and reproduce at levels faster than the more superior humans in respectable society and if corrections were not soon taken society would be awash with inferiors Darwin read his cousin s work with interest and devoted sections of Descent of Man to discussion of Galton s theories Neither Galton nor Darwin though advocated any eugenic policies restricting reproduction due to their Whiggish distrust of government 33 Friedrich Nietzsche s philosophy addressed the question of artificial selection yet Nietzsche s principles did not concur with Darwinian theories of natural selection Nietzsche s point of view on sickness and health in particular opposed him to the concept of biological adaptation as forged by Spencer s fitness Nietzsche criticized Haeckel Spencer and Darwin sometimes under the same banner by maintaining that in specific cases sickness was necessary and even helpful 34 Thus he wrote Wherever progress is to ensue deviating natures are of greatest importance Every progress of the whole must be preceded by a partial weakening The strongest natures retain the type the weaker ones help to advance it Something similar also happens in the individual There is rarely a degeneration a truncation or even a vice or any physical or moral loss without an advantage somewhere else In a warlike and restless clan for example the sicklier man may have occasion to be alone and may therefore become quieter and wiser the one eyed man will have one eye the stronger the blind man will see deeper inwardly and certainly hear better To this extent the famous theory of the survival of the fittest does not seem to me to be the only viewpoint from which to explain the progress of strengthening of a man or of a race 35 Ernst Haeckel s recapitulation theory was not Darwinism but rather attempted to combine the ideas of Goethe Lamarck and Darwin It was adopted by emerging social sciences to support the concept that non European societies were primitive in an early stage of development towards the European ideal but since then it has been heavily refuted on many fronts 36 Haeckel s works led to the formation of the Monist League in 1904 with many prominent citizens among its members including the Nobel Prize winner Wilhelm Ostwald The simpler aspects of social Darwinism followed the earlier Malthusian ideas that humans especially males require competition in their lives to survive Further the poor should have to provide for themselves and not be given any aid However amidst this climate most social Darwinists of the early 20th century actually supported better working conditions and salaries Such measures would grant the poor a better chance to provide for themselves yet still distinguish those who are capable of succeeding from those who are poor out of laziness weakness or inferiority citation needed Hypotheses relating social change and evolution EditFurther information Sociocultural evolution Social Darwinism was first described by Eduard Oscar Schmidt of the University of Strasbourg reporting at a scientific and medical conference held in Munich in 1877 He noted how socialists although opponents of Darwin s theory used it to add force to their political arguments Schmidt s essay first appeared in English in Popular Science in March 1879 37 There followed an anarchist tract published in Paris in 1880 entitled Le darwinisme social by Emile Gautier However the use of the term was very rare at least in the English speaking world Hodgson 2004 38 until the American historian Richard Hofstadter published his influential Social Darwinism in American Thought 1944 during World War II Hypotheses of social evolution and cultural evolution were common in Europe The Enlightenment thinkers who preceded Darwin such as Hegel often argued that societies progressed through stages of increasing development Earlier thinkers also emphasized conflict as an inherent feature of social life Thomas Hobbes s 17th century portrayal of the state of nature seems analogous to the competition for natural resources described by Darwin Social Darwinism is distinct from other theories of social change because of the way it draws Darwin s distinctive ideas from the field of biology into social studies Darwin unlike Hobbes believed that this struggle for natural resources allowed individuals with certain physical and mental traits to succeed more frequently than others and that these traits accumulated in the population over time which under certain conditions could lead to the descendants being so different that they would be defined as a new species However Darwin felt that social instincts such as sympathy and moral sentiments also evolved through natural selection and that these resulted in the strengthening of societies in which they occurred so much so that he wrote about it in Descent of Man The following proposition seems to me in a high degree probable namely that any animal whatever endowed with well marked social instincts the parental and filial affections being here included would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience as soon as its intellectual powers had become as well or nearly as well developed as in man For firstly the social instincts lead an animal to take pleasure in the society of its fellows to feel a certain amount of sympathy with them and to perform various services for them 39 Young Turks EditThe Committee of Union and Progress in the Ottoman Empire adopted Social Darwinist ideology Belief that there was a life or death between Turks and other ethnicities motivated them to carry out genocides and ethnic cleansing campaigns against the Armenians Assyrians Kurds Greeks and other groups Social Darwinism enabled them to view extermination of entire population groups and the murder of women and children as a necessary and justified course of action 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Social Darwinism was also an aspect of Kemalism 47 48 Nazi Germany Edit Alfred Rosenberg Nazi Germany s justification for its aggression was regularly promoted in Nazi propaganda films depicting scenes such as beetles fighting in a lab setting to demonstrate the principles of survival of the fittest as depicted in Alles Leben ist Kampf English translation All Life is Struggle Hitler often refused to intervene in the promotion of officers and staff members preferring instead to have them fight amongst themselves to force the stronger person to prevail strength referring to those social forces void of virtue or principle 49 Key proponents were Alfred Rosenberg who was hanged later at Nuremberg Such ideas also helped to advance euthanasia in Germany especially Action T4 which led to the murder of mentally ill and disabled people in Germany 50 The argument that Nazi ideology was strongly influenced by social Darwinist ideas is often found in historical and social science literature 51 For example the philosopher and historian Hannah Arendt analysed the historical development via social Darwinist ethics to racist ideology 52 Another example is recent scholarship that portrays Ernst Haeckel s Monist League as a mystical progenitor of the Volkisch movement and ultimately of the Nazi Party of Adolf Hitler Scholars opposed to this interpretation however have pointed out that the Monists were freethinkers who opposed all forms of mysticism and that their organizations were immediately banned following the Nazi takeover in 1933 because of their association with a wide variety of causes including feminism pacifism human rights and early gay rights movements 53 Other regional distributions EditUnited States Edit Within American society ideas of social Darwinism reached their greatest prominence during the Gilded Age predominantly through the rationale of the late 19th century industrial titans such as John D Rockefeller 1839 1937 and Andrew Carnegie 1835 1919 54 Nationwide monopolists of this type applied Darwin s concept of natural selection to explain corporate dominance in their respective fields and thus to justify their exorbitant accumulations of success and social advancement 55 Rockefeller for example proclaimed The growth of a large business is merely a survival of the fittest the working out of a law of nature and a law of God 56 Robert Bork 1927 2012 backed this notion of inherent characteristics as the sole determinant of survival in the business operations context when he said In America the rich are overwhelmingly people entrepreneurs small business men corporate executives doctors lawyers etc who have gained their higher incomes through intelligence imagination and hard work 57 Moreover William Graham Sumner 1840 1910 lauded this same cohort of magnates and further extended the theory of corporate Darwinism Sumner argued that societal progress depended on the fittest families passing down wealth and genetic traits to their offspring thus allegedly creating a lineage of superior citizens 54 However contemporary social scientists repudiate such claims 58 and demand that economic status be considered by whom not a direct function of one s inborn traits and moral worth citation needed In 1883 Sumner published a highly influential pamphlet entitled What Social Classes Owe to Each Other in which he insisted that the social classes owe each other nothing synthesizing Darwin s findings with free enterprise capitalism for his justification citation needed According to Sumner those who feel an obligation to provide assistance to those unequipped or under equipped to compete for resources will lead to a country in which the weak and inferior are encouraged to breed more like themselves eventually dragging the country down Sumner also believed that the best equipped to win the struggle for existence was the American businessman and concluded that taxes and regulations serve as dangers to his survival This pamphlet makes no mention of Darwinism and only refers to Darwin in a statement on the meaning of liberty that There never has been any man from the primitive barbarian up to a Humboldt or a Darwin who could do as he had a mind to 59 Sumner never fully embraced Darwinian ideas and some contemporary historians do not believe that Sumner ever actually believed in social Darwinism 60 The great majority of American businessmen rejected the anti philanthropic implications of Sumner s theory Instead they gave millions to build schools colleges hospitals art institutes parks and many other institutions Andrew Carnegie who admired Spencer was the leading philanthropist in the world in the period from 1890 to 1920 and a major leader against imperialism and warfare 61 The Englishman H G Wells 1866 1946 was heavily influenced by Darwinist thought but reacted against social Darwinism 62 American novelist Jack London 1876 1916 wrote stories of survival that incorporated his views on social Darwinism 63 American film director Stanley Kubrick 1928 1999 has been described as just an old fashioned social Darwinist 64 On the basis of U S theory and practice commercial Darwinism operates in markets worldwide pitting corporation against corporation in struggles for survival 65 Japan Edit See also Eugenics in Japan Social Darwinism has influenced political public health and social movements in Japan since the late 19th and early 20th century Social Darwinism was originally brought to Japan through the works of Francis Galton and Ernst Haeckel as well as United States British and French Lamarckian eugenic written studies of the late 19th and early 20th centuries 66 Eugenism as a science was hotly debated at the beginning of the 20th century in Jinsei Der Mensch the first eugenics journal in the empire As Japan sought to close ranks with the west this practice was adopted wholesale along with colonialism and its justifications China Edit Social Darwinism was formally introduced to China through the translation by Yan Fu of Huxley s Evolution and Ethics in the course of an extensive series of translations of influential Western thought 67 Yan s translation strongly impacted Chinese scholars because he added national elements not found in the original Yan Fu criticized Huxley from the perspective of Spencerian social Darwinism in his own annotations to the translation 68 He understood Spencer s sociology as not merely analytical and descriptive but prescriptive as well and saw Spencer building on Darwin whom Yan summarized thus Peoples and living things struggle for survival At first species struggle with species they as people gradually progress there is a struggle between one social group and another The weak invariably become the prey of the strong the stupid invariably become subservient to the clever 69 By the 1920s social Darwinism found expression in the promotion of eugenics by the Chinese sociologist Pan Guangdan When Chiang Kai shek started the New Life movement in 1934 he harked back to theories of Social Darwinism writing that only those who readapt themselves to new conditions day by day can live properly When the life of a people is going through this process of readaptation it has to remedy its own defects and get rid of those elements which become useless Then we call it new life 70 Central America Edit Aztec and Mayan region of Central America The Aztecs were not the first civilization in Mesoamerica to practice human sacrifice of the weak disabled and infirm such as a down syndrome child as a way to strengthen the population and remove non productive members That was probably the Olmec civilization 1200 300 BCE which first began such rituals atop their sacred pyramids Other civilizations such as the Maya and Toltecs continued the practice The Aztecs did however take sacrifice to an unprecedented scale it is thought that hundreds perhaps even thousands of victims were sacrificed each year Germany Edit In the 1860s and 1870s social Darwinism began to take shape in interaction between Charles Darwin and his German advocates namely August Schleicher Max Muller and Ernst Haeckel Evolutionary linguistics was taken as a platform to construe a Darwinian theory of mankind Since it was thought at the time that the orangutan and human brain were roughly the same size Darwin and his colleagues suspected that only the invention of language could account for differentiation between humans and other Great Apes It was suggested that the evolution of language and the mind must go hand in hand From this perspective empirical evidence from languages from around the world was interpreted by Haeckel as supporting the idea that nations despite having rather similar physiology represented such distinct lines of evolution that mankind should be divided into nine different species Haeckel constructed an evolutionary and intellectual hierarchy of such species 71 In a similar vein Schleicher regarded languages as different species and sub species adopting Darwin s concept of selection through competition to the study of the history and spread of nations 72 Some of their ideas including the concept of living space were adopted to the Nazi ideology after their deaths 71 Social evolution theories in Germany gained large popularity in the 1860s and had a strong antiestablishment connotation first Social Darwinism allowed people to counter the connection of Thron und Altar the intertwined establishment of clergy and nobility and provided as well the idea of progressive change and evolution of society as a whole Ernst Haeckel propagated both Darwinism as a part of natural history and as a suitable base for a modern Weltanschauung a world view based on scientific reasoning in his Monist League Friedrich von Hellwald had a strong role in popularizing it in Austria Darwin s work served as a catalyst to popularize evolutionary thinking 73 A sort of aristocratic turn the use of the struggle for life as a base of social Darwinism sensu stricto came up after 1900 with Alexander Tille s 1895 work Entwicklungsethik Ethics of Evolution which asked to move from Darwin till Nietzsche Further interpretations moved to ideologies propagating a racist and hierarchical society and provided ground for the later radical versions of social Darwinism 73 Social Darwinism came to play a major role in the ideology of Nazism which combined it with a similarly pseudo scientific theory of racial hierarchy to identify the Germans as a part of what the Nazis regarded as an Aryan or Nordic master race 74 Nazi social Darwinist beliefs led them to retain business competition and private property as economic engines 75 76 Nazism likewise opposed social welfare based on a social Darwinist belief that the weak and feeble should perish 77 This association with Nazism coupled with increasing recognition that it was scientifically unfounded contributed to the broader rejection social Darwinism after the end of World War II 6 7 Criticism and controversy EditMultiple incompatible definitions Edit Social Darwinism has many definitions and some of them are incompatible with each other As such social Darwinism has been criticized for being an inconsistent philosophy which does not lead to any clear political conclusions For example The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics states Part of the difficulty in establishing sensible and consistent usage is that commitment to the biology of natural selection and to survival of the fittest entailed nothing uniform either for sociological method or for political doctrine A social Darwinist could just as well be a defender of laissez faire as a defender of state socialism just as much an imperialist as a domestic eugenist 78 Nazism eugenics fascism imperialism Edit Social Darwinism was predominantly found in laissez faire societies where the prevailing view was that of an individualist order to society A different form of social Darwinism was part of the ideological foundations of Nazism and other fascist movements This form did not envision survival of the fittest within an individualist order of society but rather advocated a type of racial and national struggle where the state directed human breeding through eugenics 79 Names such as Darwinian collectivism or Reform Darwinism have been suggested to describe these views to differentiate them from the individualist type of social Darwinism 5 As mentioned above social Darwinism has often been linked to nationalism and imperialism 80 During the age of New Imperialism the concepts of evolution justified the exploitation of lesser breeds without the law by superior races 80 To elitists strong nations were composed of white people who were successful at expanding their empires and as such these strong nations would survive in the struggle for dominance 80 With this attitude Europeans except for Christian missionaries seldom adopted the customs and languages of local people under their empires 80 Peter Kropotkin and mutual aid Edit Peter Kropotkin argued in his 1902 book Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution that Darwin did not define the fittest as the strongest or most clever but recognized that the fittest could be those who cooperated with each other In many animal societies struggle is replaced by co operation It may be that at the outset Darwin himself was not fully aware of the generality of the factor which he first invoked for explaining one series only of facts relative to the accumulation of individual variations in incipient species But he foresaw that the term evolution which he was introducing into science would lose its philosophical and its only true meaning if it were to be used in its narrow sense only that of a struggle between separate individuals for the sheer means of existence And at the very beginning of his memorable work he insisted upon the term being taken in its large and metaphorical sense including dependence of one being on another and including which is more important not only the life of the individual but success in leaving progeny Quoting Origin of Species chap iii p 62 of first edition While he himself was chiefly using the term in its narrow sense for his own special purpose he warned his followers against committing the error which he seems once to have committed himself of overrating its narrow meaning In The Descent of Man he gave some powerful pages to illustrate its proper wide sense He pointed out how in numberless animal societies the struggle between separate individuals for the means of existence disappears how struggle is replaced by co operation and how that substitution results in the development of intellectual and moral faculties which secure to the species the best conditions for survival He intimated that in such cases the fittest are not the physically strongest nor the cunningest but those who learn to combine so as mutually to support each other strong and weak alike for the welfare of the community Those communities he wrote which included the greatest number of the most sympathetic members would flourish best and rear the greatest number of offspring 2nd edit p 163 The term which originated from the narrow Malthusian conception of competition between each and all thus lost its narrowness in the mind of one who knew Nature 81 Noam Chomsky discussed briefly Kropotkin s views in an 8 July 2011 YouTube video from Renegade Economist in which Kropotkin argued that on Darwinian grounds you would expect cooperation and mutual aid to develop leading towards community workers control and so on Well you know he didn t prove his point It s at least as well argued as Herbert Spencer is 82 Kropotkin an anarchist described how co operation exists in nature and that it too must serve a purpose in natural selection This is only social Darwinism in that the case for mutual aid in society is made by appealing to evolutionary biology To Kropotkin the state is unnatural in the sense that it prevents the realisation of what he deemed to be the next stage of human social evolution anarcho communism Though there are similarities this position differs from dialectical materialism Fabianism Edit In contrast Fabians in the early 1900s sought to use the state as the means through which a collectivist social Darwinism was to be put into effect The common Fabian views of the time reconciled a specific form of state socialism and the goal of reducing poverty with eugenics policies These policies imply a total disregard for any idea of individual self fulfilment as the aim of a socialist society These policies also implied a notion of the person as a set of genetically fixed qualities where experience and environment came a very poor second by comparison with innate characteristics In the debate between nature and nurture the former was seen to have a massive advantage 83 See also EditBiodiversity Cultural elitism Cultural evolution Cultural selection theory Evolutionary linguistics Environmental racism Hierarchy Meritocracy Scientific racism Social ecology Social implications of the theory of evolution Social progress Sociobiology and evolutionary psychology Supremacism Titan mythology Transhumanism Universal DarwinismReferences EditConstructs such as ibid loc cit and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia s style guide for footnotes as they are easily broken Please improve this article by replacing them with named references quick guide or an abbreviated title November 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message a b c d Riggenbach Jeff 2011 04 24 The Real William Graham Sumner Mises Institute Williams Raymond 2000 Social Darwinism In John Offer ed Herbert Spencer Critical Assessment London New York Routledge pp 186 199 ISBN 9780415181846 Gregory Claeys 2000 The Survival of the Fittest and the Origins of Social Darwinism Journal of the History of Ideas 61 2 223 240 Bowler 2003 pp 298 299 a b c Leonard Thomas C 2009 Origins of the Myth of Social Darwinism The Ambiguous Legacy of Richard Hofstadter s Social Darwinism in American Thought Journal of Economic Behavior amp Organization 71 p 37 51 a b Social Darwinism History com Retrieved 31 May 2019 a b c Bannister Robert C 2000 Social Darwinism Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2000 Archived from the original on 2 October 2019 a b Hodgson 2004 pp 428 430 a b Paul Diane B in Gregory Radick 5 March 2009 The Cambridge Companion to Darwin Cambridge University Press pp 219 20 ISBN 978 0 521 71184 5 Like many foes of Darwinism past and present the American populist and creationist William Jennings Bryan thought a straight line ran from Darwin s theory a dogma of darkness and death to beliefs that it is right for the strong to crowd out the weak a b Sailer Steve 30 October 2002 Q amp A Steven Pinker of Blank Slate UPI Archived from the original on 5 December 2015 Retrieved 5 December 2015 Schoijet Mauricio 1 August 2009 On Pseudoscience Critique 37 3 425 439 doi 10 1080 03017600902989856 S2CID 218548769 via Taylor and Francis NEJM Science and pseudoscience in postmodern societies Zeljko Pavic via University of Osijek Dennis Rutledge M 1995 Social Darwinism Scientific Racism and the Metaphysics of Race TJNE 64 3 243 252 doi 10 2307 2967206 JSTOR 2967206 via JSTOR Still Arthur Dryden Windy 21 May 2004 The Social Psychology of Pseudoscience A Brief History Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 34 3 265 290 doi 10 1111 j 0021 8308 2004 00248 x via Wiley Online Library Bowler 2003 pp 300 01 Adrian Desmond and James Richard Moore 2009 Darwin s Sacred Cause How a Hatred of Slavery Shaped Darwin s Views on Human Evolution New York Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Eddy Matthew Daniel 2017 The Politics of Cognition Liberalism and the Evolutionary Origins of Victorian Education British Journal for the History of Science 50 4 677 699 doi 10 1017 S0007087417000863 PMID 29019300 Claeys Gregory 2000 The Survival of the Fittest and the Origins of Social Darwinism Journal of the History of Ideas 61 2 223 40 doi 10 1353 jhi 2000 0014 S2CID 146267804 Spencer Herbert 1852 4 A Theory of Population Deduced from the General Law of Human Fertility Westminster Review 57 468 501 Bowler 2003 pp 301 02 Huxley T H April 1860 ART VIII Darwin on the origin of Species Westminster Review pp 541 70 Retrieved 19 June 2008 What if the orbit of Darwinism should be a little too circular Bowler 2003 p 179 a b Fisher Joseph 1877 The History of Landholding in Ireland Transactions of the Royal Historical Society V 228 326 doi 10 2307 3677953 JSTOR 3677953 as quoted in the Oxford English Dictionary a b Fisher 1877 pp 249 50harvnb error multiple targets 2 CITEREFFisher1877 help Hodgson Ward Lester F 1907 Social Darwinism American Journal of Sociology 12 5 709 10 doi 10 1086 211544 Hodgson 2004 pp 445 46 McLean Iain 2009 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics Oxford University Oxford University Press p 490 ISBN 9780199207800 Benjamin Kidd Social Evolution Kessinger Publishing LLC 2007 400 pages ISBN 978 0548805237 p 47 King D 1999 In the name of liberalism illiberal social policy in Britain and the United States Oxford Oxford University Press Spencer Herbert 1860 The Social Organism originally published in The Westminster Review Reprinted in Spencer s 1892 Essays Scientific Political and Speculative London and New York Paul Diane B 2003 The Cambridge Companion to Darwin Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 227 ISBN 978 0 521 77197 9 Paul Diane 2006 Darwin social Darwinism and eugenics PDF In Hodge Jonathan Radick Gregory eds The Cambridge companion to Darwin Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 230 ISBN 9780511998690 Barbara Stiegler Nietzsche et la biologie PUF 2001 p 90 ISBN 2 13 050742 5 See for ex Genealogy of Morals III 13 here 1 Friedrich Nietzsche Human All Too Human 224 Scott F Gilbert 2006 Ernst Haeckel and the Biogenetic Law Developmental Biology 8th edition Sinauer Associates Archived from the original on 3 February 2008 Retrieved 3 May 2008 Eventually the Biogenetic Law had become scientifically untenable Schmidt Oscar J Fitzgerald translator March 1879 Science and Socialism Popular Science Monthly 14 577 91 ISSN 0161 7370 Darwinism is the scientific establishment of inequality but see Wells D Collin 1907 Social Darwinism American Journal of Sociology 12 5 695 716 doi 10 1086 211544 JSTOR 2762378 Descent of Man chapter 4 ISBN 1 57392 176 9 The Extermination of Ottoman Armenians by the Young Turk Regime 1915 1916 Sciences Po Mass Violence and Resistance Research Network Extermination ottoman armenians young turk regime 1915 1916 HTML 25 January 2016 the subsciption of the Young Turks to Social Darwinism the theory of the application to humans of the survival of the fittest in the animal world had convinced them that the construction of the Turkish nation would be realized through the elimination of the Armenians Kurt Umit Gurpinar Dogan 2016 The Young Turk Historical Imagination in the Pursuit of Mythical Turkishness and its Lost Grandeur 1911 1914 British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 43 4 560 574 doi 10 1080 13530194 2016 1139443 S2CID 159857101 Kieser Hans Lukas 2010 Germany and the Armenian genocide of 1915 17 In Friedman Jonathan C ed The Routledge History of the Holocaust Taylor amp Francis doi 10 4324 9780203837443 ch3 ISBN 978 1 136 87060 6 Suny Ronald Grigor 2015 They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else A History of the Armenian Genocide Princeton University Press pp 149 245 ISBN 978 1 4008 6558 1 Lay summary Kieser Hans Lukas 2018 Talaat Pasha Father of Modern Turkey Architect of Genocide Princeton University Press pp 7 61 85 264 265 passim ISBN 978 1 4008 8963 1 Lay summary Talat s belief in social Darwinism and a total war jihad made the annihilation of civilians including women and children acceptable for him Ter Matevosyan Vahram 2015 Turkish Experience with Totalitarianism and Fascism Tracing the Intellectual Origins Iran and the Caucasus 19 pp 387 401 doi 10 1163 1573384X 20150408 Bloxham Donald 2005 The Great Game of Genocide Imperialism Nationalism and the Destruction of the Ottoman Armenians Oxford University Press p 111 ISBN 978 0 19 922688 7 Ter Matevosyan Vahram 2019 Turkey Kemalism and the Soviet Union Problems of Modernization Ideology and Interpretation Springer International Publishing p 163 ISBN 978 3 319 97403 3 Both the Young Turks and the Kemalists had an elitist conception of society they saw themselves as the nation s social physicians the only ones capable of enlightening the masses 78 Other defnitions and fashionable currents of thought that defned different facets of fascism biological materialism positivism social Darwinism and the quest for magic formulas were also incorporated by both regimes in Turkey 7 Zurcher Erik Jan 2013 Ottoman sources of Kemalist thought Late Ottoman Society Routledge pp 36 49 doi 10 4324 9780203481387 10 ISBN 978 0 203 48138 7 The Nazis A Warning from History 10 September 1997 via IMDb T4 Program Definition and History Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 26 August 2020 E g Weingart P J Kroll and K Bayertz Rasse Blut und Gene Geschichte der Eugenik und Rassenhygiene in Deutschland Frankfurt Suhrkamp 1988 Arendt H Elements of Totalitarianism Harcourt Brace Jovanovich New York 1951 pp 178 179 Weikart Richard 2002 Evolutionare Aufklarung Zur Geschichte des Monistenbundes Wissenschaft Politik und Offentlichkeit von der Wiener Moderne bis zur Gegenwart Wien WUV Universitatsverlag pp 131 48 ISBN 3 85114 664 6 a b Constitutional Rights Foundation www crf usa org Retrieved 27 June 2020 Captains of industry like John D Rockefeller and Andrew Carnegie made fortunes They also preached survival of the fittest in business Reich Robert 20 November 2005 The Two Darwinisms The American Prospect Retrieved 27 June 2020 Felix Elving Rockefeller 20once 20claimed amp text Through 20Standard 20Oil 20Rockefeller 20controlled powerful 20businessmen 20in 20American 20history Research Guides John D Rockefeller Topics in Chronicling America Introduction Check url value help guides loc gov Retrieved 27 June 2020 Reich Robert B 2005 Reason Why Liberals Will Win the Battle for America Vintage Books ISBN 978 1 4000 7660 4 Reich Robert 20 November 2005 The Two Darwinisms The American Prospect Retrieved 30 September 2021 Scientists who are legitimized by peer review and published research are unanimous in their view that evolution is a fact not a theory Social Darwinism meanwhile is hogwash Social scientists have long understood that one s economic status in society is not a function of one s moral worth It depends largely on the economic status of one s parents the models of success available while growing up and educational opportunities along the way The Project Gutenberg eBook of What Social Classes Owe To Each Other by William Graham Sumner www gutenberg org 16 June 2006 Retrieved 15 April 2018 A careful reading of the theories of Sumner and Spencer exonerates them from the century old charge of social Darwinism in the strict sense of the word They did not themselves advocate the application of Darwin s theory of natural selection The Social Meaning of Modern Biology From Social Darwinism to Sociobiology At least a part and sometimes a generous part of the great fortunes went back to the community through many kinds of philanthropic endeavor says Bremner Robert H 1988 American Philanthropy 2nd ed p 86 ISBN 978 0 226 07324 8 Page Michael R 2012 Dim Outlines on a Desolate Beach H G Wells The Literary Imagination from Erasmus Darwin to H G Wells Science Evolution and Ecology London Routledge published 2016 p 162 ISBN 9781317025276 Retrieved 30 September 2021 The Traveller s conjectures allow Wells to make a startling critique of social Darwinism and to suggest an alternative evolutionary trajectory that moves beyond the desire for utopia in the end human evolution will reverse itself and witness an inevitable decline progress itself must inevitably result in degeneration Borrowing from Charles Darwin s theory of evolution social Darwinists believed that societies as do organisms evolve over time Nature then determined that the strong survive and the weak perish In Jack London s case he thought that certain favored races were destined for survival mainly those that could preserve themselves while supplanting others as in the case of the White race The philosophy of Jack London Archived 27 October 2005 at the Wayback Machine Herr Michael 2000 Kubrick Grove Press p 11 ISBN 978 0 8021 3818 7 Retrieved 20 February 2016 He was just an old fashioned social Darwinist seemingly Vengrow Jeffrey Voehl Frank 26 August 2020 Value Stream Quality System In Stein Martin Voehl Frank eds Macrologistics Management A Catalyst for Organizational Change reprint ed CRC Press published 2020 ISBN 9781000162240 Retrieved 30 September 2021 In the global marketplace commercial Darwinism is alive and well Survival of the fittest in this sense has little to do with genetics but it has everything to do with developing a competitive advantage Survival is often associated with adaptation and change Otsubo S Bartholomew J R 1998 Eugenics in Japan some ironies of modernity 1883 1945 Sci Context 11 3 4 545 65 doi 10 1017 S0269889700003203 PMID 15168677 Jonathan D Spence The Search for Modern China W W Norton 1990 p 301 Jin Xiaoxing 2019 Translation and transmutation The Origin of Species in China The British Journal for the History of Science 52 1 117 141 doi 10 1017 S0007087418000808 PMID 30587253 S2CID 58605626 Ibid Ibid 414 15 a b Richards R J 2013 Was Hitler a Darwinian Disputed Questions in the History of Evolutionary Theory University of Chicago Press ISBN 978 0 226 05893 1 Aronoff Mark 2017 Darwinism tested by the science of language In Bowern Horn Zanuttini eds On Looking into Words and Beyond Structures Relations Analyses SUNY Press pp 443 456 ISBN 978 3 946234 92 0 Retrieved 3 March 2020 a b Puschner Uwe 2014 Sozialdarwinismus als wissenschaftliches Konzept und politisches Programm in Gangolf Hubinger ed Europaische Wissenschaftskulturen und politische Ordnungen in der Moderne 1890 1970 Schriften des Historischen Kollegs Kolloquien 77 Munchen 2014 pp 99 121 in German Walter de Gruyter GmbH amp Co KG ISBN 9783110446784 Baum Bruce David 2006 The Rise and Fall of the Caucasian Race A Political History of Racial Identity New York City London New York University Press p 156 Barkai Avaraham 1990 Nazi Economics Ideology Theory and Policy Oxford Berg Publisher Hayes Peter 1987 Industry and Ideology IG Farben in the Nazi Era Cambridge University Press Evans Richard J 2005 The Third Reich in Power New York Penguin Books pp 483 84 ISBN 978 0 14 303790 3 McLean Iain 2009 The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Politics Oxford University Oxford University Press p 490 ISBN 9780199207800 Leonard Thomas C 2005 Mistaking Eugenics for Social Darwinism Why Eugenics is Missing from the History of American Economics History of Political Economy Vol 37 supplement 200 233 a b c d Perry Marvin Chase Myrna Jacob Margaret Jacob James Daly Jonathan W Von Laue Theodore H 2014 Western Civilization Ideas Politics and Society Volume II Since 1600 11th ed Boston MA Cengage Learning pp 634 635 ISBN 978 1 305 09142 9 LCCN 2014943347 OCLC 898154349 Retrieved 1 February 2016 The most extreme ideological expression of nationalism and imperialism was Social Darwinism In the popular mind the concepts of evolution justified the exploitation by the superior races of lesser breeds without the law This language of race and conflict of superior and inferior people had wide currency in the Western nations Social Darwinists vigorously advocated empires saying that strong nations by definition those that were successful at expanding industry and empire would survive and others would not To these elitists all white peoples were more fit than nonwhites to prevail in the struggle for dominance Even among Europeans some nations were deemed more fit than others for the competition Usually Social Darwinists thought their own nation the best an attitude that sparked their competitive enthusiasm In the 19th century in contrast to the 17th and 18th centuries Europeans except for missionaries rarely adopted the customs or learned the languages of local people They had little sense that other cultures and other peoples deserved respect Many Westerners believed that it was their Christian duty to set an example and to educate others Missionaries were the first to meet and learn about many peoples and the first to develop writing for those without a written language Christian missionaries were ardently opposed to slavery volume has extra text help Kropotkin kniaz Petr Alekseevich Mutual Aid A Factor of Evolution Chomsky Noam 8 July 2011 Noam Chomsky on Darwinism Archived from the original on 2 November 2021 Shaw Christopher 1987 Eliminating the Yahoo Eugenics Social Darwinism and Five Fabians History of Political Thought 8 3 521 544 ISSN 0143 781X JSTOR 26213235 PMID 11620187 Primary sources Edit Darwinism Critical Reviews from Dublin Review Catholic periodical Dublin Review Edinburgh Review Quarterly Review 1977 edition reprints 19th century reviews and essays Darwin Charles 1859 On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life 1st ed London John Murray Cite journal requires journal help Darwin Charles 1882 The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex 2nd ed London John Murray Cite journal requires journal help Fisher Joseph 1877 The History of Landholding in Ireland London Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 249 50 Cite journal requires journal help Fiske John Darwinism and Other Essays 1900 Secondary sources Edit Bannister Robert C Social Darwinism Science and Myth in Anglo American Social Thought 1989 Bannister Robert C Sociology and Scientism The American Quest for Objectivity 1880 1940 1987 Bernardini J M Le darwinisme social en France 1859 1918 Fascination et rejet d une ideologie Paris CNRS Edition 1997 Boller Paul F Jr American Thought in Transition The Impact of Evolutionary Naturalism 1865 1900 1969 Bowler Peter J 2003 Evolution The History of an Idea 3rd ed University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 23693 6 Crook D Paul Darwinism War and History The Debate over the Biology of War from the Origin of Species to the First World War 1994 Crook Paul 1999 Social Darwinism in European and American Thought 1860 1945 The Australian Journal of Politics and History 45 Crook Paul Darwin s Coat Tails Essays on Social Darwinism Peter Lang 2007 Degler Carl N In Search of Human Nature The Decline and Revival of Darwinism in American Social Thought 1992 Desmond Adrian Moore James 1991 Darwin London Michael Joseph Penguin Group ISBN 978 0 7181 3430 3 Dickens Peter Social Darwinism Linking Evolutionary Thought to Social Theory Philadelphia Open University Press 2000 Gossett Thomas F Race The History of an Idea in America 1999 ch 7 Hawkins Mike 1997 Social Darwinism in European and American Thought 1860 1945 Nature and Model and Nature as Threat London Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 57434 1 Hodge Jonathan and Gregory Radick The Cambridge Companion to Darwin 2003 Hodgson Geoffrey M December 2004 Social Darwinism in Anglophone Academic Journals A Contribution to the History of the Term PDF Journal of Historical Sociology 17 4 428 63 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 524 4248 doi 10 1111 j 1467 6443 2004 00239 x hdl 2299 406 Retrieved 17 February 2010 Social Darwinism as almost everyone knows is a Bad Thing Hofstadter Richard 1944 Social Darwinism in American Thought Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 9780807055038 Hofstadter Richard 1992 Eric Foner ed Social Darwinism in American Thought with a new introduction ed Boston Beacon Press ISBN 978 0807055038 Jones Leslie Social Darwinism Revisited History Today Vol 48 August 1998 Kaye Howard L The Social Meaning of Modern Biology From Social Darwinism to Sociobiology 1997 Versen Christopher R What s Wrong with a Little Social Darwinism In Our Historiography The History Teacher 42 4 2009 pp 403 423 online Sammut Bonnici T amp Wensley R 2002 Darwinism Probability and Complexity Transformation and Change Explained through the Theories of Evolution International Journal of Management Reviews 4 3 pp 291 315 External links EditSocial Darwinism on ThinkQuest In the name of Darwin criticism of social Darwinism Descent of Man on Alibris Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Social Darwinism amp oldid 1054465241, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.