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Social anthropology

For the academic journal, see Social Anthropology (journal).

Social anthropology is the study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures. It is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology. In the United States, social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology or sociocultural anthropology.[citation needed]

Contents

The term cultural anthropology is generally applied to ethnographic works that are holistic in spirit, are oriented to the ways in which culture affects individual experience, or aim to provide a rounded view of the knowledge, customs, and institutions of a people. Social anthropology is a term applied to ethnographic works that attempt to isolate a particular system of social relations such as those that comprise domestic life, economy, law, politics, or religion, give analytical priority to the organizational bases of social life, and attend to cultural phenomena as somewhat secondary to the main issues of social scientific inquiry.

Topics of interest for social anthropologists have included customs, economic and political organization, law and conflict resolution, patterns of consumption and exchange, kinship and family structure, gender relations, childbearing and socialization, religion, while present-day social anthropologists are also concerned with issues of globalism, ethnic violence, gender studies, transnationalism and local experience, and the emerging cultures of cyberspace, and can also help with bringing opponents together when environmental concerns come into conflict with economic developments. British and American anthropologists including Gillian Tett and Karen Ho who studied Wall Street provided an alternative explanation for the financial crisis of 2007–2010 to the technical explanations rooted in economic and political theory.

Differences among British, French, and American sociocultural anthropologies have diminished with increasing dialogue and borrowing of both theory and methods. Social and cultural anthropologists, and some who integrate the two, are found in most institutes of anthropology. Thus the formal names of institutional units no longer necessarily reflect fully the content of the disciplines these cover. Some, such as the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology (Oxford) changed their name to reflect the change in composition, others, such as Social Anthropology at the University of Kent became simply Anthropology. Most retain the name under which they were founded.

Long-term qualitative research, including intensive field studies (emphasizing participant observation methods), has been traditionally encouraged in social anthropology rather than quantitative analysis of surveys, questionnaires and brief field visits typically used by economists, political scientists, and (most) sociologists.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(June 2020) ()

Social anthropology is distinguished from subjects such as economics or political science by its holistic range and the attention it gives to the comparative diversity of societies and cultures across the world, and the capacity this gives the discipline to re-examine Euro-American assumptions. It is differentiated from sociology, both in its main methods (based on long-term participant observation and linguistic competence), and in its commitment to the relevance and illumination provided by micro studies. It extends beyond strictly social phenomena to culture, art, individuality, and cognition. Many social anthropologists use quantitative methods, too, particularly those whose research touches on topics such as local economies, demography, human ecology, cognition, or health and illness.

Specializations

Specializations within social anthropology shift as its objects of study are transformed and as new intellectual paradigms appear; musicology and medical anthropology are examples of current, well-defined specialities.

More recent and currently cognitive development; social and ethical understandings of novel technologies; emergent forms of "the family" and other new socialities modelled on kinship; the ongoing social fall-out of the demise of state socialism; the politics of resurgent religiosity; and analysis of audit cultures and accountability.

The subject has been enlivened by, and has contributed to, approaches from other disciplines, such as philosophy (ethics, phenomenology, logic), the history of science, psychoanalysis, and linguistics.

Ethical considerations

The subject has both ethical and reflexive dimensions. Practitioners have developed an awareness of the sense in which scholars create their objects of study and the ways in which anthropologists themselves may contribute to processes of change in the societies they study. An example of this is the "hawthorne effect", whereby those being studied may alter their behaviour in response to the knowledge that they are being watched and studied.

Social anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th-century disciplines, including ethnology, folklore studies, and classics, among others. (See History of anthropology.) Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890–1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork, long-term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings, and the introduction of French and German social theory. Bronislaw Malinowski, one of the most important influences on British social anthropology, emphasized long-term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people. This development was bolstered by Franz Boas's introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values.

The British Museum, London

Museums such as the British Museum weren't the only site of anthropological studies; with the New Imperialism period, starting in the 1870s, zoos became unattended "laboratories", especially the so-called "ethnological exhibitions" or "Negro villages". Thus, "savages" from the Americas, Africa and Asia were displayed, often nude, in cages, in what has been termed "human zoos". In 1906, Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by American anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoo, labelled "the missing link" between an orangutan and the "white race" — Grant, a renowned eugenicist, was also the author of The Passing of the Great Race (1916). Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racism, whose first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races (1853–55). In 1931, the Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the "indigenous village"; it received 24 million visitors in six months, thus demonstrating the popularity of such "human zoos".

Anthropology grew increasingly distinct from natural history and by the end of the 19th century the discipline began to crystallize into its modern form - by 1935, for example, it was possible for T.K. Penniman to write a history of the discipline entitled A Hundred Years of Anthropology. At the time, the field was dominated by "the comparative method". It was assumed that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process from the most primitive to most advanced. Non-European societies were thus seen as evolutionary "living fossils" that could be studied in order to understand the European past. Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful. It was during this time that Europeans first accurately traced Polynesian migrations across the Pacific Ocean for instance - although some of them believed it originated in Egypt. Finally, the concept of race was actively discussed as a way to classify - and rank - human beings based on difference.

Tylor and Frazer

E.B. Tylor, 19th-century British anthropologist

E.B. Tylor (2 October 1832 – 2 January 1917) and James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941) are generally considered the antecedents to modern social anthropologists in Britain. Although Tylor undertook a field trip to Mexico, both he and Frazer derived most of the material for their comparative studies through extensive reading, not fieldwork, mainly the Classics (literature and history of Greece and Rome), the work of the early European folklorists, and reports from missionaries, travelers, and contemporaneous ethnologists.

Tylor advocated strongly for unilinealism and a form of "uniformity of mankind". Tylor in particular laid the groundwork for theories of cultural diffusionism, stating that there are three ways that different groups can have similar cultural forms or technologies: "independent invention, inheritance from ancestors in a distant region, transmission from one race [sic] to another."

Tylor formulated one of the early and influential anthropological conceptions of culture as "that complex whole, which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by [humans] as [members] of society." However, as Stocking notes, Tylor mainly concerned himself with describing and mapping the distribution of particular elements of culture, rather than with the larger function, and he generally seemed to assume a Victorian idea of progress rather than the idea of non-directional, multilineal cultural change proposed by later anthropologists. Tylor also theorized about the origins of religious beliefs in human beings, proposing a theory of animism as the earliest stage, and noting that "religion" has many components, of which he believed the most important to be belief in supernatural beings (as opposed to moral systems, cosmology, etc.).

Frazer, a Scottish scholar with a broad knowledge of Classics, also concerned himself with religion, myth, and magic. His comparative studies, most influentially in the numerous editions of The Golden Bough, analyzed similarities in religious belief and symbolism globally. Neither Tylor nor Frazer, however, were particularly interested in fieldwork, nor were they interested in examining how the cultural elements and institutions fit together. The Golden Bough was abridged drastically in subsequent editions after his first.

Malinowski and the British School

Bronislaw Malinowski, Anthropologist at the London School of Economics

Toward the turn of the 20th century, a number of anthropologists became dissatisfied with this categorization of cultural elements; historical reconstructions also came to seem increasingly speculative to them. Under the influence of several younger scholars, a new approach came to predominate among British anthropologists, concerned with analyzing how societies held together in the present (synchronic analysis, rather than diachronic or historical analysis), and emphasizing long-term (one to several years) immersion fieldwork. Cambridge University financed a multidisciplinary expedition to the Torres Strait Islands in 1898, organized by Alfred Cort Haddon and including a physician-anthropologist, William Rivers, as well as a linguist, a botanist, and other specialists. The findings of the expedition set new standards for ethnographic description.

A decade and a half later, the Polish anthropology student, Bronisław Malinowski (1884–1942), was beginning what he expected to be a brief period of fieldwork in the old model, collecting lists of cultural items, when the outbreak of the First World War stranded him in New Guinea. As a subject of the Austro-Hungarian Empire resident on a British colonial possession, he was effectively confined to New Guinea for several years.

He made use of the time by undertaking far more intensive fieldwork than had been done by British anthropologists, and his classic ethnography, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (1922) advocated an approach to fieldwork that became standard in the field: getting "the native's point of view" through participant observation. Theoretically, he advocated a functionalist interpretation, which examined how social institutions functioned to satisfy individual needs.

1920s–1940

The main LSE entrance

Modern social anthropology was founded in Britain at the London School of Economics and Political Science following World War I. Influences include both the methodological revolution pioneered by Bronisław Malinowski's process-oriented fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands of Melanesia between 1915 and 1918 and Alfred Radcliffe-Brown's theoretical program for systematic comparison that was based on a conception of rigorous fieldwork and the structure-functionalist conception of Durkheim’s sociology. Other intellectual founders include W. H. R. Rivers and A. C. Haddon, whose orientation reflected the contemporary Parapsychologies of Wilhelm Wundt and Adolf Bastian, and Sir E. B. Tylor, who defined anthropology as a positivist science following Auguste Comte. Edmund Leach (1962) defined social anthropology as a kind of comparative micro-sociology based on intensive fieldwork studies. Scholars have not settled a theoretical orthodoxy on the nature of science and society, and their tensions reflect views which are seriously opposed.

Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown

A. R. Radcliffe-Brown also published a seminal work in 1922. He had carried out his initial fieldwork in the Andaman Islands in the old style of historical reconstruction. However, after reading the work of French sociologists Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss, Radcliffe-Brown published an account of his research (entitled simply The Andaman Islanders) that paid close attention to the meaning and purpose of rituals and myths. Over time, he developed an approach known as structural functionalism, which focused on how institutions in societies worked to balance out or create an equilibrium in the social system to keep it functioning harmoniously. (This contrasted with Malinowski's functionalism, and was quite different from the later French structuralism, which examined the conceptual structures in language and symbolism.)

Malinowski and Radcliffe-Brown's influence stemmed from the fact that they, like Boas, actively trained students and aggressively built up institutions that furthered their programmatic ambitions. This was particularly the case with Radcliffe-Brown, who spread his agenda for "Social Anthropology" by teaching at universities across the British Empire and Commonwealth. From the late 1930s until the postwar period appeared a string of monographs and edited volumes that cemented the paradigm of British Social Anthropology (BSA). Famous ethnographies include The Nuer, by Edward Evan Evans-Pritchard, and The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensi, by Meyer Fortes; well-known edited volumes include African Systems of Kinship and Marriage and African Political Systems.

Post-World War II trends

Following World War II, sociocultural anthropology as comprised by the fields of ethnography and ethnology diverged into an American school of cultural anthropology while social anthropology diversified in Europe by challenging the principles of structure-functionalism, absorbing ideas from Claude Lévi-Strauss's structuralism and from the followers of Max Gluckman, and embracing the study of conflict, change, urban anthropology, and networks. Together with many of his colleagues at the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute and students at Manchester University, collectively known as the Manchester School, took BSA in new directions through their introduction of explicitly Marxist-informed theory, their emphasis on conflicts and conflict resolution, and their attention to the ways in which individuals negotiate and make use of the social structural possibilities. During this period Gluckman was also involved in a dispute with American anthropologist Paul Bohannan on ethnographic methodology within the anthropological study of law. He believed that indigenous terms used in ethnographic data should be translated into Anglo-American legal terms for the benefit of the reader. The Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth was founded in 1946.

In Britain, anthropology had a great intellectual impact, it "contributed to the erosion of Christianity, the growth of cultural relativism, an awareness of the survival of the primitive in modern life, and the replacement of diachronic modes of analysis with synchronic, all of which are central to modern culture."

Later in the 1960s and 1970s, Edmund Leach and his students Mary Douglas and Nur Yalman, among others, introduced French structuralism in the style of Lévi-Strauss.

In countries of the British Commonwealth, social anthropology has often been institutionally separate from physical anthropology and primatology, which may be connected with departments of biology or zoology; and from archaeology, which may be connected with departments of Classics, Egyptology, and the like. In other countries (and in some, particularly smaller, British and North American universities), anthropologists have also found themselves institutionally linked with scholars of folklore, museum studies, human geography, sociology, social relations, ethnic studies, cultural studies, and social work. British anthropology has continued to emphasize social organization and economics over purely symbolic or literary topics.

1980s to present

A European Association of Social Anthropologists (EASA) was founded in 1989 as a society of scholarship at a meeting of founder members from fourteen European countries, supported by the Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. The Association seeks to advance anthropology in Europe by organizing biennial conferences and by editing its academic journal, Social Anthropology/Anthropologies Social. Departments of Social Anthropology at different Universities have tended to focus on disparate aspects of the field.

Departments of Social Anthropology exist in universities around the world. The field of social anthropology has expanded in ways not anticipated by the founders of the field, as for example in the subfield of structure and dynamics.

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Social anthropology
Social anthropology Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Social anthropologist For the academic journal see Social Anthropology journal Social anthropology is the study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures It is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe 1 where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology 2 In the United States social anthropology is commonly subsumed within cultural anthropology or sociocultural anthropology citation needed Contents 1 Comparison with cultural anthropology 2 Focus and practice 2 1 Specializations 2 2 Ethical considerations 3 History 3 1 Tylor and Frazer 3 2 Malinowski and the British School 3 3 1920s 1940 3 4 Post World War II trends 3 5 1980s to present 4 Anthropologists associated with social anthropology 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksComparison with cultural anthropology EditThe term cultural anthropology is generally applied to ethnographic works that are holistic in spirit are oriented to the ways in which culture affects individual experience or aim to provide a rounded view of the knowledge customs and institutions of a people Social anthropology is a term applied to ethnographic works that attempt to isolate a particular system of social relations such as those that comprise domestic life economy law politics or religion give analytical priority to the organizational bases of social life and attend to cultural phenomena as somewhat secondary to the main issues of social scientific inquiry 3 Topics of interest for social anthropologists have included customs economic and political organization law and conflict resolution patterns of consumption and exchange kinship and family structure gender relations childbearing and socialization religion while present day social anthropologists are also concerned with issues of globalism ethnic violence gender studies transnationalism and local experience and the emerging cultures of cyberspace 4 and can also help with bringing opponents together when environmental concerns come into conflict with economic developments 5 British and American anthropologists including Gillian Tett and Karen Ho who studied Wall Street provided an alternative explanation for the financial crisis of 2007 2010 to the technical explanations rooted in economic and political theory 6 Differences among British French and American sociocultural anthropologies have diminished with increasing dialogue and borrowing of both theory and methods Social and cultural anthropologists and some who integrate the two are found in most institutes of anthropology Thus the formal names of institutional units no longer necessarily reflect fully the content of the disciplines these cover Some such as the Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology 7 Oxford changed their name to reflect the change in composition others such as Social Anthropology at the University of Kent 8 became simply Anthropology Most retain the name under which they were founded Long term qualitative research including intensive field studies emphasizing participant observation methods has been traditionally encouraged in social anthropology rather than quantitative analysis of surveys questionnaires and brief field visits typically used by economists political scientists and most sociologists 9 Focus and practice EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Social anthropology is distinguished from subjects such as economics or political science by its holistic range and the attention it gives to the comparative diversity of societies and cultures across the world and the capacity this gives the discipline to re examine Euro American assumptions It is differentiated from sociology both in its main methods based on long term participant observation and linguistic competence 10 and in its commitment to the relevance and illumination provided by micro studies It extends beyond strictly social phenomena to culture art individuality and cognition 11 Many social anthropologists use quantitative methods too particularly those whose research touches on topics such as local economies demography human ecology cognition or health and illness Specializations Edit Main article Anthropology Key topics by field Socio cultural anthropology Specializations within social anthropology shift as its objects of study are transformed and as new intellectual paradigms appear musicology and medical anthropology are examples of current well defined specialities More recent and currently cognitive development social and ethical understandings of novel technologies emergent forms of the family and other new socialities modelled on kinship the ongoing social fall out of the demise of state socialism the politics of resurgent religiosity and analysis of audit cultures and accountability The subject has been enlivened by and has contributed to approaches from other disciplines such as philosophy ethics phenomenology logic the history of science psychoanalysis and linguistics Ethical considerations Edit The subject has both ethical and reflexive dimensions Practitioners have developed an awareness of the sense in which scholars create their objects of study and the ways in which anthropologists themselves may contribute to processes of change in the societies they study An example of this is the hawthorne effect whereby those being studied may alter their behaviour in response to the knowledge that they are being watched and studied History EditSocial anthropology has historical roots in a number of 19th century disciplines including ethnology folklore studies and classics among others See History of anthropology Its immediate precursor took shape in the work of Edward Burnett Tylor and James George Frazer in the late 19th century and underwent major changes in both method and theory during the period 1890 1920 with a new emphasis on original fieldwork long term holistic study of social behavior in natural settings and the introduction of French and German social theory Bronislaw Malinowski one of the most important influences on British social anthropology emphasized long term fieldwork in which anthropologists work in the vernacular and immerse themselves in the daily practices of local people 12 This development was bolstered by Franz Boas s introduction of cultural relativism arguing that cultures are based on different ideas about the world and can therefore only be properly understood in terms of their own standards and values 13 The British Museum London Museums such as the British Museum weren t the only site of anthropological studies with the New Imperialism period starting in the 1870s zoos became unattended laboratories especially the so called ethnological exhibitions or Negro villages Thus savages from the Americas Africa and Asia were displayed often nude in cages in what has been termed human zoos In 1906 Congolese pygmy Ota Benga was put by American anthropologist Madison Grant in a cage in the Bronx Zoo labelled the missing link between an orangutan and the white race Grant a renowned eugenicist was also the author of The Passing of the Great Race 1916 Such exhibitions were attempts to illustrate and prove in the same movement the validity of scientific racism whose first formulation may be found in Arthur de Gobineau s An Essay on the Inequality of Human Races 1853 55 In 1931 the Colonial Exhibition in Paris still displayed Kanaks from New Caledonia in the indigenous village it received 24 million visitors in six months thus demonstrating the popularity of such human zoos Anthropology grew increasingly distinct from natural history and by the end of the 19th century the discipline began to crystallize into its modern form by 1935 for example it was possible for T K Penniman to write a history of the discipline entitled A Hundred Years of Anthropology At the time the field was dominated by the comparative method It was assumed that all societies passed through a single evolutionary process from the most primitive to most advanced Non European societies were thus seen as evolutionary living fossils that could be studied in order to understand the European past Scholars wrote histories of prehistoric migrations which were sometimes valuable but often also fanciful It was during this time that Europeans first accurately traced Polynesian migrations across the Pacific Ocean for instance although some of them believed it originated in Egypt Finally the concept of race was actively discussed as a way to classify and rank human beings based on difference Tylor and Frazer Edit E B Tylor 19th century British anthropologist E B Tylor 2 October 1832 2 January 1917 and James George Frazer 1 January 1854 7 May 1941 are generally considered the antecedents to modern social anthropologists in Britain Although Tylor undertook a field trip to Mexico both he and Frazer derived most of the material for their comparative studies through extensive reading not fieldwork mainly the Classics literature and history of Greece and Rome the work of the early European folklorists and reports from missionaries travelers and contemporaneous ethnologists Tylor advocated strongly for unilinealism and a form of uniformity of mankind 14 Tylor in particular laid the groundwork for theories of cultural diffusionism stating that there are three ways that different groups can have similar cultural forms or technologies independent invention inheritance from ancestors in a distant region transmission from one race sic to another 15 Tylor formulated one of the early and influential anthropological conceptions of culture as that complex whole which includes knowledge belief art morals law custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by humans as members of society 16 However as Stocking notes Tylor mainly concerned himself with describing and mapping the distribution of particular elements of culture rather than with the larger function and he generally seemed to assume a Victorian idea of progress rather than the idea of non directional multilineal cultural change proposed by later anthropologists Tylor also theorized about the origins of religious beliefs in human beings proposing a theory of animism as the earliest stage and noting that religion has many components of which he believed the most important to be belief in supernatural beings as opposed to moral systems cosmology etc Frazer a Scottish scholar with a broad knowledge of Classics also concerned himself with religion myth and magic His comparative studies most influentially in the numerous editions of The Golden Bough analyzed similarities in religious belief and symbolism globally Neither Tylor nor Frazer however were particularly interested in fieldwork nor were they interested in examining how the cultural elements and institutions fit together The Golden Bough was abridged drastically in subsequent editions after his first Malinowski and the British School Edit Bronislaw Malinowski Anthropologist at the London School of Economics Toward the turn of the 20th century a number of anthropologists became dissatisfied with this categorization of cultural elements historical reconstructions also came to seem increasingly speculative to them Under the influence of several younger scholars a new approach came to predominate among British anthropologists concerned with analyzing how societies held together in the present synchronic analysis rather than diachronic or historical analysis and emphasizing long term one to several years immersion fieldwork Cambridge University financed a multidisciplinary expedition to the Torres Strait Islands in 1898 organized by Alfred Cort Haddon and including a physician anthropologist William Rivers as well as a linguist a botanist and other specialists The findings of the expedition set new standards for ethnographic description A decade and a half later the Polish anthropology student Bronislaw Malinowski 1884 1942 was beginning what he expected to be a brief period of fieldwork in the old model collecting lists of cultural items when the outbreak of the First World War stranded him in New Guinea As a subject of the Austro Hungarian Empire resident on a British colonial possession he was effectively confined to New Guinea for several years 17 He made use of the time by undertaking far more intensive fieldwork than had been done by British anthropologists and his classic ethnography Argonauts of the Western Pacific 1922 advocated an approach to fieldwork that became standard in the field getting the native s point of view through participant observation Theoretically he advocated a functionalist interpretation which examined how social institutions functioned to satisfy individual needs 1920s 1940 Edit The main LSE entrance Modern social anthropology was founded in Britain at the London School of Economics and Political Science following World War I Influences include both the methodological revolution pioneered by Bronislaw Malinowski s process oriented fieldwork in the Trobriand Islands of Melanesia between 1915 and 1918 18 and Alfred Radcliffe Brown s theoretical program for systematic comparison that was based on a conception of rigorous fieldwork and the structure functionalist conception of Durkheim s sociology 19 20 Other intellectual founders include W H R Rivers and A C Haddon whose orientation reflected the contemporary Parapsychologies of Wilhelm Wundt and Adolf Bastian and Sir E B Tylor who defined anthropology as a positivist science following Auguste Comte Edmund Leach 1962 defined social anthropology as a kind of comparative micro sociology based on intensive fieldwork studies Scholars have not settled a theoretical orthodoxy on the nature of science and society and their tensions reflect views which are seriously opposed Alfred R Radcliffe Brown A R Radcliffe Brown also published a seminal work in 1922 He had carried out his initial fieldwork in the Andaman Islands in the old style of historical reconstruction However after reading the work of French sociologists Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss Radcliffe Brown published an account of his research entitled simply The Andaman Islanders that paid close attention to the meaning and purpose of rituals and myths Over time he developed an approach known as structural functionalism which focused on how institutions in societies worked to balance out or create an equilibrium in the social system to keep it functioning harmoniously This contrasted with Malinowski s functionalism and was quite different from the later French structuralism which examined the conceptual structures in language and symbolism Malinowski and Radcliffe Brown s influence stemmed from the fact that they like Boas actively trained students and aggressively built up institutions that furthered their programmatic ambitions This was particularly the case with Radcliffe Brown who spread his agenda for Social Anthropology by teaching at universities across the British Empire and Commonwealth From the late 1930s until the postwar period appeared a string of monographs and edited volumes that cemented the paradigm of British Social Anthropology BSA Famous ethnographies include The Nuer by Edward Evan Evans Pritchard and The Dynamics of Clanship Among the Tallensi by Meyer Fortes well known edited volumes include African Systems of Kinship and Marriage and African Political Systems Post World War II trends Edit Following World War II sociocultural anthropology as comprised by the fields of ethnography and ethnology diverged into an American school of cultural anthropology while social anthropology diversified in Europe by challenging the principles of structure functionalism absorbing ideas from Claude Levi Strauss s structuralism and from the followers of Max Gluckman and embracing the study of conflict change urban anthropology and networks Together with many of his colleagues at the Rhodes Livingstone Institute and students at Manchester University collectively known as the Manchester School took BSA in new directions through their introduction of explicitly Marxist informed theory their emphasis on conflicts and conflict resolution and their attention to the ways in which individuals negotiate and make use of the social structural possibilities During this period Gluckman was also involved in a dispute with American anthropologist Paul Bohannan on ethnographic methodology within the anthropological study of law He believed that indigenous terms used in ethnographic data should be translated into Anglo American legal terms for the benefit of the reader 21 22 The Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth was founded in 1946 23 In Britain anthropology had a great intellectual impact it contributed to the erosion of Christianity the growth of cultural relativism an awareness of the survival of the primitive in modern life and the replacement of diachronic modes of analysis with synchronic all of which are central to modern culture 24 Later in the 1960s and 1970s Edmund Leach and his students Mary Douglas and Nur Yalman among others introduced French structuralism in the style of Levi Strauss In countries of the British Commonwealth social anthropology has often been institutionally separate from physical anthropology and primatology which may be connected with departments of biology or zoology and from archaeology which may be connected with departments of Classics Egyptology and the like In other countries and in some particularly smaller British and North American universities anthropologists have also found themselves institutionally linked with scholars of folklore museum studies human geography sociology social relations ethnic studies cultural studies and social work British anthropology has continued to emphasize social organization and economics over purely symbolic or literary topics 1980s to present Edit A European Association of Social Anthropologists EASA was founded in 1989 as a society of scholarship at a meeting of founder members from fourteen European countries supported by the Wenner Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research The Association seeks to advance anthropology in Europe by organizing biennial conferences and by editing its academic journal Social Anthropology Anthropologies Social Departments of Social Anthropology at different Universities have tended to focus on disparate aspects of the field Departments of Social Anthropology exist in universities around the world The field of social anthropology has expanded in ways not anticipated by the founders of the field as for example in the subfield of structure and dynamics Anthropologists associated with social anthropology EditAndre Beteille 25 Aleksandar Boskovic Edmund Snow Carpenter Mary Douglas 26 Thomas Hylland Eriksen E E Evans Pritchard Raymond Firth Rosemary Firth 27 Meyer Fortes Ernest Gellner Stephen D Glazier Jack Goody David Graeber Don Kalb Adam Kuper Edmund Leach Murray Leaf Claude Levi Strauss Alan Macfarlane 28 Bronislaw Malinowski Siegfried Frederick Nadel Susan Visvanathan A H J Prins Alfred Radcliffe Brown Audrey Richards Juan Mauricio Renold Victor Turner Marshall Sahlins Philippe Descola Marilyn Strathern Hebe Vessuri Douglas R White Eric Wolf Robert Layton Judith MacDougall David MacDougallSee also EditCultural anthropology Ethnology Ethnosemiotics List of important publications in anthropology Rajamandala Sociology StructuralismNotes Edit Dianteill Erwan Cultural Anthropology or Social Anthropology A Transatlantic Argument L Annee sociologique 1 2012 Vol 62 p 93 122 Archived 2016 03 04 at the Wayback Machine Benchmark Statement Anthropology UK PDF QAA UK Archived PDF from the original on 2013 09 21 Retrieved 2012 01 09 Anthropology for beginners Social and cultural anthropology Retrieved 18 March 2014 Academic blog post explaining the similarities differences between social and cultural anthropology The Department of Anthropology at Harvard University Fas harvard edu Archived from the original on 2011 04 08 Retrieved 2011 03 27 Hendry Joy 1999 An Introduction to Social Anthropology Other People s Worlds London Macmillan Press Ltd Ho Karen 2009 Disciplining Investment Bankers Disciplining the Economy Wall Street s Institutional Culture of Crisis and the Downsizing of American Corporations American Anthropologist Vol 111 No 2 Institute of Social and Cultural Anthropology Archived from the original on 2012 02 24 School of Anthropology and Conservation Archived from the original on 2012 02 14 Bernard R 2006 Research Methods in Anthropology Lanham Alta Mira Press Nanjunda D C 2010 Contemporary Studies in Anthropology a reading Mittal Publications New Delhi India p 8 gt Ingold T 1985 Who Studies Humanity The Scope of Anthropology Anthropology Today 1 6 15 16 Kuper Adam 1973 Anthropology and Anthropologists The Modern British School London Routledge and Kegan Paul pp 14 16 ISBN 0 7100 9409 4 Archived from the original on 2018 04 29 Hendry Joy 1999 An Introduction to Social Anthropology Other People s Worlds Palgrave p 9 10 Stocking George Jir 1963 Matthew Arnold E B Tylor and the Uses of Invention American Anthropologist 65 783 799 1963 Archived 2007 12 02 at the Wayback Machine Tylor E B 1865 Researches into the early history of mankind the development of civilization London John Murray Tylor E B 1871 Primitive culture researches into the development of mythology philosophy religion art and custom 2 vols London John Murray Malinowski Bronislaw 1967 A diary in the strict sense of the term New York Harcourt Brace amp World 1967 Malinowski B 1922 Argonauts of the Western Pacific An account of native enterprise and adventure in the Archipelagoes of Melanesian New Guinea London Routledge and Kegan Paul Jack Goody 1995 The Expansive Moment The Rise of Social Anthropology in Britain and Africa 1918 1970 Archived 2007 11 06 at the Wayback Machine review at JSTOR 646577 Barth Fredrik et al 2005 One Discipline Four Ways British German French and American anthropology Chicago University of Chicago Press Moore Sally F 1966 Comparative Studies Introduction in Law in Culture and Society edited by Laura Nader London University of California Press Erickson P A and Murphy L D 2008 A History of Anthropological Theory Toronto Broadview Press Welcome to Association of Social Anthropologists of the UK and Commonwealth Theasa org Archived from the original on 2011 04 08 Retrieved 2011 03 27 Heyck Thomas William 1997 at JSTOR 2171126 The American Historical Review Vol 102 No 5 December 1997 pp 1486 1488 doi 10 2307 2171126 Beteille Andre 2006 05 05 After dinner talk by Andre Beteille Archived from the original on 2007 04 23 Retrieved 2007 04 12 Cite journal requires journal help After dinner talk on the history of social anthropology Beteille speaks of his childhood and natural inclination to anthropology his training fieldwork in Delhi India and the influence of his supervisor M N Srinivas His work on equality and inequality in human societies and publications on such especially the caste system He reflects on and analyzes the work of Dumont as well as Marxism Hinduism and Islam He cites those who have influenced him and his work and closes with an overview of his current interests in nationalism and tribal identities in India as well as his lectures on backward classes Alan Macfarlane 7 March 2006 Interview of Mary Douglas cam ac uk Archived from the original on 12 October 2016 Retrieved 29 April 2018 Firth Rosemary 2004 06 29 Interview with Rosemary Firth Archived from the original on 2007 06 07 Retrieved 2007 04 12 Cite journal requires journal help Rosemary Firth interview by Alan Macfarlane about her arrival in anthropology and fieldwork in Malaya with Raymond Firth and about the position of a woman anthropologist MacFarlane Alan 2006 02 20 Lectures on Political and Economic Anthropology Archived from the original on 2007 08 10 Retrieved 2007 04 12 Cite journal requires journal help Eight lectures for first year Cambridge University students in February 2006 Introducing some of the major approaches to the anthropology of politics and economics References EditBenchmark Statement Anthropology UK Further reading EditMalinowski Bronislaw 1915 The Trobriand Islands Malinowski Bronislaw 1922 Argonauts of the Western Pacific Malinowski Bronislaw 1929 The Sexual Life of Savages in North Western Melanesia Malinowski Bronislaw 1935 Coral Gardens and Their Magic A Study of the Methods of Tilling the Soil and of Agricultural Rites in the Trobriand Islands Leach Edmund 1954 Political systems of Highland Burma London G Bell Leach Edmund 1982 Social Anthropology Eriksen Thomas H 1985 pp 926 929 in The Social Science Encyclopedia Kuper Adam Kuper Jessica January 1985 Social Anthropology ISBN 0 7102 0008 0 OCLC 11623683 Kuper Adam 1996 Anthropology and Anthropologists The Modern British School ISBN 0 415 11895 6 OCLC 32509209 External links EditThe Moving Anthropology Student Network MASN website offers tutorials information on the subject discussion forums and a large link collection for all interested scholars of social anthropology Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Social anthropology amp oldid 1057312104, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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