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Social media and suicide

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Social media and suicide is a phenomenon concerning social media's influence on suicide-related behavior. Suicide is one of the top leading causes of death worldwide, and is one of the top five causes of death in adolescents. Suicide has been identified not only as an individual phenomenon, but also as being influenced by social and environmental factors. Additionally, there is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. As the internet has become more ingrained in people's everyday life, the mental and emotional damage it can potentially cause to an individual increases. Social media has become a commonly used part of the internet that has expanded exponentially throughout the years. There are a variety of sources that are accessible to the public in various forms. Sites include Facebook, Instagram, MySpace, Twitter, YouTube, Google+, Snapchat, TikTok, VSCO, and more. These platforms were intended to allow people to connect in a virtual way, but can lead to cyberbullying, insecurity, emotional distress, and ultimately suicide.

Bullying, whether on social media or elsewhere, or physical or not, significantly increases victims' risk of suicidal behavior. Since social media was introduced some people have taken their lives as a result of cyberbullying, including people who have live-streamed their suicide through the various social platforms. Suicide rates among teenagers has seen a drastic increase from 2007 to 2017 as social media has become a prevalent way of life.

Another risk factor may be media accounts of suicide that romanticize or dramatize the description of suicidal deaths, possibly leading to an increased number of suicides. The media tends to popularize videos and social media posts to inform the country of the rising trouble, which may create a popular appeal to the young and immature minds of teenagers. Social media could provide higher risks with the promotion of different kinds of pro-suicidal sites, message boards, chat rooms, and forums. Also, the Internet not only reports suicide incidents but documents suicide methods (for example, suicide pacts, an agreement between two or more people to kill themselves at a particular time and often by the same lethal means). The role the Internet plays, particularly social media, in suicide-related behavior is a topic of growing interest.

Contents

There is substantial evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide-related behavior. Such evidence includes an increase of exposure to graphic content as well as the opportunity for cyberbullying to occur. Over the past ten years, cyberbullying has increasingly led to self-harm and suicide. An April 2020 study done by The National Center for Health Statistics (NPHC) revealed that suicide is the second leading cause of death of US citizens ages 10–34. Although this study does not directly state the cause of these suicides, it can be alluded that cyberbullying was a potential cause.[weasel words] NPHC had previously done a study in 2018 that showed that adolescents under the age of 25 that were victims of cyberbullying became twice as likely to commit suicide or cause various forms of self harm. Overall, teen suicide rates have increased within the past decade. This is a highly considerable public health problem, having over 40,000 suicide deaths in the United States and nearly one million suicide deaths worldwide occur yearly.

One risk that has been more prevalent over the years has been suicide challenges from different "games" such as the Momo Challenge, The Blue Whale Challenge, and others that trick the individuals into killing themselves after performing various acts.[citation needed]

Further social media platforms have additionally impacted suicides around the world as well as self-harm habits.

The media may portray suicidal behavior or language which can potentially influence people to act on these suicidal tendencies. This may include news reports of actual suicides that have occurred or television shows and films that reenact suicides.

Although this may affect all ages, younger people are more commonly influenced by it.[citation needed]

The media may also fail to report the causes of suicide accurately or completely.[citation needed]

Some organisations have proposed guidelines about how the media should report suicide. There is evidence that compliance with the guidelines varies. Some research has found that it is unclear whether the guidelines have successfully reduced the number of suicides. Other research has found that the guidelines have worked in some cases.

Social media platforms, such as chat rooms, blogs (e.g., Tumblr, Reddit), video sharing platforms (e.g., YouTube), social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, Instagram, MySpace, Twitter, TikTok, Google+), as well as e-mail, text messaging, and video chat, have transformed traditional methods of communication by allowing the instantaneous and interactive sharing of information created and controlled by individuals, groups, organizations, and governments. As of the third quarter of 2015, Facebook had 1.55 billion monthly active users. An immense quantity of information on the topic of suicide is available on the Internet and via social media. The information available on social media on the topic of suicide can influence suicidal behavior, both negatively and positively.

The social cognitive theory plays a vital role in suicide attempts influenced through social media. This theory is demonstrated when one is influenced by what they see through various processes that form into modeled behaviors. This can be shown when people post their suicide attempts online or promote suicidal behavior in general.

Contributors to these social media platforms may also exert peer pressure and encourage others to take their own lives, idolize those who have killed themselves, and facilitate suicide pacts. These pro-suicidal sites reported the following. For example, on a Japanese message board in 2008, it was shared that people can kill themselves using hydrogen sulfide gas. Shortly after 220 people attempted suicide in this way, and 208 were successful. Biddle et al. conducted a systematic Web search of 12 suicide-associated terms (e.g., suicide, suicide methods, how to kill yourself, and best suicide methods) to analyze the search results and found that pro-suicide sites and chat rooms that discussed general issues associated with suicide most often occurred within the first few hits of a search. also conducted a study that examined suicide-related sites that can be found using Internet search engines. Of 373 website hits, 31% were suicide neutral, 29% were anti-suicide, and 11% were pro-suicide. Together, these studies have shown that obtaining pro-suicide information on the Internet, including detailed information on suicide methods, is very easy.

While social media has been prevalent in young adult suicide, some young adults find comfort and solace through these platforms. Young adults are making connections with people in like situations that is helping them feel less lonely. Although, the public opinion is that message boards are harmful, the following studies show how they point to suicide prevention and have positive influences. A study using content analysis analyzed all of the postings on the AOL Suicide Bulletin Board over 11 months and concluded that most contributions contained positive, empathetic, and supportive postings. Then, a multi-method study was able to demonstrate that the users of such forums experience a great deal of social support and only a small amount of social strain. Lastly, in survey participants were asked to assess the extent of their suicidal thoughts on a 7-level scale (0, absolutely no suicidal thoughts, to 7, very strong suicidal thoughts) for the time directly before their first forum visit and at the time of the survey. The study found a significant reduction after using the forum. The study however cannot conclude the forum is the only reason for the decrease. Together, these studies show how forums can reduce the number of suicides.

An example of how social media can play a role in suicide is that of a male adolescent who arrived at the emergency department with his parents after suspected medication ingestion in which he attempted to overdose. Beforehand he had sent an ex-girlfriend a Snapchat picture of himself holding a bottle of acetaminophen, which was forwarded to the young male's parents. This picture was used by medical experts to establish a time of his ingestion, oral N-acetylcysteine was discovered and he was brought to a pediatric care facility, where he had an uneventful recovery and psychiatric evaluation.

In 2013, the main cause of nine teen suicides was due to hateful anonymous messages on Ask.fm.

Cyberbullying has received considerable attention as a possible cause of suicide. It has been deemed a major health concern for affected teens and major health threat to those affected by the psychological trauma inflicted by perpetrators on social media. While there isn’t one Federal Law that is specific to cyberbullying, 48 states have laws against cyberbullying or online harassment with 44 of those states having criminal sanctions within the laws. Many states have enhanced their harassment laws to include online harassment. Criminal harassment statutes often provide a basis for bringing charges in severe cases, and more serious criminal charges have been brought in cases where evidence indicates a resultant suicide or other tragic consequences. Civil remedies have been sought in many cases where criminal liability was difficult to prove.

In a Florida case, two preteens were arrested after they were accused of cyberbullying another female student. The victim killed herself and investigators asserted that the suicide was prompted by cyberbullying perpetrated by the two preteen girls who were later charged with cyberstalking.

In 2006, 13 year old Megan Meier hung herself in her bedroom closet following a series of messages on MySpace and AOL messenger from a friends mother and her 18 year old associate posing to be a boy named “Josh.” The mother, Lori Drew, faced federal charges on cyberbullying and was later acquitted.

Sadie Riggs, a Pennsylvania teen, killed herself in 2015 allegedly because of online bullying and harassment at school on her appearance. Sadie's aunt, Sarah Smith, contacted various social media companies, police, and Sadie's school in hopes to make the bullying stop. In desperation, Smith went as far as to break Sadie's phone, in her presence, in an attempt to stop the bullying. No charges were ever filed against any alleged suspect.

In the death of Phoebe Prince, prosecutors initially charged each of the six teens responsible for her death with assault and battery with a dangerous weapon, criminal harassment, disturbing a school assembly and a civil rights violation with a bodily injury resulting. The felony civil rights violation with bodily injury alone carries a 10-year maximum sentence. Some of the other accused teens also faced the violation of civil rights with bodily injury charges as well as statutory rape and stalking. The teens later pleaded guilty to misdemeanor criminal harassment with the more serious charges dropped.

Suicide contagion can be viewed within the larger context of behavioral contagion, which has been described as a situation in which the same behavior spreads quickly and spontaneously through a group. Persons most susceptible to suicide contagions are those under 25 years of age. A recent study by Dunlop et al. specifically examined possible contagion effects on suicidal behavior via the Internet and social media. Of 719 individuals aged 14 to 24 years, 79% reported being exposed to suicide-related content through family, friends, and traditional news media such as newspapers, and 59% found such content through Internet sources. These information may pose a hazard for vulnerable groups by influencing decisions to die by suicide. In particular, interactions via chat rooms or discussion forums may foster peer pressure to die by suicide, encourage users to idolize those who have died by suicide, or facilitate suicide pacts. Recently there has been a trend in creating memorial social media pages in honor of a deceased person. In New Zealand, a memorial page was made after a person committed suicide, this resulted in the suicide of 8 other persons thereafter, which further shows the power of the media contagion effect.

It has generally been found that those who post suicide notes online tend to not receive help.

Several notable cases support this argument:

  • Kevin Whitrick and Abraham K. Biggs webcast both of their suicides. "I am going to leave this for whoever stumbles across my bookmarks later on."
  • Paul Zolezzi indicated via a Facebook update his intent to commit suicide.
  • In 2010, John Patrick Bedell left a Wikipedia user page and YouTube videos interpreted by some as a suicide note; the former was deleted by Wikipedia administrators.
  • Joe Stack also posted a suicide note online.
  • Chris McKinstry, an AI researcher, committed suicide after posting a note to both his blog and the Joel on Software off-topic forum explaining the reasons for his demise.
  • A girl who attended a Louisville-area high school posted a video suicide note and then killed herself back in 2014. The girl did not receive any help prior to her suicide, leading H. Eric Sparks, director of the American School Counselor Association, to say that troubled students should be directed to help hotlines or to trusted authorities to seek intervention as quickly as possible.

A suicide pact is an agreement between two or more people to die by suicide at a particular time and often by the same lethal means. Suicide pacts are found to be rare. Traditional suicide pacts have typically developed among individuals who know each other, such as a couple of friends. A suicide pact that has been formed or developed in some way through the use of the Internet is a cyber suicide pact. A primary difference between cybersuicide pacts and traditional suicide pacts is that these pacts are usually formed among strangers. They use online chat rooms and virtual bulletin boards and forums as an unmediated avenue to share their feelings with other like-minded individuals, which can be easier than talking about such thoughts and feelings in person.

The first documented use of the Internet to form a suicide pact was reported in Japan in 2000. It has now become a more common form of suicide in Japan, where the suicide rate increased from 34 suicides in 2003 to 91 suicides in 2005. South Korea now has one of the world's highest suicide rates (24.7/100 000 in 2005), and evidence exists that cyber suicide pacts may account for almost one-third of suicides in that country. Suicide pacts are also in the United States. In April 2018, Macon Middle School, a middle school in North Carolina, became aware of a group on social media called "Edgy" or "Edgy Fan Page 101" in which this group came up with a suicide pact and had suicide ideations. The middle school contacted the parents and informed them to look into their children's social media pages and talk with them about the dangers of a group like this.

Gerald Krein and William Francis Melchert-Dinkel were accused of arranging internet suicide pacts.

Suicide intervention on social media has saved many lives on Twitter, Instagram, and Facebook. All of the aforementioned companies have slightly different ways to report posts that may seem suicidal.

Facebook

Facebook, assisted by, among a handful of other experts, Dr. Dan Reidenburg of Suicide Awareness Voices of Education—"uses an algorithm to track down buzzwords and phrases that are commonly associated with suicide" and has intervened in over 3,500 cases, according to company reports. The algorithm reportedly tracks buzzwords and phrases associated with suicide and an alert is sent to Facebook's Safety Center.

"The technology itself isn’t going to send somebody to their house. A person at Facebook would have to do that…"

–Dr. Dan Reidenburg

Twitter

  • Demi Moore and her followers intervened to stop a suicide that had been announced on Twitter.
  • Twitter followers of Chicago rapper CupcakKe alerted authorities after the rapper posted ominous phrases onto Twitter. She later thanked all of her followers after receiving help.

Forums

  • A German was prevented from killing himself after Spanish internet users saw him announcing his decision.

Some online groups, such as alt.suicide.holiday, have emerged as discussion and support groups for suicidal individuals. Research indicates that providing more online support for suicidal people would be more effective than shutting down pro-suicide websites. The Defense Centers of Excellence have expressed interest in using social media for suicide prevention. Facebook groups have sometimes been set up for suicide prevention purposes, including one that attracted 47,000 members. Although many teens and preteens encounter suicide-related posts from peers on different social media apps, they also encounter suicide prevention hotlines and website links as well.

SAMHSA's Suicide Prevention Lifeline operates on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube. The American Foundation For Suicide Prevention is trying to understanding and preventing suicide through research, education, and advocacy.

Reidenberg, the executive director of the United States-based prevention organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education (SAVE), has become very involved in responding to suicidal messages. Facebook, the world's largest social network, has now implemented a direct intervention method. 25 of the 50 American states, when a user posts a message on Facebook containing a phrase that its algorithms flag as indicating suicidal thoughts or intentions, a banner pops up on the user's page. If the user's page is flagged the user is provided with the number of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and given tips and links to support videos aligned with best prevention practices. Suicide is still a worldwide problem today and social media does not help.

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Social media and suicide
Social media and suicide Language Watch Edit This article has multiple issues Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page Learn how and when to remove these template messages This article may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia s quality standards The specific problem is incorrect citations and information that appears to either be copy pasted inaccurate or outdated Please help improve this article if you can November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message This article needs to be updated The reason given is many parts of the article are written in a manner resembling the early Internet era with terms such as blogging Web sites and not social media Please help update this to reflect recent events or newly available information November 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Social media and suicide is a phenomenon concerning social media s influence on suicide related behavior Suicide is one of the top leading causes of death worldwide and is one of the top five causes of death in adolescents 1 2 3 Suicide has been identified not only as an individual phenomenon but also as being influenced by social and environmental factors 3 Additionally there is increasing evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide related behavior 4 As the internet has become more ingrained in people s everyday life the mental and emotional damage it can potentially cause to an individual increases 5 Social media has become a commonly used part of the internet that has expanded exponentially throughout the years There are a variety of sources that are accessible to the public in various forms Sites include Facebook Instagram MySpace Twitter YouTube Google Snapchat TikTok VSCO and more These platforms were intended to allow people to connect in a virtual way but can lead to cyberbullying insecurity emotional distress and ultimately suicide Bullying whether on social media or elsewhere or physical or not significantly increases victims risk of suicidal behavior 6 7 Since social media was introduced some people have taken their lives as a result of cyberbullying including people who have live streamed their suicide through the various social platforms 8 9 Suicide rates among teenagers has seen a drastic increase from 2007 to 2017 as social media has become a prevalent way of life 10 Another risk factor may be media accounts of suicide that romanticize or dramatize the description of suicidal deaths possibly leading to an increased number of suicides 11 The media tends to popularize videos and social media posts to inform the country of the rising trouble which may create a popular appeal to the young and immature minds of teenagers Social media could provide higher risks with the promotion of different kinds of pro suicidal sites message boards chat rooms and forums 12 Also the Internet not only reports suicide incidents but documents suicide methods for example suicide pacts an agreement between two or more people to kill themselves at a particular time and often by the same lethal means The role the Internet plays particularly social media in suicide related behavior is a topic of growing interest Contents 1 Social media risks 2 Social media s influence on suicide 3 Impact of pro suicidal sites message boards chat rooms and forums 4 Cyberbullying and suicide 5 Media contagion effect 6 Suicide notes 7 Suicide pacts 8 Interventions 8 1 Facebook 8 2 Twitter 8 3 Forums 9 Discussion and support groups 10 See also 11 References 12 Further readingSocial media risks EditThere is substantial evidence that the Internet and social media can influence suicide related behavior Such evidence includes an increase of exposure to graphic content as well as the opportunity for cyberbullying to occur Over the past ten years cyberbullying has increasingly led to self harm and suicide An April 2020 study done by The National Center for Health Statistics NPHC revealed that suicide is the second leading cause of death of US citizens ages 10 34 Although this study does not directly state the cause of these suicides it can be alluded that cyberbullying was a potential cause weasel words NPHC had previously done a study in 2018 that showed that adolescents under the age of 25 that were victims of cyberbullying became twice as likely to commit suicide or cause various forms of self harm Overall teen suicide rates have increased within the past decade This is a highly considerable public health problem having over 40 000 suicide deaths in the United States and nearly one million suicide deaths worldwide occur yearly 13 One risk that has been more prevalent over the years has been suicide challenges from different games such as the Momo Challenge The Blue Whale Challenge and others that trick the individuals into killing themselves after performing various acts citation needed Further social media platforms have additionally impacted suicides around the world as well as self harm habits Social media s influence on suicide EditThe media may portray suicidal behavior or language which can potentially influence people to act on these suicidal tendencies 14 15 16 This may include news reports of actual suicides that have occurred or television shows and films that reenact suicides Although this may affect all ages younger people are more commonly influenced by it citation needed The media may also fail to report the causes of suicide accurately or completely citation needed Some organisations have proposed guidelines about how the media should report suicide 15 16 17 18 There is evidence that compliance with the guidelines varies 16 19 Some research has found that it is unclear whether the guidelines have successfully reduced the number of suicides 15 Other research has found that the guidelines have worked in some cases 20 21 Impact of pro suicidal sites message boards chat rooms and forums EditSocial media platforms such as chat rooms blogs e g Tumblr Reddit video sharing platforms e g YouTube social networking sites e g Facebook Instagram MySpace Twitter TikTok Google as well as e mail text messaging and video chat have transformed traditional methods of communication by allowing the instantaneous and interactive sharing of information created and controlled by individuals groups organizations and governments 22 As of the third quarter of 2015 Facebook had 1 55 billion monthly active users 23 An immense quantity of information on the topic of suicide is available on the Internet and via social media The information available on social media on the topic of suicide can influence suicidal behavior both negatively and positively The social cognitive theory plays a vital role in suicide attempts influenced through social media This theory is demonstrated when one is influenced by what they see through various processes that form into modeled behaviors This can be shown when people post their suicide attempts online or promote suicidal behavior in general Contributors to these social media platforms may also exert peer pressure and encourage others to take their own lives idolize those who have killed themselves and facilitate suicide pacts These pro suicidal sites reported the following For example on a Japanese message board in 2008 it was shared that people can kill themselves using hydrogen sulfide gas Shortly after 220 people attempted suicide in this way and 208 were successful 24 Biddle et al 25 conducted a systematic Web search of 12 suicide associated terms e g suicide suicide methods how to kill yourself and best suicide methods to analyze the search results and found that pro suicide sites and chat rooms that discussed general issues associated with suicide most often occurred within the first few hits of a search 26 also conducted a study that examined suicide related sites that can be found using Internet search engines Of 373 website hits 31 were suicide neutral 29 were anti suicide and 11 were pro suicide Together these studies have shown that obtaining pro suicide information on the Internet including detailed information on suicide methods is very easy 22 While social media has been prevalent in young adult suicide some young adults find comfort and solace through these platforms Young adults are making connections with people in like situations that is helping them feel less lonely 27 Although the public opinion is that message boards are harmful the following studies show how they point to suicide prevention and have positive influences A study using content analysis analyzed all of the postings on the AOL Suicide Bulletin Board over 11 months and concluded that most contributions contained positive empathetic and supportive postings 28 Then a multi method study was able to demonstrate that the users of such forums experience a great deal of social support and only a small amount of social strain Lastly in survey participants were asked to assess the extent of their suicidal thoughts on a 7 level scale 0 absolutely no suicidal thoughts to 7 very strong suicidal thoughts for the time directly before their first forum visit and at the time of the survey 28 The study found a significant reduction after using the forum The study however cannot conclude the forum is the only reason for the decrease Together these studies show how forums can reduce the number of suicides An example of how social media can play a role in suicide is that of a male adolescent who arrived at the emergency department with his parents after suspected medication ingestion in which he attempted to overdose Beforehand he had sent an ex girlfriend a Snapchat picture of himself holding a bottle of acetaminophen which was forwarded to the young male s parents This picture was used by medical experts to establish a time of his ingestion oral N acetylcysteine was discovered and he was brought to a pediatric care facility where he had an uneventful recovery and psychiatric evaluation 29 In 2013 the main cause of nine teen suicides was due to hateful anonymous messages on Ask fm 30 Cyberbullying and suicide EditCyberbullying has received considerable attention as a possible cause of suicide 31 It has been deemed a major health concern for affected teens and major health threat to those affected by the psychological trauma inflicted by perpetrators on social media 32 While there isn t one Federal Law that is specific to cyberbullying 48 states have laws against cyberbullying or online harassment with 44 of those states having criminal sanctions within the laws Many states have enhanced their harassment laws to include online harassment 33 Criminal harassment statutes often provide a basis for bringing charges in severe cases and more serious criminal charges have been brought in cases where evidence indicates a resultant suicide or other tragic consequences Civil remedies have been sought in many cases where criminal liability was difficult to prove 34 In a Florida case two preteens were arrested after they were accused of cyberbullying another female student The victim killed herself and investigators asserted that the suicide was prompted by cyberbullying perpetrated by the two preteen girls who were later charged with cyberstalking 35 In 2006 13 year old Megan Meier hung herself in her bedroom closet following a series of messages on MySpace and AOL messenger from a friends mother and her 18 year old associate posing to be a boy named Josh The mother Lori Drew faced federal charges on cyberbullying and was later acquitted 36 Sadie Riggs a Pennsylvania teen killed herself in 2015 allegedly because of online bullying and harassment at school on her appearance Sadie s aunt Sarah Smith contacted various social media companies police and Sadie s school in hopes to make the bullying stop In desperation Smith went as far as to break Sadie s phone in her presence in an attempt to stop the bullying No charges were ever filed against any alleged suspect 37 In the death of Phoebe Prince prosecutors initially charged each of the six teens responsible for her death with assault and battery with a dangerous weapon criminal harassment disturbing a school assembly and a civil rights violation with a bodily injury resulting The felony civil rights violation with bodily injury alone carries a 10 year maximum sentence Some of the other accused teens also faced the violation of civil rights with bodily injury charges as well as statutory rape and stalking The teens later pleaded guilty to misdemeanor criminal harassment with the more serious charges dropped 38 Media contagion effect EditSuicide contagion can be viewed within the larger context of behavioral contagion which has been described as a situation in which the same behavior spreads quickly and spontaneously through a group Persons most susceptible to suicide contagions are those under 25 years of age 39 A recent study by Dunlop et al 40 specifically examined possible contagion effects on suicidal behavior via the Internet and social media Of 719 individuals aged 14 to 24 years 79 reported being exposed to suicide related content through family friends and traditional news media such as newspapers and 59 found such content through Internet sources 41 These information may pose a hazard for vulnerable groups by influencing decisions to die by suicide In particular interactions via chat rooms or discussion forums may foster peer pressure to die by suicide encourage users to idolize those who have died by suicide or facilitate suicide pacts 41 Recently there has been a trend in creating memorial social media pages in honor of a deceased person In New Zealand a memorial page was made after a person committed suicide this resulted in the suicide of 8 other persons thereafter which further shows the power of the media contagion effect 42 Suicide notes EditIt has generally been found that those who post suicide notes online tend to not receive help 43 Several notable cases support this argument Kevin Whitrick and Abraham K Biggs webcast both of their suicides I am going to leave this for whoever stumbles across my bookmarks later on Paul Zolezzi indicated via a Facebook update his intent to commit suicide 44 In 2010 John Patrick Bedell left a Wikipedia user page and YouTube videos interpreted by some as a suicide note the former was deleted by Wikipedia administrators 45 Joe Stack also posted a suicide note online 46 Chris McKinstry an AI researcher committed suicide after posting a note to both his blog and the Joel on Software off topic forum explaining the reasons for his demise A girl who attended a Louisville area high school posted a video suicide note and then killed herself back in 2014 The girl did not receive any help prior to her suicide leading H Eric Sparks director of the American School Counselor Association to say that troubled students should be directed to help hotlines or to trusted authorities to seek intervention as quickly as possible 47 Suicide pacts EditA suicide pact is an agreement between two or more people to die by suicide at a particular time and often by the same lethal means 48 49 Suicide pacts are found to be rare Traditional suicide pacts have typically developed among individuals who know each other such as a couple of friends A suicide pact that has been formed or developed in some way through the use of the Internet is a cyber suicide pact 50 A primary difference between cybersuicide pacts and traditional suicide pacts is that these pacts are usually formed among strangers 48 They use online chat rooms and virtual bulletin boards and forums as an unmediated avenue to share their feelings with other like minded individuals which can be easier than talking about such thoughts and feelings in person 41 The first documented use of the Internet to form a suicide pact was reported in Japan in 2000 It has now become a more common form of suicide in Japan where the suicide rate increased from 34 suicides in 2003 to 91 suicides in 2005 South Korea now has one of the world s highest suicide rates 24 7 100 000 in 2005 and evidence exists that cyber suicide pacts may account for almost one third of suicides in that country 41 Suicide pacts are also in the United States In April 2018 Macon Middle School a middle school in North Carolina became aware of a group on social media called Edgy or Edgy Fan Page 101 in which this group came up with a suicide pact and had suicide ideations The middle school contacted the parents and informed them to look into their children s social media pages and talk with them about the dangers of a group like this 51 Gerald Krein 52 and William Francis Melchert Dinkel were accused of arranging internet suicide pacts Interventions EditSuicide intervention on social media has saved many lives on Twitter Instagram and Facebook All of the aforementioned companies have slightly different ways to report posts that may seem suicidal Facebook Edit Facebook assisted by among a handful of other experts Dr Dan Reidenburg of Suicide Awareness Voices of Education uses an algorithm to track down buzzwords and phrases that are commonly associated with suicide and has intervened in over 3 500 cases according to company reports The algorithm reportedly tracks buzzwords and phrases associated with suicide and an alert is sent to Facebook s Safety Center 53 The technology itself isn t going to send somebody to their house A person at Facebook would have to do that Dr Dan Reidenburg 53 Twitter Edit Demi Moore and her followers intervened to stop a suicide that had been announced on Twitter 54 Twitter followers of Chicago rapper CupcakKe alerted authorities after the rapper posted ominous phrases onto Twitter She later thanked all of her followers after receiving help 55 Forums Edit A German was prevented from killing himself after Spanish internet users saw him announcing his decision 56 Discussion and support groups EditSome online groups such as alt suicide holiday have emerged as discussion and support groups for suicidal individuals Research indicates that providing more online support for suicidal people would be more effective than shutting down pro suicide websites 57 The Defense Centers of Excellence have expressed interest in using social media for suicide prevention 58 Facebook groups have sometimes been set up for suicide prevention purposes 59 including one that attracted 47 000 members 60 Although many teens and preteens encounter suicide related posts from peers on different social media apps they also encounter suicide prevention hotlines and website links as well 61 SAMHSA s Suicide Prevention Lifeline operates on Twitter Facebook and YouTube 62 The American Foundation For Suicide Prevention is trying to understanding and preventing suicide through research education and advocacy Reidenberg the executive director of the United States based prevention organization Suicide Awareness Voices of Education SAVE has become very involved in responding to suicidal messages Facebook the world s largest social network has now implemented a direct intervention method 25 of the 50 American states when a user posts a message on Facebook containing a phrase that its algorithms flag as indicating suicidal thoughts or intentions a banner pops up on the user s page If the user s page is flagged the user is provided with the number of the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline and given tips and links to support videos aligned with best prevention practices Suicide is still a worldwide problem today and social media does not help See also EditBlue Whale game Death and the Internet Instagram s impact on people Momo Challenge Suicide and the Internet 63 References Edit Mortality in the United States 2019 11 May 2021 NIMH Suicide www nimh nih gov Retrieved 2021 03 18 a b Gvion Yari Apter Alan December 2012 Suicide and Suicidal Behavior Public Health Reviews 34 2 9 doi 10 1007 BF03391677 Luxton David D June Jennifer D Fairall Jonathan M May 2012 Social Media and Suicide A Public Health Perspective American Journal of Public Health 102 S2 S195 S200 doi 10 2105 AJPH 2011 300608 ISSN 0090 0036 PMC 3477910 PMID 22401525 Tingle John 2015 06 11 Preventing suicides developing a strategy British Journal of Nursing 24 11 592 593 doi 10 12968 bjon 2015 24 11 592 ISSN 0966 0461 PMID 26067795 Hertz Marci Feldman Donato Ingrid Wright James July 2013 Bullying and Suicide A Public Health Approach Journal of Adolescent Health 53 1 S1 S3 doi 10 1016 j jadohealth 2013 05 002 ISSN 1054 139X PMC 4721504 PMID 23790194 Hinduja Sameer Patchin Justin W 2010 07 28 Bullying Cyberbullying and Suicide Archives of Suicide Research 14 3 206 221 doi 10 1080 13811118 2010 494133 ISSN 1381 1118 PMID 20658375 S2CID 1717577 The first social media suicide The Guardian 2017 08 29 Retrieved 2021 03 25 Dead Teen s Mother Testifies about Daughter s Vulnerability in MySpace Suicide Case Update Wired ISSN 1059 1028 Retrieved 2021 04 08 Curtin Sally C September 11 2020 State suicide rates among Adolescents and Young Adults aged 10 24 United States 2000 2018 PDF National Vital Statistics Reports 69 11 1 10 PMID 33054915 Sudak Howard S Sudak Donna M 2005 11 01 The Media and Suicide Academic Psychiatry 29 5 495 499 doi 10 1176 appi ap 29 5 495 ISSN 1545 7230 PMID 16387977 S2CID 774385 How to Use Teen Chat Rooms Safely Teen Chat Blog 808Teens 2021 09 11 Retrieved 2021 09 29 Cyberbullying Statistics and Facts for 2020 Comparitech Retrieved 2020 12 07 Greenstein Luna 15 July 2018 Why Suicide Reporting Guidelines Matter Retrieved 30 May 2021 a b c Pirkis Jane Blood Richard Warwick Beautrais Annette L Burgess Philip Michael Skehan Jaelea 2006 Media Guidelines on the Reporting of Suicide Crisis The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention 27 2 190 198 doi 10 1027 0227 5910 a000137 PMID 22713977 Retrieved 30 May 2021 a b c Duncan Sally Anne Luce Ann 2020 Using the Responsible Suicide Reporting Model to increase adherence to global media reporting guidelines Journalism 1 doi 10 1177 1464884920952685 S2CID 225197724 Samaritans media guidelines The Samaritans Retrieved 30 May 2021 Guidance on reporting suicide The Independent Press Standards Organisation Retrieved 30 May 2021 Kunova Marcela 22 September 2020 New online tool helps journalists report on suicide ethically Journalism Retrieved 30 May 2021 Bohanna India Wang Xiangdong 2012 Media guidelines for the responsible reporting of suicide a review of effectiveness Crisis 33 4 190 198 doi 10 1027 0227 5910 a000137 PMID 22713977 Retrieved 30 May 2021 Sumner Steven A Burke Moira Kooti Farshad 2020 Adherence to suicide reporting guidelines by news shared on a social networking platform Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 28 16267 16272 doi 10 1073 pnas 2001230117 PMC 7368318 PMID 32631982 a b David D Luxton Jennifer D June and Jonathan M Fairall May 2012 Social Media and Suicide A Public Health Perspective American Journal of Public Health 102 Suppl 2 S195 S200 doi 10 2105 AJPH 2011 300608 PMC 3477910 PMID 22401525 Number of monthly active Facebook users worldwide as of 3rd quarter 2015 in millions Luxton David D June Jennifer D Fairall Jonathan M 2012 03 08 Social Media and Suicide A Public Health Perspective American Journal of Public Health 102 S2 S195 S200 doi 10 2105 AJPH 2011 300608 ISSN 0090 0036 PMC 3477910 PMID 22401525 Biddle L Donovan J Hawton K Kapur N Gunnell D 2008 Suicide and the Internet BMJ 336 7648 800 802 doi 10 1136 bmj 39525 442674 AD PMC 2292278 PMID 18403541 Recupero R Harmss E Noble JM 2008 surfing for suicide information on the internet J Clin Psychiatry The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 69 6 878 88 doi 10 4088 jcp v69n0601 PMID 18494533 ROBINSON Jo RODRIGUES Maria FISHER Steve BAILEY Eleanor HERRMAN Helen 2015 02 25 Social media and suicide prevention findings from a stakeholder survey Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry 27 1 27 35 doi 10 11919 j issn 1002 0829 214133 ISSN 1002 0829 PMC 4372758 PMID 25852253 a b Eichenberg Christiane February 2008 Internet Message Boards for Suicidal People A Typology of Users CyberPsychology amp Behavior 11 1 107 113 doi 10 1089 cpb 2007 9924 ISSN 1094 9313 PMID 18275323 Chhabra Neeraj Bryant Sean M 2016 Snapchat Toxicology Social Media and Suicide Annals of Emergency Medicine 68 4 527 doi 10 1016 j annemergmed 2016 05 031 PMID 27666358 Edwards J 2013 Users On This Web Site Have Successfully Driven Nine Teenagers To Kill Themselves Business Insider 1 2 Gorzig Anke August 2016 Adolescents Viewing of Suicide Related Web Content and Psychological Problems Differentiating the Roles of Cyberbullying Involvement PDF Cyberpsychology Behavior and Social Networking 19 8 502 509 doi 10 1089 cyber 2015 0419 ISSN 2152 2715 PMID 27448043 Bering Jesse Web of Despair Psychology Today 51 6 80 88 via EBSCOhost Bullying and Cyberbullying Laws Across America Cyberbullying Research Center Retrieved 2021 04 11 Cyberbullying Laws Findlaw Retrieved 8 March 2019 https www usnews com news best states florida articles 2018 01 23 2 12 year olds charged with cyberstalking in girls suicide United States v Drew Case Brief for Law School LexisNexis Community Retrieved 2021 04 11 Plight of the screenager Is social media taking a deadly toll on teens NBC News Retrieved 2019 03 25 Webley Kayla 2011 05 05 Teens Who Admitted to Bullying Phoebe Prince Sentenced Time ISSN 0040 781X Retrieved 2020 02 20 Cox Georgina R Robinson Jo Williamson Michelle Lockley Anne Cheung Yee Tak Derek Pirkis Jane 2012 01 01 Suicide Clusters in Young People Crisis 33 4 208 214 doi 10 1027 0227 5910 a000144 hdl 11343 58495 ISSN 0227 5910 PMID 22713976 Dunlop S M More E Romer D 2011 Where do youth learn about suicides on the Internet and what influence does this have on suicidal ideation Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry 52 10 1073 1080 doi 10 1111 j 1469 7610 2011 02416 x PMID 21658185 a b c d Luxton D D June J D amp Fairall J M 2012 Social media and suicide a public health perspective American Journal of Public Health 102 S2 S195 S200 Robertson Lindsay Skegg Keren Poore Marion Williams Sheila Taylor Barry 2012 01 01 An Adolescent Suicide Cluster and the Possible Role of Electronic Communication Technology Crisis 33 4 239 245 doi 10 1027 0227 5910 a000140 ISSN 0227 5910 PMID 22562859 Elana Premack Sandler April 6 2009 Can Social Media Help Prevent Suicide Psychology Today Gendar Alison amp Connor Tracy Facebook status update becomes suicide note for aspiring Brooklyn model actor Paul Zolezzi New York Daily News Carlin DeGuerin Miller March 5 2010 John Patrick Bedell Rants on Wikipedia and YouTube May Have Foreshadowed Breakdown CBS News Neil Katz February 18 2010 Joe Stack Suicide Note Full Text American Zombies Wake Up and Revolt CBS News Herold Benjamin 16 April 2014 Louisville Suicide Highlights Role of Social Media in Schools Crisis Response Efforts Education Week 33 29 14 a b Rajagopal S 2004 Suicide pacts and the internet Complete strangers may make cyberspace pacts BMJ British Medical Journal 329 7478 1298 9 doi 10 1136 bmj 329 7478 1298 PMC 534825 PMID 15576715 Brown M amp Barraclough B 1997 Epidemiology of suicide pacts in England and Wales 1988 92 BMJ 315 7103 286 287 Rajagopal S 2009 The Internet and suicide pacts Internet and Suicide New York NY Nova Science Publishers 185 196 NC school district warns of possible social media suicide pact 8News 2018 04 26 Retrieved 2020 02 20 Sheriff Online suicide pact had sexual overtones CNN February 13 2005 a b Severson Gordon 2019 01 01 Facebook trying to prevent suicide by tracking what we post KARE Retrieved 2019 01 01 The technology itself isn t going to send somebody to their house A person at Facebook would have to do that Demi Moore s Twitter followers help stop a suicide CNET CNET Retrieved 2015 12 01 Bryant Miranda 2019 01 10 What are social media companies doing about suicidal posts The Guardian ISSN 0261 3077 Retrieved 2019 03 25 Un Allemand sauve du suicide grace a Internet Generation NT Online suicide support needed ScienceAlert Retrieved 2015 12 01 Harnessing New and Social Media to Prevent Suicide Defense Centers of Excellence January 22 2010 Elana Premack Sandler June 16 2010 Suicide prevention in cyberspace Psychology Today Minsky Amy 2001 11 24 Anti suicide Facebook group elicits positive messages The Vancouver Sun Martin Florence et al Middle School Students Social Media Use Educational Technology amp Society vol 21 no 1 2018 p 213 Academic OneFile SAMHSA Suicide Prevention Lifeline Update Dunlop S More E amp Romer D 2009 January 1 Where Do Youth Learn about Suicides on the Internet and What Influence Does this Have on Suicidal Ideation Retrieved January 1 2014Further reading EditLuxton David D June Jennifer D Fairall Jonathan M 2012 5 Social Media and Suicide A Public Health Perspective American Journal of Public Health 102 Suppl 2 S195 S200 doi 10 2105 AJPH 2011 300608 ISSN 0090 0036 PMC 3477910 PMID 22401525 lt ref gt Hawton K 2002 12 14 Influences of the media on suicide BMJ 325 7377 1374 1375 doi 10 1136 bmj 325 7377 1374 PMC 1124845 PMID 12480830 Liu Xingyun Huang Jiasheng Yu Nancy Xiaonan Li Qing Zhu Tingshao 2020 04 28 Mediation Effect of Suicide Related Social Media Use Behaviors on the Association Between Suicidal Ideation and Suicide Attempt Cross Sectional Questionnaire Study Journal of Medical Internet Research 22 4 e14940 doi 10 2196 14940 ISSN 1438 8871 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Social media and suicide amp oldid 1054115874, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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