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Social science

For the integrated field of study intended to promote civic competence, see Social studies. For the social-political-economic theory first pioneered by Karl Marx, see Scientific socialism.
"Social Sciences" redirects here. For other uses, see Social Sciences (disambiguation).

Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies. The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, political science, psychology, and history. (For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science.)

Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, and thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are often eclectic, using multiple methodologies (for instance, by combining both quantitative and qualitative research). The term "social research" has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share the same aims and methods.

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Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.

The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution. The social sciences developed from the sciences (experimental and applied), or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities.

The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers. The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field. Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative; metaphysical speculation was avoided. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier; Comte also referred to the field as social physics.

Following this period, five paths of development sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte in other fields. One route that was taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", and Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; this was championed by figures such as Max Weber. The fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values; the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded this distinction. In this route, theory (description) and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.

The foundation of social sciences in the West implies conditioned relationships between progressive and traditional spheres of knowledge. In some contexts, such as the Italian one, sociology slowly affirms itself and experiences the difficulty of affirming a strategic knowledge beyond philosophy and theology (Cfr. Guglielmo Rinzivillo, La scienza e l'oggetto. Autocritica del sapere strategico, Milan, Franco Angeli editor, 2010, p. 51 e sg. ISBN 978-88-568-2487-2).

Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure. The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour, social and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, sociobiology, neuropsychology, bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science. Increasingly, quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics. Statistical methods were used confidently.

In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; for more, see consilience. The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, and sometime distinct in approach toward, the field.

The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim, Marx, and Weber, or more generally to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, education, health, economy and trade, and art.

Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.

For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of social science § Branches of social science.

The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned social science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong. Social science fields of study usually have several sub-disciplines or branches, and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous.

Anthropology

Anthropology is the holistic "science of man", a science of the totality of human existence. The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences, humanities, and human biology. In the twentieth century, academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains. The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments. The humanities generally study local traditions, through their history, literature, music, and arts, with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals, events, or eras. The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way, though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences.

The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry, or they may explain individual cases through more general principles, as in many fields of psychology. Anthropology (like some fields of history) does not easily fit into one of these categories, and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains. Within the United States, anthropology is divided into four sub-fields: archaeology, physical or biological anthropology, anthropological linguistics, and cultural anthropology. It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions. The word anthropos (ἄνθρωπος) in Ancient Greek means "human being" or "person". Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as "the most scientific of the humanities, and the most humanistic of the sciences".

The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature. This means that, though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub-field, they always keep in mind the biological, linguistic, historic and cultural aspects of any problem. Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial, a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization, sometimes called "primitive" in anthropological literature, but without any connotation of "inferior". Today, anthropologists use terms such as "less complex" societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production, such as "pastoralist" or "forager" or "horticulturalist" to refer to humans living in non-industrial, non-Western cultures, such people or folk (ethnos) remaining of great interest within anthropology.

The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail, using biogenetic, archaeological, and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs. In the 1990s and 2000s, calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture, of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins, and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard. It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large, evolving global culture. These dynamic relationships, between what can be observed on the ground, as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology, whether cultural, biological, linguistic or archaeological.

Communication studies

Communication studies deals with processes of human communication, commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning. The discipline encompasses a range of topics, from face-to-face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting. Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political, cultural, economic, and social dimensions of their contexts. Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities, including "communication", "communication studies", "speech communication", "rhetorical studies", "communication science", "media studies", "communication arts", "mass communication", "media ecology", and "communication and media science".

Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities. As a social science, the discipline often overlaps with sociology, psychology, anthropology, biology, political science, economics, and public policy, among others. From a humanities perspective, communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion (traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece). The field applies to outside disciplines as well, including engineering, architecture, mathematics, and information science.

Economics

Main articles: Economics and Outline of economics

Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. The word "economics" is from the Ancient Greekοἶκος oikos, "family, household, estate", and νόμος nomos, "custom, law", and hence means "household management" or "management of the state". An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment, or someone who has earned a degree in the subject. The classic brief definition of economics, set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932, is "the science which studies human behavior as a relation between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses". Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is "the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants" and "the study of the financial aspects of human behavior".

Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.

Economics has two broad branches: microeconomics, where the unit of analysis is the individual agent, such as a household or firm, and macroeconomics, where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole. Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics, which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena, from normative economics, which orders choices and actions by some criterion; such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments. Since the early part of the 20th century, economics has focused largely on measurable quantities, employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis. Quantitative models, however, can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school. Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics, law, psychology, history, religion, marriage and family life, and other social interactions.

This paradigm crucially assumes (1) that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants, and (2) that "economic value" is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market (arms' length) transactions. Rival heterodox schools of thought, such as institutional economics, green economics, Marxist economics, and economic sociology, make other grounding assumptions. For example, Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the investigation of exchange value, of which human labour is the source.

The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.

Education

Main articles: Education and Outline of education
A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy

Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills, and also something less tangible but more profound: the imparting of knowledge, positive judgement and well-developed wisdom. Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialization). To educate means 'to draw out', from the Latin educare, or to facilitate the realization of an individual's potential and talents. It is an application of pedagogy, a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, computer science, linguistics, neuroscience, sociology and anthropology.

The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life. (Some believe that education begins even before birth, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child's development.) For some, the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling (thus Mark Twain's admonition to "never let school interfere with your education").

Geography

Main articles: Geography and Outline of geography
Map of the Earth

Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields: human geography and physical geography. The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created, viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy. This may involve cultural geography, transportation, health, military operations, and cities. The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate, vegetation and life, soil, oceans, water and landforms are produced and interact. Physical geography examines phenomena related to the measurement of earth. As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged, which is environmental geography. Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans. Other branches of geography include social geography, regional geography, and geomatics.

Geographers attempt to understand the Earth in terms of physical and spatial relationships. The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth. In this sense, geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences. Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography.

Modern geography is an all-encompassing discipline, closely related to GISc, that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment. The fields of urban planning, regional science, and planetology are closely related to geography. Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS, remote sensing, aerial photography, statistics, and global positioning systems (GPS).

History

Main articles: History and Outline of history

History is the continuous, systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories.

History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities. In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of humanities (as it does for applied linguistics). However, the National Research Council classifies history as a social science. The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history. The Social Science History Association, formed in 1976, brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history.

Law

Main articles: Law and Outline of law
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London

The social science of law, jurisprudence, in common parlance, means a rule that (unlike a rule of ethics) is capable of enforcement through institutions. However, many laws are based on norms accepted by a community and thus have an ethical foundation. The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities, depending on one's view of research into its objectives and effects. Law is not always enforceable, especially in the international relations context. It has been defined as a "system of rules", as an "interpretive concept" to achieve justice, as an "authority" to mediate people's interests, and even as "the command of a sovereign, backed by the threat of a sanction". However one likes to think of law, it is a completely central social institution. Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social science and the humanities. Laws are politics, because politicians create them. Law is philosophy, because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas. Law tells many of history's stories, because statutes, case law and codifications build up over time. And law is economics, because any rule about contract, tort, property law, labour law, company law and many more can have long-lasting effects on the distribution of wealth. The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu, meaning something laid down or fixed and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex.

Linguistics

Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics

Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language. The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal, such as syntax (the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences), semantics (the study of meaning), morphology (the study of the structure of words), phonetics (the study of speech sounds) and phonology (the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language); however, work in areas like evolutionary linguistics (the study of the origins and evolution of language) and psycholinguistics (the study of psychological factors in human language) cut across these divisions.

The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective (focusing on language at a particular point in time), and a great deal of it—partly owing to the influence of Noam Chomsky—aims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language. However, language does not exist in a vacuum, or only in the brain, and approaches like contact linguistics, creole studies, discourse analysis, social interactional linguistics, and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context. Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features, while some disciplines, like contact linguistics, focus on qualitative analysis. While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences, other areas, like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics, draw on the natural sciences. Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities, which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics.

Political science

Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.

Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. Fields and subfields of political science include political economy, political theory and philosophy, civics and comparative politics, theory of direct democracy, apolitical governance, participatory direct democracy, national systems, cross-national political analysis, political development, international relations, foreign policy, international law, politics, public administration, administrative behaviour, public law, judicial behaviour, and public policy. Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and superpowers.

Political science is methodologically diverse, although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method,[page needed] that is, the proliferation of formal-deductive model building and quantitative hypothesis testing. Approaches to the discipline include rational choice, classical political philosophy, interpretivism, structuralism, and behaviouralism, realism, pluralism, and institutionalism. Political science, as one of the social sciences, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents, interviews, and official records, as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles, are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include survey research, statistical analysis or econometrics, case studies, experiments, and model building. Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase "political science" while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University.

Psychology

Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour and mental processes. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals' daily lives and the treatment of mental illness. The word psychology comes from the Ancient Greek ψυχή psyche ("soul", "mind") and logy ("study").

Psychology differs from anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behaviour of individuals, while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation-specific human behaviour. In practice, however, there is quite a lot of cross-fertilization that takes place among the various fields. Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behaviour, and of the overall processes of a system, and not simply the biological or neural processes themselves, though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced. Many people associate psychology with clinical psychology, which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology. In reality, psychology has myriad specialties including social psychology, developmental psychology, cognitive psychology, educational psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, mathematical psychology, neuropsychology, and quantitative analysis of behaviour.

Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole, major block. Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application, others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences. For example, biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application (as is clinical medicine), social and occupational psychology are, generally speaking, purely social sciences, whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely. In British universities, emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and/or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred: B.Psy. indicates a balance between natural and social sciences, B.Sc. indicates a strong (or entire) scientific concentration, whereas a B.A. underlines a majority of social science credits. This is not always necessarily the case however, and in many UK institutions students studying the B.Psy, B.Sc, and B.A. follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance, a heavy science basis, or heavy social science basis to their degree. If they applied to read the B.A. for example, but specialized in heavily science-based modules, then they will still generally be awarded the B.A.

Sociology

Main articles: Sociology and Outline of sociology
Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

Sociology is the systematic study of society, individuals' relationship to their societies, the consequences of difference, and other aspects of human social action. The meaning of the word comes from the suffix "-logy", which means "study of", derived from Ancient Greek, and the stem "soci-", which is from the Latin word socius, meaning "companion", or society in general.

Auguste Comte (1798–1857) coined the term, Sociology, as a way to apply natural science principles and techniques to the social world in 1838. Comte endeavoured to unify history, psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm. He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism, an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy [1830–1842] and A General View of Positivism (1844). Though Comte is generally regarded as the "Father of Sociology", the discipline was formally established by another French thinker, Émile Durkheim (1858–1917), who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research. Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895, publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method. In 1896, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide (1897), a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations, distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy.

Karl Marx rejected Comte's positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism, becoming recognized as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning. Around the start of the 20th century, the first wave of German sociologists, including Max Weber and Georg Simmel, developed sociological antipositivism. The field may be broadly recognized as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular: Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism; Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory; and Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis. American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory, with little Marxist influence, an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology, and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology. In the 1920s, the Chicago school developed symbolic interactionism. Meanwhile, in the 1930s, the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory, an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociology drawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche. Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II, influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies.

Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity, such as industrialization, urbanization, secularization, and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization. The field generally concerns the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals, but as members of associations, groups, communities and institutions, and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life. The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes. In the terms of sociologists Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckmann, social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality. Most sociologists work in one or more subfields. One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub-fields that examine different dimensions of society. For example, social stratification studies inequality and class structure; demography studies changes in a population size or type; criminology examines criminal behaviour and deviance; and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state.

Since its inception, sociological epistemologies, methods, and frames of enquiry, have significantly expanded and diverged. Sociologists use a diversity of research methods, collect both quantitative and qualitative data, draw upon empirical techniques, and engage critical theory. Common modern methods include case studies, historical research, interviewing, participant observation, social network analysis, survey research, statistical analysis, and model building, among other approaches. Since the late 1970s, many sociologists have tried to make the discipline useful for purposes beyond the academy. The results of sociological research aid educators, lawmakers, administrators, developers, and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy, through subdisciplinary areas such as evaluation research, methodological assessment, and public sociology.

In the early 1970s, women sociologists began to question sociological paradigms and the invisibility of women in sociological studies, analysis, and courses. In 1969, feminist sociologists challenged the discipline's androcentrism at the American Sociological Association's annual conference. This led to the founding of the organization Sociologists for Women in Society, and, eventually, a new sociology journal, Gender & Society. Today, the sociology of gender is considered to be one of the most prominent sub-fields in the discipline.

New sociological sub-fields continue to appear — such as community studies, computational sociology, environmental sociology, network analysis, actor-network theory, gender studies, and a growing list, many of which are cross-disciplinary in nature.

Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the social sciences include:

  • Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery, documentation, analysis, and interpretation of material remains and environmental data, including architecture, artifacts, features, biofacts, and landscapes.
  • Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical, national/federal, or cultural regions.
  • Behavioural science is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world.
  • Computational social science is an umbrella field encompassing computational approaches within the social sciences.
  • Demography is the statistical study of all human populations.
  • Development studies a multidisciplinary branch of social science that addresses issues of concern to developing countries.
  • Environmental social science is the broad, transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment.
  • Environmental studies integrate social, humanistic, and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment.
  • Gender studies integrates several social and natural sciences to study gender identity, masculinity, femininity, transgender issues, and sexuality.
  • Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection, classification, manipulation, storage, retrieval and dissemination of information.
  • International studies covers both International relations (the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system) and International education (the comprehensive approach that intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world).
  • Legal management is a social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of state and legal elements.
  • Library science is an interdisciplinary field that applies the practices, perspectives, and tools of management, information technology, education, and other areas to libraries; the collection, organization, preservation and dissemination of information resources; and the political economy of information.
  • Management consists of various levels of leadership and administration of an organization in all business and human organizations. It is the effective execution of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives through adequate planning, executing and controlling activities.
  • Marketing the identification of human needs and wants, defines and measures their magnitude for demand and understanding the process of consumer buying behaviour to formulate products and services, pricing, promotion and distribution to satisfy these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long-term relationships.
  • Political economy is the study of production, buying and selling, and their relations with law, custom, and government.
  • Public administration is one of the main branches of political science, and can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of branches of government policy. The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field. Though public administration has been historically referred to as government management, it increasingly encompasses non-governmental organizations (NGOs) that also operate with a similar, primary dedication to the betterment of humanity.
  • Religious studies and Western esoteric studies incorporate and inform social-scientific research on phenomena broadly deemed religious. Religious studies, Western esoteric studies, and the social sciences developed in dialogue with one another.

Social research

Main article: Social research

The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086, while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunt's Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality. Social research began most intentionally, however, with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century.

In contemporary usage, "social research" is a relatively autonomous term, encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines that share in its aims and methods. Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena; from census survey data derived from millions of individuals, to the in-depth analysis of a single agent's social experiences; from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets, to the investigation of ancient historical documents. The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines, such as political science, media studies, and marketing and market research.

Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools:

  • Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence, and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases (or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment) to create valid and reliable general claims.
  • Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation, communication with participants, or analysis of texts, and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality.

Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi-strategy design. Questionnaires, field-based data collection, archival database information and laboratory-based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used. It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis, focusing on the (difficult to achieve) goal of objective research or statistical hypothesis testing. A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system. The process of developing a mathematical model is termed 'mathematical modelling' (also modeling). Eykhoff (1974) defined a mathematical model as 'a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system (or a system to be constructed) that presents knowledge of that system in usable form'. Mathematical models can take many forms, including but not limited to dynamical systems, statistical models, differential equations, or game theoretic models.

These and other types of models can overlap, with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures. The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities, real or abstract, forming an integrated whole. The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships that are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements, and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime. A dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has a fixed "rule" that describes the time dependence of a point's position in its ambient space. Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers. The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state. The rule is deterministic: for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state.

Social scientists often conduct program evaluation, which is a systematic method for collecting, analyzing, and using information to answer questions about projects, policies and programs, particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency. In both the public and private sectors, stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding, implementing, voting for, receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect. While program evaluation first focuses around this definition, important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant, how the program could be improved, whether the program is worthwhile, whether there are better alternatives, if there are unintended outcomes, and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful.

Theory

Main article: Social theory

Some social theorists emphasize the subjective nature of research. These writers espouse social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:

  • Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture, drawing from knowledge across social sciences and humanities disciplines.
  • Dialectical materialism is the philosophy of Karl Marx, which he formulated by taking the dialectic of Hegel and joining it to the materialism of Feuerbach.
  • Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, or philosophical discourse; it aims to understand the nature of gender inequality.
  • Marxist theories, such as revolutionary theory and class theory, cover work in philosophy that is strongly influenced by Karl Marx's materialist approach to theory or is written by Marxists.
  • Phronetic social science is a theory and methodology for doing social science focusing on ethics and political power, based on a contemporary interpretation of Aristotelian phronesis.
  • Post-colonial theory is a reaction to the cultural legacy of colonialism.
  • Postmodernism refers to a point of departure for works of literature, drama, architecture, cinema, and design, as well as in marketing and business and in the interpretation of history, law, culture and religion in the late 20th century.
  • Rational choice theory is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behaviour.
  • Social constructionism considers how social phenomena develop in social contexts.
  • Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field (for instance, mythology) as a complex system of interrelated parts.
  • Structural functionalism is a sociological paradigm that addresses what social functions various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system.

Other fringe social theorists delve in alternative nature of research. These writers share social theory perspectives that include various types of the following:

  • Anti-intellectualism describes a sentiment of critique towards, or evaluation of, intellectuals and intellectual pursuits.
  • Antiscience is a position critical of science and the scientific method.

Most universities offer degrees in social science fields. The Bachelor of Social Science is a degree targeted at the social sciences in particular, it is often more flexible and in-depth than other degrees that include social science subjects.

In the United States, a university may offer a student who studies a social sciences field a Bachelor of Arts degree, particularly if the field is within one of the traditional liberal arts such as history, or a BSc: Bachelor of Science degree such as those given by the London School of Economics, as the social sciences constitute one of the two main branches of science (the other being the natural sciences). In addition, some institutions have degrees for a particular social science, such as the Bachelor of Economics degree, though such specialized degrees are relatively rare in the United States.

Graduate students may get a Master's degree (Master of Arts, Master of Science or a field-specific degree such as Master of Public Administration) or Ph.D.

The social sciences receive less funding than the natural sciences. It has been estimated that only 0.12% of all funding for climate-related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation. Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change. It has been argued that this is a misallocation of resources, as the most urgent puzzle at the current juncture is to work out how to change human behavior to mitigate climate change, whereas the natural science of climate change is already well established and there will be decades and centuries to handle adaptation.

General

Methods

Areas

History

Lists

People

Other

  1. Kuper, Adam (1996). The Social Science Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-10829-4.
  2. Kuper, A., and Kuper, J. (1985). The Social Science Encyclopaedia.
  3. Social sciences, Columbian Cyclopedia. (1897). Buffalo: Garretson, Cox & Company. p. 227.
  4. Peck, H.T., Peabody, S.H., and Richardson, C.F. (1897). The International Cyclopedia, A Compendium of Human Knowledge. Rev. with large additions. New York: Dodd, Mead and Company.
  5. William Thompson (1775–1833) (1824). An Inquiry into the Principles of the Distribution of Wealth Most Conducive to Human Happiness; applied to the Newly Proposed System of Voluntary Equality of Wealth.
  6. According to Comte, the social physics field was similar to that of natural sciences.
  7. Vessuri, H. (2002). "Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century". Current Sociology. 50: 135–50. doi:10.1177/0011392102050001010. S2CID 146455945.
  8. Lazear, E.P. (2000). "Economic Imperialism". The Quarterly Journal of Economics. 115: 99–146. doi:10.1162/003355300554683.
  9. Wallerstein, I. (2003). "Anthropology, Sociology, and Other Dubious Disciplines"(PDF). Current Anthropology. 44 (4): 453–65. doi:10.1086/375868.
  10. Lowie, Robert (1924). Primitive Religion. Routledge and Sons.; Tylor, Edward (1920). Primitive Culture. New York: J.P. Putnam's Sons. Originally published 1871.
  11. Nanda, Serena and Richard Warms. Culture Counts. Wadsworth. 2008. Chapter One
  12. Rosaldo, Renato. Culture and Truth: The remaking of social analysis. Beacon Press. 1993; Inda, John Xavier and Renato Rosaldo. The Anthropology of Globalization. Wiley-Blackwell. 2007
  13. "economics – Britannica Online Encyclopedia".
  14. Becker, Gary S. (1976). The Economic Approach to Human Behavior. Links to arrow-page viewable chapter. University of Chicago Press.
  15. "An overview of education".
  16. "What is geography?". AAG Career Guide: Jobs in Geography and Related Geographical Sciences. Association of American Geographers. Archived from the original on October 6, 2006. RetrievedOctober 9, 2006.
  17. Hayes-Bohanan, James. "What is Environmental Geography, Anyway?". RetrievedOctober 9, 2006.
  18. "About NEH". National Endowment for the Humanities.
  19. Research-Doctorate Programs in the United States: Continuity and Change
  20. See the SSHA website
  21. Robertson, Geoffrey (2006). Crimes Against Humanity. Penguin. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-14-102463-9.
  22. Hart, H.L.A. (1961). The Concept of Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-876122-8.
  23. Dworkin, Ronald (1986). Law's Empire. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-51836-0.
  24. Raz, Joseph (1979). The Authority of Law. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-956268-8.
  25. Austin, John (1831). The Providence of Jurisprudence Determined.
  26. see Etymonline Dictionary
  27. see Merriam-Webster's Dictionary
  28. Ebenstein, Alan (2002). Introduction to Political Thinkers. Boston, Massachusetts: Wadsworth.
  29. Hindmoor, Andrew (August 8, 2006). Rational Choice. ISBN 978-1-4039-3422-2.
  30. Witt, Jon (2018). SOC 218. McGraw-Hill. p. 2. ISBN 978-1-259-70272-3.
  31. A Dictionary of Sociology, Article: Comte, Auguste
  32. Witt, Jon (2018). SOC 2018. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-1-259-70272-3.
  33. Gianfranco Poggi (2000). Durkheim. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Chapter 1.
  34. Habermas, Jürgen, The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity: Modernity's Consciousness of Time, Polity Press (1990), paperback, ISBN 978-0-7456-0830-3, p. 2.
  35. Giddens, Anthony, Duneier, Mitchell, Applebaum, Richard. 2007. Introduction to Sociology. Sixth Edition. New York: W.W. Norton and Company. Chapter 1.
  36. Lorber, Judith (1994). Paradoxes of Gender. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-06497-1.
  37. Laube, Heather; Hess, Bess B. (2001). "The Founding of SWS". Sociologists for Women in Society. RetrievedFebruary 5, 2018.
  38. Vuong, Quan-Hoang (2019). The Vietnamese Social Sciences at a Fork in the Road. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-068608-1.
  39. Zaki Badawi, A (2002). Dictionary of the Social Sciences – Oxford Reference. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195123715.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-512371-5.
  40. Josephson-Storm, Jason (2017). The Myth of Disenchantment: Magic, Modernity, and the Birth of the Human Sciences. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. pp. 101–14. ISBN 978-0-226-40336-6.
  41. A.H. Halsey (2004), A history of sociology in Britain: science, literature, and society, p. 34
  42. Geoffrey Duncan Mitchell (1970), A new dictionary of sociology, p. 201
  43. Willcox, Walter (1938) The Founder of Statistics.
  44. Eykhoff, Pieter System Identification: Parameter and State Estimation, Wiley & Sons, (1974). ISBN 978-0-471-24980-1
  45. Administration for Children and Families (2010) The Program Manager's Guide to Evaluation. Chapter 2: What is program evaluation?.
  46. Shackman, Gene (February 11, 2018). "What Is Program Evaluation: A Beginner's Guide". The Global Social Change Research Project. SSRN3060080.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  47. Peterson's (Firm : 2006– ). (2007). Peterson's graduate programs in the humanities, arts, & social sciences, 2007. Lawrenceville, New Jersey: Peterson's.
  48. Overland, Indra; Sovacool, Benjamin K. (April 1, 2020). "The misallocation of climate research funding". Energy Research & Social Science. 62: 101349. doi:10.1016/j.erss.2019.101349. ISSN 2214-6296.
  • Michie, Jonathan, ed. Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences (2 vol. 2001) 1970 pages annotating the major topics in the late 20th century in all the social sciences.

20th and 21st centuries sources

19th century sources

General sources

Academic resources

  • The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 1552-3349 (electronic) ISSN 0002-7162 (paper), SAGE Publications
  • Efferson, C. and Richerson, P.J.(In press). A prolegomenon to nonlinear empiricism in the human behavioral sciences. Philosophy and Biology. Full text

Opponents and critics

Social scienceat Wikipedia's sister projects

Social science
Social science Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Social sciences For the integrated field of study intended to promote civic competence see Social studies For the social political economic theory first pioneered by Karl Marx see Scientific socialism Social Sciences redirects here For other uses see Social Sciences disambiguation Social science is the branch of science devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies The term was formerly used to refer to the field of sociology the original science of society established in the 19th century In addition to sociology it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines including anthropology archaeology economics human geography linguistics management science political science psychology and history For a more detailed list of sub disciplines within the social sciences see Outline of social science Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society and so define science in its stricter modern sense Interpretivist social scientists by contrast may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories and thus treat science in its broader sense In modern academic practice researchers are often eclectic using multiple methodologies for instance by combining both quantitative and qualitative research The term social research has also acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share the same aims and methods Contents 1 History 2 Branches 2 1 Anthropology 2 2 Communication studies 2 3 Economics 2 4 Education 2 5 Geography 2 6 History 2 7 Law 2 8 Linguistics 2 9 Political science 2 10 Psychology 2 11 Sociology 3 Additional fields of study 4 Methodology 4 1 Social research 4 2 Theory 5 Education and degrees 6 Low priority of social science 7 See also 7 1 General 7 2 Methods 7 3 Areas 7 4 History 7 5 Lists 7 6 People 7 7 Other 8 Notes 9 References 10 Bibliography 10 1 20th and 21st centuries sources 10 2 19th century sources 10 3 General sources 10 4 Academic resources 10 5 Opponents and critics 11 External linksHistory Edit Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data Main article History of the social sciences The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650 1 which saw a revolution within natural philosophy changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was scientific Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution 2 The social sciences developed from the sciences experimental and applied or the systematic knowledge bases or prescriptive practices relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities 3 4 The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot with articles from Jean Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers The growth of the social sciences is also reflected in other specialized encyclopedias The modern period saw social science first used as a distinct conceptual field 5 Social science was influenced by positivism 2 focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative metaphysical speculation was avoided Auguste Comte used the term science sociale to describe the field taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier Comte also referred to the field as social physics 2 6 Following this period five paths of development sprang forth in the social sciences influenced by Comte in other fields 2 One route that was taken was the rise of social research Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe Another route undertaken was initiated by Emile Durkheim studying social facts and Vilfredo Pareto opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories A third means developed arising from the methodological dichotomy present in which social phenomena were identified with and understood this was championed by figures such as Max Weber The fourth route taken based in economics was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values the antipositivism and verstehen sociology of Max Weber firmly demanded this distinction In this route theory description and prescription were non overlapping formal discussions of a subject The foundation of social sciences in the West implies conditioned relationships between progressive and traditional spheres of knowledge In some contexts such as the Italian one sociology slowly affirms itself and experiences the difficulty of affirming a strategic knowledge beyond philosophy and theology Cfr Guglielmo Rinzivillo La scienza e l oggetto Autocritica del sapere strategico Milan Franco Angeli editor 2010 p 51 e sg ISBN 978 88 568 2487 2 Around the start of the 20th century Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure The development of social science subfields became very quantitative in methodology The interdisciplinary and cross disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour social and environmental factors affecting it made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology 7 Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine sociobiology neuropsychology bioeconomics and the history and sociology of science Increasingly quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences In the first half of the 20th century statistics became a free standing discipline of applied mathematics Statistical methods were used confidently In the contemporary period Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences 2 Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed grand theory with the various midrange theories that with considerable success continue to provide usable frameworks for massive growing data banks for more see consilience The social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of and sometime distinct in approach toward the field 2 The term social science may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte Durkheim Marx and Weber or more generally to all disciplines outside of noble science and arts By the late 19th century the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields jurisprudence and amendment of the law education health economy and trade and art 3 Around the start of the 21st century the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism 8 Branches EditFor a topical guide to this subject see Outline of social science Branches of social science Social science areasThe following are problem areas and discipline branches within the social sciences 2 Anthropology Area studies Business studies Civics Communication studies Criminology Demography Development studies Economics Education Environmental studies Folkloristics Gender studies Geography History Industrial relations Information science International relations Law Library science Linguistics Media studies Political science Psychology Public administration Sociology Social work Sustainable development The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level Social science disciplines are defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published and the learned social science societies and academic departments or faculties to which their practitioners belong Social science fields of study usually have several sub disciplines or branches and the distinguishing lines between these are often both arbitrary and ambiguous Anthropology Edit Main articles Anthropology and Outline of anthropology Anthropology is the holistic science of man a science of the totality of human existence The discipline deals with the integration of different aspects of the social sciences humanities and human biology In the twentieth century academic disciplines have often been institutionally divided into three broad domains The natural sciences seek to derive general laws through reproducible and verifiable experiments The humanities generally study local traditions through their history literature music and arts with an emphasis on understanding particular individuals events or eras The social sciences have generally attempted to develop scientific methods to understand social phenomena in a generalizable way though usually with methods distinct from those of the natural sciences The anthropological social sciences often develop nuanced descriptions rather than the general laws derived in physics or chemistry or they may explain individual cases through more general principles as in many fields of psychology Anthropology like some fields of history does not easily fit into one of these categories and different branches of anthropology draw on one or more of these domains 9 Within the United States anthropology is divided into four sub fields archaeology physical or biological anthropology anthropological linguistics and cultural anthropology It is an area that is offered at most undergraduate institutions The word anthropos ἄn8rwpos in Ancient Greek means human being or person Eric Wolf described sociocultural anthropology as the most scientific of the humanities and the most humanistic of the sciences The goal of anthropology is to provide a holistic account of humans and human nature This means that though anthropologists generally specialize in only one sub field they always keep in mind the biological linguistic historic and cultural aspects of any problem Since anthropology arose as a science in Western societies that were complex and industrial a major trend within anthropology has been a methodological drive to study peoples in societies with more simple social organization sometimes called primitive in anthropological literature but without any connotation of inferior 10 Today anthropologists use terms such as less complex societies or refer to specific modes of subsistence or production such as pastoralist or forager or horticulturalist to refer to humans living in non industrial non Western cultures such people or folk ethnos remaining of great interest within anthropology The quest for holism leads most anthropologists to study a people in detail using biogenetic archaeological and linguistic data alongside direct observation of contemporary customs 11 In the 1990s and 2000s calls for clarification of what constitutes a culture of how an observer knows where his or her own culture ends and another begins and other crucial topics in writing anthropology were heard It is possible to view all human cultures as part of one large evolving global culture These dynamic relationships between what can be observed on the ground as opposed to what can be observed by compiling many local observations remain fundamental in any kind of anthropology whether cultural biological linguistic or archaeological 12 Communication studies Edit Main articles Communication studies and History of communication studies Communication studies deals with processes of human communication commonly defined as the sharing of symbols to create meaning The discipline encompasses a range of topics from face to face conversation to mass media outlets such as television broadcasting Communication studies also examines how messages are interpreted through the political cultural economic and social dimensions of their contexts Communication is institutionalized under many different names at different universities including communication communication studies speech communication rhetorical studies communication science media studies communication arts mass communication media ecology and communication and media science Communication studies integrates aspects of both social sciences and the humanities As a social science the discipline often overlaps with sociology psychology anthropology biology political science economics and public policy among others From a humanities perspective communication is concerned with rhetoric and persuasion traditional graduate programs in communication studies trace their history to the rhetoricians of Ancient Greece The field applies to outside disciplines as well including engineering architecture mathematics and information science Economics Edit Main articles Economics and Outline of economics Economics is a social science that seeks to analyze and describe the production distribution and consumption of wealth 13 The word economics is from the Ancient Greek oἶkos oikos family household estate and nomos nomos custom law and hence means household management or management of the state An economist is a person using economic concepts and data in the course of employment or someone who has earned a degree in the subject The classic brief definition of economics set out by Lionel Robbins in 1932 is the science which studies human behavior as a relation between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses Without scarcity and alternative uses there is no economic problem Briefer yet is the study of how people seek to satisfy needs and wants and the study of the financial aspects of human behavior Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market Guatemala Economics has two broad branches microeconomics where the unit of analysis is the individual agent such as a household or firm and macroeconomics where the unit of analysis is an economy as a whole Another division of the subject distinguishes positive economics which seeks to predict and explain economic phenomena from normative economics which orders choices and actions by some criterion such orderings necessarily involve subjective value judgments Since the early part of the 20th century economics has focused largely on measurable quantities employing both theoretical models and empirical analysis Quantitative models however can be traced as far back as the physiocratic school Economic reasoning has been increasingly applied in recent decades to other social situations such as politics law psychology history religion marriage and family life and other social interactions This paradigm crucially assumes 1 that resources are scarce because they are not sufficient to satisfy all wants and 2 that economic value is willingness to pay as revealed for instance by market arms length transactions Rival heterodox schools of thought such as institutional economics green economics Marxist economics and economic sociology make other grounding assumptions For example Marxist economics assumes that economics primarily deals with the investigation of exchange value of which human labour is the source The expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism 8 14 Education Edit Main articles Education and Outline of education A depiction of world s oldest university the University of Bologna in Italy Education encompasses teaching and learning specific skills and also something less tangible but more profound the imparting of knowledge positive judgement and well developed wisdom Education has as one of its fundamental aspects the imparting of culture from generation to generation see socialization To educate means to draw out from the Latin educare or to facilitate the realization of an individual s potential and talents It is an application of pedagogy a body of theoretical and applied research relating to teaching and learning and draws on many disciplines such as psychology philosophy computer science linguistics neuroscience sociology and anthropology 15 The education of an individual human begins at birth and continues throughout life Some believe that education begins even before birth as evidenced by some parents playing music or reading to the baby in the womb in the hope it will influence the child s development For some the struggles and triumphs of daily life provide far more instruction than does formal schooling thus Mark Twain s admonition to never let school interfere with your education Geography Edit Main articles Geography and Outline of geography Map of the Earth Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main sub fields human geography and physical geography The former focuses largely on the built environment and how space is created viewed and managed by humans as well as the influence humans have on the space they occupy This may involve cultural geography transportation health military operations and cities The latter examines the natural environment and how the climate vegetation and life soil oceans water and landforms are produced and interact 16 Physical geography examines phenomena related to the measurement of earth As a result of the two subfields using different approaches a third field has emerged which is environmental geography Environmental geography combines physical and human geography and looks at the interactions between the environment and humans 17 Other branches of geography include social geography regional geography and geomatics Geographers attempt to understand the Earth in terms of physical and spatial relationships The first geographers focused on the science of mapmaking and finding ways to precisely project the surface of the earth In this sense geography bridges some gaps between the natural sciences and social sciences Historical geography is often taught in a college in a unified Department of Geography Modern geography is an all encompassing discipline closely related to GISc that seeks to understand humanity and its natural environment The fields of urban planning regional science and planetology are closely related to geography Practitioners of geography use many technologies and methods to collect data such as GIS remote sensing aerial photography statistics and global positioning systems GPS History Edit Main articles History and Outline of history History is the continuous systematic narrative and research into past human events as interpreted through historiographical paradigms or theories History has a base in both the social sciences and the humanities In the United States the National Endowment for the Humanities includes history in its definition of humanities as it does for applied linguistics 18 However the National Research Council classifies history as a social science 19 The historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence to research and then to write history The Social Science History Association formed in 1976 brings together scholars from numerous disciplines interested in social history 20 Law Edit Main articles Law and Outline of law A trial at a criminal court the Old Bailey in London The social science of law jurisprudence in common parlance means a rule that unlike a rule of ethics is capable of enforcement through institutions 21 However many laws are based on norms accepted by a community and thus have an ethical foundation The study of law crosses the boundaries between the social sciences and humanities depending on one s view of research into its objectives and effects Law is not always enforceable especially in the international relations context It has been defined as a system of rules 22 as an interpretive concept 23 to achieve justice as an authority 24 to mediate people s interests and even as the command of a sovereign backed by the threat of a sanction 25 However one likes to think of law it is a completely central social institution Legal policy incorporates the practical manifestation of thinking from almost every social science and the humanities Laws are politics because politicians create them Law is philosophy because moral and ethical persuasions shape their ideas Law tells many of history s stories because statutes case law and codifications build up over time And law is economics because any rule about contract tort property law labour law company law and many more can have long lasting effects on the distribution of wealth The noun law derives from the late Old English lagu meaning something laid down or fixed 26 and the adjective legal comes from the Latin word lex 27 Linguistics Edit Main articles Linguistics and Outline of linguistics Ferdinand de Saussure recognized as the father of modern linguistics Linguistics investigates the cognitive and social aspects of human language The field is divided into areas that focus on aspects of the linguistic signal such as syntax the study of the rules that govern the structure of sentences semantics the study of meaning morphology the study of the structure of words phonetics the study of speech sounds and phonology the study of the abstract sound system of a particular language however work in areas like evolutionary linguistics the study of the origins and evolution of language and psycholinguistics the study of psychological factors in human language cut across these divisions The overwhelming majority of modern research in linguistics takes a predominantly synchronic perspective focusing on language at a particular point in time and a great deal of it partly owing to the influence of Noam Chomsky aims at formulating theories of the cognitive processing of language However language does not exist in a vacuum or only in the brain and approaches like contact linguistics creole studies discourse analysis social interactional linguistics and sociolinguistics explore language in its social context Sociolinguistics often makes use of traditional quantitative analysis and statistics in investigating the frequency of features while some disciplines like contact linguistics focus on qualitative analysis While certain areas of linguistics can thus be understood as clearly falling within the social sciences other areas like acoustic phonetics and neurolinguistics draw on the natural sciences Linguistics draws only secondarily on the humanities which played a rather greater role in linguistic inquiry in the 19th and early 20th centuries Ferdinand Saussure is considered the father of modern linguistics Political science Edit Main articles Political science Outline of political science and Politics Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics 28 Political science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour Fields and subfields of political science include political economy political theory and philosophy civics and comparative politics theory of direct democracy apolitical governance participatory direct democracy national systems cross national political analysis political development international relations foreign policy international law politics public administration administrative behaviour public law judicial behaviour and public policy Political science also studies power in international relations and the theory of great powers and superpowers Political science is methodologically diverse although recent years have witnessed an upsurge in the use of the scientific method 29 page needed that is the proliferation of formal deductive model building and quantitative hypothesis testing Approaches to the discipline include rational choice classical political philosophy interpretivism structuralism and behaviouralism realism pluralism and institutionalism Political science as one of the social sciences uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought primary sources such as historical documents interviews and official records as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles are used in building and testing theories Empirical methods include survey research statistical analysis or econometrics case studies experiments and model building Herbert Baxter Adams is credited with coining the phrase political science while teaching history at Johns Hopkins University Psychology Edit Main articles Psychology and Outline of psychology Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the study of behaviour and mental processes Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity including problems of individuals daily lives and the treatment of mental illness The word psychology comes from the Ancient Greek psyxh psyche soul mind and logy study Psychology differs from anthropology economics political science and sociology in seeking to capture explanatory generalizations about the mental function and overt behaviour of individuals while the other disciplines focus on creating descriptive generalizations about the functioning of social groups or situation specific human behaviour In practice however there is quite a lot of cross fertilization that takes place among the various fields Psychology differs from biology and neuroscience in that it is primarily concerned with the interaction of mental processes and behaviour and of the overall processes of a system and not simply the biological or neural processes themselves though the subfield of neuropsychology combines the study of the actual neural processes with the study of the mental effects they have subjectively produced Many people associate psychology with clinical psychology which focuses on assessment and treatment of problems in living and psychopathology In reality psychology has myriad specialties including social psychology developmental psychology cognitive psychology educational psychology industrial organizational psychology mathematical psychology neuropsychology and quantitative analysis of behaviour Psychology is a very broad science that is rarely tackled as a whole major block Although some subfields encompass a natural science base and a social science application others can be clearly distinguished as having little to do with the social sciences or having a lot to do with the social sciences For example biological psychology is considered a natural science with a social scientific application as is clinical medicine social and occupational psychology are generally speaking purely social sciences whereas neuropsychology is a natural science that lacks application out of the scientific tradition entirely In British universities emphasis on what tenet of psychology a student has studied and or concentrated is communicated through the degree conferred B Psy indicates a balance between natural and social sciences B Sc indicates a strong or entire scientific concentration whereas a B A underlines a majority of social science credits This is not always necessarily the case however and in many UK institutions students studying the B Psy B Sc and B A follow the same curriculum as outlined by The British Psychological Society and have the same options of specialism open to them regardless of whether they choose a balance a heavy science basis or heavy social science basis to their degree If they applied to read the B A for example but specialized in heavily science based modules then they will still generally be awarded the B A Sociology Edit Main articles Sociology and Outline of sociology Emile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology Sociology is the systematic study of society individuals relationship to their societies the consequences of difference and other aspects of human social action 30 The meaning of the word comes from the suffix logy which means study of derived from Ancient Greek and the stem soci which is from the Latin word socius meaning companion or society in general Auguste Comte 1798 1857 coined the term Sociology as a way to apply natural science principles and techniques to the social world in 1838 31 32 Comte endeavoured to unify history psychology and economics through the descriptive understanding of the social realm He proposed that social ills could be remedied through sociological positivism an epistemological approach outlined in The Course in Positive Philosophy 1830 1842 and A General View of Positivism 1844 Though Comte is generally regarded as the Father of Sociology the discipline was formally established by another French thinker Emile Durkheim 1858 1917 who developed positivism as a foundation to practical social research Durkheim set up the first European department of sociology at the University of Bordeaux in 1895 publishing his Rules of the Sociological Method In 1896 he established the journal L Annee Sociologique Durkheim s seminal monograph Suicide 1897 a case study of suicide rates among Catholic and Protestant populations distinguished sociological analysis from psychology or philosophy 33 Karl Marx rejected Comte s positivism but nevertheless aimed to establish a science of society based on historical materialism becoming recognized as a founding figure of sociology posthumously as the term gained broader meaning Around the start of the 20th century the first wave of German sociologists including Max Weber and Georg Simmel developed sociological antipositivism The field may be broadly recognized as an amalgam of three modes of social thought in particular Durkheimian positivism and structural functionalism Marxist historical materialism and conflict theory and Weberian antipositivism and verstehen analysis American sociology broadly arose on a separate trajectory with little Marxist influence an emphasis on rigorous experimental methodology and a closer association with pragmatism and social psychology In the 1920s the Chicago school developed symbolic interactionism Meanwhile in the 1930s the Frankfurt School pioneered the idea of critical theory an interdisciplinary form of Marxist sociology drawing upon thinkers as diverse as Sigmund Freud and Friedrich Nietzsche Critical theory would take on something of a life of its own after World War II influencing literary criticism and the Birmingham School establishment of cultural studies Sociology evolved as an academic response to the challenges of modernity such as industrialization urbanization secularization and a perceived process of enveloping rationalization 34 The field generally concerns the social rules and processes that bind and separate people not only as individuals but as members of associations groups communities and institutions and includes the examination of the organization and development of human social life The sociological field of interest ranges from the analysis of short contacts between anonymous individuals on the street to the study of global social processes In the terms of sociologists Peter L Berger and Thomas Luckmann social scientists seek an understanding of the Social Construction of Reality Most sociologists work in one or more subfields One useful way to describe the discipline is as a cluster of sub fields that examine different dimensions of society For example social stratification studies inequality and class structure demography studies changes in a population size or type criminology examines criminal behaviour and deviance and political sociology studies the interaction between society and state Since its inception sociological epistemologies methods and frames of enquiry have significantly expanded and diverged 35 Sociologists use a diversity of research methods collect both quantitative and qualitative data draw upon empirical techniques and engage critical theory 32 Common modern methods include case studies historical research interviewing participant observation social network analysis survey research statistical analysis and model building among other approaches Since the late 1970s many sociologists have tried to make the discipline useful for purposes beyond the academy The results of sociological research aid educators lawmakers administrators developers and others interested in resolving social problems and formulating public policy through subdisciplinary areas such as evaluation research methodological assessment and public sociology In the early 1970s women sociologists began to question sociological paradigms and the invisibility of women in sociological studies analysis and courses 36 In 1969 feminist sociologists challenged the discipline s androcentrism at the American Sociological Association s annual conference 37 This led to the founding of the organization Sociologists for Women in Society and eventually a new sociology journal Gender amp Society Today the sociology of gender is considered to be one of the most prominent sub fields in the discipline New sociological sub fields continue to appear such as community studies computational sociology environmental sociology network analysis actor network theory gender studies and a growing list many of which are cross disciplinary in nature 38 Additional fields of study EditSee also Auxiliary sciences of history Additional applied or interdisciplinary fields related to the social sciences include Archaeology is the science that studies human cultures through the recovery documentation analysis and interpretation of material remains and environmental data including architecture artifacts features biofacts and landscapes Area studies are interdisciplinary fields of research and scholarship pertaining to particular geographical national federal or cultural regions Behavioural science is a term that encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world Computational social science is an umbrella field encompassing computational approaches within the social sciences Demography is the statistical study of all human populations Development studies a multidisciplinary branch of social science that addresses issues of concern to developing countries Environmental social science is the broad transdisciplinary study of interrelations between humans and the natural environment Environmental studies integrate social humanistic and natural science perspectives on the relation between humans and the natural environment Gender studies integrates several social and natural sciences to study gender identity masculinity femininity transgender issues and sexuality Information science is an interdisciplinary science primarily concerned with the collection classification manipulation storage retrieval and dissemination of information International studies covers both International relations the study of foreign affairs and global issues among states within the international system and International education the comprehensive approach that intentionally prepares people to be active and engaged participants in an interconnected world Legal management is a social sciences discipline that is designed for students interested in the study of state and legal elements Library science is an interdisciplinary field that applies the practices perspectives and tools of management information technology education and other areas to libraries the collection organization preservation and dissemination of information resources and the political economy of information Management consists of various levels of leadership and administration of an organization in all business and human organizations It is the effective execution of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives through adequate planning executing and controlling activities Marketing the identification of human needs and wants defines and measures their magnitude for demand and understanding the process of consumer buying behaviour to formulate products and services pricing promotion and distribution to satisfy these needs and wants through exchange processes and building long term relationships Political economy is the study of production buying and selling and their relations with law custom and government Public administration is one of the main branches of political science and can be broadly described as the development implementation and study of branches of government policy The pursuit of the public good by enhancing civil society and social justice is the ultimate goal of the field Though public administration has been historically referred to as government management 39 it increasingly encompasses non governmental organizations NGOs that also operate with a similar primary dedication to the betterment of humanity Religious studies and Western esoteric studies incorporate and inform social scientific research on phenomena broadly deemed religious Religious studies Western esoteric studies and the social sciences developed in dialogue with one another 40 Methodology EditSocial research Edit Main article Social research The origin of the survey can be traced back at least early as the Domesday Book in 1086 41 42 while some scholars pinpoint the origin of demography to 1663 with the publication of John Graunt s Natural and Political Observations upon the Bills of Mortality 43 Social research began most intentionally however with the positivist philosophy of science in the 19th century In contemporary usage social research is a relatively autonomous term encompassing the work of practitioners from various disciplines that share in its aims and methods Social scientists employ a range of methods in order to analyse a vast breadth of social phenomena from census survey data derived from millions of individuals to the in depth analysis of a single agent s social experiences from monitoring what is happening on contemporary streets to the investigation of ancient historical documents The methods originally rooted in classical sociology and statistical mathematics have formed the basis for research in other disciplines such as political science media studies and marketing and market research Social research methods may be divided into two broad schools Quantitative designs approach social phenomena through quantifiable evidence and often rely on statistical analysis of many cases or across intentionally designed treatments in an experiment to create valid and reliable general claims Qualitative designs emphasize understanding of social phenomena through direct observation communication with participants or analysis of texts and may stress contextual and subjective accuracy over generality Social scientists will commonly combine quantitative and qualitative approaches as part of a multi strategy design Questionnaires field based data collection archival database information and laboratory based data collections are some of the measurement techniques used It is noted the importance of measurement and analysis focusing on the difficult to achieve goal of objective research or statistical hypothesis testing A mathematical model uses mathematical language to describe a system The process of developing a mathematical model is termed mathematical modelling also modeling Eykhoff 1974 defined a mathematical model as a representation of the essential aspects of an existing system or a system to be constructed that presents knowledge of that system in usable form 44 Mathematical models can take many forms including but not limited to dynamical systems statistical models differential equations or game theoretic models These and other types of models can overlap with a given model involving a variety of abstract structures The system is a set of interacting or interdependent entities real or abstract forming an integrated whole The concept of an integrated whole can also be stated in terms of a system embodying a set of relationships that are differentiated from relationships of the set to other elements and from relationships between an element of the set and elements not a part of the relational regime A dynamical system modeled as a mathematical formalization has a fixed rule that describes the time dependence of a point s position in its ambient space Small changes in the state of the system correspond to small changes in the numbers The evolution rule of the dynamical system is a fixed rule that describes what future states follow from the current state The rule is deterministic for a given time interval only one future state follows from the current state Social scientists often conduct program evaluation which is a systematic method for collecting analyzing and using information to answer questions about projects policies and programs 45 particularly about their effectiveness and efficiency In both the public and private sectors stakeholders often want to know whether the programs they are funding implementing voting for receiving or objecting to are producing the intended effect While program evaluation first focuses around this definition important considerations often include how much the program costs per participant how the program could be improved whether the program is worthwhile whether there are better alternatives if there are unintended outcomes and whether the program goals are appropriate and useful 46 Theory Edit Main article Social theory Some social theorists emphasize the subjective nature of research These writers espouse social theory perspectives that include various types of the following Critical theory is the examination and critique of society and culture drawing from knowledge across social sciences and humanities disciplines Dialectical materialism is the philosophy of Karl Marx which he formulated by taking the dialectic of Hegel and joining it to the materialism of Feuerbach Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse it aims to understand the nature of gender inequality Marxist theories such as revolutionary theory and class theory cover work in philosophy that is strongly influenced by Karl Marx s materialist approach to theory or is written by Marxists Phronetic social science is a theory and methodology for doing social science focusing on ethics and political power based on a contemporary interpretation of Aristotelian phronesis Post colonial theory is a reaction to the cultural legacy of colonialism Postmodernism refers to a point of departure for works of literature drama architecture cinema and design as well as in marketing and business and in the interpretation of history law culture and religion in the late 20th century Rational choice theory is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behaviour Social constructionism considers how social phenomena develop in social contexts Structuralism is an approach to the human sciences that attempts to analyze a specific field for instance mythology as a complex system of interrelated parts Structural functionalism is a sociological paradigm that addresses what social functions various elements of the social system perform in regard to the entire system Other fringe social theorists delve in alternative nature of research These writers share social theory perspectives that include various types of the following Anti intellectualism describes a sentiment of critique towards or evaluation of intellectuals and intellectual pursuits Antiscience is a position critical of science and the scientific method Education and degrees EditMost universities offer degrees in social science fields 47 The Bachelor of Social Science is a degree targeted at the social sciences in particular it is often more flexible and in depth than other degrees that include social science subjects a In the United States a university may offer a student who studies a social sciences field a Bachelor of Arts degree particularly if the field is within one of the traditional liberal arts such as history or a BSc Bachelor of Science degree such as those given by the London School of Economics as the social sciences constitute one of the two main branches of science the other being the natural sciences In addition some institutions have degrees for a particular social science such as the Bachelor of Economics degree though such specialized degrees are relatively rare in the United States Graduate students may get a Master s degree Master of Arts Master of Science or a field specific degree such as Master of Public Administration or Ph D Low priority of social science EditThe social sciences receive less funding than the natural sciences It has been estimated that only 0 12 of all funding for climate related research is spent on the social science of climate change mitigation Vastly more funding is spent on natural science studies of climate change and considerable sums are also spent on studies of impact of and adaptation to climate change 48 It has been argued that this is a misallocation of resources as the most urgent puzzle at the current juncture is to work out how to change human behavior to mitigate climate change whereas the natural science of climate change is already well established and there will be decades and centuries to handle adaptation 48 See also Edit Society portal General Edit Culture Outline of social science Society Structure and agency National Nothing DayMethods Edit Empiricism Ethnography Participatory Action Research Regression Representation theory Scientific method Statistical hypothesis testing TerminologyAreas Edit Behavioural sciences Geographic information scienceHistory Edit History of technologyLists Edit Fields of science Outline of academic disciplinesPeople Edit Frantz Fanon W E B Dubois Edward Said al Kindi Ibn Khaldun Augustine Peter Berger Franz Boas Manuel Castells Noam Chomsky Confucius Wade Davis Louis Dumont Emile Durkheim Norbert Elias Friedrich Engels Milton Friedman Anthony Giddens Erving Goffman Maja Gopel Thomas Hobbes Arlie Hochschild David Hume Marie Jahoda John Maynard Keynes Paul F Lazarsfeld John Locke Sir John Lubbock Robert Lucas Thomas Luckmann Niklas Luhmann Niccolo Machiavelli Karl Marx Marcel Mauss Margaret Mead John Stuart Mill Baidyanath Misra Montesquieu Monique Borgerhoff Mulder Talcott Parsons Jean Piaget Steven Pinker Plato Karl Popper John Rawls David Ricardo Jean Jacques Rousseau Jean Baptiste Say Alfred Schutz B F Skinner Adam Smith Herbert Spencer Deborah Tannen Victor Turner Max Weber Paige WestOther Edit Behaviour Ethology and Ethnology Gulbenkian commission Labelling Obshestvovedeny Periodic table of human sciences Tinbergen s four questions Philosophy of social sciencesNotes Edit A Bachelor of Social Science degree can be earned at the University of Adelaide University of Waikato Hamilton New Zealand University of Sydney University of New South Wales University of Hong Kong University of Manchester Lincoln University New Zealand National University of Malaysia and University of Queensland References Edit Kuper Adam 1996 The Social Science Encyclopedia Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 0 415 10829 4 a b c d e f g Kuper A and Kuper J 1985 The Social Science Encyclopaedia a b Social sciences Columbian Cyclopedia 1897 Buffalo Garretson Cox amp Company p 227 Peck H T Peabody S H and Richardson C F 1897 The International Cyclopedia A Compendium of Human Knowledge Rev with large additions New York Dodd Mead and Company William Thompson 1775 1833 1824 An Inquiry into the Principles of the Distribution of Wealth Most Conducive to Human Happiness applied to the Newly Proposed System of Voluntary Equality of Wealth According to Comte the social physics field was similar to that of natural sciences Vessuri H 2002 Ethical Challenges for the Social Sciences on the Threshold of the 21st Century Current Sociology 50 135 50 doi 10 1177 0011392102050001010 S2CID 146455945 a b Lazear E P 2000 Economic Imperialism The Quarterly Journal of Economics 115 99 146 doi 10 1162 003355300554683 Wallerstein I 2003 Anthropology Sociology and Other Dubious Disciplines PDF Current Anthropology 44 4 453 65 doi 10 1086 375868 Lowie Robert 1924 Primitive Religion Routledge and Sons Tylor Edward 1920 Primitive Culture New York J P Putnam s Sons Originally published 1871 Nanda Serena and Richard Warms Culture Counts Wadsworth 2008 Chapter One Rosaldo Renato Culture and Truth The remaking of social analysis Beacon Press 1993 Inda John Xavier and Renato Rosaldo The Anthropology of Globalization Wiley Blackwell 2007 economics Britannica Online Encyclopedia Becker Gary S 1976 The Economic Approach to Human Behavior Links to arrow page viewable chapter University of Chicago Press An overview of education What is geography AAG Career Guide Jobs in Geography and Related Geographical Sciences Association of American Geographers Archived from the original on October 6 2006 Retrieved October 9 2006 Hayes Bohanan James What is Environmental Geography Anyway Retrieved October 9 2006 About NEH National Endowment for the Humanities Research Doctorate Programs in the United States Continuity and Change See the SSHA website Robertson Geoffrey 2006 Crimes Against Humanity Penguin p 90 ISBN 978 0 14 102463 9 Hart H L A 1961 The Concept of Law Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 876122 8 Dworkin Ronald 1986 Law s Empire Harvard University Press ISBN 978 0 674 51836 0 Raz Joseph 1979 The Authority of Law Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 956268 8 Austin John 1831 The Providence of Jurisprudence Determined see Etymonline Dictionary see Merriam Webster s Dictionary Ebenstein Alan 2002 Introduction to Political Thinkers Boston Massachusetts Wadsworth Hindmoor Andrew August 8 2006 Rational Choice ISBN 978 1 4039 3422 2 Witt Jon 2018 SOC 218 McGraw Hill p 2 ISBN 978 1 259 70272 3 A Dictionary of Sociology Article Comte Auguste a b Witt Jon 2018 SOC 2018 McGraw Hill ISBN 978 1 259 70272 3 Gianfranco Poggi 2000 Durkheim Oxford Oxford University Press Chapter 1 Habermas Jurgen The Philosophical Discourse of Modernity Modernity s Consciousness of Time Polity Press 1990 paperback ISBN 978 0 7456 0830 3 p 2 Giddens Anthony Duneier Mitchell Applebaum Richard 2007 Introduction to Sociology Sixth Edition New York W W Norton and Company Chapter 1 Lorber Judith 1994 Paradoxes of Gender New Haven CT Yale University Press ISBN 978 0 300 06497 1 Laube Heather Hess Bess B 2001 The Founding of SWS Sociologists for Women in Society Retrieved February 5 2018 Vuong Quan Hoang 2019 The Vietnamese Social Sciences at a Fork in the Road De Gruyter ISBN 978 3 11 068608 1 Zaki Badawi A 2002 Dictionary of the Social Sciences Oxford Reference doi 10 1093 acref 9780195123715 001 0001 ISBN 978 0 19 512371 5 Josephson Storm Jason 2017 The Myth of Disenchantment Magic Modernity and the Birth of the Human Sciences Chicago University of Chicago Press pp 101 14 ISBN 978 0 226 40336 6 A H Halsey 2004 A history of sociology in Britain science literature and society p 34 Geoffrey Duncan Mitchell 1970 A new dictionary of sociology p 201 Willcox Walter 1938 The Founder of Statistics Eykhoff Pieter System Identification Parameter and State Estimation Wiley amp Sons 1974 ISBN 978 0 471 24980 1 Administration for Children and Families 2010 The Program Manager s Guide to Evaluation Chapter 2 What is program evaluation Shackman Gene February 11 2018 What Is Program Evaluation A Beginner s Guide The Global Social Change Research Project SSRN 3060080 Cite journal requires journal help Peterson s Firm 2006 2007 Peterson s graduate programs in the humanities arts amp social sciences 2007 Lawrenceville New Jersey Peterson s a b Overland Indra Sovacool Benjamin K April 1 2020 The misallocation of climate research funding Energy Research amp Social Science 62 101349 doi 10 1016 j erss 2019 101349 ISSN 2214 6296 Bibliography EditMichie Jonathan ed Reader s Guide to the Social Sciences 2 vol 2001 1970 pages annotating the major topics in the late 20th century in all the social sciences 20th and 21st centuries sources Edit Neil J Smelser and Paul B Baltes 2001 International Encyclopedia of the Social amp Behavioral Sciences Amsterdam Elsevier Byrne D S 1998 Complexity theory and the social sciences an introduction Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 16296 8 Kuper A and Kuper J 1985 The Social Science Encyclopedia London Routledge amp Kegan Paul ed a limited preview of the 1996 version is available Lave C A and March J G 1993 An introduction to models in the social sciences Lanham Md University Press of America Perry John and Erna Perry Contemporary Society An Introduction to Social Science 12th Edition 2008 college textbook Potter D 1988 Society and the social sciences An introduction London Routledge u a David L Sills and Robert K Merton 1968 International Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences Seligman Edwin R A and Alvin Johnson 1934 Encyclopedia of the Social Sciences 13 vol Ward L F 1924 Dynamic sociology or applied social science As based upon statical sociology and the less complex sciences New York D Appleton Leavitt F M and Brown E 1920 Elementary social science New York Macmillan Bogardus E S 1913 Introduction to the social sciences A textbook outline Los Angeles Ralston Press Small A W 1910 The meaning of social science Chicago The University of Chicago Press 19th century sources Edit Andrews S P 1888 The science of society Boston Mass Sarah E Holmes Denslow V B 1882 Modern thinkers principally upon social science What they think and why Chicago Belford Clarke amp Co Harris William Torrey 1879 Method of Study in Social Science A Lecture Delivered Before the St Louis Social Science Association March 4 1879 St Louis G I Jones and Co 1879 Hamilton R S 1873 Present status of social science A review historical and critical of the progress of thought in social philosophy New York H L Hinton Carey H C 1867 Principles of social science Philadelphia J B Lippincott amp Co etc Volume I Volume II Volume III Calvert G H 1856 Introduction to social science A discourse in three parts New York Redfield General sources Edit Backhouse Roger E and Philippe Fontaine eds A historiography of the modern social sciences Cambridge University Press 2014 Backhouse Roger E Fontaine Philippe eds 2010 The History of the Social Sciences Since 1945 Cambridge University Press covers the conceptual institutional and wider histories of economics political science sociology social anthropology psychology and human geography Delanty G 1997 Social science Beyond constructivism and realism Minneapolis Univ of Minnesota Press Hargittai E 2009 Research Confidential Solutions to Problems Most Social Scientists Pretend They Never Have Ann Arbor University of Michigan Press ISBN 978 0 472 02653 1 ISBN 978 0 472 05026 0 978 0 472 07026 8 Hunt E F Colander D C 2008 Social science An introduction to the study of society Boston Peason Allyn and Bacon ISBN 978 0 205 52406 8 Carey H C McKean K 1883 Manual of social science Being a condensation of the Principles of social science Philadelphia Baird Galavotti M C 2003 Observation and experiment in the natural and social sciences Boston studies in the philosophy of science 232 Dordrecht Kluwer Academic ISBN 978 1 4020 1251 8 Gorton W A 2006 Karl Popper and the social sciences SUNY series in the philosophy of the social sciences Albany State University of New York Press Harris F R 1973 Social science and national policy New Brunswick N J Transaction Books ISBN 978 1 4128 3445 2 distributed by Dutton Krimerman L I 1969 The nature and scope of social science A critical anthology New York Appleton Century Crofts ISBN 978 0 390 52678 6 Rule J B 1997 Theory and progress in social science Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 57365 8 Shionoya Y 1997 Schumpeter and the idea of social science A metatheoretical study Historical perspectives on modern economics Cambridge Cambridge University Press Singleton Royce A Straits Bruce C 1988 Approaches to Social Research Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 514794 0 Archived from the original on March 3 2007 Thomas D 1979 Naturalism and social science a post empiricist philosophy of social science CUP Archive ISBN 978 0 521 29660 1 Trigg R 2001 Understanding social science A philosophical introduction to the social sciences Malden Mass Blackwell Publishers Weber M 1906 1904 The Relations of the Rural Community to Other Branches of Social Science Congress of Arts and Science Universal Exposition St Louis Houghton Mifflin and Company Creswell John W author Educational research planning conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research ISBN 978 1 299 95719 0 OCLC 859836343 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Academic resources Edit The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science ISSN 1552 3349 electronic ISSN 0002 7162 paper SAGE Publications Efferson C and Richerson P J In press A prolegomenon to nonlinear empiricism in the human behavioral sciences Philosophy and Biology Full textOpponents and critics Edit George H Smith 2014 Intellectuals and Libertarianism Thomas Sowell and Robert Nisbet Phil Hutchinson Rupert Read and Wes Sharrock 2008 There s No Such Thing as a Social Science ISBN 978 0 7546 4776 8 Sabia D R and Wallulis J 1983 Changing social science Critical theory and other critical perspectives Albany State University of New York Press External links EditSocial scienceat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Resources from Wikiversity Data from Wikidata Institute for Comparative Research in Human and Social Sciences ICR JAPAN Centre for Social Work Research Family Therapy and Systemic Research Centre International Conference on Social Sciences International Social Science Council Introduction to Hutchinson et al There s No Such Thing as a Social Science Intute Social Sciences UK Social Science Research Society Social Science Virtual Library Social Science Virtual Library Canaktanweb Turkish Social Sciences And Humanities UC Berkeley Experimental Social Science Laboratory The Dialectic of Social Science by Paul A Baran American Academy Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Social science amp oldid 1055532534, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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