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Toleration

"Tolerate" redirects here. For other uses, see Tolerance.

Toleration is the allowing, permitting, or acceptance of an action, idea, object, or person which one dislikes or disagrees with. Political scientist Andrew R. Murphy explains that "We can improve our understanding by defining "toleration" as a set of social or political practices and "tolerance" as a set of attitudes.". Random House Dictionary defines tolerance as "a fair, objective, and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions, beliefs, practices, racial or ethnic origins, etc., differ from one's own".

Sculpture Für Toleranz ("for tolerance") by Volkmar Kühn, Gera, Germany

Both these concepts inherently contain the idea of alterity, the state of otherness. Additional choices of how to respond to the "other," beyond toleration, do exist. Therefore, in some instances, toleration has been seen as ‘a flawed virtue’ because it concerns acceptance of things that were better overcome. Toleration cannot, therefore, be defined as a universal good, and many of its applications and uses remain contested.: 2

Religious toleration may signify "no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist, even though the latter are looked on with disapproval as inferior, mistaken, or harmful". Historically, most incidents and writings pertaining to toleration involve the status of minority and dissenting viewpoints in relation to a dominant state religion. However, religion is also sociological, and the practice of toleration has always had a political aspect as well.: xiii

Toleration assumes there is a conflict over something important, something that cannot otherwise be resolved through normal negotiation without resorting to war or violence. As political lecturer Catriona McKinnon explains, when it comes to questions like what is "the best way to live, the right things to think, the ideal political society, or the true road to salvation, no amount of negotiation and bargaining will bring them to agreement without at least one party relinquishing the commitments that created the conflict in the first place. Such conflicts provide the circumstances of toleration... [and] are endemic in society.": 6 "The urgency and relevance of this issue is only too obvious: without tolerance, communities that value diversity, equality and peace could not persist (Vogt, 1997).": 1

An overview of the history of toleration and different cultures in which toleration has been practiced, and the ways in which such a paradoxical concept has developed into a guiding one, illuminates its contemporary use as political, social, religious, and ethnic, applying to LGBT individuals and other minorities, and other connected concepts such as human rights.

Contents

Originally from the Latin tolerans (present participle of tolerare; "to bear, endure, tolerate"), the word tolerance was first used in Middle French in the 14th century and in Early Modern English in the early 15th century. The word toleration was first used in English in the 1510s to mean "permission granted by authority, licence" from the French tolération (originally from the Latin past participle stem of tolerare, tolerationem), moving towards the meaning of "forbearance, sufferance" in the 1580s. The notion of religious toleration stems from 1609.

For having lived long, I have experienced many instances of being obliged, by better information or fuller consideration, to change opinions even on important subjects, which I once thought right, but found to be otherwise. It is therefore that the older I grow the more apt I am to doubt my own judgment, and to pay more respect to the judgment of others.

Benjamin Franklin

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789), adopted by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution, states in Article 10: "No-one shall be interfered with for his opinions, even religious ones, provided that their practice does not disturb public order as established by the law." ("Nul ne doit être inquiété pour ses opinions, mêmes religieuses, pourvu que leur manifestation ne trouble pas l'ordre public établi par la loi.")

Mill

In "On Liberty" (1859) John Stuart Mill concludes that opinions ought never to be suppressed, stating, "Such prejudice, or oversight, when it [i.e. false belief] occurs, is altogether an evil; but it is one from which we cannot hope to be always exempt, and must be regarded as the price paid for an inestimable good." He claims that there are three sorts of beliefs that can be had—wholly false, partly true, and wholly true—all of which, according to Mill, benefit the common good:

First, if any opinion is compelled to silence, that opinion may, for aught we can certainly know, be true. To deny this is to assume our own infallibility. Secondly, though the silenced opinion be an error, it may, and very commonly does, contain a portion of truth; and since the general or prevailing opinion on any subject is rarely or never the whole truth, it is only by the collision of adverse opinions that the remainder of the truth has any chance of being supplied. Thirdly, even if the received opinion be not only true, but the whole truth; unless it is suffered to be, and actually is, vigorously and earnestly contested, it will, by most of those who receive it, be held in the manner of a prejudice, with little comprehension or feeling of its rational grounds. And not only this, but, fourthly, the meaning of the doctrine itself will be in danger of being lost, or enfeebled, and deprived of its vital effect on the character and conduct: the dogma becoming a mere formal profession, inefficacious for good, but cumbering the ground, and preventing the growth of any real and heartfelt conviction, from reason or personal experience.

Renan

Renan

In his 1882 essay "What is a Nation?", French historian and philosopher Ernest Renan proposed a definition of nationhood based on "a spiritual principle" involving shared memories, rather than a common religious, racial or linguistic heritage. Thus members of any religious group could participate fully in the life of the nation. "You can be French, English, German, yet Catholic, Protestant, Jewish, or practicing no religion."

In 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which states:

Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance

Even though not formally legally binding, the Declaration has been adopted in or influenced many national constitutions since 1948. It also serves as the foundation for a growing number of international treaties and national laws and international, regional, national and sub-national institutions protecting and promoting human rights including the freedom of religion.

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The development of new digital technologies has resulted in an exponential growth in the volume of information and knowledge available, and made them more readily accessible to greater numbers of people throughout the world. As such, information and communication technologies can play an essential role in the sharing of knowledge and expertise in the service of sustainable development and in a spirit of solidarity. And yet, for many observers, the world is witnessing rising levels of ethnic, cultural and religious intolerance, often using the same communication technologies for ideological and political mobilization to promote exclusivist worldviews. This mobilization often leads to further criminal and political violence and to armed conflict. This also leads to new modes of intolerance such as cyberbullying.

Contemporary commentators have highlighted situations in which toleration conflicts with widely held moral standards, national law, the principles of national identity, or other strongly held goals. Michael Walzer notes that the British in India tolerated the Hindu practice of suttee (ritual burning of a widow) until 1829. On the other hand, the United States declined to tolerate the Mormon practice of polygamy. The French head scarf controversy represents a conflict between religious practice and the French secular ideal. Toleration of the Romani people in European countries is a continuing issue.

Modern definition

Historian Alexandra Walsham notes that the modern understanding of the word "toleration" may be very different from its historic meaning. Toleration in modern parlance has been analyzed as a component of a liberal or libertarian view of human rights. Hans Oberdiek writes, "As long as no one is harmed or no one's fundamental rights are violated, the state should keep hands off, tolerating what those controlling the state find disgusting, deplorable or even debased. This for a long time has been the most prevalent defense of toleration by liberals... It is found, for example, in the writings of American philosophers John Rawls, Robert Nozick, Ronald Dworkin, Brian Barry, and a Canadian, Will Kymlicka, among others."

Isaiah Berlin attributes to Herbert Butterfield the notion that "toleration... implies a certain disrespect. I tolerate your absurd beliefs and your foolish acts, though I know them to be absurd and foolish. Mill would, I think, have agreed."

John Gray states that "When we tolerate a practice, a belief or a character trait, we let something be that we judge to be undesirable, false or at least inferior; our toleration expresses the conviction that, despite its badness, the object of toleration should be left alone." However, according to Gray, "new liberalism—the liberalism of Rawls, Dworkin, Ackerman and suchlike" seems to imply that "it is wrong for government to discriminate in favour of, or against, any form of life animated by a definite conception of the good".

John Rawls' "theory of 'political liberalism' conceives of toleration as a pragmatic response to the fact of diversity". Diverse groups learn to tolerate one another by developing "what Rawls calls 'overlapping consensus': individuals and groups with diverse metaphysical views or 'comprehensive schemes' will find reasons to agree about certain principles of justice that will include principles of toleration".

Herbert Marcuse wrote A Critique of Pure Tolerance in 1965 where he argued that the "pure tolerance" that permits all favors totalitarianism, democracy, and tyranny of the majority, and insisted the "repressive tolerance" against them.

Tolerating the intolerant

Main article: Paradox of tolerance

Walzer, Karl Popper and John Rawls have discussed the paradox of tolerating intolerance. Walzer asks "Should we tolerate the intolerant?" He notes that most minority religious groups who are the beneficiaries of tolerance are themselves intolerant, at least in some respects. Rawls argues that an intolerant sect should be tolerated in a tolerant society unless the sect directly threatens the security of other members of the society. He links this principle to the stability of a tolerant society, in which members of an intolerant sect in a tolerant society will, over time, acquire the tolerance of the wider society.

Other criticisms and issues

Toleration has been described as undermining itself via moral relativism: "either the claim self-referentially undermines itself or it provides us with no compelling reason to believe it. If we are skeptical about knowledge, then we have no way of knowing that toleration is good."

Ronald Dworkin argues that in exchange for toleration, minorities must bear with the criticisms and insults which are part of the freedom of speech in an otherwise tolerant society. Dworkin has also questioned whether the United States is a "tolerant secular" nation, or is re-characterizing itself as a "tolerant religious" nation, based on the increasing re-introduction of religious themes into conservative politics. Dworkin concludes that "the tolerant secular model is preferable, although he invited people to use the concept of personal responsibility to argue in favor of the tolerant religious model."

In The End of Faith, Sam Harris asserts that society should be unwilling to tolerate unjustified religious beliefs about morality, spirituality, politics, and the origin of humanity, especially beliefs which promote violence.

This article incorporates text from a free content work. Licensed under CC-BY-SA IGO 3.0 License statement/permission on Wikimedia Commons. Text taken from Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good?, 24, UNESCO. To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles, please see . For information on reusing text from Wikipedia, please see the terms of use.

  1. Murphy, Andrew R. (1997). "Tolerance, Toleration, and the Liberal Tradition". Polity. The University of Chicago Press Journals. 29 (4): 593–623. doi:10.2307/3235269. JSTOR 3235269. S2CID 155764374.
  2. "Tolerance" in Random House Dictionary (via dictionary.reference.com).
  3. van Doorn, Marjoka (October 2014). "The nature of tolerance and the social circumstances in which it emerges". 62. Current Sociology. pp. 905–927.
  4. van Doorn, Marjoka (2012). "Tolerance"(PDF). Sociopedia. Sage.
  5. Perez Zagorin, How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West (Princeton: Princeton University Press 2003) ISBN 0691092702, pp. 5–6, quoting D.D. Raphael et al.
  6. Joachim Vahland, 'Toleranzdiskurse', Zeno no. 37 (2017), pp. 7–25
  7. Gervers, Peter; Gervers, Michael; Powell, James M., eds. (2001). Tolerance and Intolerance: Social Conflict in the Age of the Crusades. Syracuse University Press. ISBN 9780815628699.
  8. McKinnon, Catriona (2006). Toleration: A Critical Introduction. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-32289-8.
  9. "Diversity As A Core Value – What Does It Mean To Value Diversity?". www.emexmag.com. Retrieved10 June 2016.
  10. "tolerance (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved19 November 2018.
  11. "toleration (n.)". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved19 November 2018.
  12. "Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen de 1789". Accessed March 22, 2011
  13. Mill 1859, p. 72
  14. Ernest Renan, "Qu'est-ce qu'une nation?", conference faite en Sorbonne, le 11 Mars 1882. Accessed January 13, 2011
  15. "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights", United Nations 1948, retrieved 1 June 2007.
  16. Rethinking Education: Towards a global common good?(PDF). UNESCO. 2015. p. 24. ISBN 978-9231000881.
  17. Michael Walzer, On Toleration, (New Haven: Yale University Press 1997) p. 61 ISBN 0300076002
  18. John Bowen, "Muslims and Citizens", The Boston Review February–March 2004. Accessed January 25, 2011
  19. "Romanies: A long road", The Economist September 16, 2010. Accessed March 22, 2011
  20. Alexandra Walsham, Charitable Hatred: Tolerance and Intolerance in England, 1500–1700. Manchester University Press (2006) ISBN 0719052394 p. 233.
  21. Oberdiek, Hans, Tolerance: between forebearance and acceptance (Lanham, Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield, 2001) p. vi ISBN 0847687856
  22. Isaiah Berlin, "Four Essays on Liberty," London, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1969, p. 184.
  23. John Gray, "Enlightenment's Wake," London and New York: Routledge, p. 19.
  24. Gray (1995), p. 20.
  25. "Toleration", The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Accessed March 21, 2011
  26. Karl Popper, The Open Society and Its Enemies, Vol. 1, Notes to the Chapters: Ch. 7, Note 4.
  27. John Rawls, A Theory of Justice, Harvard University Press, 1971, p. 216.
  28. Michael Walzer, On Toleration, (New Haven: Yale University Press 1997) pp. 80–81 ISBN 0300076002
  29. "Toleration", The Internet encyclopedia of Philosophy, Accessed March 21, 2011
  30. Ronald Dworkin, "Even bigots and Holocaust deniers must have their say", The Guardian, February 14, 2006. retrieved March 21, 2011
  31. "Dworkin Explores Secular, Religious Models for Society", Virginia Law School News and Events, April 18, 2008. accessed March 21, 2011
Wikimedia Commons has media related toTolerance.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Toleration
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: God and Religious Toleration

Toleration
Toleration Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Social tolerance Tolerate redirects here For other uses see Tolerance Toleration is the allowing permitting or acceptance of an action idea object or person which one dislikes or disagrees with Political scientist Andrew R Murphy explains that We can improve our understanding by defining toleration as a set of social or political practices and tolerance as a set of attitudes 1 Random House Dictionary defines tolerance as a fair objective and permissive attitude toward those whose opinions beliefs practices racial or ethnic origins etc differ from one s own 2 Sculpture Fur Toleranz for tolerance by Volkmar Kuhn Gera Germany Both these concepts inherently contain the idea of alterity the state of otherness 3 Additional choices of how to respond to the other beyond toleration do exist Therefore in some instances toleration has been seen as a flawed virtue because it concerns acceptance of things that were better overcome 4 Toleration cannot therefore be defined as a universal good and many of its applications and uses remain contested 4 2 Religious toleration may signify no more than forbearance and the permission given by the adherents of a dominant religion for other religions to exist even though the latter are looked on with disapproval as inferior mistaken or harmful 5 Historically most incidents and writings pertaining to toleration involve the status of minority and dissenting viewpoints in relation to a dominant state religion 6 However religion is also sociological and the practice of toleration has always had a political aspect as well 7 xiii Toleration assumes there is a conflict over something important something that cannot otherwise be resolved through normal negotiation without resorting to war or violence As political lecturer Catriona McKinnon explains when it comes to questions like what is the best way to live the right things to think the ideal political society or the true road to salvation no amount of negotiation and bargaining will bring them to agreement without at least one party relinquishing the commitments that created the conflict in the first place Such conflicts provide the circumstances of toleration and are endemic in society 8 6 The urgency and relevance of this issue is only too obvious without tolerance communities that value diversity 9 equality and peace could not persist Vogt 1997 4 1 An overview of the history of toleration and different cultures in which toleration has been practiced and the ways in which such a paradoxical concept has developed into a guiding one illuminates its contemporary use as political social religious and ethnic applying to LGBT individuals and other minorities and other connected concepts such as human rights Contents 1 Etymology 2 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 3 In the nineteenth century 3 1 Mill 3 2 Renan 4 In the twentieth century 5 Tolerance and digital technologies 6 Modern analyses and critiques 6 1 Modern definition 6 2 Tolerating the intolerant 6 3 Other criticisms and issues 7 See also 8 Sources 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksEtymology EditOriginally from the Latin tolerans present participle of tolerare to bear endure tolerate the word tolerance was first used in Middle French in the 14th century and in Early Modern English in the early 15th century 10 The word toleration was first used in English in the 1510s to mean permission granted by authority licence from the French toleration originally from the Latin past participle stem of tolerare tolerationem moving towards the meaning of forbearance sufferance in the 1580s 11 The notion of religious toleration stems from 1609 11 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Edit Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen For having lived long I have experienced many instances of being obliged by better information or fuller consideration to change opinions even on important subjects which I once thought right but found to be otherwise It is therefore that the older I grow the more apt I am to doubt my own judgment and to pay more respect to the judgment of others Benjamin Franklin The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen 1789 adopted by the National Constituent Assembly during the French Revolution states in Article 10 No one shall be interfered with for his opinions even religious ones provided that their practice does not disturb public order as established by the law Nul ne doit etre inquiete pour ses opinions memes religieuses pourvu que leur manifestation ne trouble pas l ordre public etabli par la loi 12 In the nineteenth century EditMill Edit In On Liberty 1859 John Stuart Mill concludes that opinions ought never to be suppressed stating Such prejudice or oversight when it i e false belief occurs is altogether an evil but it is one from which we cannot hope to be always exempt and must be regarded as the price paid for an inestimable good He claims that there are three sorts of beliefs that can be had wholly false partly true and wholly true all of which according to Mill benefit the common good 13 First if any opinion is compelled to silence that opinion may for aught we can certainly know be true To deny this is to assume our own infallibility Secondly though the silenced opinion be an error it may and very commonly does contain a portion of truth and since the general or prevailing opinion on any subject is rarely or never the whole truth it is only by the collision of adverse opinions that the remainder of the truth has any chance of being supplied Thirdly even if the received opinion be not only true but the whole truth unless it is suffered to be and actually is vigorously and earnestly contested it will by most of those who receive it be held in the manner of a prejudice with little comprehension or feeling of its rational grounds And not only this but fourthly the meaning of the doctrine itself will be in danger of being lost or enfeebled and deprived of its vital effect on the character and conduct the dogma becoming a mere formal profession inefficacious for good but cumbering the ground and preventing the growth of any real and heartfelt conviction from reason or personal experience 13 Renan Edit Renan In his 1882 essay What is a Nation French historian and philosopher Ernest Renan proposed a definition of nationhood based on a spiritual principle involving shared memories rather than a common religious racial or linguistic heritage Thus members of any religious group could participate fully in the life of the nation You can be French English German yet Catholic Protestant Jewish or practicing no religion 14 In the twentieth century EditIn 1948 the United Nations General Assembly adopted Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states Everyone has the right to freedom of thought conscience and religion this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief and freedom either alone or in community with others and in public or private to manifest his religion or belief in teaching practice worship and observance 15 Even though not formally legally binding the Declaration has been adopted in or influenced many national constitutions since 1948 It also serves as the foundation for a growing number of international treaties and national laws and international regional national and sub national institutions protecting and promoting human rights including the freedom of religion Tolerance and digital technologies EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Toleration news newspapers books scholar JSTOR September 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message The development of new digital technologies has resulted in an exponential growth in the volume of information and knowledge available and made them more readily accessible to greater numbers of people throughout the world As such information and communication technologies can play an essential role in the sharing of knowledge and expertise in the service of sustainable development and in a spirit of solidarity And yet for many observers the world is witnessing rising levels of ethnic cultural and religious intolerance often using the same communication technologies for ideological and political mobilization to promote exclusivist worldviews This mobilization often leads to further criminal and political violence and to armed conflict 16 This also leads to new modes of intolerance such as cyberbullying Modern analyses and critiques EditContemporary commentators have highlighted situations in which toleration conflicts with widely held moral standards national law the principles of national identity or other strongly held goals Michael Walzer notes that the British in India tolerated the Hindu practice of suttee ritual burning of a widow until 1829 On the other hand the United States declined to tolerate the Mormon practice of polygamy 17 The French head scarf controversy represents a conflict between religious practice and the French secular ideal 18 Toleration of the Romani people in European countries is a continuing issue 19 Modern definition Edit Historian Alexandra Walsham notes that the modern understanding of the word toleration may be very different from its historic meaning 20 Toleration in modern parlance has been analyzed as a component of a liberal or libertarian view of human rights Hans Oberdiek writes As long as no one is harmed or no one s fundamental rights are violated the state should keep hands off tolerating what those controlling the state find disgusting deplorable or even debased This for a long time has been the most prevalent defense of toleration by liberals It is found for example in the writings of American philosophers John Rawls Robert Nozick Ronald Dworkin Brian Barry and a Canadian Will Kymlicka among others 21 Isaiah Berlin attributes to Herbert Butterfield the notion that toleration implies a certain disrespect I tolerate your absurd beliefs and your foolish acts though I know them to be absurd and foolish Mill would I think have agreed 22 John Gray states that When we tolerate a practice a belief or a character trait we let something be that we judge to be undesirable false or at least inferior our toleration expresses the conviction that despite its badness the object of toleration should be left alone 23 However according to Gray new liberalism the liberalism of Rawls Dworkin Ackerman and suchlike seems to imply that it is wrong for government to discriminate in favour of or against any form of life animated by a definite conception of the good 24 John Rawls theory of political liberalism conceives of toleration as a pragmatic response to the fact of diversity Diverse groups learn to tolerate one another by developing what Rawls calls overlapping consensus individuals and groups with diverse metaphysical views or comprehensive schemes will find reasons to agree about certain principles of justice that will include principles of toleration 25 Herbert Marcuse wrote A Critique of Pure Tolerance in 1965 where he argued that the pure tolerance that permits all favors totalitarianism democracy and tyranny of the majority and insisted the repressive tolerance against them Tolerating the intolerant Edit Main article Paradox of tolerance Walzer Karl Popper 26 and John Rawls 27 have discussed the paradox of tolerating intolerance Walzer asks Should we tolerate the intolerant He notes that most minority religious groups who are the beneficiaries of tolerance are themselves intolerant at least in some respects 28 Rawls argues that an intolerant sect should be tolerated in a tolerant society unless the sect directly threatens the security of other members of the society He links this principle to the stability of a tolerant society in which members of an intolerant sect in a tolerant society will over time acquire the tolerance of the wider society Other criticisms and issues Edit Toleration has been described as undermining itself via moral relativism either the claim self referentially undermines itself or it provides us with no compelling reason to believe it If we are skeptical about knowledge then we have no way of knowing that toleration is good 29 Ronald Dworkin argues that in exchange for toleration minorities must bear with the criticisms and insults which are part of the freedom of speech in an otherwise tolerant society 30 Dworkin has also questioned whether the United States is a tolerant secular nation or is re characterizing itself as a tolerant religious nation based on the increasing re introduction of religious themes into conservative politics Dworkin concludes that the tolerant secular model is preferable although he invited people to use the concept of personal responsibility to argue in favor of the tolerant religious model 31 In The End of Faith Sam Harris asserts that society should be unwilling to tolerate unjustified religious beliefs about morality spirituality politics and the origin of humanity especially beliefs which promote violence See also EditAnekantavada A Critique of Pure Tolerance The Death Camp of Tolerance International Day for Tolerance Religious discrimination Religious intolerance Religious liberty Religious persecution Religious pluralism Zero toleranceSources Edit This article incorporates text from a free content work Licensed under CC BY SA IGO 3 0 License statement permission on Wikimedia Commons Text taken from Rethinking Education Towards a global common good 24 UNESCO To learn how to add open license text to Wikipedia articles please see this how to page For information on reusing text from Wikipedia please see the terms of use References Edit Murphy Andrew R 1997 Tolerance Toleration and the Liberal Tradition Polity The University of Chicago Press Journals 29 4 593 623 doi 10 2307 3235269 JSTOR 3235269 S2CID 155764374 Tolerance in Random House Dictionary via dictionary reference com van Doorn Marjoka October 2014 The nature of tolerance and the social circumstances in which it emerges 62 Current Sociology pp 905 927 a b c van Doorn Marjoka 2012 Tolerance PDF Sociopedia Sage Perez Zagorin How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West Princeton Princeton University Press 2003 ISBN 0691092702 pp 5 6 quoting D D Raphael et al Joachim Vahland Toleranzdiskurse Zeno no 37 2017 pp 7 25 Gervers Peter Gervers Michael Powell James M eds 2001 Tolerance and Intolerance Social Conflict in the Age of the Crusades Syracuse University Press ISBN 9780815628699 McKinnon Catriona 2006 Toleration A Critical Introduction New York Routledge ISBN 0 415 32289 8 Diversity As A Core Value What Does It Mean To Value Diversity www emexmag com Retrieved 10 June 2016 tolerance n Online Etymology Dictionary Retrieved 19 November 2018 a b toleration n Online Etymology Dictionary Retrieved 19 November 2018 Declaration des droits de l Homme et du citoyen de 1789 Accessed March 22 2011 a b Mill 1859 p 72 Ernest Renan Qu est ce qu une nation conference faite en Sorbonne le 11 Mars 1882 Accessed January 13 2011 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights United Nations 1948 retrieved 1 June 2007 Rethinking Education Towards a global common good PDF UNESCO 2015 p 24 ISBN 978 9231000881 Michael Walzer On Toleration New Haven Yale University Press 1997 p 61 ISBN 0300076002 John Bowen Muslims and Citizens The Boston Review February March 2004 Accessed January 25 2011 Romanies A long road The Economist September 16 2010 Accessed March 22 2011 Alexandra Walsham Charitable Hatred Tolerance and Intolerance in England 1500 1700 Manchester University Press 2006 ISBN 0719052394 p 233 Oberdiek Hans Tolerance between forebearance and acceptance Lanham Maryland Rowman and Littlefield 2001 p vi ISBN 0847687856 Isaiah Berlin Four Essays on Liberty London Oxford and New York Oxford University Press 1969 p 184 John Gray Enlightenment s Wake London and New York Routledge p 19 Gray 1995 p 20 Toleration The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Accessed March 21 2011 Karl Popper The Open Society and Its Enemies Vol 1 Notes to the Chapters Ch 7 Note 4 John Rawls A Theory of Justice Harvard University Press 1971 p 216 Michael Walzer On Toleration New Haven Yale University Press 1997 pp 80 81 ISBN 0300076002 Toleration The Internet encyclopedia of Philosophy Accessed March 21 2011 Ronald Dworkin Even bigots and Holocaust deniers must have their say The Guardian February 14 2006 retrieved March 21 2011 Dworkin Explores Secular Religious Models for Society Virginia Law School News and Events April 18 2008 accessed March 21 2011Further reading EditBarzilai Gad 2007 Law and Religion Ashgate ISBN 978 0754624943 Beneke Chris 2006 Beyond Toleration The Religious Origins of American Pluralism Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0195305555 Coffey John 2000 Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558 1689 Longman Publishing Group ISBN 978 0582304659 Collins Jeffrey R Redeeming the enlightenment New histories of religious toleration Journal of Modern History 81 3 2009 607 36 Historiography 1789 to 2009 Curry Thomas J 1989 Church and State in America to the Passage of the First Amendment Oxford University Press Reprint edition ISBN 978 0195051810 Grell Ole Peter Roy Porter eds 2000 Toleration in Enlightenment Europe Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0521651967 Hamilton Marci A 2005 God vs the Gavel Religion and the Rule of Law Edward R Becker Foreword Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0521853040 Hanson Charles P 1998 Necessary Virtue The Pragmatic Origins of Religious Liberty in New England University Press of Virginia ISBN 978 0813917948 Kaplan Benjamin J 2007 Divided by Faith Religious Conflict and the Practice of Toleration in Early Modern Europe Belknap Press ISBN 978 0674024304 Laursen John Christian Nederman Cary eds 1997 Beyond the Persecuting Society Religious Toleration Before the Enlightenment University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 978 0812233315 Murphy Andrew R 2001 Conscience and Community Revisiting Toleration and Religious Dissent in Early Modern England and America Pennsylvania State University Press ISBN 978 0271021058 Oberdiek Hans 2001 Tolerance between forebearance and acceptance Rowman and Littlefield ISBN 978 0847687855 Tausch Arno Are Practicing Catholics More Tolerant of Other Religions than the Rest of the World Comparative Analyses Based on World Values Survey Data November 21 2017 Available at SSRN 3075315 or doi 10 2139 ssrn 3075315 Tonder Lars 2013 Tolerance A Sensorial Orientation to Politics Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0199315802 Walsham Alexandra 2006 Charitable Hatred Tolerance and Intolerance in England 1500 1700 Manchester University Press ISBN 978 0719052392 Walsham Alexandra 2017 Toleration Pluralism and Coexistence The Ambivalent Legacies of the Reformation Archiv fur Reformationsgeschichte Archive for Reformation History 108 1 2017 181 90 Online Zagorin Perez 2003 How the Idea of Religious Toleration Came to the West Princeton University Press ISBN 978 0691121420 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Tolerance Wikiquote has quotations related to TolerationWikibooks has a book on the topic of God and Religious TolerationReligion and Foreign Policy Initiative Council on Foreign Relations Background to the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Text of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Various information on sensible religious topics Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance Religious Tolerance at Curlie History of Religious Tolerance Outline for a Discussion on Toleration Karen Barkey The Foundation against Intolerance of Religious Minorities Toleration Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy Toleration BBC Radio 4 discussion with Justin Champion David Wootton amp Sarah Barber In Our Time May 20 2004 Teaching Tolerance Test Yourself for Hidden Bias Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Toleration amp oldid 1051364342, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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