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Wikipedia

Social work

Social work is an academic discipline and practice-based profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups, communities, and society as a whole in an effort to meet basic needs and enhance social functioning, self-determination, collective responsibility, optimal health, and overall well-being. Social functioning is defined as the ability of an individual to perform their social roles within their own self, their immediate social environment, and the society at large. Social work applies areas, such as sociology, psychology, human biology, political science, health, community development, law, and economics, to work with individuals across the lifespan, engage with client systems, conduct assessments, and develop interventions to solve social problems, personal problems, and bring about social change. Social work practice is often divided into micro-work, which involves working directly with individuals or small groups; and macro-work, which involves working with communities, and fostering change on a larger scale through social policy. Starting in the 1980s, a few universities began social work management programmes, to prepare students for the management of social and human service organisations, in addition to classical social work education.

Social work
A social worker providing public assistance to a family
Occupation
NamesLicensed Clinical Social Worker, Licensed Master Social Worker, Licensed Advanced Practicing Social Worker, Registered Social Worker
Activity sectors
Social welfare, social services, government, health, public health, mental health, occupational safety and health, community organization, non-profit, law, corporate social responsibility, human rights
Description
CompetenciesImproving the social environment and well-being of people by facilitating, and developing resources
Education required
Bachelor of Social Work (BSW), Bachelor of Arts (BA) in Social Work, Bachelor of Science in Social Work (BSc) or a Postgraduate Diploma in Social Work (PGDipSW) for general practice; Master of Social Work (MSW), Master of Science in Social Work (MSSW) for clinical practice; Doctorate of Social Work (DSW) or Professional Doctorate (ProfD or DProf) for or specialized practice; Accredited educational institution; Registration and licensing differs depending on state
Fields of
employment
Child and women protection services, non-profit organizations, government agencies, disadvantaged groups centers, hospitals, schools, churches, shelters, community agencies, social planning services, think tanks, correctional services, labor and industry services

The social work professiondeveloped in the 19th century, with some of its roots in voluntary philanthropy and in grassroots organizing. However, responses to social needs had existed long before then, primarily from public almshouses, private charities and religious organizations. The effects of the Industrial Revolution and of the Great Depression of the 1930s placed pressure on social work to become a more defined discipline.[need quotation to verify]

Contents

Social work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines. Social work organizations offer the following definitions:

"Social work is a practice-based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development, social cohesion, and the empowerment and liberation of people. Principles of social justice, human rights, collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work. Underpinned by theories of social work, social sciences, humanities, and indigenous knowledge, social work engages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance well-being."International Federation of Social Workers

"Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals, families, groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well-being. It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their resources and those of the community to resolve problems. Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty, unemployment, and domestic violence."Canadian Association of Social Workers

Social work practice consists of the professional application of social principles, and techniques to one or more of the following ends: helping people obtain tangible services; counseling and psychotherapy with individuals, families, and groups; helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services, and participating in legislative processes. The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior; of social and economic, and cultural institutions; and the interaction of all these factors."National Association of Social Workers

"Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives. This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently. Social workers support people, act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require. Social workers often work in multi-disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals."British Association of Social Workers

A Marylebone slum in the 19th century

The practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern and scientific origin, and is generally considered to have developed out of three strands. The first was individual casework, a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid-19th century, which was founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London, England. Most historians identify COS as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation. COS had its main focus on individual casework. The second was social administration, which included various forms of poverty relief – 'relief of paupers'. Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organization Society. The third consisted of social action – rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements, the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty. This approach was developed originally by the Settlement House Movement.

This was accompanied by a less easily defined movement; the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, and laid the foundation basis for modern social work, both in theory and in practice.

Professional social work originated in 19th century England, and had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular, the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban-based poverty and its related problems. Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work.

Other important historical figures that shaped the growth of the social work profession are Jane Addams, who founded the Hull House in Chicago and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931; Mary Ellen Richmond, who wrote Social Diagnosis, one of the first social workbooks to incorporate law, medicine, psychiatry, psychology, and history; and William Beveridge, who created the social welfare state, framing the debate on social work within the context of social welfare provision.

United States

During the 1840s, Dorothea Lynde Dix, a retired Boston teacher who is considered the founder of the Mental Health Movement, began a crusade that would change the way people with mental disorders were viewed and treated. Dix was not a social worker; the profession was not established until after she died in 1887. However, her life and work were embraced by early psychiatric social workers, and she is considered one of the pioneers of psychiatric social work along with Elizabeth Horton, who in 1907 was the first psychiatric social worker in the New York hospital system, and others.

The early twentieth century was a time of progressive change in attitudes towards mental illness. The Community Mental Health Centers Act was passed in 1963. This policy encouraged the deinstitutionalisation of people with mental illness. Later, the mental health consumer movement came by 1980s. A consumer was defined as a person who has received or is currently receiving services for a psychiatric condition. People with mental disorders and their families became advocates for better care. Building public understanding and awareness through consumer advocacy helped bring mental illness and its treatment into mainstream medicine and social services. The 2000s saw the managed care movement, which aimed at a health care delivery system to eliminate unnecessary and inappropriate care to reduce costs, and the recovery movement, which by principle acknowledges that many people with serious mental illness spontaneously recover and others recover and improve with proper treatment.

Social workers made an impact with 2003 invasion of Iraq and War in Afghanistan (2001–present); social workers worked out of NATO hospitals in Afghanistan and Iraqi bases. They made visits to provide counseling services at forward operating bases. Twenty-two percent of the clients were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder, 17 percent with depression, and 7 percent with alcohol use disorder. In 2009, there was a high level of suicides among active-duty soldiers: 160 confirmed or suspected Army suicides. In 2008, the Marine Corps had a record 52 suicides. The stress of long and repeated deployments to war zones, the dangerous and confusing nature of both wars, wavering public support for the wars, and reduced troop morale all contributed to escalating mental health issues. Military and civilian social workers served a critical role in the veterans' health care system.

Mental health services, is a loose network of services ranging from highly structured inpatient psychiatric units to informal support groups, where psychiatric social workers indulges in the diverse approaches in multiple settings along with other paraprofessional workers.[citation needed]

Canada

A role for psychiatric social workers was established early in Canada's history of service delivery in the field of population health. Native North Americans understood mental trouble as an indication of an individual who had lost their equilibrium with the sense of place and belonging in general, and with the rest of the group in particular. In native healing beliefs, health and mental health were inseparable, so similar combinations of natural and spiritual remedies were often employed to relieve both mental and physical illness. These communities and families greatly valued holistic approaches for preventive health care. Indigenous peoples in Canada have faced cultural oppression and social marginalization through the actions of European colonizers and their institutions since the earliest periods of contact. Culture contact brought with it many forms of depredation. Economic, political, and religious institutions of the European settlers all contributed to the displacement and oppression of indigenous people.

The first officially recorded treatment practices were in 1714, when Quebec opened wards for the mentally ill. In the 1830s social services were active through charity organizations and church parishes (Social Gospel Movement). Asylums for the insane were opened in 1835 in Saint John and New Brunswick. In 1841 in Toronto care for the mentally ill became institutionally based. Canada became a self-governing dominion in 1867, retaining its ties to the British crown. During this period, age of industrial capitalism began and it led to social and economic dislocation in many forms. By 1887 asylums were converted to hospitals, and nurses and attendants were employed for the care of the mentally ill. The first social work training began at the University of Toronto in 1914. In 1918 Dr. Clarence Hincks and Clifford Beers founded the Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene, which later became the Canadian Mental Health Association. In the 1930s Hincks promoted prevention and of treating sufferers of mental illness before they were incapacitated (early detection).[citation needed]

World War II profoundly affected attitudes towards mental health. The medical examinations of recruits revealed that thousands of apparently healthy adults suffered mental difficulties. This knowledge changed public attitudes towards mental health, and stimulated research into preventive measures and methods of treatment. In 1951 Mental Health Week was introduced across Canada. For the first half of the twentieth century, with a period of deinstitutionalisation beginning in the late 1960s psychiatric social work succeeded to the current emphasis on community-based care, psychiatric social work focused beyond the medical model's aspects on individual diagnosis to identify and address social inequities and structural issues. In the 1980s Mental Health Act was amended to give consumers the right to choose treatment alternatives. Later the focus shifted to workforce mental health issues and environmental root causes.

India

The earliest citing of mental disorders in India are from Vedic Era (2000 BC – AD 600). Charaka Samhita, an ayurvedic textbook believed to be from 400 to 200 BC describes various factors of mental stability. It also has instructions regarding how to set up a care delivery system. In the same era, Siddha was a medical system in south India. The great sage Agastya was one of the 18 siddhas contributing to a system of medicine. This system has included the Agastiyar Kirigai Nool, a compendium of psychiatric disorders and their recommended treatments. In Atharva Veda too there are descriptions and resolutions about mental health afflictions. In the Mughal period Unani system of medicine was introduced by an Indian physician Unhammad in 1222. The existing form of psychotherapy was known then as ilaj-i-nafsani in Unani medicine.

The 18th century was a very unstable period in Indian history, which contributed to psychological and social chaos in the Indian subcontinent. In 1745, lunatic asylums were developed in Bombay (Mumbai) followed by Calcutta (Kolkata) in 1784, and Madras (Chennai) in 1794. The need to establish hospitals became more acute, first to treat and manage Englishmen and Indian 'sepoys' (military men) employed by the British East India Company. The First Lunacy Act (also called Act No. 36) that came into effect in 1858 was later modified by a committee appointed in Bengal in 1888. Later, the Indian Lunacy Act, 1912 was brought under this legislation. A rehabilitation programme was initiated between 1870s and 1890s for persons with mental illness at the Mysore Lunatic Asylum, and then an occupational therapy department was established during this period in almost each of the lunatic asylums. The programme in the asylum was called 'work therapy'. In this programme, persons with mental illness were involved in the field of agriculture for all activities. This programme is considered as the seed of origin of psychosocial rehabilitation in India.

Berkeley-Hill, superintendent of the European Hospital (now known as the Central Institute of Psychiatry (CIP), established in 1918), was deeply concerned about the improvement of mental hospitals in those days. The sustained efforts of Berkeley-Hill helped to raise the standard of treatment and care and he also persuaded the government to change the term 'asylum' to 'hospital' in 1920. Techniques similar to the current token-economy were first started in 1920 and called by the name 'habit formation chart' at the CIP, Ranchi. In 1937, the first post of psychiatric social worker was created in the child guidance clinic run by the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work (established in 1936). It is considered as the first documented evidence of social work practice in Indian mental health field.[citation needed]

After Independence in 1947, general hospital psychiatry units (GHPUs) were established to improve conditions in existing hospitals, while at the same time encouraging outpatient care through these units. In Amritsar Dr. Vidyasagar instituted active involvement of families in the care of persons with mental illness. This was advanced practice ahead of its times regarding treatment and care. This methodology had a greater impact on social work practice in the mental health field especially in reducing the stigmatisation. In 1948 Gauri Rani Banerjee, trained in the United States, started a master's course in medical and psychiatric social work at the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work (now TISS). Later the first trained psychiatric social worker was appointed in 1949 at the adult psychiatry unit of Yerwada Mental Hospital, Pune.[citation needed]

In various parts of the country, in mental health service settings, social workers were employed—in 1956 at a mental hospital in Amritsar, in 1958 at a child guidance clinic of the college of nursing, and in Delhi in 1960 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and in 1962 at the Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital. In 1960, the Madras Mental Hospital (now Institute of Mental Health) employed social workers to bridge the gap between doctors and patients. In 1961 the social work post was created at the NIMHANS. In these settings they took care of the psychosocial aspect of treatment. This system enabled social service practices to have a stronger long-term impact on mental health care.

In 1966 by the recommendation Mental Health Advisory Committee, Ministry of Health, Government of India, NIMHANS commenced Department of Psychiatric Social Work started and a two-year Postgraduate Diploma in Psychiatric Social Work was introduced in 1968. In 1978, the nomenclature of the course was changed to MPhil in Psychiatric Social Work. Subsequently, a PhD Programme was introduced. By the recommendations Mudaliar committee in 1962, Diploma in Psychiatric Social Work was started in 1970 at the European Mental Hospital at Ranchi (now CIP). The program was upgraded and other higher training courses were added subsequently.[citation needed]

A new initiative to integrate mental health with general health services started in 1975 in India. The Ministry of Health, Government of India formulated the National Mental Health Programme (NMHP) and launched it in 1982. The same was reviewed in 1995 and based on that, the District Mental Health Program (DMHP) was launched in 1996 which sought to integrate mental health care with public health care. This model has been implemented in all the states and currently there are 125 DMHP sites in India.

National Human Rights Commission (NHRC) in 1998 and 2008 carried out systematic, intensive and critical examinations of mental hospitals in India. This resulted in recognition of the human rights of the persons with mental illness by the NHRC. From the NHRC's report as part of the NMHP, funds were provided for upgrading the facilities of mental hospitals. As a result of the study, it was revealed that there were more positive changes in the decade until the joint report of NHRC and NIMHANS in 2008 compared to the last 50 years until 1998. In 2016 Mental Health Care Bill was passed which ensures and legally entitles access to treatments with coverage from insurance, safeguarding dignity of the afflicted person, improving legal and healthcare access and allows for free medications. In December 2016, Disabilities Act 1995 was repealed with Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act (RPWD), 2016 from the 2014 Bill which ensures benefits for a wider population with disabilities. The Bill before becoming an Act was pushed for amendments by stakeholders mainly against alarming clauses in the "Equality and Non discrimination" section that diminishes the power of the act and allows establishments to overlook or discriminate against persons with disabilities and against the general lack of directives that requires to ensure the proper implementation of the Act.

Mental health in India is in its developing stages. There are not enough professionals to support the demand. According to the Indian Psychiatric Society, there are around 9000 psychiatrists only in the country as of January 2019. Going by this figure, India has 0.75 psychiatrists per 100,000 population, while the desirable number is at least 3 psychiatrists per 100,000. While the number of psychiatrists has increased since 2010, it is still far from a healthy ratio.

Lack of any universally accepted single licensing authority compared to foreign countries puts social workers at general in risk. But general bodies/councils accepts automatically a university-qualified social worker as a professional licensed to practice or as a qualified clinician. Lack of a centralized council in tie-up with Schools of Social Work also makes a decline in promotion for the scope of social workers as mental health professionals. Though in this midst the service of social workers has given a facelift to the mental health sector in the country with other allied professionals.[citation needed]

Social work is an interdisciplinary profession, meaning it draws from a number of areas, such as (but not limited to) psychology, sociology, politics, criminology, economics, ecology, education, health, law, philosophy, anthropology, and counseling, including psychotherapy. Field work is a distinctive attribution to social work pedagogy. This equips the trainee in understanding the theories and models within the field of work. Professional practitioners from multicultural aspects have their roots in this social work immersion engagements from the early 19th century in the western countries. As an example, here are some of the models and theories used within social work practice:[citation needed]

American educator Abraham Flexner in a 1915 lecture, "Is Social Work a Profession?", delivered at the National Conference on Charities and Corrections, examined the characteristics of a profession concerning social work. It is not a 'single model', such as that of health, followed by medical professions such as nurses and doctors, but an integrated profession, and the likeness with medical profession is that social work requires a continued study for professional development to retain knowledge and skills that are evidence-based by practice standards. A social work professional's services lead toward the aim of providing beneficial services to individuals, dyads, families, groups, organizations, and communities to achieve optimum psychosocial functioning.

Its seven core functions are described by Popple and Leighninger as:

  1. Engagement — the social worker must first engage the client in early meetings to promote a collaborative relationship
  2. Assessment — data must be gathered that will guide and direct a plan of action to help the client
  3. Planning — negotiate and formulate an action plan
  4. Implementation — promote resource acquisition and enhance role performance
  5. Monitoring/Evaluation — on-going documentation through short-term goal attainment of the extent to which client is following through
  6. Supportive Counseling — affirming, challenging, encouraging, informing, and exploring options
  7. Graduated Disengagement — seeking to replace the social worker with a naturally occurring resource

Six other core values identified by the National Association of Social Workers' (NASW) Code of Ethics are:

  1. Service — help people in need and address social problems
  2. Social Justice — challenge social injustices
  3. Dignity and worth of the person
  4. Importance of human relationships
  5. Integrity — behave in a trustworthy manner
  6. Competence — practice within the areas of one's areas of expertise and develop and enhance professional skill

A historic and defining feature of social work is the profession's focus on individual well-being in a social context and the well-being of society. Social workers promote social justice and social change with and on behalf of clients. A "client" can be an individual, family, group, organization, or community. In the broadening scope of the modern social worker's role, some practitioners have in recent years traveled to war-torn countries to provide psychosocial assistance to families and survivors.

Newer areas of social work practice involve management science. The growth of "social work administration" for transforming social policies into services and directing activities of an organization toward achievement of goals is a related field. Helping clients with accessing benefits such as unemployment insurance and disability benefits, to assist individuals and families in building savings and acquiring assets to improve their financial security over the long-term, to manage large operations, etc. requires social workers to know financial management skills to help clients and organization's to be financially self-sufficient. Financial social work also helps clients with low-income or low to middle-income, people who are either unbanked (do not have a banking account) or underbanked (individuals who have a bank account but tend to rely on high cost non-bank providers for their financial transactions), with better mediation with financial institutions and induction of money management skills. Another area that social workers are focusing is risk management, risk in social work is taken as Knight in 1921 defined "If you don't even know for sure what will happen, but you know the odds, that is risk and If you don't even know the odds, that is uncertainty." Risk management in social work means minimizing the risks while increasing potential benefits for clients by analyzing the risks and benefits in the duty of care or decisions.

In the United States, according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), a branch of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, professional social workers are the largest group of mental health services providers. There are more clinically trained social workers—over 200,000—than psychiatrists, psychologists, and psychiatric nurses combined. Federal law and the National Institutes of Health recognize social work as one of five core mental health professions.

Examples of fields a social worker may be employed in are poverty relief, life skills education, community organizing, community organization, community development, rural development, forensics and corrections, legislation, industrial relations, project management, child protection, elder protection, women's rights, human rights, systems optimization, finance, addictions rehabilitation, child development, cross-cultural mediation, occupational safety and health, disaster management, mental health, psychosocial therapy, disabilities, etc.

Roles and functions

Social workers play many roles in mental health settings, including those of case manager, advocate, administrator, and therapist. The major functions of a psychiatric social worker are promotion and prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation. Social workers may also practice:

Psychiatric social workers conduct psychosocial assessments of the patients and work to enhance patient and family communications with the medical team members and ensure the inter-professional cordiality in the team to secure patients with the best possible care and to be active partners in their care planning. Depending upon the requirement, social workers are often involved in illness education, counseling and psychotherapy. In all areas, they are pivotal to the aftercare process to facilitate a careful transition back to family and community.

The education of social workers begins with a bachelor's degree (BA, BSc, BSSW, BSW, etc.) or diploma in social work or a Bachelor of Social Services. Some countries offer postgraduate degrees in social work, such as a master's degree (MSW, MSSW, MSS, MSSA, MA, MSc, MRes, MPhil.) or doctoral studies (Ph.D. and DSW (Doctor of Social Work)). Increasingly, graduates of social work programs pursue post-masters and post-doctoral studies, including training in psychotherapy.

In the United States, social work undergraduate and master's programs are accredited by the Council on Social Work Education. A CSWE-accredited degree is required for one to become a state-licensed social worker. The CSWE even accredits online master's in social work programs in traditional and advanced standing options. In 1898, the New York Charity Organization Society, which was the Columbia University School of Social Work's earliest entity, began offering formal "social philanthropy" courses, marking both the beginning date for social work education in the United States, as well as the launching of professional social work.

Several countries and jurisdictions require registration or licensure of people working as social workers, and there are mandated qualifications. In other places, a professional association sets academic requirements for admission to the profession. The success of these professional bodies' efforts is demonstrated in that these same requirements are recognized by employers as necessary for employment.

Social workers have several professional associations that provide ethical guidance and other forms of support for their members and social work in general. These associations may be international, continental, semi-continental, national, or regional. The main international associations are the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW).

The largest professional social work association in the United States is the National Association of Social Workers. There also exist organizations that represent clinical social workers such as the American Association of Psychoanalysis in Clinical Social Work. AAPCSW is a national organization representing social workers who practice psychoanalytic social work and psychoanalysis. There are also several states with Clinical Social Work Societies which represent all social workers who conduct psychotherapy from a variety of theoretical frameworks with families, groups, and individuals. The Association for Community Organization and Social Administration (ACOSA) is a professional organization for social workers who practice within the community organizing, policy, and political spheres.

In the UK, the professional association is the British Association of Social Workers (BASW) with just over 18,000 members (as of August 2015).

The Code of Ethics of the US-based National Association of Social Workers provides a code for daily conduct and a set of principles rooted in six core values: service, social justice, dignity and worth of the person, importance of human relationships, integrity, and competence.

In the United Kingdom, just over half of social workers are employed by local authorities, and many of these are represented by UNISON, the public sector employee union. Smaller numbers are members of the Unite the Union and the GMB. The British Union of Social Work Employees (BUSWE) has been a section of the trade union Community since 2008.

While at that stage, not a union, the British Association of Social Workers operated a professional advice and representation service from the early 1990s. Social Work qualified staff who are also experienced in employment law and industrial relations provide the kind of representation you would expect from a trade union in the event of a grievance, discipline or conduct matters specifically in respect of professional conduct or practice. However, this service depended on the goodwill of employers to allow the representatives to be present at these meetings, as only trade unions have the legal right and entitlement of representation in the workplace.

By 2011 several councils had realized that they did not have to permit BASW access, and those that were challenged by the skilled professional representation of their staff were withdrawing permission. For this reason BASW once again took up trade union status by forming its arms-length trade union section, Social Workers Union (SWU). This gives the legal right to represent its members whether the employer or Trades Union Congress (TUC) recognizes SWU or not. In 2015 the TUC was still resisting SWU application for admission to congress membership and while most employers are not making formal statements of recognition until the TUC may change its policy, they are all legally required to permit SWU (BASW) representation at internal discipline hearings, etc.

Information technology is vital in social work, it transforms the documentation part of the work into electronic media. This makes the process transparent, accessible and provides data for analytics. Observation is a tool used in social work for developing solutions. Anabel Quan-Haase in Technology and Society defines the term surveillance as "watching over" (Quan-Haase. 2016. P 213), she continues to explain that the observation of others socially and behaviorally is natural, but it becomes more like surveillance when the purpose of the observation is to keep guard over someone (Quan-Haase. 2016. P 213). Often, at the surface level, the use of surveillance and surveillance technologies within the social work profession is seemingly an unethical invasion of privacy. When engaging with the social work code of ethics a little more deeply, it becomes obvious that the line between ethical and unethical becomes blurred. Within the social work code of ethics, there are multiple mentions of the use of technology within social work practice. The one that seems the most applicable to surveillance or artificial intelligence is 5.02 article f, "When using electronic technology to facilitate evaluation or research" and it goes on to explain that clients should be informed when technology is being used within the practice (Workers. 2008. Article 5.02).

In 2011, a critic stated that "novels about social work are rare", and as recently as 2004, another critic claimed to have difficulty finding novels featuring a main character holding a Master of Social Work degree.

However, social workers have been the subject of many novels, including:

Fictional social workers in media

Name Portrayed by Title Year
Ann Vickers Irene Dunne Ann Vickers 1933
Ray Fremick Edward Platt Rebel Without a Cause 1955
Neil Brock George C. Scott East Side/West Side 1963
Edith Keeler Joan Collins Star Trek: The Original Series - The City on the Edge of Forever 1967
Germain Cazeneuve Jean Gabin Two Men in Town 1973
Ann Gentry Anjanette Comer The Baby 1973
Dwight Mercer Mykelti Williamson Free Willy 1993
Mrs. Sellner Anne Haney Mrs. Doubtfire 1993
Mary Bell Angelina Jolie Pushing Tin 1999
Margaret Lewin Jessica Lange Losing Isaiah 1995
Dr. Sonia Wick Vanessa Redgrave Girl, Interrupted 1999
Raquel Leonor Watling Raquel busca su sitio 2000
Cobra Bubbles Ving Rhames Lilo & Stitch 2002
Clare Barker Sally Phillips Clare in the Community 2004
Toby Flenderson Paul Lieberstein The Office 2005
Pankaj Pankaj Kumar Singh Smile Pinki 2008
Emily Jenkins Renée Zellweger Case 39 2009
Bernie Wilkins Don Cheadle Hotel for Dogs 2009
Ms. Weiss Mariah Carey Precious 2009
Mark Lilly Matt Oberg (Voice) Ugly Americans (TV series) 2010-2012
Meera Bhama Janapriyan 2011
Maxine Gray Tyne Daly Judging Amy 1999-2005
Sam Healy Michael Harney Orange Is the New Black 2013
David Mailer Patrick Gilmore Travelers 2016
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Social work
Social work Language Watch Edit Social work is an academic discipline and practice based profession that concerns itself with individuals families groups communities and society as a whole in an effort to meet basic needs and enhance social functioning self determination collective responsibility optimal health and overall well being 1 2 Social functioning is defined as the ability of an individual to perform their social roles within their own self their immediate social environment and the society at large 3 Social work applies areas such as sociology psychology human biology political science health community development law and economics to work with individuals across the lifespan engage with client systems conduct assessments and develop interventions to solve social problems personal problems and bring about social change Social work practice is often divided into micro work which involves working directly with individuals or small groups and macro work which involves working with communities and fostering change on a larger scale through social policy 4 Starting in the 1980s a few universities began social work management programmes to prepare students for the management of social and human service organisations in addition to classical social work education 5 Social workA social worker providing public assistance to a familyOccupationNamesLicensed Clinical Social Worker Licensed Master Social Worker Licensed Advanced Practicing Social Worker Registered Social WorkerActivity sectorsSocial welfare social services government health public health mental health occupational safety and health community organization non profit law corporate social responsibility human rightsDescriptionCompetenciesImproving the social environment and well being of people by facilitating and developing resourcesEducation requiredBachelor of Social Work BSW Bachelor of Arts BA in Social Work Bachelor of Science in Social Work BSc or a Postgraduate Diploma in Social Work PGDipSW for general practice Master of Social Work MSW Master of Science in Social Work MSSW for clinical practice Doctorate of Social Work DSW or Professional Doctorate ProfD or DProf for or specialized practice Accredited educational institution Registration and licensing differs depending on stateFields of employmentChild and women protection services non profit organizations government agencies disadvantaged groups centers hospitals schools churches shelters community agencies social planning services think tanks correctional services labor and industry services The social work profession 6 developed in the 19th century with some of its roots in voluntary philanthropy and in grassroots organizing 7 However responses to social needs had existed long before then primarily from public almshouses private charities and religious organizations The effects of the Industrial Revolution and of the Great Depression of the 1930s placed pressure on social work to become a more defined discipline 8 need quotation to verify Contents 1 Definition 2 History 2 1 United States 2 2 Canada 2 3 India 3 Transtheoretical models 4 Profession 4 1 Roles and functions 5 Qualifications 6 Professional associations 7 Trade unions representing social workers 8 Use of information technology in social work 9 Social workers in literature 9 1 Fictional social workers in media 10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksDefinition EditSocial work is a broad profession that intersects with several disciplines Social work organizations offer the following definitions Social work is a practice based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development social cohesion and the empowerment and liberation of people Principles of social justice human rights collective responsibility and respect for diversities are central to social work Underpinned by theories of social work social sciences humanities and indigenous knowledge social workengages people and structures to address life challenges and enhance well being 9 International Federation of Social Workers Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals families groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well being It aims to help people develop their skills and their ability to use their resources and those of the community to resolve problems Social work is concerned with individual and personal problems but also with broader social issues such as poverty unemployment and domestic violence 10 Canadian Association of Social WorkersSocial work practice consists of the professional application of social principles and techniques to one or more of the following ends helping people obtain tangible services counseling and psychotherapy with individuals families and groups helping communities or groups provide or improve social and health services and participating in legislative processes The practice of social work requires knowledge of human development and behavior of social and economic and cultural institutions and the interaction of all these factors 11 National Association of Social Workers Social workers work with individuals and families to help improve outcomes in their lives This may be helping to protect vulnerable people from harm or abuse or supporting people to live independently Social workers support people act as advocates and direct people to the services they may require Social workers often work in multi disciplinary teams alongside health and education professionals 12 British Association of Social WorkersHistory EditMain article History of social work A Marylebone slum in the 19th century The practice and profession of social work has a relatively modern and scientific origin 13 and is generally considered to have developed out of three strands The first was individual casework a strategy pioneered by the Charity Organization Society in the mid 19th century which was founded by Helen Bosanquet and Octavia Hill in London England 14 Most historians identify COS as the pioneering organization of the social theory that led to the emergence of social work as a professional occupation 15 COS had its main focus on individual casework The second was social administration which included various forms of poverty relief relief of paupers Statewide poverty relief could be said to have its roots in the English Poor Laws of the 17th century but was first systematized through the efforts of the Charity Organization Society The third consisted of social action rather than engaging in the resolution of immediate individual requirements the emphasis was placed on political action working through the community and the group to improve their social conditions and thereby alleviate poverty This approach was developed originally by the Settlement House Movement 15 This was accompanied by a less easily defined movement the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century and laid the foundation basis for modern social work both in theory and in practice 16 Professional social work originated in 19th century England and had its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution in particular the societal struggle to deal with the resultant mass urban based poverty and its related problems Because poverty was the main focus of early social work it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work 16 Other important historical figures that shaped the growth of the social work profession are Jane Addams who founded the Hull House in Chicago and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 Mary Ellen Richmond who wrote Social Diagnosis one of the first social workbooks to incorporate law medicine psychiatry psychology and history and William Beveridge who created the social welfare state framing the debate on social work within the context of social welfare provision United States Edit During the 1840s Dorothea Lynde Dix a retired Boston teacher who is considered the founder of the Mental Health Movement began a crusade that would change the way people with mental disorders were viewed and treated Dix was not a social worker the profession was not established until after she died in 1887 However her life and work were embraced by early psychiatric social workers and she is considered one of the pioneers of psychiatric social work along with Elizabeth Horton who in 1907 was the first psychiatric social worker in the New York hospital system and others 17 18 The early twentieth century was a time of progressive change in attitudes towards mental illness The Community Mental Health Centers Act was passed in 1963 This policy encouraged the deinstitutionalisation of people with mental illness Later the mental health consumer movement came by 1980s A consumer was defined as a person who has received or is currently receiving services for a psychiatric condition People with mental disorders and their families became advocates for better care Building public understanding and awareness through consumer advocacy helped bring mental illness and its treatment into mainstream medicine and social services 19 The 2000s saw the managed care movement which aimed at a health care delivery system to eliminate unnecessary and inappropriate care to reduce costs and the recovery movement which by principle acknowledges that many people with serious mental illness spontaneously recover and others recover and improve with proper treatment 20 Social workers made an impact with 2003 invasion of Iraq and War in Afghanistan 2001 present social workers worked out of NATO hospitals in Afghanistan and Iraqi bases They made visits to provide counseling services at forward operating bases Twenty two percent of the clients were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder 17 percent with depression and 7 percent with alcohol use disorder 21 In 2009 there was a high level of suicides among active duty soldiers 160 confirmed or suspected Army suicides In 2008 the Marine Corps had a record 52 suicides 22 The stress of long and repeated deployments to war zones the dangerous and confusing nature of both wars wavering public support for the wars and reduced troop morale all contributed to escalating mental health issues 23 Military and civilian social workers served a critical role in the veterans health care system Mental health services is a loose network of services ranging from highly structured inpatient psychiatric units to informal support groups where psychiatric social workers indulges in the diverse approaches in multiple settings along with other paraprofessional workers citation needed Canada Edit A role for psychiatric social workers was established early in Canada s history of service delivery in the field of population health Native North Americans understood mental trouble as an indication of an individual who had lost their equilibrium with the sense of place and belonging in general and with the rest of the group in particular In native healing beliefs health and mental health were inseparable so similar combinations of natural and spiritual remedies were often employed to relieve both mental and physical illness These communities and families greatly valued holistic approaches for preventive health care Indigenous peoples in Canada have faced cultural oppression and social marginalization through the actions of European colonizers and their institutions since the earliest periods of contact Culture contact brought with it many forms of depredation Economic political and religious institutions of the European settlers all contributed to the displacement and oppression of indigenous people 24 The first officially recorded treatment practices were in 1714 when Quebec opened wards for the mentally ill In the 1830s social services were active through charity organizations and church parishes Social Gospel Movement Asylums for the insane were opened in 1835 in Saint John and New Brunswick In 1841 in Toronto care for the mentally ill became institutionally based Canada became a self governing dominion in 1867 retaining its ties to the British crown During this period age of industrial capitalism began and it led to social and economic dislocation in many forms By 1887 asylums were converted to hospitals and nurses and attendants were employed for the care of the mentally ill The first social work training began at the University of Toronto in 1914 In 1918 Dr Clarence Hincks and Clifford Beers founded the Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene which later became the Canadian Mental Health Association In the 1930s Hincks promoted prevention and of treating sufferers of mental illness before they were incapacitated early detection citation needed World War II profoundly affected attitudes towards mental health The medical examinations of recruits revealed that thousands of apparently healthy adults suffered mental difficulties This knowledge changed public attitudes towards mental health and stimulated research into preventive measures and methods of treatment 25 In 1951 Mental Health Week was introduced across Canada For the first half of the twentieth century with a period of deinstitutionalisation beginning in the late 1960s psychiatric social work succeeded to the current emphasis on community based care psychiatric social work focused beyond the medical model s aspects on individual diagnosis to identify and address social inequities and structural issues In the 1980s Mental Health Act was amended to give consumers the right to choose treatment alternatives Later the focus shifted to workforce mental health issues and environmental root causes 26 India Edit The earliest citing of mental disorders in India are from Vedic Era 2000 BC AD 600 27 Charaka Samhita an ayurvedic textbook believed to be from 400 to 200 BC describes various factors of mental stability It also has instructions regarding how to set up a care delivery system 28 In the same era Siddha was a medical system in south India The great sage Agastya was one of the 18 siddhas contributing to a system of medicine This system has included the Agastiyar Kirigai Nool a compendium of psychiatric disorders and their recommended treatments 29 30 In Atharva Veda too there are descriptions and resolutions about mental health afflictions In the Mughal period Unani system of medicine was introduced by an Indian physician Unhammad in 1222 31 The existing form of psychotherapy was known then as ilaj i nafsani in Unani medicine The 18th century was a very unstable period in Indian history which contributed to psychological and social chaos in the Indian subcontinent In 1745 lunatic asylums were developed in Bombay Mumbai followed by Calcutta Kolkata in 1784 and Madras Chennai in 1794 The need to establish hospitals became more acute first to treat and manage Englishmen and Indian sepoys military men employed by the British East India Company 32 33 The First Lunacy Act also called Act No 36 that came into effect in 1858 was later modified by a committee appointed in Bengal in 1888 Later the Indian Lunacy Act 1912 was brought under this legislation A rehabilitation programme was initiated between 1870s and 1890s for persons with mental illness at the Mysore Lunatic Asylum and then an occupational therapy department was established during this period in almost each of the lunatic asylums The programme in the asylum was called work therapy In this programme persons with mental illness were involved in the field of agriculture for all activities This programme is considered as the seed of origin of psychosocial rehabilitation in India Berkeley Hill superintendent of the European Hospital now known as the Central Institute of Psychiatry CIP established in 1918 was deeply concerned about the improvement of mental hospitals in those days The sustained efforts of Berkeley Hill helped to raise the standard of treatment and care and he also persuaded the government to change the term asylum to hospital in 1920 34 Techniques similar to the current token economy were first started in 1920 and called by the name habit formation chart at the CIP Ranchi In 1937 the first post of psychiatric social worker was created in the child guidance clinic run by the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work established in 1936 It is considered as the first documented evidence of social work practice in Indian mental health field citation needed After Independence in 1947 general hospital psychiatry units GHPUs were established to improve conditions in existing hospitals while at the same time encouraging outpatient care through these units In Amritsar Dr Vidyasagar instituted active involvement of families in the care of persons with mental illness This was advanced practice ahead of its times regarding treatment and care This methodology had a greater impact on social work practice in the mental health field especially in reducing the stigmatisation In 1948 Gauri Rani Banerjee trained in the United States started a master s course in medical and psychiatric social work at the Dhorabji Tata School of Social Work now TISS Later the first trained psychiatric social worker was appointed in 1949 at the adult psychiatry unit of Yerwada Mental Hospital Pune citation needed In various parts of the country in mental health service settings social workers were employed in 1956 at a mental hospital in Amritsar in 1958 at a child guidance clinic of the college of nursing and in Delhi in 1960 at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences and in 1962 at the Ram Manohar Lohia Hospital In 1960 the Madras Mental Hospital now Institute of Mental Health employed social workers to bridge the gap between doctors and patients In 1961 the social work post was created at the NIMHANS In these settings they took care of the psychosocial aspect of treatment This system enabled social service practices to have a stronger long term impact on mental health care 35 In 1966 by the recommendation Mental Health Advisory Committee Ministry of Health Government of India NIMHANS commenced Department of Psychiatric Social Work started and a two year Postgraduate Diploma in Psychiatric Social Work was introduced in 1968 In 1978 the nomenclature of the course was changed to MPhil in Psychiatric Social Work Subsequently a PhD Programme was introduced By the recommendations Mudaliar committee in 1962 Diploma in Psychiatric Social Work was started in 1970 at the European Mental Hospital at Ranchi now CIP The program was upgraded and other higher training courses were added subsequently citation needed A new initiative to integrate mental health with general health services started in 1975 in India The Ministry of Health Government of India formulated the National Mental Health Programme NMHP and launched it in 1982 The same was reviewed in 1995 and based on that the District Mental Health Program DMHP was launched in 1996 which sought to integrate mental health care with public health care 36 This model has been implemented in all the states and currently there are 125 DMHP sites in India National Human Rights Commission NHRC in 1998 and 2008 carried out systematic intensive and critical examinations of mental hospitals in India This resulted in recognition of the human rights of the persons with mental illness by the NHRC From the NHRC s report as part of the NMHP funds were provided for upgrading the facilities of mental hospitals As a result of the study it was revealed that there were more positive changes in the decade until the joint report of NHRC and NIMHANS in 2008 compared to the last 50 years until 1998 37 In 2016 Mental Health Care Bill was passed which ensures and legally entitles access to treatments with coverage from insurance safeguarding dignity of the afflicted person improving legal and healthcare access and allows for free medications 38 39 40 In December 2016 Disabilities Act 1995 was repealed with Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act RPWD 2016 from the 2014 Bill which ensures benefits for a wider population with disabilities The Bill before becoming an Act was pushed for amendments by stakeholders mainly against alarming clauses in the Equality and Non discrimination section that diminishes the power of the act and allows establishments to overlook or discriminate against persons with disabilities and against the general lack of directives that requires to ensure the proper implementation of the Act 41 42 Mental health in India is in its developing stages There are not enough professionals to support the demand According to the Indian Psychiatric Society there are around 9000 psychiatrists only in the country as of January 2019 Going by this figure India has 0 75 psychiatrists per 100 000 population while the desirable number is at least 3 psychiatrists per 100 000 While the number of psychiatrists has increased since 2010 it is still far from a healthy ratio 43 Lack of any universally accepted single licensing authority compared to foreign countries puts social workers at general in risk But general bodies councils accepts automatically a university qualified social worker as a professional licensed to practice or as a qualified clinician Lack of a centralized council in tie up with Schools of Social Work also makes a decline in promotion for the scope of social workers as mental health professionals Though in this midst the service of social workers has given a facelift to the mental health sector in the country with other allied professionals citation needed Transtheoretical models EditSocial work is an interdisciplinary profession meaning it draws from a number of areas such as but not limited to psychology sociology politics criminology economics ecology education health law philosophy anthropology and counseling including psychotherapy Field work is a distinctive attribution to social work pedagogy This equips the trainee in understanding the theories and models within the field of work Professional practitioners from multicultural aspects have their roots in this social work immersion engagements from the early 19th century in the western countries As an example here are some of the models and theories used within social work practice citation needed Empathy Social case work Social group work Community organization Behavioral School social worker Leadership and management Crisis intervention Mental health Cognitive behavioral Critical Radical Social insurance Ecological Equity theory Financial social work Motivational interviewing Medical social work Person centered therapy Psychoanalytic 44 Psychodynamic Existential Humanistic Sociotherapy Brief psychotherapy or solution focused approach Recovery approach Reflexivity Social exchange Welfare economics Anti oppressive practice Psychosocial rehabilitation Cognitive behavioral therapy Dialectical behavior therapy Systems theory Strength based practice Task centered Family therapy Advocacy Prevention science Project management Program evaluation and performance measurement Systems thinking Community development and intervention Positive psychology Social actionsProfession EditAmerican educator Abraham Flexner in a 1915 lecture Is Social Work a Profession 45 delivered at the National Conference on Charities and Corrections examined the characteristics of a profession concerning social work It is not a single model such as that of health followed by medical professions such as nurses and doctors but an integrated profession and the likeness with medical profession is that social work requires a continued study for professional development to retain knowledge and skills that are evidence based by practice standards A social work professional s services lead toward the aim of providing beneficial services to individuals dyads families groups organizations and communities to achieve optimum psychosocial functioning 46 Its seven core functions are described by Popple and Leighninger as Engagement the social worker must first engage the client in early meetings to promote a collaborative relationship Assessment data must be gathered that will guide and direct a plan of action to help the client Planning negotiate and formulate an action plan Implementation promote resource acquisition and enhance role performance Monitoring Evaluation on going documentation through short term goal attainment of the extent to which client is following through Supportive Counseling affirming challenging encouraging informing and exploring options Graduated Disengagement seeking to replace the social worker with a naturally occurring resource 47 Six other core values identified by the National Association of Social Workers NASW 48 Code of Ethics are Service help people in need and address social problems Social Justice challenge social injustices Dignity and worth of the person Importance of human relationships Integrity behave in a trustworthy manner Competence practice within the areas of one s areas of expertise and develop and enhance professional skill A historic and defining feature of social work is the profession s focus on individual well being in a social context and the well being of society 49 Social workers promote social justice and social change with and on behalf of clients 50 A client can be an individual family group organization or community 51 In the broadening scope of the modern social worker s role some practitioners have in recent years traveled to war torn countries to provide psychosocial assistance to families and survivors 52 Newer areas of social work practice involve management science 53 The growth of social work administration for transforming social policies into services and directing activities of an organization toward achievement of goals is a related field 54 Helping clients with accessing benefits such as unemployment insurance and disability benefits to assist individuals and families in building savings and acquiring assets to improve their financial security over the long term to manage large operations etc requires social workers to know financial management skills to help clients and organization s to be financially self sufficient 55 56 57 58 Financial social work also helps clients with low income or low to middle income people who are either unbanked do not have a banking account or underbanked individuals who have a bank account but tend to rely on high cost non bank providers for their financial transactions with better mediation with financial institutions and induction of money management skills 59 60 Another area that social workers are focusing is risk management risk in social work is taken as Knight in 1921 defined If you don t even know for sure what will happen but you know the odds that is risk and If you don t even know the odds that is uncertainty Risk management in social work means minimizing the risks while increasing potential benefits for clients by analyzing the risks and benefits in the duty of care or decisions 61 In the United States according to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA a branch of the U S Department of Health and Human Services professional social workers are the largest group of mental health services providers There are more clinically trained social workers over 200 000 than psychiatrists psychologists and psychiatric nurses combined Federal law and the National Institutes of Health recognize social work as one of five core mental health professions 62 Examples of fields a social worker may be employed in are poverty relief life skills education community organizing community organization community development rural development forensics and corrections legislation industrial relations project management child protection elder protection women s rights human rights systems optimization finance addictions rehabilitation child development cross cultural mediation occupational safety and health disaster management mental health psychosocial therapy disabilities etc Roles and functions Edit Social workers play many roles in mental health settings including those of case manager advocate administrator and therapist The major functions of a psychiatric social worker are promotion and prevention treatment and rehabilitation Social workers may also practice Counseling and psychotherapy Case management and support services Crisis intervention Psychoeducation Psychiatric rehabilitation and recovery Care coordination and monitoring Program management administration Program policy and resource development Research and evaluation Psychiatric social workers conduct psychosocial assessments of the patients and work to enhance patient and family communications with the medical team members and ensure the inter professional cordiality in the team to secure patients with the best possible care and to be active partners in their care planning Depending upon the requirement social workers are often involved in illness education counseling and psychotherapy In all areas they are pivotal to the aftercare process to facilitate a careful transition back to family and community 63 Qualifications EditThe education of social workers begins with a bachelor s degree BA BSc BSSW BSW etc or diploma in social work or a Bachelor of Social Services Some countries offer postgraduate degrees in social work such as a master s degree MSW MSSW MSS MSSA MA MSc MRes MPhil or doctoral studies Ph D and DSW Doctor of Social Work Increasingly graduates of social work programs pursue post masters and post doctoral studies including training in psychotherapy In the United States social work undergraduate and master s programs are accredited by the Council on Social Work Education A CSWE accredited degree is required for one to become a state licensed social worker 64 65 The CSWE even accredits online master s in social work programs in traditional and advanced standing options 66 In 1898 the New York Charity Organization Society which was the Columbia University School of Social Work s earliest entity began offering formal social philanthropy courses marking both the beginning date for social work education in the United States as well as the launching of professional social work 67 Several countries and jurisdictions require registration or licensure of people working as social workers and there are mandated qualifications 68 In other places a professional association sets academic requirements for admission to the profession The success of these professional bodies efforts is demonstrated in that these same requirements are recognized by employers as necessary for employment 69 Professional associations EditSocial workers have several professional associations that provide ethical guidance and other forms of support for their members and social work in general These associations may be international continental semi continental national or regional The main international associations are the International Federation of Social Workers IFSW and the International Association of Schools of Social Work IASSW The largest professional social work association in the United States is the National Association of Social Workers There also exist organizations that represent clinical social workers such as the American Association of Psychoanalysis in Clinical Social Work AAPCSW is a national organization representing social workers who practice psychoanalytic social work and psychoanalysis There are also several states with Clinical Social Work Societies which represent all social workers who conduct psychotherapy from a variety of theoretical frameworks with families groups and individuals The Association for Community Organization and Social Administration ACOSA 70 is a professional organization for social workers who practice within the community organizing policy and political spheres In the UK the professional association is the British Association of Social Workers BASW with just over 18 000 members as of August 2015 The Code of Ethics of the US based National Association of Social Workers provides a code for daily conduct and a set of principles rooted in six core values 71 service social justice dignity and worth of the person importance of human relationships integrity and competence 72 Trade unions representing social workers EditIn the United Kingdom just over half of social workers are employed by local authorities 73 and many of these are represented by UNISON the public sector employee union Smaller numbers are members of the Unite the Union and the GMB The British Union of Social Work Employees BUSWE has been a section of the trade union Community since 2008 While at that stage not a union the British Association of Social Workers operated a professional advice and representation service from the early 1990s Social Work qualified staff who are also experienced in employment law and industrial relations provide the kind of representation you would expect from a trade union in the event of a grievance discipline or conduct matters specifically in respect of professional conduct or practice However this service depended on the goodwill of employers to allow the representatives to be present at these meetings as only trade unions have the legal right and entitlement of representation in the workplace By 2011 several councils had realized that they did not have to permit BASW access and those that were challenged by the skilled professional representation of their staff were withdrawing permission For this reason BASW once again took up trade union status by forming its arms length trade union section Social Workers Union SWU This gives the legal right to represent its members whether the employer or Trades Union Congress TUC recognizes SWU or not In 2015 the TUC was still resisting SWU application for admission to congress membership and while most employers are not making formal statements of recognition until the TUC may change its policy they are all legally required to permit SWU BASW representation at internal discipline hearings etc Use of information technology in social work EditInformation technology is vital in social work it transforms the documentation part of the work into electronic media This makes the process transparent accessible and provides data for analytics Observation is a tool used in social work for developing solutions Anabel Quan Haase in Technology and Society defines the term surveillance as watching over Quan Haase 2016 P 213 she continues to explain that the observation of others socially and behaviorally is natural but it becomes more like surveillance when the purpose of the observation is to keep guard over someone Quan Haase 2016 P 213 Often at the surface level the use of surveillance and surveillance technologies within the social work profession is seemingly an unethical invasion of privacy When engaging with the social work code of ethics a little more deeply it becomes obvious that the line between ethical and unethical becomes blurred Within the social work code of ethics there are multiple mentions of the use of technology within social work practice The one that seems the most applicable to surveillance or artificial intelligence is 5 02 article f When using electronic technology to facilitate evaluation or research and it goes on to explain that clients should be informed when technology is being used within the practice Workers 2008 Article 5 02 Social workers in literature EditIn 2011 a critic stated that novels about social work are rare 74 and as recently as 2004 another critic claimed to have difficulty finding novels featuring a main character holding a Master of Social Work degree 75 However social workers have been the subject of many novels including Bohjalian Chris 2007 The double bind a novel 1st ed New York Shaye Areheart Books ISBN 978 1 4000 4746 8 76 Cooper Philip 2013 Social work man Leicester Matador ISBN 978 1 78088 508 7 77 Barrington Freya 2015 Known to Social Services 1st ed USA FARAXA Publishing ISBN 9789995782870 Desai Kishwar 2010 Witness the night London Beautiful Books ISBN 978 1 905636 85 3 78 Fadiman Anne 1997 The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down A Hmong Child Her American Doctors and the Collision of Two Cultures New York Farrar Straus and Giroux ISBN 978 0 37453 340 3 Irish Lola 1993 Streets of dust a novel based on the life of Caroline Chisholm Kirribilli N S W Eldorado ISBN 1 86412 001 0 Greenlee Sam 1990 1969 The spook who sat by the door a novel African American life Detroit Wayne State University Press ISBN 0 8143 2246 8 Konrad Gyorgy 1987 The case worker Writers from the other Europe New York N Y U S A Penguin Books ISBN 0 14 009946 8 79 Henderson Smith 2014 Fourth of July Creek A Novel ISBN 978 0 06 228644 4 80 Johnson Greg 2011 A very famous social worker Bloomington IN iUniverse Inc ISBN 978 1 4502 8548 3 81 Johnson Kristin 2012 Unprotected a novel St Butt MN North Star Press ISBN 978 0 87839 589 7 82 Kalpakian Laura 1992 Graced land 1st ed New York Grove Weidenfeld ISBN 0 8021 1474 1 75 Lewis Sinclair 1933 Ann Vickers First ed Garden City N Y Doubleday Doran amp Company OCLC 288770 Mengestu Dinaw 2014 All our names First ed New York Alfred A Knopf ISBN 978 0 385 34998 7 83 Sapphire 1996 Push a novel 1st ed New York Alfred A Knopf Random House ISBN 0 679 44626 5 The basis of the movie Precious 84 Smith Ali 2011 There But For The Hamish Hamilton Pantheon Ungar Michael 2011 The social worker a novel Lawrencetown N S Pottersfield Press ISBN 978 1 897426 26 5 85 Weinbren Martin 2010 King Welfare Bakewell Peakpublish ISBN 978 1 907219 18 4 74 Fictional social workers in media Edit Name Portrayed by Title YearAnn Vickers Irene Dunne Ann Vickers 1933Ray Fremick Edward Platt Rebel Without a Cause 1955Neil Brock George C Scott East Side West Side 1963Edith Keeler Joan Collins Star Trek The Original Series The City on the Edge of Forever 1967Germain Cazeneuve Jean Gabin Two Men in Town 1973Ann Gentry Anjanette Comer The Baby 1973Dwight Mercer Mykelti Williamson Free Willy 1993Mrs Sellner Anne Haney Mrs Doubtfire 1993Mary Bell Angelina Jolie Pushing Tin 1999Margaret Lewin Jessica Lange Losing Isaiah 1995Dr Sonia Wick Vanessa Redgrave Girl Interrupted 1999Raquel Leonor Watling Raquel busca su sitio 2000Cobra Bubbles Ving Rhames Lilo amp Stitch 2002Clare Barker Sally Phillips Clare in the Community 2004Toby Flenderson Paul Lieberstein The Office 2005Pankaj Pankaj Kumar Singh Smile Pinki 2008Emily Jenkins Renee Zellweger Case 39 2009Bernie Wilkins Don Cheadle Hotel for Dogs 2009Ms Weiss Mariah Carey Precious 2009Mark Lilly Matt Oberg Voice Ugly Americans TV series 2010 2012Meera Bhama Janapriyan 2011Maxine Gray Tyne Daly Judging Amy 1999 2005Sam Healy Michael Harney Orange Is the New Black 2013David Mailer Patrick Gilmore Travelers 2016See also EditAddiction medicine Approved mental health professional Clinical social work Child welfare Community development Critical social work Development studies Education in social work Forensic social work Gerontology Humanistic social work Human resource management Human services International Social Work Jocelyn Hyslop Mental health professional Recreational therapy Right to an adequate standard of living Social development Social planning Social psychology Social research Social Scientist Social work with groups Urban development WelfareReferences Edit What is Social Work Canadian Association of Social Workers www casw acts ca Retrieved May 13 2019 Social work is a profession concerned with helping individuals families groups and communities to enhance their individual and collective well being Global Definition of Social Work International Federation of Social Workers ifsw org Retrieved May 13 2019 The following definition was approved by the IFSW General Meeting and the IASSW General Assembly in July 2014 Social work is a practice based profession and an academic discipline that promotes social change and development social cohesion and the empowerment and liberation of people CASW Social Work Scope of Practice Canadian Association of Social Workers www casw acts ca Retrieved July 17 2017 Francis J Turner September 7 2005 Encyclopedia of Canadian Social Work Wilfrid Laurier Univ Press pp 219 236 ISBN 978 0 88920 436 2 Austin Michael J December 2018 Social Work Management Practice 1917 2017 A History to Inform the Future Social Service Review 92 4 548 616 doi 10 1086 701278 ISSN 0037 7961 Dorrien Gary 2008 Fostering Democratic Citizenship Jane Addams Social Ethics in the Making Interpreting an American Tradition Chichester John Wiley amp Sons published 2011 p 168 ISBN 9781444393798 Retrieved May 13 2019 Long condemned by conservatives for launching the social work industry Jane Addams acquired academic critics who agreed for different reasons Charity Organization Societies 1877 1893 Social Welfare History Project Social Welfare History Project February 4 2013 Retrieved December 29 2017 The COS emphasis on a scientific approach led to the use of investigation registration and supervision of applicants for charity It resulted too in community wide efforts to identify and coordinate the resources and activities of private philanthropies and the establishment of centralized clearinghouses or registration bureaus that collected information about the individuals and families receiving assistance These innovations were later incorporated into the casework method of social work the organization of Community Chests and Councils and the operation of Social Service Exchanges Social Work Profession Encyclopedia of Social Work 20 Summer 2017 Global Definition of Social Work International Federation of Social Workers ifsw org Retrieved July 19 2017 What is Social Work Canadian Association of Social Workers www casw acts ca Retrieved July 19 2017 Practice NASW www naswdc org Archived from the original on May 31 2002 Retrieved July 19 2017 What Is Social Work Huff Dan From Charity to Reform Social Work s Formative Years Global Institute of Social Work Boise State University Retrieved July 29 2020 1800s Family Action About Us Archived from the original on July 18 2011 Retrieved November 17 2010 a b Lymbery The History and Development of Social Work PDF a b Popple Philip R and Leighninger Leslie Social Work Social Welfare American Society Boston Allyn amp Bacon 2011 Print Rossi 1969 full citation needed Shapiro 1994 full citation needed Ralph amp Corrigan 2005 full citation needed SAMHSA 2004 full citation needed Dao James July 16 2009 Vets Mental Health Diagnoses Rising The New York Times Zoroya Gregg March 16 2010 Abuse of pain pills by troops concerns Pentagon USA Today Knickerbocker Brad January 23 2010 Soldiers wives Fighting mental emotional battles of their own Christian Science Monitor Kirmayer Laurence J Valaskakis Gail Guthrie eds 2009 Healing Traditions The Mental Health of Aboriginal Peoples in Canada PDF Vancouver UBC Press ISBN 978 0 7748 1523 9 Archived from the original PDF on April 6 2016 Retrieved March 23 2016 page needed History of CMHA Canadian Mental Health Association Ontario Regehr Cheryl Glancy Graham 2014 Mental Health Social Work Practice in Canada Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 900119 4 page needed Gautam Shiv January 1999 Mental health in ancient India amp its relevance to modern psychiatry Indian Journal of Psychiatry 41 1 5 18 PMC 2962283 PMID 21455347 Lyons and Petrucelli 1987 full citation needed McGilvray 1998 full citation needed Nichter 1987 full citation needed Parkar SR Dawani VS Apte JS 2001 History of psychiatry in India Journal of Postgraduate Medicine 47 1 73 6 PMID 11590303 Sharma Kalpana August 6 2004 Censor Board Bans Final Solution The Hindu Thara R Padmavati R Srinivasan T N April 2004 Focus on psychiatry in India British Journal of Psychiatry 184 4 366 373 doi 10 1192 bjp 184 4 366 PMID 15104094 Nizamie S Haque Goyal Nishant Haq Mohammad Ziaul Akhtar Sayeed 2008 Central Institute of Psychiatry A tradition in excellence Indian Journal of Psychiatry 50 2 144 148 doi 10 4103 0019 5545 42405 PMC 2738340 PMID 19742219 Dr Ratna Varma Psychiatric Social Work in India full citation needed Khandelwal Sudhir K Jhingan Harsh P Ramesh S Gupta Rajesh K Srivastava Vinay K July 11 2009 India mental health country profile International Review of Psychiatry 16 1 2 126 141 doi 10 1080 09540260310001635177 PMID 15276945 S2CID 8418709 Nagaraja amp Murthy 2008 full citation needed Mental Health Care Bill Gets Clearance From Rajya Sabha The Huffington Post India Times Internet Limited August 9 2016 Rajya Sabha passes patient centric Mental Health Care Bill 2013 Hindustan Times August 9 2016 What is Mental Healthcare Bill March 28 2017 http www disabilityaffairs gov in upload uploadfiles files RPWD 20ACT 202016 pdf full citation needed Salient Features of Rights of Persons with Disabilities RPWD Bill December 3 2016 Wellness Aurum Mental Health In Numbers Aurum Wellness Retrieved March 13 2020 OBJECT RELATIONS DEPENDENCY AND ATTACHMENT PDF MARY D SALTER AINSWORTH Flexner Abraham June 19 2018 Is social work a profession New York The New York school of philanthropy via Internet Archive Ontario College of Social Workers and Social Service Workers The Centre for Education amp Training PDF 2011 Retrieved November 8 2016 Popple amp Leighninger 2011 Code of Ethics English and Spanish National Association of Social Workers socialworkers org Archived from the original on June 6 2002 Crisp B R Beddoe L December 2012 Promoting Health and Well being in Social Work Education Routledge Stefaroi Petru December 2014 Humane amp Spiritual Qualities of the Professional in Humanistic Social Work Humanistic Social Work The Third Way in Theory and Practice Charleston Createspace NASW Code of Ethics Keough Mary Ellen Samuels Margaret F October 2004 The Kosovo Family Support Project Offering Psychosocial Support for Families with Missing Persons Social Work 49 4 587 594 doi 10 1093 sw 49 4 587 PMID 15537181 Murali D Nair Erick G Guerrero January 1 2014 Evidence Based Macro Practice in Social Work Gregory Publishing Company ISBN 978 0 911541 94 6 Rex A Skidmore 1995 Social Work Administration Dynamic Management and Human Relationships Allyn and Bacon pp 2 3 ISBN 978 0 13 669037 5 Birkenmaier J amp Curley J 2009 Financial credit Social work s role in empowering low income families Journal of Community Practice 17 3 251 268 doi 10 1080 10705420903117973 S2CID 154344021 Despard M amp Chowa G A N 2010 Social workers interest in building individuals financial capabilities Journal of Financial Therapy 1 1 23 41 doi 10 4148 jft v1i1 257 Sherraden M Laux S amp Kaufman C 2007 Financial education for social workers Journal of Community Practice 15 3 9 36 doi 10 1300 J125v15n03 02 S2CID 153911873 Financial management for Human service administration by Lawrence L Martin pg 2 Romich J Simmelink J Holt S D 2007 When working harder does not pay Low income working families tax liabilities and benefit reductions PDF Families in Society 88 3 418 426 doi 10 1606 1044 3894 3651 S2CID 43407480 Barr M S 2004 Banking the poor Policies to bring low income Americans into the financial mainstream Washington D C Brookings Institution Phyllida Parole Risk assessment in social care and social work 2001 Jessica Kingsley Publishers pg 17 National Association of Social Workers NASW Retrieved September 6 2013 Heinonen Tuula Metteri Anna 2005 Social Work in Health and Mental Health Issues Developments and Actions Canadian Scholars Press ISBN 978 1 55130 278 2 page needed How to Become a Licensed Clinical Social Worker LCSW Retrieved September 14 2018 Online Doctorate of Social Work DSW Programs Retrieved September 28 2018 Online MSW Programs 2018 s Full List of CSWE Accredited Schools Retrieved September 6 2018 Feldman Ronald A Kamerman Sheila B 2001 The Columbia University School of Social Work A Centennial Celebration Columbia University Press ISBN 9780231122825 The National Association of Social Workers NASW 2005 NASW Fact Sheet Retrieved November 15 2006 from http www socialworkers org Catholic Social Workers National Association The Association for Community Organization and Social Administration www acosa org Retrieved October 30 2015 NASW Delegate Assembly 1996 Code of Ethics of the National Association of Social Workers National Association of Social Workers 2017 revision via socialworkers org Siedlecki Karen L Salthouse Timothy A Oishi Shigehiro Jeswani Sheena June 1 2014 The Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well Being Across Age Social Indicators Research 117 2 561 576 doi 10 1007 s11205 013 0361 4 PMC 4102493 PMID 25045200 Terry Bamford February 25 2015 A contemporary history of social work Learning from the past Bristol United Kingdom Policy Press the University of Bristol ISBN 9781447322184 a b Bounds Joy January 4 2011 Book review King Welfare Community Care Retrieved June 5 2014 a b Marek Kirsten April 4 2004 Social Workers in Fig Blogcritics Archived from the original on June 6 2014 Retrieved June 5 2014 THE DOUBLE BIND by Chris Bohjalian Kirkus Reviews February 1 2007 Retrieved June 5 2014 Greenwell Faye February 16 2014 BOOK REVIEW Social Work Man The Westmorland Gazette Retrieved June 5 2014 Witness the Night by Kishwar Desai Goodreads Retrieved June 5 2014 The Case Worker by George Konrad Goodreads Retrieved June 5 2014 Fourth of July Creek by Smith Henderson The Washington Post Retrieved June 5 2014 A Very Famous Social Worker by Greg Johnson Goodreads Retrieved June 5 2014 Unprotected by Kristin Lee Johnson Goodreads Retrieved June 5 2014 Kakutani Michiko March 3 2014 Out of Uganda In the Midwest Dinaw Mengestu s All Our Names Describes Unexpected Love The New York Times Retrieved June 5 2014 Exclusive Interview with Author Sapphire Social Workers Speak Retrieved June 5 2014 Reviews The Social Worker a novel by Michael Ungar Archived from the original on June 6 2014 Retrieved June 5 2014 Further reading EditAgnew Elizabeth N 2004 From Charity to Social Work Mary E Richmond and the Creation of an American Profession Urbana IL University of Illinois Press ISBN 0 252 02875 9 OCLC 51848398 Bodenheimer Danna 2015 Real World Clinical Social Work Find Your Voice and Find Your Way 1st ed Harrisburg PA The New Social Worker Press ISBN 978 1 929109 50 0 Barker Robert L 2003 Social Work Dictionary 5th ed Silver Spring MD NASW Press ISBN 0 87101 355 X OCLC 52341511 Bruce S Jansson March 14 2017 Empowerment Series Becoming An Effective Policy Advocate Cengage Learning ISBN 978 1 337 51433 0 Butler Ian and Gwenda Roberts 2004 Social Work with Children and Families Getting into Practice 2nd ed London England New York NY Jessica Kingsley Publishers ISBN 1 4175 0103 0 OCLC 54768636 Catheleen Jordan November 20 2015 Clinical Assessment for Social Workers Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 065643 0 Davies Martin 2002 The Blackwell Companion of Social Work 2nd ed Oxford UK Malden MA Blackwell ISBN 0 631 22391 6 OCLC 49044512 Fischer Joel and Kevin J Corcoran 2007 Measures for Clinical Practice and Research A Sourcebook 4th ed Oxford UK New York NY Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 518190 6 OCLC 68980742 Greene Roberta R 2008 Social Work with the Aged and their Families 3rd ed New Brunswick NJ Transaction Publishers ISBN 978 0 202 36182 6 OCLC 182573540 Grinnell Richard M and Yvonne A Unrau 2008 Social Work Research and Evaluation Foundations of Evidence Based Practice 8th ed Oxford UK New York NY Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 530152 6 OCLC 82772632 Kenneth J Linfield Emil J Posavac September 3 2018 Program Evaluation Methods and Case Studies Taylor amp Francis ISBN 978 1 351 59201 7 Larry D Watson Richard A Hoefer November 5 2013 Developing Nonprofit and Human Service Leaders SAGE Publications ISBN 978 1 4522 9152 9 Mary Carmel Ruffolo Brian E Perron Elizabeth H Voshel 2015 Direct Social Work Practice Theories and Skills for Becoming an Evidence Based Practitioner 1st ed Los Angeles SAGE Publications ISBN 978 1 483 37924 1 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Mizrahi Terry and Larry E Davis 2008 Encyclopedia of Social Work 20th ed Washington DC Oxford UK New York NY NASW Press and Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 530661 3 OCLC 156816850 Peter J Pecora David Cherin Emily Bruce Trinidad de Jesus Arguello 2010 Strategic Supervision A Brief Guide for Managing Social Service Organizations SAGE Publications ISBN 978 1 4129 1543 4 Popple Philip R and Leslie Leighninger 2008 The Policy Based Profession An Introduction to Social Welfare Policy Analysis for Social Workers 4th ed Boston MA Pearson Allyn and Bacon ISBN 978 0 205 48592 5 OCLC 70708056 Ragg D Mark 2011 Developing Practice Competencies A Foundation for Generalist Practice 1st ed Hoboken N J Wiley ISBN 978 0 470 55170 7 OCLC 757394287 Ralph Brody Murali Nair November 21 2013 Effectively Managing and Leading Human Service Organizations SAGE Publications ISBN 978 1 4833 1497 6 Reamer Frederic G 2006 Ethical Standards in Social Work A Review of the NASW Code of Ethics 2nd ed Washington DC NASW Press ISBN 978 0 87101 371 2 OCLC 63187493 Richardson Virginia E and Amanda Smith Barusch 2006 Gerontological Practice for the Twenty First Century A Social Work Perspective New York NY Columbia University Press ISBN 0 231 10748 X OCLC 60373501 Richard S Balkin Gerald A Juhnke 2018 Assessment in Counseling Practice and Applications Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 067275 1 Sowers Karen M and Catherine N Dulmus et al 2008 Comprehensive Handbook of Social Work and Social Welfare Hoboken NJ John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 978 0 471 75222 6 OCLC 155755265 Statham Daphne 2004 Managing Front Line Practice in Social Work New York NY Jessica Kingsley Publishers ISBN 1 4175 0127 8 OCLC 54768593 Thyer Bruce A and John S Wodarski 2007 Social Work in Mental Health An Evidence Based Approach Hoboken NJ John Wiley ISBN 978 0 471 69304 8 OCLC 65197928 Turner Francis J 2005 Canadian Encyclopedia of Social Work Waterloo ON Wilfrid Laurier University Press ISBN 0 88920 436 5 OCLC 57354998 Webb Stephen 2006 Social Work in a Risk Society London UK Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 978 0 230 21442 2 OCLC 49959266 Webb Stephen 2017 Professional Identity and Social Work London UK Routledge ISBN 9781138234437 OCLC 49959266 Zastrow Charles 2014 Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare Empowering People Belmount Cengage Learning ISBN 9781285176406 Jerrold R Brandell ed February 1997 Theory and Practice in Clinical Social Work Simon and Schuster ISBN 978 0 684 82765 0 External links EditSocial Work WCIDWTM The University of Tennessee Social Work Evaluation and Research Resources Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Social work amp oldid 1052872945, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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