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Socialism

For other uses, see Socialism (disambiguation).

Socialism is a political, social, and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership of the means of production and democratic control, such as workers' self-management of enterprises. It includes the political theories and movements associated with such systems. Social ownership can be public, collective, cooperative, or of equity. While no single definition encapsulates the many types of socialism, social ownership is the one common element. Socialisms vary based on the role of markets and planning in resource allocation, on the structure of management in organizations, and from below or from above approaches, with some socialists favouring a party, state, or technocratic-driven approach. Socialists disagree on whether government, particularly existing government, is the correct vehicle for change.

Socialist systems are divided into non-market and market forms. Non-market socialism substitutes factor markets and money with integrated economic planning and engineering or technical criteria based on calculation performed in-kind, thereby producing a different economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws and dynamics than those of capitalism. A non-market socialist system seeks to eliminate the perceived inefficiencies, irrationalities, and unpredictability, and crises that socialists traditionally associate with capital accumulation and the profit system in capitalism. The socialist calculation debate, originated by the economic calculation problem, concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a planned socialist system. By contrast, market socialism retains the use of monetary prices, factor markets and in some cases the profit motive, with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them. Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend. Anarchism and libertarian socialism oppose the use of the state as a means to establish socialism, favouring decentralisation above all, whether to establish non-market socialism or market socialism.

Socialist politics has been both internationalist and nationalist in orientation; organised through political parties and opposed to party politics; at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent and critical of them; and present in both industrialised and developing nations. Social democracy originated within the socialist movement, supporting economic and social interventions to promote social justice. While retaining socialism as a long-term goal, since the post-war period it has come to embrace a Keynesian mixed economy within a predominantly developed capitalist market economy and liberal democratic polity that expands state intervention to include income redistribution, regulation, and a welfare state. Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism, with more democratic control of companies, currencies, investments and natural resources.

The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid-to-late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism. By the late 19th century, after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels, socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post-capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production. By the 1920s, communism and social democracy had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement, with socialism itself becoming the most influential secular movement of the 20th century. Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents, heading national governments in many countries around the world. Today, many socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements such as feminism, environmentalism and progressivism.

While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world's first nominally socialist state led to socialism's widespread association with the Soviet economic model, some economists like Richard D. Wolff, and intellectuals like Noam Chomsky posit that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism or a non-planned administrative or command economy. Several academics, political commentators, and scholars have distinguished between authoritarian socialist and democratic socialist states, with the first representing the Eastern Bloc and the latter representing Western Bloc countries which have been democratically governed by socialist parties such as Britain, France, Sweden, and Western social-democracies in general, among others.

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For Andrew Vincent, "[t]he word 'socialism' finds its root in the Latin sociare, which means to combine or to share. The related, more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas. This latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen".

Initial use of socialism was claimed by Pierre Leroux, who alleged he first used the term in the Parisian journal Le Globe in 1832. Leroux was a follower of Henri de Saint-Simon, one of the founders of what would later be labelled utopian socialism. Socialism contrasted with the liberal doctrine of individualism that emphasized the moral worth of the individual whilst stressing that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another. The original utopian socialists condemned this doctrine of individualism for failing to address social concerns during the Industrial Revolution, including poverty, oppression, and vast wealth inequality. They viewed their society as harming community life by basing society on competition. They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources. Saint-Simon proposed economic planning, scientific administration and the application of scientific understanding to the organisation of society. By contrast, Robert Owen proposed to organise production and ownership via cooperatives. Socialism is also attributed in France to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud while in Britain it is associated to Owen, who became one of the fathers of the cooperative movement.

The definition and usage of socialism settled by the 1860s, replacing associationist, co-operative, and mutualist that had been used as synonyms while communism fell out of use during this period. An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production while the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption (in the form of free access to final goods). By 1888, Marxists employed socialism in place of communism as the latter had come to be considered an old-fashioned synonym for socialism. It was not until after the Bolshevik Revolution that socialism was appropriated by Vladimir Lenin to mean a stage between capitalism and communism. He used it to defend the Bolshevik program from Marxist criticism that Russia's productive forces were not sufficiently developed for communism. The distinction between communism and socialism became salient in 1918 after the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All-Russian Communist Party, interpreting communism specifically to mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism, Leninism and later that of Marxism–Leninism, although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism. According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx, "Marx used many terms to refer to a post-capitalist society—positive humanism, socialism, Communism, realm of free individuality, free association of producers, etc. He used these terms completely interchangeably. The notion that 'socialism' and 'Communism' are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death".

In Christian Europe, communists were believed to have adopted atheism. In Protestant England, communism was too close to the Roman Catholic communion rite, hence socialist was the preferred term. Engels wrote that in 1848, when The Communist Manifesto was published, socialism was respectable in Europe while communism was not. The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working-class movements that "proclaimed the necessity of total social change" denoted themselves communists. This branch of socialism produced the communist work of Étienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany. British moral philosopher John Stuart Mill discussed a form of economic socialism within a liberal context that would later be known as liberal socialism. In later editions of his Principles of Political Economy (1848), Mill posited that "as far as economic theory was concerned, there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies" and promoted substituting capitalist businesses with worker cooperatives. While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty, equality, and fraternity, Marxists denounced it as a betrayal of working-class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the proletariat.

Main article: History of socialism

Early socialism

Main article: Revolutions of 1848
Charles Fourier, influential early French socialist thinker

Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity. The economy of the 3rd century BCE Mauryan Empire of India, an absolute monarchy, has been described by some scholars as "a socialized monarchy" and "a sort of state socialism" due to "nationalisation of industries". Other scholars have suggested that elements of socialist thought were present in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. Mazdak the Younger (died c. 524 or 528 CE), a Persian communal proto-socialist, instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good. Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, a Companion of Muhammad, is credited by multiple authors as a principal antecedent of Islamic socialism. The teachings of Jesus are frequently described as socialist, especially by Christian socialists. Acts 4:35 records that in the early church in Jerusalem "[n]o one claimed that any of their possessions was their own", although the pattern soon disappears from church history except within monasticism. Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the British Labour Party and is claimed to begin with the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball in the 14th century CE. After the French Revolution, activists and theorists such as François-Noël Babeuf, Étienne-Gabriel Morelly, Philippe Buonarroti and Auguste Blanqui influenced the early French labour and socialist movements. In Britain, Thomas Paine proposed a detailed plan to tax property owners to pay for the needs of the poor in Agrarian Justice while Charles Hall wrote The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States, denouncing capitalism's effects on the poor of his time. This work influenced the utopian schemes of Thomas Spence.

The first self-conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s. Groups such as the Fourierists, Owenites and Saint-Simonians provided a series of analyses and interpretations of society. Especially the Owenites overlapped with other working-class movements such as the Chartists in the United Kingdom. The Chartists gathered significant numbers around the People's Charter of 1838 which sought democratic reforms focused on the extension of suffrage to all male adults. Leaders in the movement called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes. The first trade unions and consumer cooperative societies followed the Chartist movement. Pierre-Joseph Proudhon proposed his philosophy of mutualism in which "everyone had an equal claim, either alone or as part of a small cooperative, to possess and use land and other resources as needed to make a living". Other currents inspired Christian socialism "often in Britain and then usually coming out of left liberal politics and a romantic anti-industrialism" which produced theorists such as Edward Bellamy, Charles Kingsley and Frederick Denison Maurice.

The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent. Henri de Saint-Simon was fascinated by the potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism based on equal opportunities.[unreliable source?] He sought a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work. His key focus was on administrative efficiency and industrialism and a belief that science was essential to progress. This was accompanied by a desire for a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large-scale scientific and material progress. Other early socialist thinkers such as Charles Hall and Thomas Hodgkin based their ideas on David Ricardo's economic theories. They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour—the cost of the labour (essentially the wages paid) that was required to produce the commodities. The Ricardian socialists viewed profit, interest and rent as deductions from this exchange-value.[citation needed]

West European social critics, including Louis Blanc, Charles Fourier, Charles Hall, Robert Owen, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and Saint-Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution. They advocated reform, Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property. Owen's contribution to modern socialism was his claim that individual actions and characteristics were largely determined by their social environment. On the other hand, Fourier advocated Phalanstères (communities that respected individual desires, including sexual preferences), affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people. Owen and Fourier's ideas were practiced in intentional communities around Europe and North America in the mid-19th century.

Paris Commune

Main article: Paris Commune
The celebration of the election of the Commune on 28 March 1871—the Paris Commune was a major early implementation of socialist ideas

The Paris Commune was a government that ruled Paris from 18 March (formally, from 28 March) to 28 May 1871. The Commune was the result of an uprising in Paris after France was defeated in the Franco-Prussian War. The Commune elections were held on 26 March. They elected a Commune council of 92 members, one member for each 20,000 residents.

Because the Commune was able to meet on fewer than 60 days in total, only a few decrees were actually implemented. These included the separation of church and state; the remission of rents owed for the period of the siege (during which payment had been suspended); the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries; the granting of pensions to the unmarried companions and children of National Guards killed on active service; and the free return of all workmen's tools and household items valued up to 20 francs that had been pledged during the siege.

First International

In 1864, the First International was founded in London. It united diverse revolutionary currents, including socialists such as the French followers of Proudhon, Blanquists, Philadelphes, English trade unionists and social democrats. In 1865 and 1866, it held a preliminary conference and had its first congress in Geneva, respectively. Due to their wide variety of philosophies, conflict immediately erupted. The first objections to Marx came from the mutualists who opposed state socialism. Shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in 1868, the First International became polarised into camps headed by Marx and Bakunin. The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions. The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas.

Bakunin's followers were called collectivists and sought to collectivise ownership of the means of production while retaining payment proportional to the amount and kind of labour of each individual. Like Proudhonists, they asserted the right of each individual to the product of his labour and to be remunerated for his particular contribution to production. By contrast, anarcho-communists sought collective ownership of both the means and the products of labour. As Errico Malatesta put it, "instead of running the risk of making a confusion in trying to distinguish what you and I each do, let us all work and put everything in common. In this way each will give to society all that his strength permits until enough is produced for every one; and each will take all that he needs, limiting his needs only in those things of which there is not yet plenty for every one". Anarcho-communism as a coherent economic-political philosophy was first formulated in the Italian section of the First International by Malatesta, Carlo Cafiero, Emilio Covelli, Andrea Costa and other ex-Mazzinian republicans. Out of respect for Bakunin, they did not make their differences with collectivist anarchism explicit until after his death.

Syndicalism emerged in France inspired in part by Proudhon and later by Pelloutier and Georges Sorel. It developed at the end of the 19th century out of the French trade-union movement (syndicat is the French word for trade union). It was a significant force in Italy and Spain in the early 20th century until it was crushed by the fascist regimes in those countries. In the United States, syndicalism appeared in the guise of the Industrial Workers of the World, or "Wobblies", founded in 1905. Syndicalism is an economic system that organises industries into confederations (syndicates) and the economy is managed by negotiation between specialists and worker representatives of each field, comprising multiple non-competitive categorised units. Syndicalism is a form of communism and economic corporatism, but also refers to the political movement and tactics used to bring about this type of system. An influential anarchist movement based on syndicalist ideas is anarcho-syndicalism. The International Workers Association is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions.

The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation established to advance socialism via gradualist and reformist means. The society laid many foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire, most notably India and Singapore. Originally, the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economy, alongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force. Later, the society functioned primarily as a think tank and is one of fifteen socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party. Similar societies exist in Australia (the Australian Fabian Society), in Canada (the Douglas-Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction) and in New Zealand.

Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public". It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential in the first quarter of the 20th century. Inspired by medieval guilds, theorists such as Samuel George Hobson and G. D. H. Cole advocated the public ownership of industries and their workforces' organisation into guilds, each of which under the democratic control of its trade union. Guild socialists were less inclined than Fabians to invest power in a state. At some point, like the American Knights of Labor, guild socialism wanted to abolish the wage system.

Second International

Main article: Second International

As the ideas of Marx and Engels gained acceptance, particularly in central Europe, socialists sought to unite in an international organisation. In 1889 (the centennial of the French Revolution), the Second International was founded, with 384 delegates from twenty countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations. Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893. Anarchists were banned, mainly due to pressure from Marxists. It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned "into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism. Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights; they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labour movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H. M. Hyndman".

Reformism arose as an alternative to revolution. Eduard Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany who proposed the concept of evolutionary socialism. Revolutionary socialists quickly targeted reformism: Rosa Luxemburg condemned Bernstein's Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Social Reform or Revolution? Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define "revolution" differently. The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) became the largest and most powerful socialist party in Europe, despite working illegally until the anti-socialist laws were dropped in 1890. In the 1893 elections, it gained 1,787,000 votes, a quarter of the total votes cast, according to Engels. In 1895, the year of his death, Engels emphasised The Communist Manifesto's emphasis on winning, as a first step, the "battle of democracy".

Early 20th century

Antonio Gramsci, member of the Italian Socialist Party and later leader and theorist of the Communist Party of Italy

In Argentina, the Socialist Party of Argentina was established in the 1890s led by Juan B. Justo and Nicolás Repetto, among others. It was the first mass party in the country and in Latin America. The party affiliated itself with the Second International. Between 1924 and 1940, it was a member of the Labour and Socialist International.

In 1904, Australians elected Chris Watson as the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister, becoming the first democratically elected socialist. In 1909, the first Kibbutz was established in Palestine by Russian Jewish Immigrants. The Kibbutz Movement expanded through the 20th century following a doctrine of Zionist socialism. The British Labour Party first won seats in the House of Commons in 1902.

By 1917, the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in Australia, most of Europe and the United States. Other socialist parties from around the world who were beginning to gain importance in their national politics in the early 20th century included the Italian Socialist Party, the French Section of the Workers' International, the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, the Swedish Social Democratic Party, the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the Socialist Party in Argentina, the Socialist Workers' Party in Chile and the Socialist Party of America in the United States.

Russian Revolution

In February 1917, a revolution occurred in Russia. Workers, soldiers and peasants established soviets (councils), the monarchy fell and a provisional government convened pending the election of a constituent assembly. In April of that year, Vladimir Lenin, leader of the Bolshevik faction of socialists in Russia and known for his profound and controversial expansions of Marxism, was allowed to cross Germany to return from exile in Switzerland.

Lenin had published essays on his analysis of imperialism, the monopoly and globalisation phase of capitalism, as well as analyses on social conditions. He observed that as capitalism had further developed in Europe and America, the workers remained unable to gain class consciousness so long as they were too busy working to pay their expenses. He therefore proposed that the social revolution would require the leadership of a vanguard party of class-conscious revolutionaries from the educated and politically active part of the population.

Upon arriving in Petrograd, Lenin declared that the revolution in Russia had only begun, and that the next step was for the workers' soviets to take full authority. He issued a thesis outlining the Bolshevik programme, including rejection of any legitimacy in the provisional government and advocacy for state power to be administered through the soviets. The Bolsheviks became the most influential force. On 7 November, the capitol of the provisional government was stormed by Bolshevik Red Guards in what later was officially known in the Soviet Union as the Great October Socialist Revolution. The provisional government ended and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic—the world's first constitutionally socialist state—was established. On 25 January 1918, Lenin declared "Long live the world socialist revolution!" at the Petrograd Soviet and proposed an immediate armistice on all fronts and transferred the land of the landed proprietors, the crown and the monasteries to the peasant committees without compensation.

The day after assuming executive power on 25 January, Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers' Control, which granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees and access to all books, documents and stocks and whose decisions were to be "binding upon the owners of the enterprises". Governing through the elected soviets and in alliance with the peasant-based Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, the Bolshevik government began nationalising banks and industry; and disavowed the national debts of the deposed Romanov royal régime. It sued for peace, withdrawing from World War I and convoked a Constituent Assembly in which the peasant Socialist-Revolutionary Party (SR) won a majority.

The Constituent Assembly elected SR leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic, but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land, peace and workers' control and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers', Soldiers' and Peasants' Deputies. The next day, the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists and the All-Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it. In March 1919, world communist parties formed Comintern (also known as the Third International) at a meeting in Moscow.

In the period before World War II, Soviet Union experienced two major famines.[undue weight?discuss] The First famine occurred in 1921-1922 with death estimates varying between 1 and 10 million dead. It was caused by a combination of factors - severe drought and failed harvests, continuous war since 1914, forced collectivisation of farms and requisition of grain and seed from peasants (preventing the sowing of crops) by the Soviet authorities, and an economic blockade of the Soviet Union by the Allies. The experience with the famine led Lenin to replace war communism with the New Economic Policy (NEP) in 1921 to alleviate the extreme shortages. Under the NEP, private ownership was allowed for small and medium peasant enterprises. While industry remained largely state-controlled, Lenin acknowledged that the NEP was a necessary capitalist measure for a country unready for socialism.[citation needed]

A second major famine occurred in 1932-1933. Historian Mark B. Tauger of West Virginia University suggests that the famine was caused by a combination of factors, specifically low harvest due to natural disasters combined with increased demand for food caused by the industrialization and urbanization, and grain exports by the Soviet Union at the same time.[undue weight?discuss]

The Soviet economy was the modern world's first centrally planned economy. It adopted state ownership of industry managed through Gosplan (the State Planning Commission), Gosbank (the State Bank) and the Gossnab (State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply). Economic planning was conducted through serial Five-Year Plans. The emphasis was on development of heavy industry at expense of agriculture. The nation became one of the world's top manufacturers of basic and heavy industrial products, while deemphasizing light industrial production and consumer durables.[citation needed] Rapid industrialization served two purposes: to bring largely agrarian societies into the modern age, and to establish a politically loyal working class. Modernization brought about a general increase in the standard of living in the 1950s and 60's.

Third International and the revolutionary wave

Rosa Luxemburg, prominent Marxist revolutionary, leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising in 1919

The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January 1918 launched Communist parties in many countries and a wave of revolutions until the mid-1920s. Few communists doubted that the Russian experience depended on successful, working-class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries. In 1919, Lenin and Leon Trotsky organised the world's Communist parties into an international association of workers—the Communist International (Comintern), also called the Third International.

The Russian Revolution influenced uprisings in other countries. The German Revolution of 1918–1919 replaced Germany's imperial government with a republic. The revolution lasted from November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919. It included an episode known as the Bavarian Soviet Republic and the Spartacist uprising. A short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic was set up in Hungary March 21 to August 1, 1919. It was led by Béla Kun.[page needed] It instituted a Red Terror.[page needed] After the regime was put down, an even more brutal White Terror followed. Kun managed to escape to the Soviet Union, where he co-led murder of tens of thousands of White Russians. He was killed in the 1930 Soviet purges.

In Italy, the events known as the Biennio Rosso were characterised by mass strikes, worker demonstrations and self-management experiments through land and factory occupations. In Turin and Milan, workers' councils were formed and many factory occupations took place led by anarcho-syndicalists organised around the Unione Sindacale Italiana.

There was a short-lived Persian Socialist Soviet Republic in 1920-21. Patagonia Rebelde was a syndicalist-led revolution in Argentina lasting for a year and a half from in 1920-21. The anarchist-led Guangzhou City Commune in China lasted six years from 1921. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was established and was ruled by the Mongolian People's Party. The Shinmin Prefecture in Manchuria lasted two years from 1929. Many of these revolutions initiated societies and economic models that have been described as socialist.

4th World Congress of the Communist International

In 1922, the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the united front. It urged communists to work with rank and file social democrats while remaining critical of their leaders. They criticised those leaders for betraying the working class by supporting the capitalists' war efforts. The social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution and later the growing authoritarianism of the communist parties. The Labour Party rejected the Communist Party of Great Britain's application to affiliate to them in 1920.

On seeing the Soviet State's growing coercive power in 1923, a dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine ... barely varnished with socialism". After Lenin's death in January 1924, the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin—rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union in favour of the concept of socialism in one country. Despite the marginalised Left Opposition's demand for the restoration of Soviet democracy,[disputeddiscuss] Stalin developed a bureaucratic, authoritarian government that was condemned by democratic socialists and anarchists for undermining the Revolution's ideals.

The Russian Revolution and its aftermath motivated national Communist parties elsewhere that gained political and social influence, in France, the United States, Italy, China, Mexico, the Brazil, Chile and Indonesia.

Left-wing groups which did not agree to the centralisation and abandonment of the soviets by the Bolshevik Party (see anti-Stalinist left) led left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks. Such groups included Socialist Revolutionaries, Left Socialist Revolutionaries, Mensheviks and anarchists. Within this left-wing discontent, the most large-scale events were the Kronstadt rebellion and the anarchist-led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory.

The Second International and the Two-and-a-Half International

The International Socialist Commission (ISC, also known as Berne International) was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Bern by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International. Centrist socialist parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International (ISC) or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties (IWUSP, also known as Vienna International, Vienna Union, or Two-and-a-Half International) on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna. The ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International (LSI) in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg.

From the Great Depression to the World War

The 1920s and 1930s were marked by an increasing divergence between democratic and reformists socialists (mainly affiliated with the Labour and Socialist International) and revolutionary socialists (mainly affiliated with the Communist International), but also by tension within the Communist movement between the dominant Stalinists and dissidents such as Trotsky's followers in the Left Opposition. Trotsky's Fourth International was established in France in 1938 when Trotskyists argued that the Comintern or Third International had become irretrievably "lost to Stalinism" and thus incapable of leading the working class to power. In addition, the Committee of Independent Revolutionary Socialist Parties (later the International Bureau of Revolutionary Socialist Unity, often named the London Bureau or 3½ International) brought together parties, such as Britain's Independent Labour Party, that rejected both the reformist social democratic model gaining strength in the LSI and the authoritarian model of the Soviet Union.[citation needed]

During the late 1930s, as fascism rose across Europe, democratic socialists and Communists worked more closely together following a popular front policy. In June 1934, Léon Blum's socialist French Section of the Workers' International signed a pact of united action with the French Communist Party. In the elections of May 1936, the Popular Front won a majority of parliamentary seats (378 deputies against 220), and Blum formed a government.[citation needed] In Italy, the Comintern advised an alliance between the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Socialist Party, but the latter rejected the idea.[citation needed]

Spanish Civil War

Main article: Spanish Civil War
FAI militia during the Spanish Revolution in 1936

In the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), socialists (including the democratic socialist Spanish Socialist Workers' Party and the Marxist Workers' Party of Marxist Unification) participated on the Republican side, loyal to the left-leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with anarchists of the communist and syndicalist variety and supported by the socialist Workers' General Union.

The Spanish Revolution of 1936 was a workers' social revolution during the war, that is often seen as a model of socialism from below. An anarchist-inspired movement of peasants and workers, supported by armed militias, took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land. The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began with the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organisational principles in some areas for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia and parts of Levante. Much of Spain's economy came under worker control. In anarchist strongholds like Catalonia the figure was as high as 75%, but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party influence, which actively resisted attempts at collectivisation. Factories were run through worker committees, agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes. Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or indirectly in the Spanish Revolution.

Mid-20th century

Post-World War II

Main articles: Cold War and Post-war consensus

The rise of Nazism and the start of World War II led to the dissolution of the LSI in 1940. After the War, the Socialist International was formed in Frankfurt in July 1951 as its successor.

After World War II, social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via welfare and taxation. Social democratic parties dominated post-war politics in countries such as France, Italy, Czechoslovakia, Belgium and Norway. At one point, France claimed to be the world's most state-controlled capitalist country. It nationalised public utilities including Charbonnages de France (CDF), Électricité de France (EDF), Gaz de France (GDF), Air France, Banque de France and Régie Nationale des Usines Renault.

In 1945, the British Labour Party led by Clement Attlee was elected based on a radical socialist programme. The Labour government nationalised industries including mines, gas, coal, electricity, rail, iron, steel and the Bank of England. British Petroleum was officially nationalised in 1951. Anthony Crosland said that in 1956 25% of British industry was nationalised and that public employees, including those in nationalised industries, constituted a similar proportion of the country's workers. The Labour Governments of 1964–1970 and 1974–1979 intervened further. It re-nationalised British Steel (1967) after the Conservatives had denationalised it and nationalised British Leyland (1976). The National Health Service provided taxpayer-funded health care to everyone, free at the point of service. Working-class housing was provided in council housing estates and university education became available via a school grant system.

Nordic countries

See also: Nordic model

During most of the post-war era, Sweden was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in cooperation with trade unions and industry. In Sweden, the Swedish Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976, 1982 to 1991, 1994 to 2006 and 2014 through 2023, most recently in a minority coalition. Tage Erlander was the first leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party (SSDP). He led the government from 1946 to 1969, the longest uninterrupted parliamentary government. These governments substantially expanded the welfare state. Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme identified as a "democratic socialist" and was described as a "revolutionary reformist".

The Norwegian Labour Party was established in 1887 and was largely a trade union federation. The party did not proclaim a socialist agenda, elevating universal suffrage and dissolution of the union with Sweden as its top priorities. In 1899, the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions separated from the Labour Party. Around the time of the Russian Revolution, the Labour Party moved to the left and joined the Communist International from 1919 through 1923. Thereafter, the party still regarded itself as revolutionary, but the party's left-wing broke away and established the Communist Party of Norway while the Labour Party gradually adopted a reformist line around 1930. In 1935, Johan Nygaardsvold established a coalition that lasted until 1945.

From 1946 to 1962, the Norwegian Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament led by Einar Gerhardsen, who remained Prime Minister for seventeen years. Although the party abandoned most of its pre-war socialist ideas, the welfare state was expanded under Gerhardsen to ensure the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilise the economy. In the 1945 Norwegian parliamentary election, the Communist Party took 12% of the votes, but it largely vanished during the Cold War. In the 1950s, popular socialism emerged in Nordic countries. It placed itself between communism and social democracy. In the early 1960s, the Socialist Left Party challenged the Labour Party from the left. Also in the 1960s, Gerhardsen established a planning agency and tried to establish a planned economy. In the 1970s, a more radical socialist party, the Worker's Communist Party (AKP), broke from the Socialist Left Party and had notable influence in student associations and some trade unions. The AKP identified with Communist China and Albania rather than the Soviet Union.

In countries such as Sweden, the Rehn–Meidner model allowed capitalists owning productive and efficient firms to retain profits at the expense of the firms' workers, exacerbating inequality and causing workers to agitate for a share of the profits in the 1970s. At that time, women working in the state sector began to demand better wages. Rudolf Meidner established a study committee that came up with a 1976 proposal to transfer excess profits into worker-controlled investment funds, with the intention that firms would create jobs and pay higher wages rather than reward company owners and managers. Capitalists immediately labeled this proposal as socialism and launched an unprecedented opposition—including calling off the class compromise established in the 1938 Saltsjöbaden Agreement. Social democratic parties are some of the oldest such parties and operate in all Nordic countries. Countries or political systems that have long been dominated by social democratic parties are often labelled social democratic. Those countries fit the social democratic type of "high socialism" which is described as favouring "a high level of decommodification and a low degree of stratification".

The Nordic model is a form of economic-political system common to the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden). It has three main ingredients, namely peaceful, institutionalised negotiation between employers and trade unions; active, predictable and measured macroeconomic policy; and universal welfare and free education. The welfare system is governmental in Norway and Sweden whereas trade unions play a greater role in Denmark, Finland and Iceland. The Nordic model is often labelled social democratic and contrasted with the conservative continental model and the liberal Anglo-American model. Major reforms in the Nordic countries are the results of consensus and compromise across the political spectrum. Key reforms were implemented under social democratic cabinets in Denmark, Norway and Sweden while centre-right parties dominated during the implementation of the model in Finland and Iceland. Since World War II, Nordic countries have largely maintained a social democratic mixed economy, characterised by labour force participation, gender equality, egalitarian and universal benefits, redistribution of wealth and expansionary fiscal policy.

In Norway, the first mandatory social insurances were introduced by conservative cabinets in 1895 (Francis Hagerups's cabinet) and 1911 (Konow's Cabinet). During the 1930s, the Labour Party adopted the conservatives' welfare state project. After World War II, all political parties agreed that the welfare state should be expanded. Universal social security (Folketrygden) was introduced by the conservative Borten's Cabinet. Norway's economy is open to the international or European market for most products and services, joining the European Union's internal market in 1994 through European Economic Area. Some of the mixed economy institutions from the post-war period were relaxed by the conservative cabinet of the 1980s and the finance market was deregulated. Within the Varieties of Capitalism-framework, Finland, Norway and Sweden are identified as coordinated market economies.

Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

The Soviet era saw competition between the Soviet-led Eastern Bloc and the United States-led Western Bloc. The Soviet system was seen as a rival of and a threat to Western capitalism for most of the 20th century.[page needed]

The Eastern Bloc was the group of Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, including the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact, including Poland, the German Democratic Republic, the Hungary, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Albania, and initially Yugoslavia. In the Informbiro period from 1948, Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito pursued a different, more decentralised form of state socialism than the rest of the Eastern Bloc, known as Socialist self-management.

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the Communist government brutally suppressed by Soviet forces, and USSR leader Nikita Khrushchev's denunciation of the excesses of Stalin's regime during the Twentieth Communist Party Congress the same year produced disunity within Western European Communist parties, leading to the emergence of the New Left (see below). Over a decade later, Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubček also attempted to pursue a more democratic model of state socialism, under the name "Socialism with a human face", during the Prague Spring; this was also brutally suppressed by the Soviet Union.

Asia, Africa, and Latin America

In the post-war years, socialism became increasingly influential in many then-developing countries. Embracing Third World socialism, countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America often nationalised industries. During India's freedom movement and fight for independence, many figures in the left-wing faction of the Indian National Congress organised themselves as the Congress Socialist Party. Their politics and those of the early and intermediate periods of Jayaprakash Narayan's career combined a commitment to the socialist transformation of society with a principled opposition to the one-party authoritarianism they perceived in the Stalinist model.

The Chinese Communist Revolution was the second stage in the Chinese Civil War, which ended with the establishment of the People's Republic of China led by the Chinese Communist Party. The then-Chinese Kuomintang Party in the 1920s incorporated Chinese socialism as part of its ideology. Between 1958 and 1962 during the Great Leap Forward in the People's Republic of China, some 30 million people starved to death and at least 45 million died overall.

The emergence of this new political entity in the frame of the Cold War was complex and painful. Several tentative efforts were made to organise newly independent states in order to establish a common front to limit the United States' and the Soviet Union's influence on them. This led to the Sino-Soviet split. The Non-Aligned Movement gathered around the figures of Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt. After the 1954 Geneva Conference which ended the French war in Vietnam, the 1955 Bandung Conference gathered Nasser, Nehru, Tito, Sukarno and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai. As many African countries gained independence during the 1960s, some of them rejected capitalism in favour of African socialism as defined by Julius Nyerere of Tanzania, Léopold Senghor of Senegal, Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Sékou Touré of Guinea.

The Cuban Revolution (1953–1959) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement and its allies against the government of Fulgencio Batista. Castro's government eventually adopted communism, becoming the Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965.[better source needed]

In Indonesia in the mid-1960s, a coup attempt blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) was countered by an anti-communist purge led by Suharto, which mainly targeted the growing influence of the PKI and other leftist groups, with significant support from the United States, which culminated in the overthrow of Sukarno. These events resulted not only in the total destruction of the PKI but also the political left in Indonesia, and paved the way for a major shift in the balance of power in Southeast Asia towards the West, a significant turning point in the global Cold War.

New Left

Main article: New Left

The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists, educators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights, abortion, gender roles and drugs in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist approach to social justice and focused mostly on labour unionisation and questions of social class. The New Left rejected involvement with the labour movement and Marxism's historical theory of class struggle.

In the United States, the New Left was associated with the Hippie movement and anti-war college campus protest movements as well as the black liberation movements such as the Black Panther Party. While initially formed in opposition to the "Old Left" Democratic Party, groups composing the New Left gradually became central players in the Democratic coalition.

Protests of 1968

Main article: Protests of 1968

The protests of 1968 represented a worldwide escalation of social conflicts, predominantly characterised by popular rebellions against military, capitalist and bureaucratic elites who responded with an escalation of political repression. These protests marked a turning point for the civil rights movement in the United States which produced revolutionary movements like the Black Panther Party. The prominent civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. organised the "Poor People's Campaign" to address issues of economic justice, while personally showing sympathy with democratic socialism. In reaction to the Tet Offensive, protests also sparked a broad movement in opposition to the Vietnam War all over the United States and even into London, Paris, Berlin and Rome. In 1968, the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during a conference held in Carrara by the three existing European federations of France, the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile.

Mass socialist movements grew not only in the United States, but also in most European countries. The most spectacular manifestation of this were the May 1968 protests in France in which students linked up with strikes of up to ten million workers and for a few days the movement seemed capable of overthrowing the government.[citation needed] In many other capitalist countries, struggles against dictatorships, state repression and colonisation were also marked by protests in 1968, such as the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City and the escalation of guerrilla warfare against the military dictatorship in Brazil.

Countries governed by Communist parties saw protests against bureaucratic and military elites too. In Eastern Europe, widespread protests escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia. In response, Soviet Union occupied Czechoslovakia. The occupation was denounced by the Italian and French Communist parties and the Communist Party of Finland, but defended by the Portuguese Communist Party secretary-general Álvaro Cunhal the Communist Party of Luxembourg and conservative factions of the Communist Party of Greece.

In the Chinese Cultural Revolution, a social-political youth movement mobilised against "bourgeois" elements which were seen to be infiltrating the government and society at large, aiming to restore capitalism. This movement motivated Maoism-inspired movements around the world in the context of the Sino-Soviet split (see Maoism#International Influence.

Late 20th century

Salvador Allende, President of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, whose presidency and life were ended by a CIA-backed military coup

In the 1960s, a socialist tendency within the Latin American Catholic church appeared and was known as liberation theology It motivated the Colombian priest Camilo Torres Restrepo to enter the ELN guerrilla. In Chile, Salvador Allende, a physician and candidate for the Socialist Party of Chile, was elected president in 1970. In 1973, his government was ousted by the United States-backed military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet, which lasted until the late 1980s. In Jamaica, the democratic socialist Michael Manley served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992. According to opinion polls, he remains one of Jamaica's most popular Prime Ministers since independence. The Nicaraguan Revolution encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–1979, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the socialist measures which included wide-scale agrarian reform and educational programs. The People's Revolutionary Government was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 in Grenada which was overthrown by armed forces of the United States in 1983. The Salvadoran Civil War (1979–1992) was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or umbrella organisation of five socialist guerrilla groups. A coup on 15 October 1979 led to the killings of anti-coup protesters by the government as well as anti-disorder protesters by the guerrillas, and is widely seen as the tipping point towards the civil war.

In 1982, the newly elected French socialist government of François Mitterrand nationalised parts of a few key industries, including banks and insurance companies. Eurocommunism was a trend in the 1970s and 1980s in various Western European Communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant for a Western European country and less aligned to the influence or control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Outside Western Europe, it is sometimes called neocommunism. Some Communist parties with strong popular support, notably the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Communist Party of Spain (PCE). adopted Eurocommunism most enthusiastically and the Communist Party of Finland was dominated by Eurocommunists. The French Communist Party (PCF) and many smaller parties strongly opposed Eurocommunism and stayed aligned with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the end of the Soviet Union. Also emerging from the Communist movement but moving in a more left-wing direction, in Italy Autonomia Operaia was particularly active from 1976 to 1978; it took an important role in the autonomist movement in the 1970s, alongside earlier organisations such as Potere Operaio (created after May 1968) and Lotta Continua, promoting a radical form of socialism based on working class self-activity rather than vanguard parties and state planning.

Until its 1976 Geneva Congress, the Socialist International (SI) had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America. In the late 1970s and in the 1980s, the SI had extensive contacts and discussion with the two powers of the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union, about east–west relations and arms control, and admitted as member parties the Nicaraguan FSLN, the left-wing Puerto Rican Independence Party, as well as former Communist parties such as the Democratic Party of the Left of Italy and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO). The SI aided social democratic parties in re-establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal (1974) and Spain (1975).

After Mao Zedong's death in 1976 and the arrest of the faction known as the Gang of Four, who were blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution, Deng Xiaoping took power and led the People's Republic of China to significant economic reforms. The Chinese Communist Party (CCP) loosened governmental control over citizens' personal lives and the communes were disbanded in favour of private land leases, thus China's transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy named as "socialism with Chinese characteristics" which maintained state ownership rights over land, state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors. China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982. Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin, Premiers Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s. Under their administration, China sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11.2%.[better source needed] At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in December 1986, reformist politicians replaced the "old guard" government with new leadership. The reformers were led by 71-year-old Nguyen Van Linh, who became the party's new general secretary. Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free market reforms—known as Đổi Mới ("Renovation")—which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a "socialist-oriented market economy".

The Soviet Union experienced continued increases in mortality rate (particularly among men) as far back as 1965.[better source needed] Mikhail Gorbachev wished to move the Soviet Union towards of Nordic-style social democracy,[dubiousdiscuss] calling it "a socialist beacon for all mankind". Prior to its dissolution in 1991, the economy of the Soviet Union was by some measures the second largest in the world after the United States. This economy however was beset by economic stagnation, an inflationary spiral, shortages of consumer goods, and fiscal mismanagement.[better source needed] With the collapse of the Soviet Union, the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved and overall industrial activity declined substantially.

A lasting legacy of Communism in Soviet Union remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices, and widespread environmental destruction. The transition to capitalism in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc, which was accompanied by Washington Consensus-inspired "shock therapy", Following a transition to free market capitalism there has been a steep fall in the standard of living. Post-Communist Russia experienced rising economic inequality and poverty a surge in excess mortality amongst men, and a decline in life expectancy, which was accompanied by the entrenchment of a newly established business oligarchy. The average post-Communist country had returned to 1989 levels of per-capita GDP by 2005, and as of 2015, some countries were still behind that. These developments led to increased nationalist sentiment and nostalgia for the Communist era.

Many social democratic parties, particularly after the Cold War, adopted neoliberal market policies including privatisation, deregulation and financialisation. They abandoned their pursuit of moderate socialism in favour of economic liberalism. By the 1980s, with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the United States, Margaret Thatcher in Britain, Brian Mulroney in Canada and Augusto Pinochet in Chile, the Western welfare state was attacked from within, but state support for the corporate sector was maintained. In the United Kingdom, Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock expelled some Trotskyist members and refused to support the 1984–1985 miner's strike over pit closures. In 1989, the 18th Congress of the SI adopted a new Declaration of Principles, stating: "Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom, social justice, and solidarity. Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents, and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society."

In the 1990s, the British Labour Party under Tony Blair enacted policies based on the free-market economy to deliver public services via the private finance initiative. Influential in these policies was the idea of a Third Way between Old Left state socialism and New Right market capitalism, and a re-evaluation of welfare state policies. In 1995, the Labour Party re-defined its stance on socialism by re-wording Clause IV of its constitution, defining socialism in ethical terms and removing all references to public, direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production. The Labour Party stated: "The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party. It believes that, by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone, so as to create, for each of us, the means to realise our true potential, and, for all of us, a community in which power, wealth, and opportunity are in the hands of the many, not the few."

Early 21st century

In 1990, the São Paulo Forum was launched by the Workers' Party (Brazil), linking left-wing socialist parties in Latin America. Its members were associated with the Pink tide of left-wing governments on the continent in the early 21st century. Member parties ruling countries included the Front for Victory in Argentina, the PAIS Alliance in Ecuador, Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front in El Salvador, Peru Wins in Peru, and the United Socialist Party of Venezuela, whose leader Hugo Chavez initiated what he called "Socialism of the 21st century".

Many mainstream democratic socialist and social democratic parties continued to drift right-wards. On the right of the socialist movement, the Progressive Alliance was in 2013 by current or former members of the Socialist International. The organisation states the aim of becoming the global network of "the progressive, democratic, social-democratic, socialist and labour movement". Mainstream social democratic and socialist parties are also networked in Europe in the Party of European Socialists formed in 1992. Many of these parties lost large parts of their electoral base in the early 21st century. This phenomenon is known as Pasokification from the Greek party PASOK, which saw a declining share of the vote in national elections — from 43.9% in 2009 to 13.2% in May 2012, to 12.3% in June 2012 and 4.7% in 2015 — due to its poor handling of the Greek government-debt crisis and implementation of harsh austerity measures. In Europe, the share of votes for such parties was at its 70-year lowest in 2015. For example, the French Socialist Party, after winning the 2012 presidential election, rapidly lost its vote share; the Social Democratic Party of Germany's fortunes declined rapidly from 2005 to 2019; and outside Europe the Israeli Labor Party fell from being the dominant force in Israeli politics to 4.43% of the vote in the April 2019 Israeli legislative election, and the Peruvian Aprista Party went from ruling party in 2011 to a minor party. The decline of these mainstream parties opened space for more radical and populist left parties in some countries, such as Spain's Podemos, Greece's Syriza (which was in government 2015-19), Germany's Die Linke and France's La France Insoumise. In other countries, left-wing revivals have taken place within mainstream democratic socialist and centrist parties, as with Jeremy Corbyn in the UK and Bernie Sanders in the US. However, few of these radical left parties have won national government in Europe, while some more mainstream social democratic parties have managed to, such as Portugal's Socialist Party.

Main article: Types of socialism

Early socialist thought took influences from a diverse range of philosophies such as civic republicanism, Enlightenment rationalism, romanticism, forms of materialism, Christianity (both Catholic and Protestant), natural law and natural rights theory, utilitarianism and liberal political economy. Another philosophical basis for a lot of early socialism was the emergence of positivism during the European Enlightenment. Positivism held that both the natural and social worlds could be understood through scientific knowledge and be analysed using scientific methods. This core outlook influenced early social scientists and different types of socialists ranging from anarchists like Peter Kropotkin to technocrats like Saint Simon.

The fundamental objective of socialism is to attain an advanced level of material production and therefore greater productivity, efficiency and rationality as compared to capitalism and all previous systems, under the view that an expansion of human productive capability is the basis for the extension of freedom and equality in society. Many forms of socialist theory hold that human behaviour is largely shaped by the social environment. In particular, socialism holds that social mores, values, cultural traits and economic practices are social creations and not the result of an immutable natural law. The object of their critique is thus not human avarice or human consciousness, but the material conditions and man-made social systems (i.e. the economic structure of society) that gives rise to observed social problems and inefficiencies. Bertrand Russell, often considered to be the father of analytic philosophy, identified as a socialist. Russell opposed the class struggle aspects of Marxism, viewing socialism solely as an adjustment of economic relations to accommodate modern machine production to benefit all of humanity through the progressive reduction of necessary work time.

Socialists view creativity as an essential aspect of human nature and define freedom as a state of being where individuals are able to express their creativity unhindered by constraints of both material scarcity and coercive social institutions. The socialist concept of individuality is intertwined with the concept of individual creative expression. Karl Marx believed that expansion of the productive forces and technology was the basis for the expansion of human freedom and that socialism, being a system that is consistent with modern developments in technology, would enable the flourishing of "free individualities" through the progressive reduction of necessary labour time. The reduction of necessary labour time to a minimum would grant individuals the opportunity to pursue the development of their true individuality and creativity.

Criticism of capitalism

Socialists argue that the accumulation of capital generates waste through externalities that require costly corrective regulatory measures. They also point out that this process generates wasteful industries and practices that exist only to generate sufficient demand for products such as high-pressure advertisement to be sold at a profit, thereby creating rather than satisfying economic demand.

Socialists argue that capitalism consists of irrational activity, such as the purchasing of commodities only to sell at a later time when their price appreciates, rather than for consumption, even if the commodity cannot be sold at a profit to individuals in need and therefore a crucial criticism often made by socialists is that "making money", or accumulation of capital, does not correspond to the satisfaction of demand (the production of use-values). The fundamental criterion for economic activity in capitalism is the accumulation of capital for reinvestment in production, but this spurs the development of new, non-productive industries that do not produce use-value and only exist to keep the accumulation process afloat (otherwise the system goes into crisis), such as the spread of the financial industry, contributing to the formation of economic bubbles.

Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy. According to socialists, private property becomes obsolete when it concentrates into centralised, socialised institutions based on private appropriation of revenuebut based on cooperative work and internal planning in allocation of inputs—until the role of the capitalist becomes redundant. With no need for capital accumulation and a class of owners, private property in the means of production is perceived as being an outdated form of economic organisation that should be replaced by a free association of individuals based on public or common ownership of these socialised assets. Private ownership imposes constraints on planning, leading to uncoordinated economic decisions that result in business fluctuations, unemployment and a tremendous waste of material resources during crisis of overproduction.

Excessive disparities in income distribution lead to social instability and require costly corrective measures in the form of redistributive taxation, which incurs heavy administrative costs while weakening the incentive to work, inviting dishonesty and increasing the likelihood of tax evasion while (the corrective measures) reduce the overall efficiency of the market economy. These corrective policies limit the incentive system of the market by providing things such as minimum wages, unemployment insurance, taxing profits and reducing the reserve army of labour, resulting in reduced incentives for capitalists to invest in more production. In essence, social welfare policies cripple capitalism and its incentive system and are thus unsustainable in the long-run. Marxists argue that the establishment of a socialist mode of production is the only way to overcome these deficiencies. Socialists and specifically Marxian socialists argue that the inherent conflict of interests between the working class and capital prevent optimal use of available human resources and leads to contradictory interest groups (labour and business) striving to influence the state to intervene in the economy in their favour at the expense of overall economic efficiency.

Early socialists (utopian socialists and Ricardian socialists) criticised capitalism for concentrating power and wealth within a small segment of society. In addition, they complained that capitalism does not use available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public.

Marxism

Main article: Marxism

At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or—this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms—with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure.

—Karl Marx, Critique of the Gotha Program

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that socialism would emerge from historical necessity as capitalism rendered itself obsolete and unsustainable from increasing internal contradictions emerging from the development of the productive forces and technology. It was these advances in the productive forces combined with the old social relations of production of capitalism that would generate contradictions, leading to working-class consciousness.

The writings of Karl Marx provided the basis for the development of Marxist political theory and Marxian economics.

Marx and Engels held the view that the consciousness of those who earn a wage or salary (the working class in the broadest Marxist sense) would be moulded by their conditions of wage slavery, leading to a tendency to seek their freedom or emancipation by overthrowing ownership of the means of production by capitalists and consequently, overthrowing the state that upheld this economic order. For Marx and Engels, conditions determine consciousness and ending the role of the capitalist class leads eventually to a classless society in which the state would wither away. The Marxist conception of socialism is that of a specific historical phase that would displace capitalism and precede communism. The major characteristics of socialism (particularly as conceived by Marx and Engels after the Paris Commune of 1871) are that the proletariat would control the means of production through a workers' state erected by the workers in their interests. Economic activity would still be organised through the use of incentive systems and social classes would still exist, but to a lesser and diminishing extent than under capitalism.

For orthodox Marxists, socialism is the lower stage of communism based on the principle of "from each according to his ability, to each according to his contribution" while upper stage communism is based on the principle of "from each according to his ability, to each according to his need", the upper stage becoming possible only after the socialist stage further develops economic efficiency and the automation of production has led to a superabundance of goods and services. Marx argued that the material productive forces (in industry and commerce) brought into existence by capitalism predicated a cooperative society since production had become a mass social, collective activity of the working class to create commodities but with private ownership (the relations of production or property relations). This conflict between collective effort in large factories and private ownership would bring about a conscious desire in the working class to establish collective ownership commensurate with the collective efforts their daily experience.

Role of the state

Socialists have taken different perspectives on the state and the role it should play in revolutionary struggles, in constructing socialism and within an established socialist economy.

In the 19th century, the philosophy of state socialism was first explicitly expounded by the German political philosopher Ferdinand Lassalle. In contrast to Karl Marx's perspective of the state, Lassalle rejected the concept of the state as a class-based power structure whose main function was to preserve existing class structures. Lassalle also rejected the Marxist view that the state was destined to "wither away". Lassalle considered the state to be an entity independent of class allegiances and an instrument of justice that would therefore be essential for achieving socialism.

Preceding the Bolshevik-led revolution in Russia, many socialists including reformists, orthodox Marxist currents such as council communism, anarchists and libertarian socialists criticised the idea of using the state to conduct central planning and own the means of production as a way to establish socialism. Following the victory of Leninism in Russia, the idea of "state socialism" spread rapidly throughout the socialist movement and eventually state socialism came to be identified with the Soviet economic model.

Joseph Schumpeter rejected the association of socialism and social ownership with state ownership over the means of production because the state as it exists in its current form is a product of capitalist society and cannot be transplanted to a different institutional framework. Schumpeter argued that there would be different institutions within socialism than those that exist within modern capitalism, just as feudalism had its own distinct and unique institutional forms. The state, along with concepts like property and taxation, were concepts exclusive to commercial society (capitalism) and attempting to place them within the context of a future socialist society would amount to a distortion of these concepts by using them out of context.

Utopian versus scientific

Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier and Robert Owen which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists. However, visions of imaginary ideal societies, which competed with revolutionary social democratic movements, were viewed as not being grounded in the material conditions of society and as reactionary. Although it is technically possible for any set of ideas or any person living at any time in history to be a utopian socialist, the term is most often applied to those socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century who were ascribed the label "utopian" by later socialists as a negative term in order to imply naivete and dismiss their ideas as fanciful or unrealistic.

Religious sects whose members live communally such as the Hutterites are not usually called "utopian socialists", although their way of living is a prime example. They have been categorised as religious socialists by some. Similarly, modern intentional communities based on socialist ideas could also be categorised as "utopian socialist".

For Marxists, the development of capitalism in Western Europe provided a material basis for the possibility of bringing about socialism because according to The Communist Manifesto "[w]hat the bourgeoisie produces above all is its own grave diggers", namely the working class, which must become conscious of the historical objectives set it by society.

Reform versus revolution

Revolutionary socialists believe that a social revolution is necessary to effect structural changes to the socioeconomic structure of society. Among revolutionary socialists there are differences in strategy, theory and the definition of revolution. Orthodox Marxists and left communists take an impossibilist stance, believing that revolution should be spontaneous as a result of contradictions in society due to technological changes in the productive forces. Lenin theorised that under capitalism the workers cannot achieve class consciousness beyond organising into trade unions and making demands of the capitalists. Therefore, Leninists advocate that it is historically necessary for a vanguard of class conscious revolutionaries to take a central role in coordinating the social revolution to overthrow the capitalist state and eventually the institution of the state altogether. Revolution is not necessarily defined by revolutionary socialists as violent insurrection, but as a complete dismantling and rapid transformation of all areas of class society led by the majority of the masses: the working class.

Reformism is generally associated with social democracy and gradualist democratic socialism. Reformism is the belief that socialists should stand in parliamentary elections within capitalist society and if elected use the machinery of government to pass political and social reforms for the purposes of ameliorating the instabilities and inequities of capitalism. Within socialism, reformism is used in two different ways. One has no intention of bringing about socialism or fundamental economic change to society and is used to oppose such structural changes. The other is based on the assumption that while reforms are not socialist in themselves, they can help rally supporters to the cause of revolution by popularizing the cause of socialism to the working class.

The debate on the ability for social democratic reformism to lead to a socialist transformation of society is over a century old. Reformism is criticized for being paradoxical as it seeks to overcome the existing economic system of capitalism while trying to improve the conditions of capitalism, thereby making it appear more tolerable to society. According to Rosa Luxemburg, capitalism is not overthrown, "but is on the contrary strengthened by the development of social reforms". In a similar vein, Stan Parker of the Socialist Party of Great Britain argues that reforms are a diversion of energy for socialists and are limited because they must adhere to the logic of capitalism. French social theorist Andre Gorz criticized reformism by advocating a third alternative to reformism and social revolution that he called "non-reformist reforms", specifically focused on structural changes to capitalism as opposed to reforms to improve living conditions within capitalism or to prop it up through economic interventions.

Main article: Socialist economics

The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is, in my opinion, the real source of the evil. ... I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils, namely through the establishment of a socialist economy, accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals. In such an economy, the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilised in a planned fashion. A planned economy, which adjusts production to the needs of the community, would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man, woman, and child. The education of the individual, in addition to promoting his own innate abilities, would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society.

Albert Einstein, "Why Socialism?", 1949

Socialist economics starts from the premise that "individuals do not live or work in isolation but live in cooperation with one another. Furthermore, everything that people produce is in some sense a social product, and everyone who contributes to the production of a good is entitled to a share in it. Society as whole, therefore, should own or at least control property for the benefit of all its members".

The original conception of socialism was an economic system whereby production was organised in a way to directly produce goods and services for their utility (or use-value in classical and Marxian economics), with the direct allocation of resources in terms of physical units as opposed to financial calculation and the economic laws of capitalism (see law of value), often entailing the end of capitalistic economic categories such as rent, interest, profit and money. In a fully developed socialist economy, production and balancing factor inputs with outputs becomes a technical process to be undertaken by engineers.

Market socialism refers to an array of different economic theories and systems that use the market mechanism to organise production and to allocate factor inputs among socially owned enterprises, with the economic surplus (profits) accruing to society in a social dividend as opposed to private capital owners. Variations of market socialism include libertarian proposals such as mutualism, based on classical economics, and neoclassical economic models such as the Lange Model. However, some economists such as Joseph Stiglitz, Mancur Olson and others not specifically advancing anti-socialists positions have shown that prevailing economic models upon which such democratic or market socialism models might be based have logical flaws or unworkable presuppositions.

The ownership of the means of production can be based on direct ownership by the users of the productive property through worker cooperative; or commonly owned by all of society with management and control delegated to those who operate/use the means of production; or public ownership by a state apparatus. Public ownership may refer to the creation of state-owned enterprises, nationalisation, municipalisation or autonomous collective institutions. Some socialists feel that in a socialist economy, at least the "commanding heights" of the economy must be publicly owned. However, economic liberals and right libertarians view private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty and view the economic dynamics of capitalism as immutable and absolute, therefore they perceive public ownership of the means of production, cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty.

Management and control over the activities of enterprises are based on self-management and self-governance, with equal power-relations in the workplace to maximise occupational autonomy. A socialist form of organisation would eliminate controlling hierarchies so that only a hierarchy based on technical knowledge in the workplace remains. Every member would have decision-making power in the firm and would be able to participate in establishing its overall policy objectives. The policies/goals would be carried out by the technical specialists that form the coordinating hierarchy of the firm, who would establish plans or directives for the work community to accomplish these goals.

The role and use of money in a hypothetical socialist economy is a contested issue. Nineteenth century socialists including Karl Marx, Robert Owen, Pierre-Joseph Proudhon and John Stuart Mill advocated various forms of labour vouchers or labour credits, which like money would be used to acquire articles of consumption, but unlike money they are unable to become capital and would not be used to allocate resources within the production process. Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky argued that money could not be arbitrarily abolished following a socialist revolution. Money had to exhaust its "historic mission", meaning it would have to be used until its function became redundant, eventually being transformed into bookkeeping receipts for statisticians and only in the more distant future would money not be required for even that role.

Planned economy

Main article: Planned economy

A planned economy is a type of economy consisting of a mixture of public ownership of the means of production and the coordination of production and distribution through economic planning. A planned economy can be either decentralised or centralised. Enrico Barone provided a comprehensive theoretical framework for a planned socialist economy. In his model, assuming perfect computation techniques, simultaneous equations relating inputs and outputs to ratios of equivalence would provide appropriate valuations in order to balance supply and demand.

The most prominent example of a planned economy was the economic system of the Soviet Union and as such the centralised-planned economic model is usually associated with the communist states of the 20th century, where it was combined with a single-party political system. In a centrally planned economy, decisions regarding the quantity of goods and services to be produced are planned in advance by a planning agency (see also the analysis of Soviet-type economic planning). The economic systems of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc are further classified as "command economies", which are defined as systems where economic coordination is undertaken by commands, directives and production targets. Studies by economists of various political persuasions on the actual functioning of the Soviet economy indicate that it was not actually a planned economy. Instead of conscious planning, the Soviet economy was based on a process whereby the plan was modified by localised agents and the original plans went largely unfulfilled. Planning agencies, ministries and enterprises all adapted and bargained with each other during the formulation of the plan as opposed to following a plan passed down from a higher authority, leading some economists to suggest that planning did not actually take place within the Soviet economy and that a better description would be an "administered" or "managed" economy.

Although central planning was largely supported by Marxist–Leninists, some factions within the Soviet Union before the rise of Stalinism held positions contrary to central planning. Leon Trotsky rejected central planning in favour of decentralised planning. He argued that central planners, regardless of their intellectual capacity, would be unable to coordinate effectively all economic activity within an economy because they operated without the input and tacit knowledge embodied by the participation of the millions of people in the economy. As a result, central planners would be unable to respond to local economic conditions. State socialism is unfeasible in this view because information cannot be aggregated by a central body and effectively used to formulate a plan for an entire economy, because doing so would result in distorted or absent price signals.

Self-managed economy

Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.'

Upton Sinclair

A self-managed, decentralised economy is based on autonomous self-regulating economic units and a decentralised mechanism of resource allocation and decision-making. This model has found support in notable classical and neoclassical economists including Alfred Marshall, John Stuart Mill and Jaroslav Vanek. There are numerous variations of self-management, including labour-managed firms and worker-managed firms. The goals of self-management are to eliminate exploitation and reduce alienation. Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers' control of industry through the medium of trade-related guilds "in an implied contractual relationship with the public". It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential in the first quarter of the 20th century. It was strongly associated with G. D. H. Cole and influenced by the ideas of William Morris.

One such system is the cooperative economy, a largely free market economy in which workers manage the firms and democratically determine remuneration levels and labour divisions. Productive resources would be legally owned by the cooperative and rented to the workers, who would enjoy usufruct rights. Another form of decentralised planning is the use of cybernetics, or the use of computers to manage the allocation of economic inputs. The socialist-run government of Salvador Allende in Chile experimented with Project Cybersyn, a real-time information bridge between the government, state enterprises and consumers. Another, more recent variant is participatory economics, wherein the economy is planned by decentralised councils of workers and consumers. Workers would be remunerated solely according to effort and sacrifice, so that those engaged in dangerous, uncomfortable and strenuous work would receive the highest incomes and could thereby work less. A contemporary model for a self-managed, non-market socialism is Pat Devine's model of negotiated coordination. Negotiated coordination is based upon social ownership by those affected by the use of the assets involved, with decisions made by those at the most localised level of production.

Michel Bauwens identifies the emergence of the open software movement and peer-to-peer production as a new alternative mode of production to the capitalist economy and centrally planned economy that is based on collaborative self-management, common ownership of resources and the production of use-values through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital.

Anarcho-communism is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state, private property and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production. Anarcho-syndicalism was practised in Catalonia and other places in the Spanish Revolution during the Spanish Civil War. Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution.

The economy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established a system based on market-based allocation, social ownership of the means of production and self-management within firms. This system substituted Yugoslavia's Soviet-type central planning with a decentralised, self-managed system after reforms in 1953.

The Marxian economist Richard D. Wolff argues that "re-organising production so that workers become collectively self-directed at their work-sites" not only moves society beyond both capitalism and state socialism of the last century, but would also mark another milestone in human history, similar to earlier transitions out of slavery and feudalism. As an example, Wolff claims that Mondragon is "a stunningly successful alternative to the capitalist organisation of production".

State-directed economy

Main article: State socialism

State socialism can be used to classify any variety of socialist philosophies that advocates the ownership of the means of production by the state apparatus, either as a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism, or as an end-goal in itself. Typically, it refers to a form of technocratic management, whereby technical specialists administer or manage economic enterprises on behalf of society and the public interest instead of workers' councils or workplace democracy.

A state-directed economy may refer to a type of mixed economy consisting of public ownership over large industries, as promoted by various Social democratic political parties during the 20th century. This ideology influenced the policies of the British Labour Party during Clement Attlee's administration. In the biography of the 1945 United Kingdom Labour Party Prime Minister Clement Attlee, Francis Beckett states: "[T]he government ... wanted what would become known as a mixed economy."

Nationalisation in the United Kingdom was achieved through compulsory purchase of the industry (i.e. with compensation). British Aerospace was a combination of major aircraft companies British Aircraft Corporation, Hawker Siddeley and others. British Shipbuilders was a combination of the major shipbuilding companies including Cammell Laird, Govan Shipbuilders, Swan Hunter and Yarrow Shipbuilders, whereas the nationalisation of the coal mines in 1947 created a coal board charged with running the coal industry commercially so as to be able to meet the interest payable on the bonds which the former mine owners' shares had been converted into.

Market socialism

Main article: Market socialism

Market socialism consists of publicly owned or cooperatively owned enterprises operating in a market economy. It is a system that uses the market and monetary prices for the allocation and accounting of the means of production, thereby retaining the process of capital accumulation. The profit generated would be used to directly remunerate employees, collectively sustain the enterprise or finance public institutions. In state-oriented forms of market socialism, in which state enterprises attempt to maximise profit, the profits can be used to fund government programs and services through a social dividend, eliminating or greatly diminishing the need for various forms of taxation that exist in capitalist systems. Neoclassical economist Léon Walras believed that a socialist economy based on state ownership of land and natural resources would provide a means of public finance to make income taxes unnecessary. Yugoslavia implemented a market socialist economy based on cooperatives and worker self-management.

Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, main theorist of mutualism and influential French socialist thinker

Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production, either individually or collectively, with trade representing equivalent amounts of labour in the free market. Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual-credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate, just high enough to cover administration. Mutualism is based on a labour theory of value that holds that when labour or its product is sold, in exchange it ought to receive goods or services embodying "the amount of labour necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility".

The current economic system in China is formally referred to as a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics. It combines a large state sector that comprises the commanding heights of the economy, which are guaranteed their public ownership status by law, with a private sector mainly engaged in commodity production and light industry responsible from anywhere between 33% to over 70% of GDP generated in 2005. Although there has been a rapid expansion of private-sector activity since the 1980s, privatisation of state assets was virtually halted and were partially reversed in 2005. The current Chinese economy consists of 150 corporatised state-owned enterprises that report directly to China's central government. By 2008, these state-owned corporations had become increasingly dynamic and generated large increases in revenue for the state, resulting in a state-sector led recovery during the 2009 financial crises while accounting for most of China's economic growth. The Chinese economic model is widely cited as a contemporary form of state capitalism, the major difference between Western capitalism and the Chinese model being the degree of state-ownership of shares in publicly listed corporations. The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has adopted a similar model after the Doi Moi economic renovation but slightly differs from the Chinese model in that the Vietnamese government retains firm control over the state sector and strategic industries, but allows for private-sector activity in commodity production.

Socialists in Union Square, New York City on May Day 1912

While major socialist political movements include anarchism, communism, the labour movement, Marxism, social democracy, and syndicalism, independent socialist theorists, utopian socialist authors, and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements. Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism. Socialist has been used by the political right as an epithet, including against individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists and against policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents. While there are many variations of socialism, and there is no single definition encapsulating all of socialism, there have been common elements identified by scholars.

In his Dictionary of Socialism (1924), Angelo S. Rappoport analysed forty definitions of socialism to conclude that common elements of socialism include general criticism of the social effects of private ownership and control of capital—as being the cause of poverty, low wages, unemployment, economic and social inequality and a lack of economic security; a general view that the solution to these problems is a form of collective control over the means of production, distribution and exchange (the degree and means of control vary amongst socialist movements); an agreement that the outcome of this collective control should be a society based upon social justice, including social equality, economic protection of people and should provide a more satisfying life for most people.

In The Concepts of Socialism (1975), Bhikhu Parekh identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society, namely sociality, social responsibility, cooperation and planning. In his study Ideologies and Political Theory (1996), Michael Freeden states that all socialists share five themes: the first is that socialism posits that society is more than a mere collection of individuals; second, that it considers human welfare a desirable objective; third, that it considers humans by nature to be active and productive; fourth, it holds the belief of human equality; and fifth, that history is progressive and will create positive change on the condition that humans work to achieve such change.

Anarchism

Main article: Anarchism

Anarchism advocates stateless societies often defined as self-governed voluntary institutions, but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non-hierarchical free associations. While anarchism holds the state to be undesirable, unnecessary or harmful, it is not the central aspect. Anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations, including the state system. Mutualists support market socialism, collectivist anarchists favour workers cooperatives and salaries based on the amount of time contributed to production, anarcho-communists advocate a direct transition from capitalism to libertarian communism and a gift economy and anarcho-syndicalists prefer workers' direct action and the general strike.

The authoritarianlibertarian struggles and disputes within the socialist movement go back to the First International and the expulsion in 1872 of the anarchists, who went on to lead the Anti-authoritarian International and then founded their own libertarian international, the Anarchist St. Imier International. In 1888, the individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker, who proclaimed himself to be an anarchistic socialist and libertarian socialist in opposition to the authoritarian state socialism and the compulsory communism, included the full text of a "Socialistic Letter" by Ernest Lesigne in his essay on "State Socialism and Anarchism". According to Lesigne, there are two types of socialism: "One is dictatorial, the other libertarian". Tucker's two socialisms were the authoritarian state socialism which he associated to the Marxist school and the libertarian anarchist socialism, or simply anarchism, that he advocated. Tucker noted that the fact that the authoritarian "State Socialism has overshadowed other forms of Socialism gives it no right to a monopoly of the Socialistic idea". According to Tucker, what those two schools of socialism had in common was the labor theory of value and the ends, by which anarchism pursued different means.

According to anarchists such as the authors of An Anarchist FAQ, anarchism is one of the many traditions of socialism. For anarchists and other anti-authoritarian socialists, socialism "can only mean a classless and anti-authoritarian (i.e. libertarian) society in which people manage their own affairs, either as individuals or as part of a group (depending on the situation). In other words, it implies self-management in all aspects of life", including at the workplace. Michael Newman includes anarchism as one of many socialist traditions. Peter Marshall argues that "[i]n general anarchism is closer to socialism than liberalism. ... Anarchism finds itself largely in the socialist camp, but it also has outriders in liberalism. It cannot be reduced to socialism, and is best seen as a separate and distinctive doctrine."

Democratic socialism and social democracy

You can't talk about ending the slums without first saying profit must be taken out of slums. You're really tampering and getting on dangerous ground because you are messing with folk then. You are messing with captains of industry. Now this means that we are treading in difficult water, because it really means that we are saying that something is wrong with capitalism. There must be a better distribution of wealth, and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism.

Martin Luther King Jr., 1966

Democratic socialism represents any socialist movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class. Democratic socialism is difficult to define and groups of scholars have radically different definitions for the term. Some definitions simply refer to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral, reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one. According to Christopher Pierson, "[i]f the contrast which 1989 highlights is not that between socialism in the East and liberal democracy in the West, the latter must be recognized to have been shaped, reformed and compromised by a century of social democratic pressure". Pierson further claims that "social democratic and socialist parties within the constitutional arena in the West have almost always been involved in a politics of compromise with existing capitalist institutions (to whatever far distant prize its eyes might from time to time have been lifted)". For Pierson, "if advocates of the death of socialism accept that social democrats belong within the socialist camp, as I think they must, then the contrast between socialism (in all its variants) and liberal democracy must collapse. For actually existing liberal democracy is, in substantial part, a product of socialist (social democratic) forces".

Social democracy is a socialist tradition of political thought. Many social democrats refer to themselves as socialists or democratic socialists and some such as Tony Blair employ these terms interchangeably. Others found "clear differences" between the three terms and prefer to describe their own political beliefs by using the term social democracy. The two main directions were to establish democratic socialism or to build first a welfare state within the capitalist system. The first variant advances democratic socialism through reformist and gradualist methods. In the second variant, social democracy is a policy regime involving a welfare state, collective bargaining schemes, support for publicly financed public services and a mixed economy. It is often used in this manner to refer to Western and Northern Europe during the later half of the 20th century. It was described by Jerry Mander as "hybrid economics", an active collaboration of capitalist and socialist visions. Numerous studies and surveys indicate that people tend to live happier lives in social democratic societies rather than neoliberal ones.

Social democrats advocate for a peaceful, evolutionary transition of the economy to socialism through progressive social reform. It asserts that the only acceptable constitutional form of government is representative democracy under the rule of law. It promotes extending democratic decision-making beyond political democracy to include economic democracy to guarantee employees and other economic stakeholders sufficient rights of co-determination. It supports a mixed economy that opposes inequality, poverty and oppression while rejecting both a totally unregulated market economy or a fully planned economy. Common social democratic policies include universal social rights and universally accessible public services such as education, health care, workers' compensation and other services, including child care and elder care. Social democracy supports the trade union labour movement and supports collective bargaining rights for workers. Most social democratic parties are affiliated with the Socialist International.

Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to promote the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system. Some democratic socialists support social democracy as a temporary measure to reform the current system while others reject reformism in favour of more revolutionary methods. Modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative modification of capitalism in order to make it more equitable and humane while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is relegated to the indefinite future. According to Sheri Berman, Marxism is loosely held to be valuable for its emphasis on changing the world for a more just, better future.

The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology, although there are a few key differences. The major difference between social democracy and democratic socialism is the object of their politics in that contemporary social democrats support a welfare state and unemployment insurance as well as other practical, progressive reforms of capitalism and are more concerned to administrate and humanise it. On the other hand, democratic socialists seek to replace capitalism with a socialist economic system, arguing that any attempt to humanise capitalism through regulations and welfare policies would distort the market and create economic contradictions.

Ethical and liberal socialism

Ethical socialism appeals to socialism on ethical and moral grounds as opposed to economic, egoistic and consumeristic grounds. It emphasizes the need for a morally conscious economy based upon the principles of altruism, cooperation and social justice while opposing possessive individualism. Ethical socialism has been the official philosophy of mainstream socialist parties.

Liberal socialism incorporates liberal principles to socialism. It has been compared to post-war social democracy for its support of a mixed economy that includes both public and private capital goods. While democratic socialism and social democracy are anti-capitalist positions insofar as criticism of capitalism is linked to the private ownership of the means of production, liberal socialism identifies artificial and legalistic monopolies to be the fault of capitalism and opposes an entirely unregulated market economy. It considers both liberty and social equality to be compatible and mutually dependent.

Principles that can be described as ethical or liberal socialist have been based upon or developed by philosophers such as John Stuart Mill, Eduard Bernstein, John Dewey, Carlo Rosselli, Norberto Bobbio and Chantal Mouffe. Other important liberal socialist figures include Guido Calogero, Piero Gobetti, Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse, John Maynard Keynes and R. H. Tawney. Liberal socialism has been particularly prominent in British and Italian politics.

Leninism and precedents

Blanquism is a conception of revolution named for Louis Auguste Blanqui. It holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators. Upon seizing power, the revolutionaries introduce socialism. Rosa Luxemburg and Eduard Bernstein criticised Lenin, stating that his conception of revolution was elitist and Blanquist. Marxism–Leninism combines Marx's scientific socialist concepts and Lenin's anti-imperialism, democratic centralism and vanguardism.

Hal Draper defined socialism from above as the philosophy which employs an elite administration to run the socialist state. The other side of socialism is a more democratic socialism from below. The idea of socialism from above is much more frequently discussed in elite circles than socialism from below—even if that is the Marxist ideal—because it is more practical. Draper viewed socialism from below as being the purer, more Marxist version of socialism. According to Draper, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were devoutly opposed to any socialist institution that was "conducive to superstitious authoritarianism". Draper makes the argument that this division echoes the division between "reformist or revolutionary, peaceful or violent, democratic or authoritarian, etc." and further identifies six major varieties of socialism from above, among them "Philanthropism", "Elitism", "Pannism", "Communism", "Permeationism" and "Socialism-from-Outside".

According to Arthur Lipow, Marx and Engels were "the founders of modern revolutionary democratic socialism", described as a form of "socialism from below" that is "based on a mass working-class movement, fighting from below for the extension of democracy and human freedom". This type of socialism is contrasted to that of the "authoritarian, antidemocratic creed" and "the various totalitarian collectivist ideologies which claim the title of socialism" as well as "the many varieties of 'socialism from above' which have led in the twentieth century to movements and state forms in which a despotic 'new class' rules over a statified economy in the name of socialism", a division that "runs through the history of the socialist movement". Lipow identifies Bellamyism and Stalinism as two prominent authoritarian socialist currents within the history of the socialist movement.

Libertarian socialism

Main article: Libertarian socialism
The first anarchist journal to use the term libertarian was Le Libertaire, Journal du Mouvement Social, published in New York City between 1858 and 1861 by French libertarian communist Joseph Déjacque, the first recorded person to describe himself as libertarian.

Libertarian socialism, sometimes called left-libertarianism, social anarchism and socialist libertarianism, is an anti-authoritarian, anti-statist and libertarian tradition within socialism that rejects centralised state ownership and control including criticism of wage labour relationships (wage slavery) as well as the state itself. It emphasises workers' self-management and decentralised structures of political organisation. Libertarian socialism asserts that a society based on freedom and equality can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian institutions that control production. Libertarian socialists generally prefer direct democracy and federal or confederal associations such as libertarian municipalism, citizens' assemblies, trade unions and workers' councils.

Anarcho-syndicalist Gaston Leval explained: "We therefore foresee a Society in which all activities will be coordinated, a structure that has, at the same time, sufficient flexibility to permit the greatest possible autonomy for social life, or for the life of each enterprise, and enough cohesiveness to prevent all disorder. ... In a well-organised society, all of these things must be systematically accomplished by means of parallel federations, vertically united at the highest levels, constituting one vast organism in which all economic functions will be performed in solidarity with all others and that will permanently preserve the necessary cohesion". All of this is generally done within a general call for libertarian and voluntary free associations through the identification, criticism and practical dismantling of illegitimate authority in all aspects of human life.

As part of the larger socialist movement, it seeks to distinguish itself from Bolshevism, Leninism and Marxism–Leninism as well as social democracy. Past and present political philosophies and movements commonly described as libertarian socialist include anarchism (anarcho-communism, anarcho-syndicalism collectivist anarchism, individualist anarchism and mutualism), autonomism, Communalism, participism, libertarian Marxism (council communism and Luxemburgism), revolutionary syndicalism and utopian socialism (Fourierism).

Religious socialism

Main article: Religious socialism

Christian socialism is a broad concept involving an intertwining of Christian religion with socialism.

Arabic letters "Lam" and "Alif" reading "Lā" (Arabic for "No!") are a symbol of Islamic Socialism in Turkey.

Islamic socialism is a more spiritual form of socialism. Muslim socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur'an and Muhammad are not only compatible with, but actively promoting the principles of equality and public ownership, drawing inspiration from the early Medina welfare state he established. Muslim socialists are more conservative than their Western contemporaries and find their roots in anti-imperialism, anti-colonialism and sometimes, if in an Arab speaking country, Arab nationalism. Islamic socialists believe in deriving legitimacy from political mandate as opposed to religious texts.

Social movements

Socialist feminist Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg in 1910

Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both economic and cultural sources of women's oppression. Marxist feminism's foundation was laid by Engels in The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State (1884). August Bebel's Woman under Socialism (1879), is the "single work dealing with sexuality most widely read by rank-and-file members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)". In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, both Clara Zetkin and Eleanor Marx were against the demonisation of men and supported a proletariat revolution that would overcome as many male-female inequalities as possible. As their movement already had the most radical demands in women's equality, most Marxist leaders, including Clara Zetkin and Alexandra Kollontai, counterposed Marxism against liberal feminism rather than trying to combine them. Anarcha-feminism began with late 19th- and early 20th-century authors and theorists such as anarchist feminists Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre In the Spanish Civil War, an anarcha-feminist group, Mujeres Libres ("Free Women") linked to the Federación Anarquista Ibérica, organised to defend both anarchist and feminist ideas. In 1972, the Chicago Women's Liberation Union published "Socialist Feminism: A Strategy for the Women's Movement", which is believed to be the first published use of the term "socialist feminism".

Edward Carpenter, philosopher and activist who was instrumental in the foundation of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party as well as in the early LGBTI western movements

Many socialists were early advocates for LGBT rights. For early socialist Charles Fourier, true freedom could only occur without suppressing passions, as the suppression of passions is not only destructive to the individual, but to society as a whole. Writing before the advent of the term "homosexuality", Fourier recognised that both men and women have a wide range of sexual needs and preferences which may change throughout their lives, including same-sex sexuality and androgénité. He argued that all sexual expressions should be enjoyed as long as people are not abused and that "affirming one's difference" can actually enhance social integration. In Oscar Wilde's The Soul of Man Under Socialism, he advocates for an egalitarian society where wealth is shared by all, while warning of the dangers of social systems that crush individuality. Edward Carpenter actively campaigned for homosexual rights. His work The Intermediate Sex: A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women was a 1908 book arguing for gay liberation. who was an influential personality in the foundation of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party. After the Russian Revolution under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky, the Soviet Union abolished previous laws against homosexuality. Harry Hay was an early leader in the American LGBT rights movement as well as a member of the Communist Party USA. He is known for his roles in helping to found gay organisations, including the Mattachine Society, the first sustained gay rights group in the United States which in its early days reflected a strong Marxist influence. The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality reports that "[a]s Marxists the founders of the group believed that the injustice and oppression which they suffered stemmed from relationships deeply embedded in the structure of American society". Emerging from events such as the May 1968 insurrection in France, the anti-Vietnam war movement in the US and the Stonewall riots of 1969, militant gay liberation organisations began to spring up around the world. Many sprang from left radicalism more than established homophile groups, although the Gay Liberation Front took an anti-capitalist stance and attacked the nuclear family and traditional gender roles.

Eco-socialism is a political strain merging aspects of socialism, Marxism or libertarian socialism with green politics, ecology and alter-globalisation. Eco-socialists generally claim that the expansion of the capitalist system is the cause of social exclusion, poverty, war and environmental degradation through globalisation and imperialism under the supervision of repressive states and transnational structures. Contrary to the depiction of Karl Marx by some environmentalists, social ecologists and fellow socialists as a productivist who favoured the domination of nature, eco-socialists revisited Marx's writings and believe that he "was a main originator of the ecological world-view". Marx discussed a "metabolic rift" between man and nature, stating that "private ownership of the globe by single individuals will appear quite absurd as private ownership of one man by another" and his observation that a society must "hand it [the planet] down to succeeding generations in an improved condition". English socialist William Morris is credited with developing principles of what was later called eco-socialism. During the 1880s and 1890s, Morris promoted his ideas within the Social Democratic Federation and Socialist League. Green anarchism blends anarchism with environmental issues. An important early influence was Henry David Thoreau and his book Walden as well as Élisée Reclus.

In the late 19th century, anarcho-naturism fused anarchism and naturist philosophies within individualist anarchist circles in France, Spain, Cuba and Portugal. Murray Bookchin's first book Our Synthetic Environment was followed by his essay "Ecology and Revolutionary Thought" which introduced ecology as a concept in radical politics. In the 1970s, Barry Commoner, claimed that capitalist technologies were chiefly responsible for environmental degradation as opposed to population pressures. In the 1990s socialist/feminists Mary Mellor and Ariel Salleh adopt an eco-socialist paradigm. An "environmentalism of the poor" combining ecological awareness and social justice has also become prominent. Pepper critiqued the current approach of many within green politics, particularly deep ecologists.

Many green parties around the world such as the Dutch Green Left Party (GroenLinks) employ eco-socialist elements. Radical red-green alliances have been formed in many countries by eco-socialists, radical greens and other radical left groups. In Denmark, the Red-Green Alliance was formed as a coalition of numerous radical parties. Within the European Parliament, a number of leftist parties from Northern Europe have organised themselves into the Nordic Green Left Alliance.[citation needed]

Syndicalism

Main article: Syndicalism

Syndicalism operates through industrial trade unions. It rejects state socialism and the use of establishment politics. Syndicalists reject state power in favour of strategies such as the general strike. Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production. Some Marxist currents advocate syndicalism, such as De Leonism. Anarcho-syndicalism views syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy. The Spanish Revolution was largely orchestrated by the anarcho-syndicalist trade union CNT. The International Workers' Association is an international federation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions and initiatives.

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Socialism is criticised in terms of its models of economic organization as well as its political and social implications. Other critiques are directed at the socialist movement, parties, or existing states. Some forms of criticism occupy theoretical grounds, such as in the economic calculation problem presented by proponents of the Austrian School, and the socialist calculation debate, while others support their criticism by examining historical attempts to establish socialist societies. Because of socialism's many varieties, most critiques focused on a specific approach. Proponents of one approach typically criticise others.[citation needed]

Many commenters on the political right point to the mass killings under communist regimes, claiming them as an indictment of socialism. Defenders of socialism state that these killings were aberrations caused by specific authoritarian regimes, and not caused by socialism itself, and point to mass deaths in wars that they claim were caused by capitalism and anti-communism as a counterpoint to those killings.

  1. Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy. It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism.
  2. Sinclair, Upton (1 January 1918). Upton Sinclair's: A Monthly Magazine: for Social Justice, by Peaceful Means If Possible. Socialism, you see, is a bird with two wings. The definition is 'social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production.'
  3. Arnold, N. Scott (1998). The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. Oxford University Press. p. 8. "What else does a socialist economic system involve? Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system."
  4. Rosser, Mariana V. and J Barkley Jr. (23 July 2003).Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 53. ISBN 978-0-262-18234-8. Socialism is an economic system characterised by state or collective ownership of the means of production, land, and capital.
  5. Bertrand Badie; Dirk Berg-Schlosser; Leonardo Morlino (2011). International Encyclopedia of Political Science. SAGE Publications. p. 2456. ISBN 978-1-4129-5963-6. Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism, which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources.
  6. Zimbalist, Sherman and Brown, Andrew, Howard J. and Stuart (1988). Comparing Economic Systems: A Political-Economic Approach. Harcourt College Pub. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-15-512403-5. Pure socialism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production are owned and run by the government and/or cooperative, nonprofit groups.
  7. Brus, Wlodzimierz (2015). The Economics and Politics of Socialism. Routledge. p. 87. ISBN 978-0-415-86647-7. This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system. The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production.
  8. Nove, Alec. "Socialism". New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics, Second Edition (2008). A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated, by state, socialised or cooperative enterprises. The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise, the interrelationships between production units (plan versus markets), and, if the state owns and operates any part of the economy, who controls it and how.
  9. Horvat, Branko (2000). "Social ownership". In Michie, Jonathan (ed.). Reader's Guide to the Social Sciences, Volume 1. London and New York: Routledge. pp. 1515–1516. Retrieved15 October 2021. Just as private ownership defines capitalism, social ownership defines socialism. The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies, and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society. Two closely related consequences follow. First, every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend…Second, in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace, enterprises are run by those employed, and not by the representatives of private or state capital. Thus, the well-known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end. The society—i.e. every individual equally—owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs.
  10. "Socialism". The Free Dictionary. "2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system". Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  11. O'Hara, Phillip (2003). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-24187-8. In order of increasing decentralisation (at least) three forms of socialised ownership can be distinguished: state-owned firms, employee-owned (or socially) owned firms, and citizen ownership of equity.
  12. Lamb & Docherty 2006, p. 1
  13. Arnold, Scott (1994).The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism: A Critical Study. Oxford University Press. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-19-508827-4. This term is harder to define, since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism 'really is.' It would seem that everyone (socialists and nonsocialists alike) could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends, goals, values, or ideals. It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends; whatever that may mean in positive terms, it certainly presupposes, at a minimum, the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production…Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership, social control, or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system.
  14. Hastings, Mason and Pyper, Adrian, Alistair and Hugh (21 December 2000). The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press. p. 677. ISBN 978-0-19-860024-4. Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co-operative ownership is one...Nevertheless, socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership. By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital; bringing the means of production, distribution, and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy. It is difficult to see how it can survive, in theory or practice, without this central idea.
  15. Docherty, James C.; Lamb, Peter, eds. (2006). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (2nd ed.). Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements. 73. Lanham, Maryland: Scarecrow Press. pp. 1–3. ISBN 978-0-8108-5560-1.
  16. Kolb, Robert (19 October 2007). Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society, First Edition. SAGE Publications, Inc. p. 1345. ISBN 978-1-4129-1652-3. There are many forms of socialism, all of which eliminate private ownership of capital and replace it with collective ownership. These many forms, all focused on advancing distributive justice for long-term social welfare, can be divided into two broad types of socialism: nonmarket and market.
  17. Bockman, Johanna (2011). Markets in the name of Socialism: The Left-Wing origins of Neoliberalism. Stanford University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8047-7566-3. socialism would function without capitalist economic categories—such as money, prices, interest, profits and rent—and thus would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science. While some socialists recognised the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism, socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilise the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money.
  18. Steele, David Ramsay (1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. pp. 175–177. ISBN 978-0-87548-449-5. Especially before the 1930s, many socialists and anti-socialists implicitly accepted some form of the following for the incompatibility of state-owned industry and factor markets. A market transaction is an exchange of property titles between two independent transactors. Thus internal market exchanges cease when all of industry is brought into the ownership of a single entity, whether the state or some other organization, ... the discussion applies equally to any form of social or community ownership, where the owning entity is conceived as a single organization or administration.
  19. Is Socialism Dead? A Comment on Market Socialism and Basic Income Capitalism, by Arneson, Richard J. 1992. Ethics, vol. 102, no. 3, pp. 485–511. April 1992: "Marxian socialism is often identified with the call to organize economic activity on a nonmarket basis."
  20. Schweickart, David; Lawler, James; Ticktin, Hillel; Ollman, Bertell (1998). Market Socialism: The Debate Among Socialists. "The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism". pp. 61–63. "More fundamentally, a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs. ... Exchange-value, prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market. There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare. Under conditions of backwardness, the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology ... . It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use-value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist. It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use-values in a rational way, which because there is no duplication, would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality."
  21. The Economics of Feasible Socialism Revisited, by Nove, Alexander. 1991. p. 13: "Under socialism, by definition, it (private property and factor markets) would be eliminated. There would then be something like 'scientific management', 'the science of socially organized production', but it would not be economics."
  22. Kotz, David M. "Socialism and Capitalism: Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems?"(PDF). University of Massachusetts. Retrieved19 February 2011. "This understanding of socialism was held not just by revolutionary Marxist socialists but also by evolutionary socialists, Christian socialists, and even anarchists. At that time, there was also wide agreement about the basic institutions of the future socialist system: public ownership instead of private ownership of the means of production, economic planning instead of market forces, production for use instead of for profit."
  23. Weisskopf, Thomas E. (1992). "Toward a Socialism for the Future, in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past". Review of Radical Political Economics. 24 (3–4): 1–28. doi:10.1177/048661349202400302. "Socialism has historically been committed to the improvement of people's material standards of living. Indeed, in earlier days many socialists saw the promotion of improving material living standards as the primary basis for socialism's claim to superiority over capitalism, for socialism was to overcome the irrationality and inefficiency seen as endemic to a capitalist system of economic organization." (p. 2).
  24. Prychito, David L. (2002). Markets, Planning, and Democracy: Essays After the Collapse of Communism. Edward Elgar Publishing. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84064-519-4. Socialism is a system based upon de facto public or social ownership of the means of production, the abolition of a hierarchical division of labor in the enterprise, a consciously organized social division of labor. Under socialism, money, competitive pricing, and profit-loss accounting would be destroyed.
  25. Von Mises, Ludwig (1990). Economic calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth(PDF). Mises Institute. Retrieved11 November 2019.
  26. Hayek, Friedrich (1935). "The Nature and History of the Problem"; "The Present State of the Debate". Collectivist Economic Planning. pp. 1–40, 201–243.
  27. Durlauf, Steven N.; Blume, Lawrence E., ed. (1987). The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 2 February 2013. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1570.
  28. Biddle, Jeff; Samuels, Warren; Davis, John (2006). A Companion to the History of Economic Thought, Wiley-Blackwell. p. 319. "What became known as the socialist calculation debate started when von Mises (1935 [1920]) launched a critique of socialism".
  29. Levy, David M.; Peart, Sandra J. (2008). "socialist calculation debate". The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. Second Edition. Palgrave Macmillan.
  30. Marangos, John (Fall 2004). "Social Dividend versus Basic Income Guarantee in Market Socialism". International Journal of Political Economy. Taylor & Francis. 34 (3): 20–40. JSTOR 40470892.
  31. O'Hara, Phillip (2000). Encyclopedia of Political Economy, Volume 2. Routledge. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-24187-8. Market socialism is the general designation for a number of models of economic systems. On the one hand, the market mechanism is utilized to distribute economic output, to organize production and to allocate factor inputs. On the other hand, the economic surplus accrues to society at large rather than to a class of private (capitalist) owners, through some form of collective, public or social ownership of capital.
  32. Pierson, Christopher (1995). Socialism After Communism: The New Market Socialism. Pennsylvania State Univ Press. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-271-01478-4. At the heart of the market socialist model is the abolition of the large-scale private ownership of capital and its replacement by some form of 'social ownership'. Even the most conservative accounts of market socialism insist that this abolition of large-scale holdings of private capital is essential. This requirement is fully consistent with the market socialists' general claim that the vices of market capitalism lie not with the institutions of the market but with (the consequences of) the private ownership of capital ... .
  33. McNally, David (1993). Against the Market: Political Economy, Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique. Verso. ISBN 978-0-8609-1606-2.
  34. Kinna, Ruth (2012). "Introduction". In Kinna, Rith; Pinta, Saku; Prichard, Alex (eds.). Libertarian Socialism: Politics in Black and Red. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–16. ISBN 978-0-230-28037-3.
  35. Newman, Michael (2005). Socialism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. p. 2. "In fact, socialism has been both centralist and local; organized from above and built from below; visionary and pragmatic; revolutionary and reformist; anti-state and statist; internationalist and nationalist; harnessed to political parties and shunning them; an outgrowth of trade unionism and independent of it; a feature of rich industrialized countries and poor peasant-based communities".
  36. Ely, Richard T. (1883). French and German Socialism in Modern Times. New York: Harper and Brothers. pp. 204—205. "Social democrats forms the extreme wing of the socialists ... inclined to lay so much stress on equality of enjoyment, regardless of the value of one's labor, that they might, perhaps, more properly be called communists. ... They have two distinguishing characteristics. The vast majority of them are laborers, and, as a rule, they expect the violent overthrow of existing institutions by revolution to precede the introduction of the socialistic state. I would not, by any means, say that they are all revolutionists, but the most of them undoubtedly are. ... The most general demands of the social democrats are the following: The state should exist exclusively for the laborers; land and capital must become collective property, and production be carried on unitedly. Private competition, in the ordinary sense of the term, is to cease."
  37. Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander; Henkes, Christian; Egle, Christoph (2008). Social Democracy in Power: The Capacity to Reform. Routledge Research in Comparative Politics. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43820-9.
  38. Heywood, Andrew (2012). Political Ideologies: An Introduction (5th ed.). Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-230-36725-8. Social democracy is an ideological stance that supports a broad balance between market capitalism, on the one hand, and state intervention, on the other hand. Being based on a compromise between the market and the state, social democracy lacks a systematic underlying theory and is, arguably, inherently vague. It is nevertheless associated with the following views: (1) capitalism is the only reliable means of generating wealth, but it is a morally defective means of distributing wealth because of its tendency towards poverty and inequality; (2) the defects of the capitalist system can be rectified through economic and social intervention, the state being the custodian of the public interest ... .
  39. Roemer, John E. (1994). A Future for Socialism. "The long term and the short term". Harvard University Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 978-0-6743-3946-0.
  40. Berman, Sheri (1998). The Social Democratic Moment. Harvard University Press. p. 57. "Over the long term, however, democratizing Sweden's political system was seen to be important not merely as a means but also as an end in itself. Achieving democracy was crucial not only because it would increase the power of the SAP in the Swedish political system but also because it was the form socialism would take once it arrived. Political, economic, and social equality went hand in hand, according to the SAP, and were all equally important characteristics of the future socialist society." ISBN 978-0-6744-4261-0.
  41. Busky, Donald F. (20 July 2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-0-2759-6886-1.
  42. Bailey, David J. (2009). The Political Economy of European Social Democracy: A Critical Realist Approach. Routledge. p. 77. "... Giorgio Napolitano launched a medium-term programme, 'which tended to justify the governmental deflationary policies, and asked for the understanding of the workers, since any economic recovery would be linked with the long-term goal of an advance towards democratic socialism'". ISBN 978-0-4156-0425-3.
  43. Lamb, Peter (2015). Historical Dictionary of Socialism (3rd ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 415. ISBN 978-1-4422-5826-6.
  44. Badie, Bertrand; Berg-Schlosser, Dirk; Morlino, Leonardo, eds. (2011). "Social Democracy". International Encyclopedia of Political Science. 8. SAGE Publications. p. 2423. "Social democracy refers to a political tendency resting on three fundamental features: (1) democracy (e.g., equal rights to vote and form parties), (2) an economy partly regulated by the state (e.g., through Keynesianism), and (3) a welfare state offering social support to those in need (e.g., equal rights to education, health service, employment and pensions). ISBN 978-1-4129-5963-6.
  45. Smith, J. W. (2005). Economic Democracy: The Political Struggle for the 21st century. Radford: Institute for Economic Democracy Press. ISBN 1-933567-01-5.
  46. Gasper, Phillip (October 2005). The Communist Manifesto: A Road Map to History's Most Important Political Document. Haymarket Books. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-931859-25-7. As the nineteenth century progressed, "socialist" came to signify not only concern with the social question, but opposition to capitalism and support for some form of social ownership.
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  55. Ellman, Michael (2007). "The Rise and Fall of Socialist Planning". In Estrin, Saul; Kołodko, Grzegorz W.; Uvalić, Milica (eds.).Transition and Beyond: Essays in Honour of Mario Nuti. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-230-54697-4. In the USSR in the late 1980s the system was normally referred to as the 'administrative-command' economy. What was fundamental to this system was not the plan but the role of administrative hierarchies at all levels of decision making; the absence of control over decision making by the population ... .
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  57. Heilbroner, Robert L. (Winter 1991). "From Sweden to Socialism: A Small Symposium on Big Questions". Dissident. Barkan, Joanne; Brand, Horst; Cohen, Mitchell; Coser, Lewis; Denitch, Bogdan; Fehèr, Ferenc; Heller, Agnès; Horvat, Branko; Tyler, Gus. pp. 96–110. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  58. Kendall, Diana (2011). Sociology in Our Time: The Essentials. Cengage Learning. pp. 125–127. ISBN 9781111305505. "Sweden, Great Britain, and France have mixed economies, sometimes referred to as democratic socialism—an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production, governmental distribution of some essential goods and services, and free elections. For example, government ownership in Sweden is limited primarily to railroads, mineral resources, a public bank, and liquor and tobacco operations."
  59. Li, He (2015). Political Thought and China's Transformation: Ideas Shaping Reform in Post-Mao China. Springer. pp. 60–69. ISBN 9781137427816. "The scholars in camp of democratic socialism believe that China should draw on the Sweden experience, which is suitable not only for the West but also for China. In the post-Mao China, the Chinese intellectuals are confronted with a variety of models. The liberals favor the American model and share the view that the Soviet model has become archaic and should be totally abandoned. Meanwhile, democratic socialism in Sweden provided an alternative model. Its sustained economic development and extensive welfare programs fascinated many. Numerous scholars within the democratic socialist camp argue that China should model itself politically and economically on Sweden, which is viewed as more genuinely socialist than China. There is a growing consensus among them that in the Nordic countries the welfare state has been extraordinarily successful in eliminating poverty."
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  68. Steele, David (1992). From Marx to Mises: Post-Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court Publishing Company. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-87548-449-5. One widespread distinction was that socialism socialised production only while communism socialised production and consumption.
  69. Steele, David (1992). From Marx to Mises: Post-Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court Publishing Company. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-0-87548-449-5. By 1888, the term 'socialism' was in general use among Marxists, who had dropped 'communism', now considered an old fashioned term meaning the same as 'socialism'. ... At the turn of the century, Marxists called themselves socialists. ... The definition of socialism and communism as successive stages was introduced into Marxist theory by Lenin in 1917. ... the new distinction was helpful to Lenin in defending his party against the traditional Marxist criticism that Russia was too backward for a socialist revolution.
  70. Busky, Donald F. (2000). Democratic Socialism: A Global Survey. Praeger. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-275-96886-1. In a modern sense of the word, communism refers to the ideology of Marxism-Leninism.
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    Socialism
Socialism Language Watch Edit For other uses see Socialism disambiguation Socialism is a political social and economic philosophy encompassing a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership 1 2 3 of the means of production 4 5 6 7 and democratic control such as workers self management of enterprises 8 9 It includes the political theories and movements associated with such systems 10 Social ownership can be public collective cooperative or of equity 11 While no single definition encapsulates the many types of socialism 12 social ownership is the one common element 1 13 14 Socialisms vary based on the role of markets and planning in resource allocation on the structure of management in organizations and from below or from above approaches with some socialists favouring a party state or technocratic driven approach Socialists disagree on whether government particularly existing government is the correct vehicle for change 8 15 Socialist systems are divided into non market and market forms 16 Non market socialism substitutes factor markets and money with integrated economic planning and engineering or technical criteria based on calculation performed in kind thereby producing a different economic mechanism that functions according to different economic laws and dynamics than those of capitalism 17 18 19 20 A non market socialist system seeks to eliminate the perceived inefficiencies irrationalities and unpredictability and crises that socialists traditionally associate with capital accumulation and the profit system in capitalism 21 22 23 24 The socialist calculation debate originated by the economic calculation problem 25 26 concerns the feasibility and methods of resource allocation for a planned socialist system 27 28 29 By contrast market socialism retains the use of monetary prices factor markets and in some cases the profit motive with respect to the operation of socially owned enterprises and the allocation of capital goods between them Profits generated by these firms would be controlled directly by the workforce of each firm or accrue to society at large in the form of a social dividend 30 31 32 Anarchism and libertarian socialism oppose the use of the state as a means to establish socialism favouring decentralisation above all whether to establish non market socialism or market socialism 33 34 Socialist politics has been both internationalist and nationalist in orientation organised through political parties and opposed to party politics at times overlapping with trade unions and at other times independent and critical of them and present in both industrialised and developing nations 35 Social democracy originated within the socialist movement 36 supporting economic and social interventions to promote social justice 37 38 While retaining socialism as a long term goal 39 40 41 42 43 since the post war period it has come to embrace a Keynesian mixed economy within a predominantly developed capitalist market economy and liberal democratic polity that expands state intervention to include income redistribution regulation and a welfare state 44 Economic democracy proposes a sort of market socialism with more democratic control of companies currencies investments and natural resources 45 The socialist political movement includes a set of political philosophies that originated in the revolutionary movements of the mid to late 18th century and out of concern for the social problems that were associated with capitalism 12 By the late 19th century after the work of Karl Marx and his collaborator Friedrich Engels socialism had come to signify opposition to capitalism and advocacy for a post capitalist system based on some form of social ownership of the means of production 46 47 By the 1920s communism and social democracy had become the two dominant political tendencies within the international socialist movement 48 with socialism itself becoming the most influential secular movement of the 20th century 49 Socialist parties and ideas remain a political force with varying degrees of power and influence on all continents heading national governments in many countries around the world Today many socialists have also adopted the causes of other social movements such as feminism environmentalism and progressivism 50 While the emergence of the Soviet Union as the world s first nominally socialist state led to socialism s widespread association with the Soviet economic model some economists like Richard D Wolff and intellectuals like Noam Chomsky posit that in practice the model functioned as a form of state capitalism 51 52 53 or a non planned administrative or command economy 54 55 Several academics political commentators and scholars have distinguished between authoritarian socialist and democratic socialist states with the first representing the Eastern Bloc and the latter representing Western Bloc countries which have been democratically governed by socialist parties such as Britain France Sweden and Western social democracies in general among others 56 57 58 59 Contents 1 Etymology 2 History 2 1 Early socialism 2 1 1 Paris Commune 2 2 First International 2 3 Second International 2 4 Early 20th century 2 4 1 Russian Revolution 2 4 2 Third International and the revolutionary wave 2 4 3 4th World Congress of the Communist International 2 4 4 The Second International and the Two and a Half International 2 5 From the Great Depression to the World War 2 5 1 Spanish Civil War 2 6 Mid 20th century 2 6 1 Post World War II 2 6 2 Nordic countries 2 6 3 Soviet Union and Eastern Europe 2 6 4 Asia Africa and Latin America 2 6 5 New Left 2 6 6 Protests of 1968 2 7 Late 20th century 2 8 Early 21st century 3 Social and political theory 3 1 Criticism of capitalism 3 2 Marxism 3 3 Role of the state 3 4 Utopian versus scientific 3 5 Reform versus revolution 4 Economics 4 1 Planned economy 4 2 Self managed economy 4 3 State directed economy 4 4 Market socialism 5 Politics 5 1 Anarchism 5 2 Democratic socialism and social democracy 5 3 Ethical and liberal socialism 5 4 Leninism and precedents 5 5 Libertarian socialism 5 6 Religious socialism 5 7 Social movements 5 8 Syndicalism 6 Criticism 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Further reading 11 External linksEtymology EditFor Andrew Vincent t he word socialism finds its root in the Latin sociare which means to combine or to share The related more technical term in Roman and then medieval law was societas This latter word could mean companionship and fellowship as well as the more legalistic idea of a consensual contract between freemen 60 Utopian socialist pamphlet of Rudolf Sutermeister Initial use of socialism was claimed by Pierre Leroux who alleged he first used the term in the Parisian journal Le Globe in 1832 61 62 Leroux was a follower of Henri de Saint Simon one of the founders of what would later be labelled utopian socialism Socialism contrasted with the liberal doctrine of individualism that emphasized the moral worth of the individual whilst stressing that people act or should act as if they are in isolation from one another The original utopian socialists condemned this doctrine of individualism for failing to address social concerns during the Industrial Revolution including poverty oppression and vast wealth inequality They viewed their society as harming community life by basing society on competition They presented socialism as an alternative to liberal individualism based on the shared ownership of resources 63 Saint Simon proposed economic planning scientific administration and the application of scientific understanding to the organisation of society By contrast Robert Owen proposed to organise production and ownership via cooperatives 63 64 Socialism is also attributed in France to Marie Roch Louis Reybaud while in Britain it is associated to Owen who became one of the fathers of the cooperative movement 65 66 The definition and usage of socialism settled by the 1860s replacing associationist co operative and mutualist that had been used as synonyms while communism fell out of use during this period 67 An early distinction between communism and socialism was that the latter aimed to only socialise production while the former aimed to socialise both production and consumption in the form of free access to final goods 68 By 1888 Marxists employed socialism in place of communism as the latter had come to be considered an old fashioned synonym for socialism It was not until after the Bolshevik Revolution that socialism was appropriated by Vladimir Lenin to mean a stage between capitalism and communism He used it to defend the Bolshevik program from Marxist criticism that Russia s productive forces were not sufficiently developed for communism 69 The distinction between communism and socialism became salient in 1918 after the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party renamed itself to the All Russian Communist Party interpreting communism specifically to mean socialists who supported the politics and theories of Bolshevism Leninism and later that of Marxism Leninism 70 although communist parties continued to describe themselves as socialists dedicated to socialism 71 According to The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx Marx used many terms to refer to a post capitalist society positive humanism socialism Communism realm of free individuality free association of producers etc He used these terms completely interchangeably The notion that socialism and Communism are distinct historical stages is alien to his work and only entered the lexicon of Marxism after his death 72 In Christian Europe communists were believed to have adopted atheism In Protestant England communism was too close to the Roman Catholic communion rite hence socialist was the preferred term 73 Engels wrote that in 1848 when The Communist Manifesto was published socialism was respectable in Europe while communism was not The Owenites in England and the Fourierists in France were considered respectable socialists while working class movements that proclaimed the necessity of total social change denoted themselves communists 74 This branch of socialism produced the communist work of Etienne Cabet in France and Wilhelm Weitling in Germany 75 British moral philosopher John Stuart Mill discussed a form of economic socialism within a liberal context that would later be known as liberal socialism In later editions of his Principles of Political Economy 1848 Mill posited that as far as economic theory was concerned there is nothing in principle in economic theory that precludes an economic order based on socialist policies 76 77 and promoted substituting capitalist businesses with worker cooperatives 78 While democrats looked to the Revolutions of 1848 as a democratic revolution which in the long run ensured liberty equality and fraternity Marxists denounced it as a betrayal of working class ideals by a bourgeoisie indifferent to the proletariat 79 History EditMain article History of socialism See also History of anarchism and History of communism Early socialism Edit Main article Revolutions of 1848 See also Classical economics Pre Marxist communism Pre Marx socialists Political economy and Ricardian socialism Charles Fourier influential early French socialist thinker Socialist models and ideas espousing common or public ownership have existed since antiquity The economy of the 3rd century BCE Mauryan Empire of India an absolute monarchy has been described by some scholars as a socialized monarchy and a sort of state socialism due to nationalisation of industries 80 81 Other scholars have suggested that elements of socialist thought were present in the politics of classical Greek philosophers Plato 82 and Aristotle 83 Mazdak the Younger died c 524 or 528 CE a Persian communal proto socialist 84 instituted communal possessions and advocated the public good Abu Dharr al Ghifari a Companion of Muhammad is credited by multiple authors as a principal antecedent of Islamic socialism 85 86 87 88 89 The teachings of Jesus are frequently described as socialist especially by Christian socialists 90 Acts 4 35 records that in the early church in Jerusalem n o one claimed that any of their possessions was their own although the pattern soon disappears from church history except within monasticism Christian socialism was one of the founding threads of the British Labour Party and is claimed to begin with the uprising of Wat Tyler and John Ball in the 14th century CE 91 After the French Revolution activists and theorists such as Francois Noel Babeuf Etienne Gabriel Morelly Philippe Buonarroti and Auguste Blanqui influenced the early French labour and socialist movements 92 In Britain Thomas Paine proposed a detailed plan to tax property owners to pay for the needs of the poor in Agrarian Justice 93 while Charles Hall wrote The Effects of Civilization on the People in European States denouncing capitalism s effects on the poor of his time 94 This work influenced the utopian schemes of Thomas Spence 95 The first self conscious socialist movements developed in the 1820s and 1830s Groups such as the Fourierists Owenites and Saint Simonians provided a series of analyses and interpretations of society Especially the Owenites overlapped with other working class movements such as the Chartists in the United Kingdom 96 The Chartists gathered significant numbers around the People s Charter of 1838 which sought democratic reforms focused on the extension of suffrage to all male adults Leaders in the movement called for a more equitable distribution of income and better living conditions for the working classes The first trade unions and consumer cooperative societies followed the Chartist movement 97 Pierre Joseph Proudhon proposed his philosophy of mutualism in which everyone had an equal claim either alone or as part of a small cooperative to possess and use land and other resources as needed to make a living 98 Other currents inspired Christian socialism often in Britain and then usually coming out of left liberal politics and a romantic anti industrialism 92 which produced theorists such as Edward Bellamy Charles Kingsley and Frederick Denison Maurice 99 The first advocates of socialism favoured social levelling in order to create a meritocratic or technocratic society based on individual talent 100 Henri de Saint Simon was fascinated by the potential of science and technology and advocated a socialist society that would eliminate the disorderly aspects of capitalism based on equal opportunities 101 unreliable source He sought a society in which each person was ranked according to his or her capacities and rewarded according to his or her work 100 His key focus was on administrative efficiency and industrialism and a belief that science was essential to progress 102 This was accompanied by a desire for a rationally organised economy based on planning and geared towards large scale scientific and material progress 100 Other early socialist thinkers such as Charles Hall and Thomas Hodgkin based their ideas on David Ricardo s economic theories They reasoned that the equilibrium value of commodities approximated prices charged by the producer when those commodities were in elastic supply and that these producer prices corresponded to the embodied labour the cost of the labour essentially the wages paid that was required to produce the commodities The Ricardian socialists viewed profit interest and rent as deductions from this exchange value citation needed West European social critics including Louis Blanc Charles Fourier Charles Hall Robert Owen Pierre Joseph Proudhon and Saint Simon were the first modern socialists who criticised the poverty and inequality of the Industrial Revolution They advocated reform Owen advocating the transformation of society to small communities without private property Owen s contribution to modern socialism was his claim that individual actions and characteristics were largely determined by their social environment 102 On the other hand Fourier advocated Phalansteres communities that respected individual desires including sexual preferences affinities and creativity and saw that work has to be made enjoyable for people 103 Owen and Fourier s ideas were practiced in intentional communities around Europe and North America in the mid 19th century Paris Commune Edit Main article Paris Commune The celebration of the election of the Commune on 28 March 1871 the Paris Commune was a major early implementation of socialist ideas The Paris Commune was a government that ruled Paris from 18 March formally from 28 March to 28 May 1871 The Commune was the result of an uprising in Paris after France was defeated in the Franco Prussian War The Commune elections were held on 26 March They elected a Commune council of 92 members one member for each 20 000 residents 104 Because the Commune was able to meet on fewer than 60 days in total only a few decrees were actually implemented These included the separation of church and state the remission of rents owed for the period of the siege during which payment had been suspended the abolition of night work in the hundreds of Paris bakeries the granting of pensions to the unmarried companions and children of National Guards killed on active service and the free return of all workmen s tools and household items valued up to 20 francs that had been pledged during the siege 105 First International Edit Main article International Workingmen s Association Mikhail Bakunin speaking to members of the International Workingmen s Association at the Basel Congress in 1869 In 1864 the First International was founded in London It united diverse revolutionary currents including socialists such as the French followers of Proudhon 106 Blanquists Philadelphes English trade unionists and social democrats In 1865 and 1866 it held a preliminary conference and had its first congress in Geneva respectively Due to their wide variety of philosophies conflict immediately erupted The first objections to Marx came from the mutualists who opposed state socialism Shortly after Mikhail Bakunin and his followers joined in 1868 the First International became polarised into camps headed by Marx and Bakunin 107 The clearest differences between the groups emerged over their proposed strategies for achieving their visions The First International became the first major international forum for the promulgation of socialist ideas Bakunin s followers were called collectivists and sought to collectivise ownership of the means of production while retaining payment proportional to the amount and kind of labour of each individual Like Proudhonists they asserted the right of each individual to the product of his labour and to be remunerated for his particular contribution to production By contrast anarcho communists sought collective ownership of both the means and the products of labour As Errico Malatesta put it instead of running the risk of making a confusion in trying to distinguish what you and I each do let us all work and put everything in common In this way each will give to society all that his strength permits until enough is produced for every one and each will take all that he needs limiting his needs only in those things of which there is not yet plenty for every one 108 Anarcho communism as a coherent economic political philosophy was first formulated in the Italian section of the First International by Malatesta Carlo Cafiero Emilio Covelli Andrea Costa and other ex Mazzinian republicans 109 Out of respect for Bakunin they did not make their differences with collectivist anarchism explicit until after his death 110 Syndicalism emerged in France inspired in part by Proudhon and later by Pelloutier and Georges Sorel 111 It developed at the end of the 19th century out of the French trade union movement syndicat is the French word for trade union It was a significant force in Italy and Spain in the early 20th century until it was crushed by the fascist regimes in those countries In the United States syndicalism appeared in the guise of the Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies founded in 1905 111 Syndicalism is an economic system that organises industries into confederations syndicates 112 and the economy is managed by negotiation between specialists and worker representatives of each field comprising multiple non competitive categorised units 113 Syndicalism is a form of communism and economic corporatism but also refers to the political movement and tactics used to bring about this type of system An influential anarchist movement based on syndicalist ideas is anarcho syndicalism 114 The International Workers Association is an international anarcho syndicalist federation of various labour unions The Fabian Society is a British socialist organisation established to advance socialism via gradualist and reformist means 115 The society laid many foundations of the Labour Party and subsequently affected the policies of states emerging from the decolonisation of the British Empire most notably India and Singapore Originally the Fabian Society was committed to the establishment of a socialist economy alongside a commitment to British imperialism as a progressive and modernising force 116 Later the society functioned primarily as a think tank and is one of fifteen socialist societies affiliated with the Labour Party Similar societies exist in Australia the Australian Fabian Society in Canada the Douglas Coldwell Foundation and the now disbanded League for Social Reconstruction and in New Zealand Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers control of industry through the medium of trade related guilds in an implied contractual relationship with the public 117 It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential in the first quarter of the 20th century Inspired by medieval guilds theorists such as Samuel George Hobson and G D H Cole advocated the public ownership of industries and their workforces organisation into guilds each of which under the democratic control of its trade union Guild socialists were less inclined than Fabians to invest power in a state 111 At some point like the American Knights of Labor guild socialism wanted to abolish the wage system 118 Second International Edit Main article Second International See also Internationalist defencist schism Proletarian internationalism Reformist revolutionary dispute Revolutionary defeatism Social chauvinism and Social patriotism As the ideas of Marx and Engels gained acceptance particularly in central Europe socialists sought to unite in an international organisation In 1889 the centennial of the French Revolution the Second International was founded with 384 delegates from twenty countries representing about 300 labour and socialist organisations 119 Engels was elected honorary president at the third congress in 1893 Anarchists were banned mainly due to pressure from Marxists 120 It has been argued that at some point the Second International turned into a battleground over the issue of libertarian versus authoritarian socialism Not only did they effectively present themselves as champions of minority rights they also provoked the German Marxists into demonstrating a dictatorial intolerance which was a factor in preventing the British labour movement from following the Marxist direction indicated by such leaders as H M Hyndman 120 Reformism arose as an alternative to revolution Eduard Bernstein was a leading social democrat in Germany who proposed the concept of evolutionary socialism Revolutionary socialists quickly targeted reformism Rosa Luxemburg condemned Bernstein s Evolutionary Socialism in her 1900 essay Social Reform or Revolution Revolutionary socialism encompasses multiple social and political movements that may define revolution differently The Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD became the largest and most powerful socialist party in Europe despite working illegally until the anti socialist laws were dropped in 1890 In the 1893 elections it gained 1 787 000 votes a quarter of the total votes cast according to Engels In 1895 the year of his death Engels emphasised The Communist Manifesto s emphasis on winning as a first step the battle of democracy 121 Early 20th century Edit Main articles Biennio Rosso German Revolution of 1918 1919 Russian Revolution Spanish Revolution of 1936 and World communism Antonio Gramsci member of the Italian Socialist Party and later leader and theorist of the Communist Party of Italy In Argentina the Socialist Party of Argentina was established in the 1890s led by Juan B Justo and Nicolas Repetto among others It was the first mass party in the country and in Latin America The party affiliated itself with the Second International 122 Between 1924 and 1940 it was a member of the Labour and Socialist International 123 In 1904 Australians elected Chris Watson as the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister becoming the first democratically elected socialist 124 In 1909 the first Kibbutz was established in Palestine 125 by Russian Jewish Immigrants The Kibbutz Movement expanded through the 20th century following a doctrine of Zionist socialism 126 The British Labour Party first won seats in the House of Commons in 1902 By 1917 the patriotism of World War I changed into political radicalism in Australia most of Europe and the United States Other socialist parties from around the world who were beginning to gain importance in their national politics in the early 20th century included the Italian Socialist Party the French Section of the Workers International the Spanish Socialist Workers Party the Swedish Social Democratic Party the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party and the Socialist Party in Argentina the Socialist Workers Party in Chile and the Socialist Party of America in the United States Russian Revolution Edit Main articles February Revolution and October Revolution In February 1917 a revolution occurred in Russia Workers soldiers and peasants established soviets councils the monarchy fell and a provisional government convened pending the election of a constituent assembly In April of that year Vladimir Lenin leader of the Bolshevik faction of socialists in Russia and known for his profound and controversial expansions of Marxism was allowed to cross Germany to return from exile in Switzerland Lenin had published essays on his analysis of imperialism the monopoly and globalisation phase of capitalism as well as analyses on social conditions He observed that as capitalism had further developed in Europe and America the workers remained unable to gain class consciousness so long as they were too busy working to pay their expenses He therefore proposed that the social revolution would require the leadership of a vanguard party of class conscious revolutionaries from the educated and politically active part of the population 127 Upon arriving in Petrograd Lenin declared that the revolution in Russia had only begun and that the next step was for the workers soviets to take full authority He issued a thesis outlining the Bolshevik programme including rejection of any legitimacy in the provisional government and advocacy for state power to be administered through the soviets The Bolsheviks became the most influential force On 7 November the capitol of the provisional government was stormed by Bolshevik Red Guards in what later was officially known in the Soviet Union as the Great October Socialist Revolution The provisional government ended and the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic the world s first constitutionally socialist state was established On 25 January 1918 Lenin declared Long live the world socialist revolution at the Petrograd Soviet 128 and proposed an immediate armistice on all fronts and transferred the land of the landed proprietors the crown and the monasteries to the peasant committees without compensation 129 The day after assuming executive power on 25 January Lenin wrote Draft Regulations on Workers Control which granted workers control of businesses with more than five workers and office employees and access to all books documents and stocks and whose decisions were to be binding upon the owners of the enterprises 130 Governing through the elected soviets and in alliance with the peasant based Left Socialist Revolutionaries the Bolshevik government began nationalising banks and industry and disavowed the national debts of the deposed Romanov royal regime It sued for peace withdrawing from World War I and convoked a Constituent Assembly in which the peasant Socialist Revolutionary Party SR won a majority 131 The Constituent Assembly elected SR leader Victor Chernov President of a Russian republic but rejected the Bolshevik proposal that it endorse the Soviet decrees on land peace and workers control and acknowledge the power of the Soviets of Workers Soldiers and Peasants Deputies The next day the Bolsheviks declared that the assembly was elected on outdated party lists 132 and the All Russian Central Executive Committee of the Soviets dissolved it 133 134 In March 1919 world communist parties formed Comintern also known as the Third International at a meeting in Moscow 135 In the period before World War II Soviet Union experienced two major famines undue weight discuss The First famine occurred in 1921 1922 with death estimates varying between 1 and 10 million dead It was caused by a combination of factors severe drought and failed harvests continuous war since 1914 forced collectivisation of farms and requisition of grain and seed from peasants preventing the sowing of crops by the Soviet authorities and an economic blockade of the Soviet Union by the Allies The experience with the famine led Lenin to replace war communism with the New Economic Policy NEP in 1921 to alleviate the extreme shortages 136 Under the NEP private ownership was allowed for small and medium peasant enterprises While industry remained largely state controlled Lenin acknowledged that the NEP was a necessary capitalist measure for a country unready for socialism citation needed A second major famine occurred in 1932 1933 Historian Mark B Tauger of West Virginia University suggests that the famine was caused by a combination of factors specifically low harvest due to natural disasters combined with increased demand for food caused by the industrialization and urbanization and grain exports by the Soviet Union at the same time 137 undue weight discuss The Soviet economy was the modern world s first centrally planned economy It adopted state ownership of industry managed through Gosplan the State Planning Commission Gosbank the State Bank and the Gossnab State Commission for Materials and Equipment Supply Economic planning was conducted through serial Five Year Plans The emphasis was on development of heavy industry at expense of agriculture The nation became one of the world s top manufacturers of basic and heavy industrial products while deemphasizing light industrial production and consumer durables citation needed Rapid industrialization served two purposes to bring largely agrarian societies into the modern age and to establish a politically loyal working class Modernization brought about a general increase in the standard of living in the 1950s and 60 s 138 Third International and the revolutionary wave Edit Main articles Communist International and Revolutions of 1917 1923 Rosa Luxemburg prominent Marxist revolutionary leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany and martyr and leader of the German Spartacist uprising in 1919 The Bolshevik Russian Revolution of January 1918 launched Communist parties in many countries and a wave of revolutions until the mid 1920s Few communists doubted that the Russian experience depended on successful working class socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries 139 140 In 1919 Lenin and Leon Trotsky organised the world s Communist parties into an international association of workers the Communist International Comintern also called the Third International The Russian Revolution influenced uprisings in other countries The German Revolution of 1918 1919 replaced Germany s imperial government with a republic The revolution lasted from November 1918 until the establishment of the Weimar Republic in August 1919 It included an episode known as the Bavarian Soviet Republic 141 142 143 144 and the Spartacist uprising A short lived Hungarian Soviet Republic was set up in Hungary March 21 to August 1 1919 It was led by Bela Kun 145 146 147 page needed It instituted a Red Terror 148 page needed After the regime was put down an even more brutal White Terror followed Kun managed to escape to the Soviet Union where he co led murder of tens of thousands of White Russians 149 150 He was killed in the 1930 Soviet purges 151 152 In Italy the events known as the Biennio Rosso 153 154 were characterised by mass strikes worker demonstrations and self management experiments through land and factory occupations In Turin and Milan workers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place led by anarcho syndicalists organised around the Unione Sindacale Italiana 155 There was a short lived Persian Socialist Soviet Republic in 1920 21 Patagonia Rebelde was a syndicalist led revolution in Argentina lasting for a year and a half from in 1920 21 The anarchist led Guangzhou City Commune in China lasted six years from 1921 In 1924 the Mongolian People s Republic was established and was ruled by the Mongolian People s Party The Shinmin Prefecture in Manchuria lasted two years from 1929 Many of these revolutions initiated societies and economic models that have been described as socialist 156 4th World Congress of the Communist International Edit Main article 4th World Congress of the Communist International In 1922 the fourth congress of the Communist International took up the policy of the united front It urged communists to work with rank and file social democrats while remaining critical of their leaders They criticised those leaders for betraying the working class by supporting the capitalists war efforts The social democrats pointed to the dislocation caused by revolution and later the growing authoritarianism of the communist parties The Labour Party rejected the Communist Party of Great Britain s application to affiliate to them in 1920 On seeing the Soviet State s growing coercive power in 1923 a dying Lenin said Russia had reverted to a bourgeois tsarist machine barely varnished with socialism 157 After Lenin s death in January 1924 the Communist Party of the Soviet Union then increasingly under the control of Joseph Stalin rejected the theory that socialism could not be built solely in the Soviet Union in favour of the concept of socialism in one country Despite the marginalised Left Opposition s demand for the restoration of Soviet democracy disputed discuss Stalin developed a bureaucratic authoritarian government that was condemned by democratic socialists and anarchists for undermining the Revolution s ideals 158 159 The Russian Revolution and its aftermath motivated national Communist parties elsewhere that gained political and social influence in France the United States Italy China Mexico the Brazil Chile and Indonesia Left wing groups which did not agree to the centralisation and abandonment of the soviets by the Bolshevik Party see anti Stalinist left led left wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks Such groups included Socialist Revolutionaries 160 Left Socialist Revolutionaries Mensheviks and anarchists 161 Within this left wing discontent the most large scale events were the Kronstadt rebellion 162 163 164 and the anarchist led Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine uprising which controlled an area known as the Free Territory 165 166 167 The Second International and the Two and a Half International Edit Main article Labour and Socialist International The International Socialist Commission ISC also known as Berne International was formed in February 1919 at a meeting in Bern by parties that wanted to resurrect the Second International 168 Centrist socialist parties which did not want to be a part of the resurrected Second International ISC or Comintern formed the International Working Union of Socialist Parties IWUSP also known as Vienna International Vienna Union or Two and a Half International on 27 February 1921 at a conference in Vienna 169 The ISC and the IWUSP joined to form the Labour and Socialist International LSI in May 1923 at a meeting in Hamburg 170 From the Great Depression to the World War Edit The 1920s and 1930s were marked by an increasing divergence between democratic and reformists socialists mainly affiliated with the Labour and Socialist International and revolutionary socialists mainly affiliated with the Communist International but also by tension within the Communist movement between the dominant Stalinists and dissidents such as Trotsky s followers in the Left Opposition Trotsky s Fourth International was established in France in 1938 when Trotskyists argued that the Comintern or Third International had become irretrievably lost to Stalinism and thus incapable of leading the working class to power 171 In addition the Committee of Independent Revolutionary Socialist Parties later the International Bureau of Revolutionary Socialist Unity often named the London Bureau or 3 International brought together parties such as Britain s Independent Labour Party that rejected both the reformist social democratic model gaining strength in the LSI and the authoritarian model of the Soviet Union citation needed During the late 1930s as fascism rose across Europe democratic socialists and Communists worked more closely together following a popular front policy In June 1934 Leon Blum s socialist French Section of the Workers International signed a pact of united action with the French Communist Party In the elections of May 1936 the Popular Front won a majority of parliamentary seats 378 deputies against 220 and Blum formed a government citation needed In Italy the Comintern advised an alliance between the Italian Communist Party and the Italian Socialist Party but the latter rejected the idea citation needed Spanish Civil War Edit Main article Spanish Civil War FAI militia during the Spanish Revolution in 1936 In the Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 socialists including the democratic socialist Spanish Socialist Workers Party and the Marxist Workers Party of Marxist Unification participated on the Republican side loyal to the left leaning Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic in alliance with anarchists of the communist and syndicalist variety and supported by the socialist Workers General Union 172 The Spanish Revolution of 1936 was a workers social revolution during the war that is often seen as a model of socialism from below 173 174 An anarchist inspired movement of peasants and workers supported by armed militias took control of Barcelona and of large areas of rural Spain where they collectivised the land 175 The Spanish Revolution was a workers social revolution that began with the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organisational principles in some areas for two to three years primarily Catalonia Aragon Andalusia and parts of Levante Much of Spain s economy came under worker control In anarchist strongholds like Catalonia the figure was as high as 75 but lower in areas with heavy Communist Party influence which actively resisted attempts at collectivisation Factories were run through worker committees agrarian areas became collectivised and run as libertarian communes Anarchist historian Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or indirectly in the Spanish Revolution 176 Mid 20th century Edit Post World War II Edit Main articles Cold War and Post war consensus See also Post World War II economic expansion The rise of Nazism and the start of World War II led to the dissolution of the LSI in 1940 After the War the Socialist International was formed in Frankfurt in July 1951 as its successor 177 After World War II social democratic governments introduced social reform and wealth redistribution via welfare and taxation Social democratic parties dominated post war politics in countries such as France Italy Czechoslovakia Belgium and Norway At one point France claimed to be the world s most state controlled capitalist country It nationalised public utilities including Charbonnages de France CDF Electricite de France EDF Gaz de France GDF Air France Banque de France and Regie Nationale des Usines Renault 178 In 1945 the British Labour Party led by Clement Attlee was elected based on a radical socialist programme The Labour government nationalised industries including mines gas coal electricity rail iron steel and the Bank of England British Petroleum was officially nationalised in 1951 179 Anthony Crosland said that in 1956 25 of British industry was nationalised and that public employees including those in nationalised industries constituted a similar proportion of the country s workers 180 The Labour Governments of 1964 1970 and 1974 1979 intervened further 181 It re nationalised British Steel 1967 after the Conservatives had denationalised it and nationalised British Leyland 1976 182 The National Health Service provided taxpayer funded health care to everyone free at the point of service 183 Working class housing was provided in council housing estates and university education became available via a school grant system 184 Nordic countries Edit See also Nordic model Einar Gerhardsen Prime Minister of Norway for the Labour Party During most of the post war era Sweden was governed by the Swedish Social Democratic Party largely in cooperation with trade unions and industry 185 In Sweden the Swedish Social Democratic Party held power from 1936 to 1976 1982 to 1991 1994 to 2006 and 2014 through 2023 most recently in a minority coalition Tage Erlander was the first leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party SSDP He led the government from 1946 to 1969 the longest uninterrupted parliamentary government These governments substantially expanded the welfare state 186 Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme identified as a democratic socialist 187 and was described as a revolutionary reformist 188 The Norwegian Labour Party was established in 1887 and was largely a trade union federation The party did not proclaim a socialist agenda elevating universal suffrage and dissolution of the union with Sweden as its top priorities In 1899 the Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions separated from the Labour Party Around the time of the Russian Revolution the Labour Party moved to the left and joined the Communist International from 1919 through 1923 Thereafter the party still regarded itself as revolutionary but the party s left wing broke away and established the Communist Party of Norway while the Labour Party gradually adopted a reformist line around 1930 In 1935 Johan Nygaardsvold established a coalition that lasted until 1945 189 From 1946 to 1962 the Norwegian Labour Party held an absolute majority in the parliament led by Einar Gerhardsen who remained Prime Minister for seventeen years Although the party abandoned most of its pre war socialist ideas the welfare state was expanded under Gerhardsen to ensure the universal provision of basic human rights and stabilise the economy 190 In the 1945 Norwegian parliamentary election the Communist Party took 12 of the votes but it largely vanished during the Cold War 191 In the 1950s popular socialism emerged in Nordic countries It placed itself between communism and social democracy 192 In the early 1960s the Socialist Left Party challenged the Labour Party from the left 189 Also in the 1960s Gerhardsen established a planning agency and tried to establish a planned economy 190 In the 1970s a more radical socialist party the Worker s Communist Party AKP broke from the Socialist Left Party and had notable influence in student associations and some trade unions The AKP identified with Communist China and Albania rather than the Soviet Union 193 Olof Palme Prime Minister of Sweden for the Swedish Social Democratic Party In countries such as Sweden the Rehn Meidner model 194 allowed capitalists owning productive and efficient firms to retain profits at the expense of the firms workers exacerbating inequality and causing workers to agitate for a share of the profits in the 1970s At that time women working in the state sector began to demand better wages Rudolf Meidner established a study committee that came up with a 1976 proposal to transfer excess profits into worker controlled investment funds with the intention that firms would create jobs and pay higher wages rather than reward company owners and managers 195 Capitalists immediately labeled this proposal as socialism and launched an unprecedented opposition including calling off the class compromise established in the 1938 Saltsjobaden Agreement 196 Social democratic parties are some of the oldest such parties and operate in all Nordic countries Countries or political systems that have long been dominated by social democratic parties are often labelled social democratic 197 198 Those countries fit the social democratic type of high socialism which is described as favouring a high level of decommodification and a low degree of stratification 199 The Nordic model is a form of economic political system common to the Nordic countries Denmark Finland Iceland Norway and Sweden It has three main ingredients namely peaceful institutionalised negotiation between employers and trade unions active predictable and measured macroeconomic policy and universal welfare and free education The welfare system is governmental in Norway and Sweden whereas trade unions play a greater role in Denmark Finland and Iceland 200 201 202 203 204 The Nordic model is often labelled social democratic and contrasted with the conservative continental model and the liberal Anglo American model Major reforms in the Nordic countries are the results of consensus and compromise across the political spectrum Key reforms were implemented under social democratic cabinets in Denmark Norway and Sweden while centre right parties dominated during the implementation of the model in Finland and Iceland Since World War II Nordic countries have largely maintained a social democratic mixed economy characterised by labour force participation gender equality egalitarian and universal benefits redistribution of wealth and expansionary fiscal policy 190 200 205 In Norway the first mandatory social insurances were introduced by conservative cabinets in 1895 Francis Hagerups s cabinet and 1911 Konow s Cabinet During the 1930s the Labour Party adopted the conservatives welfare state project After World War II all political parties agreed that the welfare state should be expanded Universal social security Folketrygden was introduced by the conservative Borten s Cabinet 206 207 Norway s economy is open to the international or European market for most products and services joining the European Union s internal market in 1994 through European Economic Area Some of the mixed economy institutions from the post war period were relaxed by the conservative cabinet of the 1980s and the finance market was deregulated 208 Within the Varieties of Capitalism framework Finland Norway and Sweden are identified as coordinated market economies 209 Soviet Union and Eastern Europe Edit Main article History of the Soviet Union The Soviet era saw competition between the Soviet led Eastern Bloc and the United States led Western Bloc The Soviet system was seen as a rival of and a threat to Western capitalism for most of the 20th century 210 page needed The Eastern Bloc was the group of Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe including the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact 211 212 213 including Poland the German Democratic Republic the Hungary Bulgaria Czechoslovakia Romania Albania and initially Yugoslavia In the Informbiro period from 1948 Yugoslavia under Josip Broz Tito pursued a different more decentralised form of state socialism than the rest of the Eastern Bloc known as Socialist self management The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the Communist government brutally suppressed by Soviet forces and USSR leader Nikita Khrushchev s denunciation of the excesses of Stalin s regime during the Twentieth Communist Party Congress the same year 214 produced disunity within Western European Communist parties 215 216 217 218 leading to the emergence of the New Left see below Over a decade later Czechoslovakia under Alexander Dubcek also attempted to pursue a more democratic model of state socialism under the name Socialism with a human face during the Prague Spring this was also brutally suppressed by the Soviet Union Asia Africa and Latin America Edit Main articles Chinese Communist Revolution Cuban Revolution Decolonization and Third World socialism In the post war years socialism became increasingly influential in many then developing countries Embracing Third World socialism countries in Africa Asia and Latin America often nationalised industries During India s freedom movement and fight for independence many figures in the left wing faction of the Indian National Congress organised themselves as the Congress Socialist Party Their politics and those of the early and intermediate periods of Jayaprakash Narayan s career combined a commitment to the socialist transformation of society with a principled opposition to the one party authoritarianism they perceived in the Stalinist model 219 The Chinese Communist Revolution was the second stage in the Chinese Civil War which ended with the establishment of the People s Republic of China led by the Chinese Communist Party The then Chinese Kuomintang Party in the 1920s incorporated Chinese socialism as part of its ideology 220 221 Between 1958 and 1962 during the Great Leap Forward in the People s Republic of China some 30 million people starved to death 222 and at least 45 million died overall 223 The emergence of this new political entity in the frame of the Cold War was complex and painful Several tentative efforts were made to organise newly independent states in order to establish a common front to limit the United States and the Soviet Union s influence on them This led to the Sino Soviet split The Non Aligned Movement gathered around the figures of Jawaharlal Nehru of India Sukarno of Indonesia Josip Broz Tito of Yugoslavia and Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt After the 1954 Geneva Conference which ended the French war in Vietnam the 1955 Bandung Conference gathered Nasser Nehru Tito Sukarno and Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai 224 As many African countries gained independence during the 1960s some of them rejected capitalism in favour of African socialism as defined by Julius Nyerere of Tanzania Leopold Senghor of Senegal Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Sekou Toure of Guinea 225 The Cuban Revolution 1953 1959 was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro s 26th of July Movement and its allies against the government of Fulgencio Batista Castro s government eventually adopted communism becoming the Communist Party of Cuba in October 1965 226 better source needed In Indonesia in the mid 1960s a coup attempt blamed on the Communist Party of Indonesia PKI was countered by an anti communist purge led by Suharto which mainly targeted the growing influence of the PKI and other leftist groups with significant support from the United States which culminated in the overthrow of Sukarno 227 228 229 230 231 These events resulted not only in the total destruction of the PKI but also the political left in Indonesia and paved the way for a major shift in the balance of power in Southeast Asia towards the West a significant turning point in the global Cold War 232 233 234 New Left Edit Main article New Left The New Left was a term used mainly in the United Kingdom and United States in reference to activists educators and others in the 1960s and 1970s who sought to implement a broad range of reforms on issues such as gay rights abortion gender roles and drugs 235 in contrast to earlier leftist or Marxist movements that had taken a more vanguardist approach to social justice and focused mostly on labour unionisation and questions of social class 236 237 238 The New Left rejected involvement with the labour movement and Marxism s historical theory of class struggle 239 In the United States the New Left was associated with the Hippie movement and anti war college campus protest movements as well as the black liberation movements such as the Black Panther Party 240 While initially formed in opposition to the Old Left Democratic Party groups composing the New Left gradually became central players in the Democratic coalition 235 Protests of 1968 Edit Main article Protests of 1968 The protests of 1968 represented a worldwide escalation of social conflicts predominantly characterised by popular rebellions against military capitalist and bureaucratic elites who responded with an escalation of political repression These protests marked a turning point for the civil rights movement in the United States which produced revolutionary movements like the Black Panther Party The prominent civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr organised the Poor People s Campaign to address issues of economic justice 241 while personally showing sympathy with democratic socialism 242 In reaction to the Tet Offensive protests also sparked a broad movement in opposition to the Vietnam War all over the United States and even into London Paris Berlin and Rome In 1968 the International of Anarchist Federations was founded during a conference held in Carrara by the three existing European federations of France the Italian and the Iberian Anarchist Federation as well as the Bulgarian federation in French exile Mass socialist movements grew not only in the United States but also in most European countries The most spectacular manifestation of this were the May 1968 protests in France in which students linked up with strikes of up to ten million workers and for a few days the movement seemed capable of overthrowing the government citation needed In many other capitalist countries struggles against dictatorships state repression and colonisation were also marked by protests in 1968 such as the Tlatelolco massacre in Mexico City and the escalation of guerrilla warfare against the military dictatorship in Brazil Countries governed by Communist parties saw protests against bureaucratic and military elites too In Eastern Europe widespread protests escalated particularly in the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia In response Soviet Union occupied Czechoslovakia The occupation was denounced by the Italian and French 243 Communist parties and the Communist Party of Finland but defended by the Portuguese Communist Party secretary general Alvaro Cunhal 244 the Communist Party of Luxembourg 243 and conservative factions of the Communist Party of Greece 243 In the Chinese Cultural Revolution a social political youth movement mobilised against bourgeois elements which were seen to be infiltrating the government and society at large aiming to restore capitalism This movement motivated Maoism inspired movements around the world in the context of the Sino Soviet split see Maoism International Influence Late 20th century Edit Main articles Chinese economic reform Dissolution of the Soviet Union Eurocommunism Nicaraguan Revolution and Third Way Salvador Allende President of Chile and member of the Socialist Party of Chile whose presidency and life were ended by a CIA backed military coup 245 In the 1960s a socialist tendency within the Latin American Catholic church appeared and was known as liberation theology 246 247 It motivated the Colombian priest Camilo Torres Restrepo to enter the ELN guerrilla In Chile Salvador Allende a physician and candidate for the Socialist Party of Chile was elected president in 1970 In 1973 his government was ousted by the United States backed military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet which lasted until the late 1980s 248 In Jamaica the democratic socialist 249 Michael Manley served as the fourth Prime Minister of Jamaica from 1972 to 1980 and from 1989 to 1992 According to opinion polls he remains one of Jamaica s most popular Prime Ministers since independence 250 The Nicaraguan Revolution encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front FSLN to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978 1979 the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 251 and the socialist measures which included wide scale agrarian reform 252 253 and educational programs 254 The People s Revolutionary Government was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 in Grenada which was overthrown by armed forces of the United States in 1983 The Salvadoran Civil War 1979 1992 was a conflict between the military led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front FMLN a coalition or umbrella organisation of five socialist guerrilla groups A coup on 15 October 1979 led to the killings of anti coup protesters by the government as well as anti disorder protesters by the guerrillas and is widely seen as the tipping point towards the civil war 255 In 1982 the newly elected French socialist government of Francois Mitterrand nationalised parts of a few key industries including banks and insurance companies 256 Eurocommunism was a trend in the 1970s and 1980s in various Western European Communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant for a Western European country and less aligned to the influence or control of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Outside Western Europe it is sometimes called neocommunism 257 Some Communist parties with strong popular support notably the Italian Communist Party PCI and the Communist Party of Spain PCE adopted Eurocommunism most enthusiastically and the Communist Party of Finland was dominated by Eurocommunists The French Communist Party PCF and many smaller parties strongly opposed Eurocommunism and stayed aligned with the Communist Party of the Soviet Union until the end of the Soviet Union Also emerging from the Communist movement but moving in a more left wing direction in Italy Autonomia Operaia was particularly active from 1976 to 1978 it took an important role in the autonomist movement in the 1970s alongside earlier organisations such as Potere Operaio created after May 1968 and Lotta Continua promoting a radical form of socialism based on working class self activity rather than vanguard parties and state planning 258 259 Until its 1976 Geneva Congress the Socialist International SI had few members outside Europe and no formal involvement with Latin America 260 In the late 1970s and in the 1980s the SI had extensive contacts and discussion with the two powers of the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union about east west relations and arms control and admitted as member parties the Nicaraguan FSLN the left wing Puerto Rican Independence Party as well as former Communist parties such as the Democratic Party of the Left of Italy and the Front for the Liberation of Mozambique FRELIMO The SI aided social democratic parties in re establishing themselves when dictatorship gave way to democracy in Portugal 1974 and Spain 1975 After Mao Zedong s death in 1976 and the arrest of the faction known as the Gang of Four who were blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution Deng Xiaoping took power and led the People s Republic of China to significant economic reforms The Chinese Communist Party CCP loosened governmental control over citizens personal lives and the communes were disbanded in favour of private land leases thus China s transition from a planned economy to a mixed economy named as socialism with Chinese characteristics 261 which maintained state ownership rights over land state or cooperative ownership of much of the heavy industrial and manufacturing sectors and state influence in the banking and financial sectors China adopted its current constitution on 4 December 1982 Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin Premiers Li Peng and Zhu Rongji led the nation in the 1990s Under their administration China sustained an average annual gross domestic product growth rate of 11 2 262 better source needed At the Sixth National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam in December 1986 reformist politicians replaced the old guard government with new leadership 263 264 The reformers were led by 71 year old Nguyen Van Linh who became the party s new general secretary 263 264 Linh and the reformers implemented a series of free market reforms known as Đổi Mới Renovation which carefully managed the transition from a planned economy to a socialist oriented market economy 265 266 Mikhail Gorbachev General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union 1985 1991 The Soviet Union experienced continued increases in mortality rate particularly among men as far back as 1965 267 better source needed Mikhail Gorbachev wished to move the Soviet Union towards of Nordic style social democracy dubious discuss calling it a socialist beacon for all mankind 268 269 Prior to its dissolution in 1991 the economy of the Soviet Union was by some measures the second largest in the world after the United States 270 271 272 This economy however was beset by economic stagnation an inflationary spiral shortages of consumer goods and fiscal mismanagement 271 better source needed With the collapse of the Soviet Union the economic integration of the Soviet republics was dissolved and overall industrial activity declined substantially 273 A lasting legacy of Communism in Soviet Union remains in the physical infrastructure created during decades of combined industrial production practices and widespread environmental destruction 274 The transition to capitalism in the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc which was accompanied by Washington Consensus inspired shock therapy 275 Following a transition to free market capitalism there has been a steep fall in the standard of living Post Communist Russia experienced rising economic inequality and poverty 276 a surge in excess mortality amongst men 267 277 and a decline in life expectancy 278 which was accompanied by the entrenchment of a newly established business oligarchy 276 The average post Communist country had returned to 1989 levels of per capita GDP by 2005 279 and as of 2015 some countries were still behind that 280 These developments led to increased nationalist sentiment and nostalgia for the Communist era 281 282 283 Many social democratic parties particularly after the Cold War adopted neoliberal market policies including privatisation deregulation and financialisation They abandoned their pursuit of moderate socialism in favour of economic liberalism By the 1980s with the rise of conservative neoliberal politicians such as Ronald Reagan in the United States Margaret Thatcher in Britain Brian Mulroney in Canada and Augusto Pinochet in Chile the Western welfare state was attacked from within but state support for the corporate sector was maintained 284 In the United Kingdom Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock expelled some Trotskyist members and refused to support the 1984 1985 miner s strike over pit closures In 1989 the 18th Congress of the SI adopted a new Declaration of Principles stating Democratic socialism is an international movement for freedom social justice and solidarity Its goal is to achieve a peaceful world where these basic values can be enhanced and where each individual can live a meaningful life with the full development of his or her personality and talents and with the guarantee of human and civil rights in a democratic framework of society 285 In the 1990s the British Labour Party under Tony Blair enacted policies based on the free market economy to deliver public services via the private finance initiative Influential in these policies was the idea of a Third Way between Old Left state socialism and New Right market capitalism and a re evaluation of welfare state policies 286 287 288 In 1995 the Labour Party re defined its stance on socialism by re wording Clause IV of its constitution defining socialism in ethical terms and removing all references to public direct worker or municipal ownership of the means of production The Labour Party stated The Labour Party is a democratic socialist party It believes that by the strength of our common endeavour we achieve more than we achieve alone so as to create for each of us the means to realise our true potential and for all of us a community in which power wealth and opportunity are in the hands of the many not the few 289 Early 21st century Edit In 1990 the Sao Paulo Forum was launched by the Workers Party Brazil linking left wing socialist parties in Latin America Its members were associated with the Pink tide of left wing governments on the continent in the early 21st century Member parties ruling countries included the Front for Victory in Argentina the PAIS Alliance in Ecuador Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front in El Salvador Peru Wins in Peru and the United Socialist Party of Venezuela whose leader Hugo Chavez initiated what he called Socialism of the 21st century Many mainstream democratic socialist and social democratic parties continued to drift right wards On the right of the socialist movement the Progressive Alliance was in 2013 by current or former members of the Socialist International The organisation states the aim of becoming the global network of the progressive democratic social democratic socialist and labour movement 290 291 Mainstream social democratic and socialist parties are also networked in Europe in the Party of European Socialists formed in 1992 Many of these parties lost large parts of their electoral base in the early 21st century This phenomenon is known as Pasokification 292 293 from the Greek party PASOK which saw a declining share of the vote in national elections from 43 9 in 2009 to 13 2 in May 2012 to 12 3 in June 2012 and 4 7 in 2015 due to its poor handling of the Greek government debt crisis and implementation of harsh austerity measures 294 295 In Europe the share of votes for such parties was at its 70 year lowest in 2015 296 For example the French Socialist Party after winning the 2012 presidential election rapidly lost its vote share the Social Democratic Party of Germany s fortunes declined rapidly from 2005 to 2019 and outside Europe the Israeli Labor Party fell from being the dominant force in Israeli politics to 4 43 of the vote in the April 2019 Israeli legislative election and the Peruvian Aprista Party went from ruling party in 2011 to a minor party The decline of these mainstream parties opened space for more radical and populist left parties in some countries such as Spain s Podemos Greece s Syriza which was in government 2015 19 Germany s Die Linke and France s La France Insoumise In other countries left wing revivals have taken place within mainstream democratic socialist and centrist parties as with Jeremy Corbyn in the UK and Bernie Sanders in the US However few of these radical left parties have won national government in Europe while some more mainstream social democratic parties have managed to such as Portugal s Socialist Party Social and political theory EditMain article Types of socialism Early socialist thought took influences from a diverse range of philosophies such as civic republicanism Enlightenment rationalism romanticism forms of materialism Christianity both Catholic and Protestant natural law and natural rights theory utilitarianism and liberal political economy 297 Another philosophical basis for a lot of early socialism was the emergence of positivism during the European Enlightenment Positivism held that both the natural and social worlds could be understood through scientific knowledge and be analysed using scientific methods This core outlook influenced early social scientists and different types of socialists ranging from anarchists like Peter Kropotkin to technocrats like Saint Simon 298 Claude Henri de Rouvroy comte de Saint Simon early French socialist The fundamental objective of socialism is to attain an advanced level of material production and therefore greater productivity efficiency and rationality as compared to capitalism and all previous systems under the view that an expansion of human productive capability is the basis for the extension of freedom and equality in society 299 Many forms of socialist theory hold that human behaviour is largely shaped by the social environment In particular socialism holds that social mores values cultural traits and economic practices are social creations and not the result of an immutable natural law 300 301 The object of their critique is thus not human avarice or human consciousness but the material conditions and man made social systems i e the economic structure of society that gives rise to observed social problems and inefficiencies Bertrand Russell often considered to be the father of analytic philosophy identified as a socialist Russell opposed the class struggle aspects of Marxism viewing socialism solely as an adjustment of economic relations to accommodate modern machine production to benefit all of humanity through the progressive reduction of necessary work time 302 Socialists view creativity as an essential aspect of human nature and define freedom as a state of being where individuals are able to express their creativity unhindered by constraints of both material scarcity and coercive social institutions 303 The socialist concept of individuality is intertwined with the concept of individual creative expression Karl Marx believed that expansion of the productive forces and technology was the basis for the expansion of human freedom and that socialism being a system that is consistent with modern developments in technology would enable the flourishing of free individualities through the progressive reduction of necessary labour time The reduction of necessary labour time to a minimum would grant individuals the opportunity to pursue the development of their true individuality and creativity 304 Criticism of capitalism Edit Main articles Anti capitalism and Criticism of capitalism Socialists argue that the accumulation of capital generates waste through externalities that require costly corrective regulatory measures They also point out that this process generates wasteful industries and practices that exist only to generate sufficient demand for products such as high pressure advertisement to be sold at a profit thereby creating rather than satisfying economic demand 305 306 Socialists argue that capitalism consists of irrational activity such as the purchasing of commodities only to sell at a later time when their price appreciates rather than for consumption even if the commodity cannot be sold at a profit to individuals in need and therefore a crucial criticism often made by socialists is that making money or accumulation of capital does not correspond to the satisfaction of demand the production of use values 307 The fundamental criterion for economic activity in capitalism is the accumulation of capital for reinvestment in production but this spurs the development of new non productive industries that do not produce use value and only exist to keep the accumulation process afloat otherwise the system goes into crisis such as the spread of the financial industry contributing to the formation of economic bubbles 308 Socialists view private property relations as limiting the potential of productive forces in the economy According to socialists private property becomes obsolete when it concentrates into centralised socialised institutions based on private appropriation of revenue but based on cooperative work and internal planning in allocation of inputs until the role of the capitalist becomes redundant 309 With no need for capital accumulation and a class of owners private property in the means of production is perceived as being an outdated form of economic organisation that should be replaced by a free association of individuals based on public or common ownership of these socialised assets 310 311 Private ownership imposes constraints on planning leading to uncoordinated economic decisions that result in business fluctuations unemployment and a tremendous waste of material resources during crisis of overproduction 312 Excessive disparities in income distribution lead to social instability and require costly corrective measures in the form of redistributive taxation which incurs heavy administrative costs while weakening the incentive to work inviting dishonesty and increasing the likelihood of tax evasion while the corrective measures reduce the overall efficiency of the market economy 313 These corrective policies limit the incentive system of the market by providing things such as minimum wages unemployment insurance taxing profits and reducing the reserve army of labour resulting in reduced incentives for capitalists to invest in more production In essence social welfare policies cripple capitalism and its incentive system and are thus unsustainable in the long run 314 Marxists argue that the establishment of a socialist mode of production is the only way to overcome these deficiencies Socialists and specifically Marxian socialists argue that the inherent conflict of interests between the working class and capital prevent optimal use of available human resources and leads to contradictory interest groups labour and business striving to influence the state to intervene in the economy in their favour at the expense of overall economic efficiency Early socialists utopian socialists and Ricardian socialists criticised capitalism for concentrating power and wealth within a small segment of society 315 In addition they complained that capitalism does not use available technology and resources to their maximum potential in the interests of the public 311 Marxism Edit Main article Marxism At a certain stage of development the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto Then begins an era of social revolution The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure 316 Karl Marx Critique of the Gotha Program Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that socialism would emerge from historical necessity as capitalism rendered itself obsolete and unsustainable from increasing internal contradictions emerging from the development of the productive forces and technology It was these advances in the productive forces combined with the old social relations of production of capitalism that would generate contradictions leading to working class consciousness 317 The writings of Karl Marx provided the basis for the development of Marxist political theory and Marxian economics Marx and Engels held the view that the consciousness of those who earn a wage or salary the working class in the broadest Marxist sense would be moulded by their conditions of wage slavery leading to a tendency to seek their freedom or emancipation by overthrowing ownership of the means of production by capitalists and consequently overthrowing the state that upheld this economic order For Marx and Engels conditions determine consciousness and ending the role of the capitalist class leads eventually to a classless society in which the state would wither away The Marxist conception of socialism is that of a specific historical phase that would displace capitalism and precede communism The major characteristics of socialism particularly as conceived by Marx and Engels after the Paris Commune of 1871 are that the proletariat would control the means of production through a workers state erected by the workers in their interests Economic activity would still be organised through the use of incentive systems and social classes would still exist but to a lesser and diminishing extent than under capitalism For orthodox Marxists socialism is the lower stage of communism based on the principle of from each according to his ability to each according to his contribution while upper stage communism is based on the principle of from each according to his ability to each according to his need the upper stage becoming possible only after the socialist stage further develops economic efficiency and the automation of production has led to a superabundance of goods and services 318 319 Marx argued that the material productive forces in industry and commerce brought into existence by capitalism predicated a cooperative society since production had become a mass social collective activity of the working class to create commodities but with private ownership the relations of production or property relations This conflict between collective effort in large factories and private ownership would bring about a conscious desire in the working class to establish collective ownership commensurate with the collective efforts their daily experience 316 Role of the state Edit See also Anti statism Marx s theory of the state and State socialism Socialists have taken different perspectives on the state and the role it should play in revolutionary struggles in constructing socialism and within an established socialist economy In the 19th century the philosophy of state socialism was first explicitly expounded by the German political philosopher Ferdinand Lassalle In contrast to Karl Marx s perspective of the state Lassalle rejected the concept of the state as a class based power structure whose main function was to preserve existing class structures Lassalle also rejected the Marxist view that the state was destined to wither away Lassalle considered the state to be an entity independent of class allegiances and an instrument of justice that would therefore be essential for achieving socialism 320 Preceding the Bolshevik led revolution in Russia many socialists including reformists orthodox Marxist currents such as council communism anarchists and libertarian socialists criticised the idea of using the state to conduct central planning and own the means of production as a way to establish socialism Following the victory of Leninism in Russia the idea of state socialism spread rapidly throughout the socialist movement and eventually state socialism came to be identified with the Soviet economic model 321 Joseph Schumpeter rejected the association of socialism and social ownership with state ownership over the means of production because the state as it exists in its current form is a product of capitalist society and cannot be transplanted to a different institutional framework Schumpeter argued that there would be different institutions within socialism than those that exist within modern capitalism just as feudalism had its own distinct and unique institutional forms The state along with concepts like property and taxation were concepts exclusive to commercial society capitalism and attempting to place them within the context of a future socialist society would amount to a distortion of these concepts by using them out of context 322 Utopian versus scientific Edit Main articles Scientific socialism and Utopian socialism Utopian socialism is a term used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint Simon Charles Fourier and Robert Owen which inspired Karl Marx and other early socialists 323 However visions of imaginary ideal societies which competed with revolutionary social democratic movements were viewed as not being grounded in the material conditions of society and as reactionary 324 Although it is technically possible for any set of ideas or any person living at any time in history to be a utopian socialist the term is most often applied to those socialists who lived in the first quarter of the 19th century who were ascribed the label utopian by later socialists as a negative term in order to imply naivete and dismiss their ideas as fanciful or unrealistic 102 Religious sects whose members live communally such as the Hutterites are not usually called utopian socialists although their way of living is a prime example They have been categorised as religious socialists by some Similarly modern intentional communities based on socialist ideas could also be categorised as utopian socialist For Marxists the development of capitalism in Western Europe provided a material basis for the possibility of bringing about socialism because according to The Communist Manifesto w hat the bourgeoisie produces above all is its own grave diggers 325 namely the working class which must become conscious of the historical objectives set it by society Reform versus revolution Edit Main articles Reformism and Revolutionary socialism Revolutionary socialists believe that a social revolution is necessary to effect structural changes to the socioeconomic structure of society Among revolutionary socialists there are differences in strategy theory and the definition of revolution Orthodox Marxists and left communists take an impossibilist stance believing that revolution should be spontaneous as a result of contradictions in society due to technological changes in the productive forces Lenin theorised that under capitalism the workers cannot achieve class consciousness beyond organising into trade unions and making demands of the capitalists Therefore Leninists advocate that it is historically necessary for a vanguard of class conscious revolutionaries to take a central role in coordinating the social revolution to overthrow the capitalist state and eventually the institution of the state altogether 326 Revolution is not necessarily defined by revolutionary socialists as violent insurrection 327 but as a complete dismantling and rapid transformation of all areas of class society led by the majority of the masses the working class Reformism is generally associated with social democracy and gradualist democratic socialism Reformism is the belief that socialists should stand in parliamentary elections within capitalist society and if elected use the machinery of government to pass political and social reforms for the purposes of ameliorating the instabilities and inequities of capitalism Within socialism reformism is used in two different ways One has no intention of bringing about socialism or fundamental economic change to society and is used to oppose such structural changes The other is based on the assumption that while reforms are not socialist in themselves they can help rally supporters to the cause of revolution by popularizing the cause of socialism to the working class 328 The debate on the ability for social democratic reformism to lead to a socialist transformation of society is over a century old Reformism is criticized for being paradoxical as it seeks to overcome the existing economic system of capitalism while trying to improve the conditions of capitalism thereby making it appear more tolerable to society According to Rosa Luxemburg capitalism is not overthrown but is on the contrary strengthened by the development of social reforms 329 In a similar vein Stan Parker of the Socialist Party of Great Britain argues that reforms are a diversion of energy for socialists and are limited because they must adhere to the logic of capitalism 328 French social theorist Andre Gorz criticized reformism by advocating a third alternative to reformism and social revolution that he called non reformist reforms specifically focused on structural changes to capitalism as opposed to reforms to improve living conditions within capitalism or to prop it up through economic interventions 330 Economics EditMain article Socialist economics See also Production for use The economic anarchy of capitalist society as it exists today is in my opinion the real source of the evil I am convinced there is only one way to eliminate these grave evils namely through the establishment of a socialist economy accompanied by an educational system which would be oriented toward social goals In such an economy the means of production are owned by society itself and are utilised in a planned fashion A planned economy which adjusts production to the needs of the community would distribute the work to be done among all those able to work and would guarantee a livelihood to every man woman and child The education of the individual in addition to promoting his own innate abilities would attempt to develop in him a sense of responsibility for his fellow men in place of the glorification of power and success in our present society 331 Albert Einstein Why Socialism 1949 Socialist economics starts from the premise that individuals do not live or work in isolation but live in cooperation with one another Furthermore everything that people produce is in some sense a social product and everyone who contributes to the production of a good is entitled to a share in it Society as whole therefore should own or at least control property for the benefit of all its members 111 The original conception of socialism was an economic system whereby production was organised in a way to directly produce goods and services for their utility or use value in classical and Marxian economics with the direct allocation of resources in terms of physical units as opposed to financial calculation and the economic laws of capitalism see law of value often entailing the end of capitalistic economic categories such as rent interest profit and money 332 In a fully developed socialist economy production and balancing factor inputs with outputs becomes a technical process to be undertaken by engineers 333 Market socialism refers to an array of different economic theories and systems that use the market mechanism to organise production and to allocate factor inputs among socially owned enterprises with the economic surplus profits accruing to society in a social dividend as opposed to private capital owners 334 Variations of market socialism include libertarian proposals such as mutualism based on classical economics and neoclassical economic models such as the Lange Model However some economists such as Joseph Stiglitz Mancur Olson and others not specifically advancing anti socialists positions have shown that prevailing economic models upon which such democratic or market socialism models might be based have logical flaws or unworkable presuppositions 335 336 The ownership of the means of production can be based on direct ownership by the users of the productive property through worker cooperative or commonly owned by all of society with management and control delegated to those who operate use the means of production or public ownership by a state apparatus Public ownership may refer to the creation of state owned enterprises nationalisation municipalisation or autonomous collective institutions Some socialists feel that in a socialist economy at least the commanding heights of the economy must be publicly owned 337 However economic liberals and right libertarians view private ownership of the means of production and the market exchange as natural entities or moral rights which are central to their conceptions of freedom and liberty and view the economic dynamics of capitalism as immutable and absolute therefore they perceive public ownership of the means of production cooperatives and economic planning as infringements upon liberty 338 339 Management and control over the activities of enterprises are based on self management and self governance with equal power relations in the workplace to maximise occupational autonomy A socialist form of organisation would eliminate controlling hierarchies so that only a hierarchy based on technical knowledge in the workplace remains Every member would have decision making power in the firm and would be able to participate in establishing its overall policy objectives The policies goals would be carried out by the technical specialists that form the coordinating hierarchy of the firm who would establish plans or directives for the work community to accomplish these goals 340 The role and use of money in a hypothetical socialist economy is a contested issue Nineteenth century socialists including Karl Marx Robert Owen Pierre Joseph Proudhon and John Stuart Mill advocated various forms of labour vouchers or labour credits which like money would be used to acquire articles of consumption but unlike money they are unable to become capital and would not be used to allocate resources within the production process Bolshevik revolutionary Leon Trotsky argued that money could not be arbitrarily abolished following a socialist revolution Money had to exhaust its historic mission meaning it would have to be used until its function became redundant eventually being transformed into bookkeeping receipts for statisticians and only in the more distant future would money not be required for even that role 341 Planned economy Edit Main article Planned economy A planned economy is a type of economy consisting of a mixture of public ownership of the means of production and the coordination of production and distribution through economic planning A planned economy can be either decentralised or centralised Enrico Barone provided a comprehensive theoretical framework for a planned socialist economy In his model assuming perfect computation techniques simultaneous equations relating inputs and outputs to ratios of equivalence would provide appropriate valuations in order to balance supply and demand 342 The most prominent example of a planned economy was the economic system of the Soviet Union and as such the centralised planned economic model is usually associated with the communist states of the 20th century where it was combined with a single party political system In a centrally planned economy decisions regarding the quantity of goods and services to be produced are planned in advance by a planning agency see also the analysis of Soviet type economic planning The economic systems of the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc are further classified as command economies which are defined as systems where economic coordination is undertaken by commands directives and production targets 343 Studies by economists of various political persuasions on the actual functioning of the Soviet economy indicate that it was not actually a planned economy Instead of conscious planning the Soviet economy was based on a process whereby the plan was modified by localised agents and the original plans went largely unfulfilled Planning agencies ministries and enterprises all adapted and bargained with each other during the formulation of the plan as opposed to following a plan passed down from a higher authority leading some economists to suggest that planning did not actually take place within the Soviet economy and that a better description would be an administered or managed economy 344 Although central planning was largely supported by Marxist Leninists some factions within the Soviet Union before the rise of Stalinism held positions contrary to central planning Leon Trotsky rejected central planning in favour of decentralised planning He argued that central planners regardless of their intellectual capacity would be unable to coordinate effectively all economic activity within an economy because they operated without the input and tacit knowledge embodied by the participation of the millions of people in the economy As a result central planners would be unable to respond to local economic conditions 345 State socialism is unfeasible in this view because information cannot be aggregated by a central body and effectively used to formulate a plan for an entire economy because doing so would result in distorted or absent price signals 346 Self managed economy Edit Main articles Decentralised planning Economic democracy and Workers self management Socialism you see is a bird with two wings The definition is social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production 347 Upton Sinclair A self managed decentralised economy is based on autonomous self regulating economic units and a decentralised mechanism of resource allocation and decision making This model has found support in notable classical and neoclassical economists including Alfred Marshall John Stuart Mill and Jaroslav Vanek There are numerous variations of self management including labour managed firms and worker managed firms The goals of self management are to eliminate exploitation and reduce alienation 348 Guild socialism is a political movement advocating workers control of industry through the medium of trade related guilds in an implied contractual relationship with the public 349 It originated in the United Kingdom and was at its most influential in the first quarter of the 20th century 349 It was strongly associated with G D H Cole and influenced by the ideas of William Morris One such system is the cooperative economy a largely free market economy in which workers manage the firms and democratically determine remuneration levels and labour divisions Productive resources would be legally owned by the cooperative and rented to the workers who would enjoy usufruct rights 350 Another form of decentralised planning is the use of cybernetics or the use of computers to manage the allocation of economic inputs The socialist run government of Salvador Allende in Chile experimented with Project Cybersyn a real time information bridge between the government state enterprises and consumers 351 Another more recent variant is participatory economics wherein the economy is planned by decentralised councils of workers and consumers Workers would be remunerated solely according to effort and sacrifice so that those engaged in dangerous uncomfortable and strenuous work would receive the highest incomes and could thereby work less 352 A contemporary model for a self managed non market socialism is Pat Devine s model of negotiated coordination Negotiated coordination is based upon social ownership by those affected by the use of the assets involved with decisions made by those at the most localised level of production 353 Michel Bauwens identifies the emergence of the open software movement and peer to peer production as a new alternative mode of production to the capitalist economy and centrally planned economy that is based on collaborative self management common ownership of resources and the production of use values through the free cooperation of producers who have access to distributed capital 354 Anarcho communism is a theory of anarchism which advocates the abolition of the state private property and capitalism in favour of common ownership of the means of production 355 356 Anarcho syndicalism was practised in Catalonia and other places in the Spanish Revolution during the Spanish Civil War Sam Dolgoff estimated that about eight million people participated directly or at least indirectly in the Spanish Revolution 357 The economy of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia established a system based on market based allocation social ownership of the means of production and self management within firms This system substituted Yugoslavia s Soviet type central planning with a decentralised self managed system after reforms in 1953 358 The Marxian economist Richard D Wolff argues that re organising production so that workers become collectively self directed at their work sites not only moves society beyond both capitalism and state socialism of the last century but would also mark another milestone in human history similar to earlier transitions out of slavery and feudalism 359 As an example Wolff claims that Mondragon is a stunningly successful alternative to the capitalist organisation of production 360 State directed economy Edit Main article State socialism See also Dirigisme Nationalization Public ownership State capitalism and Steady state economy State socialism can be used to classify any variety of socialist philosophies that advocates the ownership of the means of production by the state apparatus either as a transitional stage between capitalism and socialism or as an end goal in itself Typically it refers to a form of technocratic management whereby technical specialists administer or manage economic enterprises on behalf of society and the public interest instead of workers councils or workplace democracy A state directed economy may refer to a type of mixed economy consisting of public ownership over large industries as promoted by various Social democratic political parties during the 20th century This ideology influenced the policies of the British Labour Party during Clement Attlee s administration In the biography of the 1945 United Kingdom Labour Party Prime Minister Clement Attlee Francis Beckett states T he government wanted what would become known as a mixed economy 361 Nationalisation in the United Kingdom was achieved through compulsory purchase of the industry i e with compensation British Aerospace was a combination of major aircraft companies British Aircraft Corporation Hawker Siddeley and others British Shipbuilders was a combination of the major shipbuilding companies including Cammell Laird Govan Shipbuilders Swan Hunter and Yarrow Shipbuilders whereas the nationalisation of the coal mines in 1947 created a coal board charged with running the coal industry commercially so as to be able to meet the interest payable on the bonds which the former mine owners shares had been converted into 362 363 Market socialism Edit Main article Market socialism Market socialism consists of publicly owned or cooperatively owned enterprises operating in a market economy It is a system that uses the market and monetary prices for the allocation and accounting of the means of production thereby retaining the process of capital accumulation The profit generated would be used to directly remunerate employees collectively sustain the enterprise or finance public institutions 364 In state oriented forms of market socialism in which state enterprises attempt to maximise profit the profits can be used to fund government programs and services through a social dividend eliminating or greatly diminishing the need for various forms of taxation that exist in capitalist systems Neoclassical economist Leon Walras believed that a socialist economy based on state ownership of land and natural resources would provide a means of public finance to make income taxes unnecessary 365 Yugoslavia implemented a market socialist economy based on cooperatives and worker self management 366 Pierre Joseph Proudhon main theorist of mutualism and influential French socialist thinker Mutualism is an economic theory and anarchist school of thought that advocates a society where each person might possess a means of production either individually or collectively with trade representing equivalent amounts of labour in the free market 367 Integral to the scheme was the establishment of a mutual credit bank that would lend to producers at a minimal interest rate just high enough to cover administration 368 Mutualism is based on a labour theory of value that holds that when labour or its product is sold in exchange it ought to receive goods or services embodying the amount of labour necessary to produce an article of exactly similar and equal utility 369 The current economic system in China is formally referred to as a socialist market economy with Chinese characteristics It combines a large state sector that comprises the commanding heights of the economy which are guaranteed their public ownership status by law 370 with a private sector mainly engaged in commodity production and light industry responsible from anywhere between 33 371 to over 70 of GDP generated in 2005 372 Although there has been a rapid expansion of private sector activity since the 1980s privatisation of state assets was virtually halted and were partially reversed in 2005 373 The current Chinese economy consists of 150 corporatised state owned enterprises that report directly to China s central government 374 By 2008 these state owned corporations had become increasingly dynamic and generated large increases in revenue for the state 375 376 resulting in a state sector led recovery during the 2009 financial crises while accounting for most of China s economic growth 377 The Chinese economic model is widely cited as a contemporary form of state capitalism the major difference between Western capitalism and the Chinese model being the degree of state ownership of shares in publicly listed corporations The Socialist Republic of Vietnam has adopted a similar model after the Doi Moi economic renovation but slightly differs from the Chinese model in that the Vietnamese government retains firm control over the state sector and strategic industries but allows for private sector activity in commodity production 378 Politics EditSee also Labour movement The labor problem and Trade union Socialists in Union Square New York City on May Day 1912 While major socialist political movements include anarchism communism the labour movement Marxism social democracy and syndicalism independent socialist theorists utopian socialist authors and academic supporters of socialism may not be represented in these movements Some political groups have called themselves socialist while holding views that some consider antithetical to socialism Socialist has been used by the political right as an epithet including against individuals who do not consider themselves to be socialists and against policies that are not considered socialist by their proponents While there are many variations of socialism and there is no single definition encapsulating all of socialism there have been common elements identified by scholars 379 In his Dictionary of Socialism 1924 Angelo S Rappoport analysed forty definitions of socialism to conclude that common elements of socialism include general criticism of the social effects of private ownership and control of capital as being the cause of poverty low wages unemployment economic and social inequality and a lack of economic security a general view that the solution to these problems is a form of collective control over the means of production distribution and exchange the degree and means of control vary amongst socialist movements an agreement that the outcome of this collective control should be a society based upon social justice including social equality economic protection of people and should provide a more satisfying life for most people 380 In The Concepts of Socialism 1975 Bhikhu Parekh identifies four core principles of socialism and particularly socialist society namely sociality social responsibility cooperation and planning 381 In his study Ideologies and Political Theory 1996 Michael Freeden states that all socialists share five themes the first is that socialism posits that society is more than a mere collection of individuals second that it considers human welfare a desirable objective third that it considers humans by nature to be active and productive fourth it holds the belief of human equality and fifth that history is progressive and will create positive change on the condition that humans work to achieve such change 381 Anarchism Edit Main article Anarchism Anarchism advocates stateless societies often defined as self governed voluntary institutions 382 383 384 385 but that several authors have defined as more specific institutions based on non hierarchical free associations 386 387 388 389 While anarchism holds the state to be undesirable unnecessary or harmful 390 391 it is not the central aspect 392 Anarchism entails opposing authority or hierarchical organisation in the conduct of human relations including the state system 386 393 394 395 396 397 398 Mutualists support market socialism collectivist anarchists favour workers cooperatives and salaries based on the amount of time contributed to production anarcho communists advocate a direct transition from capitalism to libertarian communism and a gift economy and anarcho syndicalists prefer workers direct action and the general strike 399 The authoritarian libertarian struggles and disputes within the socialist movement go back to the First International and the expulsion in 1872 of the anarchists who went on to lead the Anti authoritarian International and then founded their own libertarian international the Anarchist St Imier International 400 In 1888 the individualist anarchist Benjamin Tucker who proclaimed himself to be an anarchistic socialist and libertarian socialist in opposition to the authoritarian state socialism and the compulsory communism included the full text of a Socialistic Letter by Ernest Lesigne 401 in his essay on State Socialism and Anarchism According to Lesigne there are two types of socialism One is dictatorial the other libertarian 402 Tucker s two socialisms were the authoritarian state socialism which he associated to the Marxist school and the libertarian anarchist socialism or simply anarchism that he advocated Tucker noted that the fact that the authoritarian State Socialism has overshadowed other forms of Socialism gives it no right to a monopoly of the Socialistic idea 403 According to Tucker what those two schools of socialism had in common was the labor theory of value and the ends by which anarchism pursued different means 404 According to anarchists such as the authors of An Anarchist FAQ anarchism is one of the many traditions of socialism For anarchists and other anti authoritarian socialists socialism can only mean a classless and anti authoritarian i e libertarian society in which people manage their own affairs either as individuals or as part of a group depending on the situation In other words it implies self management in all aspects of life including at the workplace 399 Michael Newman includes anarchism as one of many socialist traditions 405 Peter Marshall argues that i n general anarchism is closer to socialism than liberalism Anarchism finds itself largely in the socialist camp but it also has outriders in liberalism It cannot be reduced to socialism and is best seen as a separate and distinctive doctrine 406 Democratic socialism and social democracy Edit Main articles Democratic socialism and Social democracy You can t talk about ending the slums without first saying profit must be taken out of slums You re really tampering and getting on dangerous ground because you are messing with folk then You are messing with captains of industry Now this means that we are treading in difficult water because it really means that we are saying that something is wrong with capitalism There must be a better distribution of wealth and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism 407 408 Martin Luther King Jr 1966 Democratic socialism represents any socialist movement that seeks to establish an economy based on economic democracy by and for the working class Democratic socialism is difficult to define and groups of scholars have radically different definitions for the term Some definitions simply refer to all forms of socialism that follow an electoral reformist or evolutionary path to socialism rather than a revolutionary one 409 According to Christopher Pierson i f the contrast which 1989 highlights is not that between socialism in the East and liberal democracy in the West the latter must be recognized to have been shaped reformed and compromised by a century of social democratic pressure Pierson further claims that social democratic and socialist parties within the constitutional arena in the West have almost always been involved in a politics of compromise with existing capitalist institutions to whatever far distant prize its eyes might from time to time have been lifted For Pierson if advocates of the death of socialism accept that social democrats belong within the socialist camp as I think they must then the contrast between socialism in all its variants and liberal democracy must collapse For actually existing liberal democracy is in substantial part a product of socialist social democratic forces 410 Social democracy is a socialist tradition of political thought 411 412 Many social democrats refer to themselves as socialists or democratic socialists and some such as Tony Blair employ these terms interchangeably 413 414 415 Others found clear differences between the three terms and prefer to describe their own political beliefs by using the term social democracy 416 The two main directions were to establish democratic socialism or to build first a welfare state within the capitalist system The first variant advances democratic socialism through reformist and gradualist methods 417 In the second variant social democracy is a policy regime involving a welfare state collective bargaining schemes support for publicly financed public services and a mixed economy It is often used in this manner to refer to Western and Northern Europe during the later half of the 20th century 418 419 It was described by Jerry Mander as hybrid economics an active collaboration of capitalist and socialist visions 420 Numerous studies and surveys indicate that people tend to live happier lives in social democratic societies rather than neoliberal ones 421 422 423 424 Eduard Bernstein Social democrats advocate for a peaceful evolutionary transition of the economy to socialism through progressive social reform 425 426 It asserts that the only acceptable constitutional form of government is representative democracy under the rule of law 427 It promotes extending democratic decision making beyond political democracy to include economic democracy to guarantee employees and other economic stakeholders sufficient rights of co determination 427 It supports a mixed economy that opposes inequality poverty and oppression while rejecting both a totally unregulated market economy or a fully planned economy 428 Common social democratic policies include universal social rights and universally accessible public services such as education health care workers compensation and other services including child care and elder care 429 Social democracy supports the trade union labour movement and supports collective bargaining rights for workers 430 Most social democratic parties are affiliated with the Socialist International 417 Modern democratic socialism is a broad political movement that seeks to promote the ideals of socialism within the context of a democratic system Some democratic socialists support social democracy as a temporary measure to reform the current system while others reject reformism in favour of more revolutionary methods Modern social democracy emphasises a program of gradual legislative modification of capitalism in order to make it more equitable and humane while the theoretical end goal of building a socialist society is relegated to the indefinite future According to Sheri Berman Marxism is loosely held to be valuable for its emphasis on changing the world for a more just better future 431 The two movements are widely similar both in terminology and in ideology although there are a few key differences The major difference between social democracy and democratic socialism is the object of their politics in that contemporary social democrats support a welfare state and unemployment insurance as well as other practical progressive reforms of capitalism and are more concerned to administrate and humanise it On the other hand democratic socialists seek to replace capitalism with a socialist economic system arguing that any attempt to humanise capitalism through regulations and welfare policies would distort the market and create economic contradictions 432 Ethical and liberal socialism Edit Main articles Ethical socialism and Liberal socialism Ethical socialism appeals to socialism on ethical and moral grounds as opposed to economic egoistic and consumeristic grounds It emphasizes the need for a morally conscious economy based upon the principles of altruism cooperation and social justice while opposing possessive individualism 433 Ethical socialism has been the official philosophy of mainstream socialist parties 434 Liberal socialism incorporates liberal principles to socialism 435 It has been compared to post war social democracy 436 for its support of a mixed economy that includes both public and private capital goods 437 438 While democratic socialism and social democracy are anti capitalist positions insofar as criticism of capitalism is linked to the private ownership of the means of production 439 liberal socialism identifies artificial and legalistic monopolies to be the fault of capitalism 440 and opposes an entirely unregulated market economy 441 It considers both liberty and social equality to be compatible and mutually dependent 435 Principles that can be described as ethical or liberal socialist have been based upon or developed by philosophers such as John Stuart Mill Eduard Bernstein John Dewey Carlo Rosselli Norberto Bobbio and Chantal Mouffe 442 Other important liberal socialist figures include Guido Calogero Piero Gobetti Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse John Maynard Keynes and R H Tawney 441 Liberal socialism has been particularly prominent in British and Italian politics 441 Leninism and precedents Edit Main articles Authoritarian socialism Blanquism Leninism and Marxism Leninism Blanquism is a conception of revolution named for Louis Auguste Blanqui It holds that socialist revolution should be carried out by a relatively small group of highly organised and secretive conspirators 443 Upon seizing power the revolutionaries introduce socialism 444 Rosa Luxemburg and Eduard Bernstein 445 criticised Lenin stating that his conception of revolution was elitist and Blanquist 446 Marxism Leninism combines Marx s scientific socialist concepts and Lenin s anti imperialism democratic centralism and vanguardism 447 Hal Draper defined socialism from above as the philosophy which employs an elite administration to run the socialist state The other side of socialism is a more democratic socialism from below 448 The idea of socialism from above is much more frequently discussed in elite circles than socialism from below even if that is the Marxist ideal because it is more practical 449 Draper viewed socialism from below as being the purer more Marxist version of socialism 450 According to Draper Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels were devoutly opposed to any socialist institution that was conducive to superstitious authoritarianism Draper makes the argument that this division echoes the division between reformist or revolutionary peaceful or violent democratic or authoritarian etc and further identifies six major varieties of socialism from above among them Philanthropism Elitism Pannism Communism Permeationism and Socialism from Outside 451 According to Arthur Lipow Marx and Engels were the founders of modern revolutionary democratic socialism described as a form of socialism from below that is based on a mass working class movement fighting from below for the extension of democracy and human freedom This type of socialism is contrasted to that of the authoritarian antidemocratic creed and the various totalitarian collectivist ideologies which claim the title of socialism as well as the many varieties of socialism from above which have led in the twentieth century to movements and state forms in which a despotic new class rules over a statified economy in the name of socialism a division that runs through the history of the socialist movement Lipow identifies Bellamyism and Stalinism as two prominent authoritarian socialist currents within the history of the socialist movement 452 Libertarian socialism Edit Main article Libertarian socialism The first anarchist journal to use the term libertarian was Le Libertaire Journal du Mouvement Social published in New York City between 1858 and 1861 by French libertarian communist Joseph Dejacque 453 the first recorded person to describe himself as libertarian 454 Libertarian socialism sometimes called left libertarianism 455 456 social anarchism 457 458 and socialist libertarianism 459 is an anti authoritarian anti statist and libertarian 460 tradition within socialism that rejects centralised state ownership and control 461 including criticism of wage labour relationships wage slavery 462 as well as the state itself 463 It emphasises workers self management 463 and decentralised structures of political organisation 464 Libertarian socialism asserts that a society based on freedom and equality can be achieved through abolishing authoritarian institutions that control production 465 Libertarian socialists generally prefer direct democracy and federal or confederal associations such as libertarian municipalism citizens assemblies trade unions and workers councils 466 467 Anarcho syndicalist Gaston Leval explained We therefore foresee a Society in which all activities will be coordinated a structure that has at the same time sufficient flexibility to permit the greatest possible autonomy for social life or for the life of each enterprise and enough cohesiveness to prevent all disorder In a well organised society all of these things must be systematically accomplished by means of parallel federations vertically united at the highest levels constituting one vast organism in which all economic functions will be performed in solidarity with all others and that will permanently preserve the necessary cohesion 468 All of this is generally done within a general call for libertarian 469 and voluntary free associations 470 through the identification criticism and practical dismantling of illegitimate authority in all aspects of human life 393 471 472 As part of the larger socialist movement it seeks to distinguish itself from Bolshevism Leninism and Marxism Leninism as well as social democracy 473 Past and present political philosophies and movements commonly described as libertarian socialist include anarchism anarcho communism anarcho syndicalism 474 collectivist anarchism individualist anarchism 475 476 477 and mutualism 478 autonomism Communalism participism libertarian Marxism council communism and Luxemburgism 479 revolutionary syndicalism and utopian socialism Fourierism 480 Religious socialism Edit Main article Religious socialism Christian socialism is a broad concept involving an intertwining of Christian religion with socialism Arabic letters Lam and Alif reading La Arabic for No are a symbol of Islamic Socialism in Turkey Islamic socialism is a more spiritual form of socialism Muslim socialists believe that the teachings of the Qur an and Muhammad are not only compatible with but actively promoting the principles of equality and public ownership drawing inspiration from the early Medina welfare state he established Muslim socialists are more conservative than their Western contemporaries and find their roots in anti imperialism anti colonialism and sometimes if in an Arab speaking country Arab nationalism Islamic socialists believe in deriving legitimacy from political mandate as opposed to religious texts Social movements Edit Main articles Eco socialism Socialism and LGBT rights and Socialist feminism See also Anarcha feminism Anarcho naturism Environmentalism Green anarchism Green politics Progressivism and Queer anarchism Socialist feminist Clara Zetkin and Rosa Luxemburg in 1910 Socialist feminism is a branch of feminism that argues that liberation can only be achieved by working to end both economic and cultural sources of women s oppression 481 Marxist feminism s foundation was laid by Engels in The Origin of the Family Private Property and the State 1884 August Bebel s Woman under Socialism 1879 is the single work dealing with sexuality most widely read by rank and file members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD 482 In the late 19th and early 20th centuries both Clara Zetkin and Eleanor Marx were against the demonisation of men and supported a proletariat revolution that would overcome as many male female inequalities as possible 483 As their movement already had the most radical demands in women s equality most Marxist leaders including Clara Zetkin 484 485 and Alexandra Kollontai 486 487 counterposed Marxism against liberal feminism rather than trying to combine them Anarcha feminism began with late 19th and early 20th century authors and theorists such as anarchist feminists Goldman and Voltairine de Cleyre 488 In the Spanish Civil War an anarcha feminist group Mujeres Libres Free Women linked to the Federacion Anarquista Iberica organised to defend both anarchist and feminist ideas 489 In 1972 the Chicago Women s Liberation Union published Socialist Feminism A Strategy for the Women s Movement which is believed to be the first published use of the term socialist feminism 490 Edward Carpenter philosopher and activist who was instrumental in the foundation of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party as well as in the early LGBTI western movements Many socialists were early advocates for LGBT rights For early socialist Charles Fourier true freedom could only occur without suppressing passions as the suppression of passions is not only destructive to the individual but to society as a whole Writing before the advent of the term homosexuality Fourier recognised that both men and women have a wide range of sexual needs and preferences which may change throughout their lives including same sex sexuality and androgenite He argued that all sexual expressions should be enjoyed as long as people are not abused and that affirming one s difference can actually enhance social integration 491 492 In Oscar Wilde s The Soul of Man Under Socialism he advocates for an egalitarian society where wealth is shared by all while warning of the dangers of social systems that crush individuality 493 Edward Carpenter actively campaigned for homosexual rights His work The Intermediate Sex A Study of Some Transitional Types of Men and Women was a 1908 book arguing for gay liberation 494 who was an influential personality in the foundation of the Fabian Society and the Labour Party After the Russian Revolution under the leadership of Lenin and Trotsky the Soviet Union abolished previous laws against homosexuality 495 Harry Hay was an early leader in the American LGBT rights movement as well as a member of the Communist Party USA He is known for his roles in helping to found gay organisations including the Mattachine Society the first sustained gay rights group in the United States which in its early days reflected a strong Marxist influence The Encyclopedia of Homosexuality reports that a s Marxists the founders of the group believed that the injustice and oppression which they suffered stemmed from relationships deeply embedded in the structure of American society 496 Emerging from events such as the May 1968 insurrection in France the anti Vietnam war movement in the US and the Stonewall riots of 1969 militant gay liberation organisations began to spring up around the world Many sprang from left radicalism more than established homophile groups 497 although the Gay Liberation Front took an anti capitalist stance and attacked the nuclear family and traditional gender roles 498 Eco socialism is a political strain merging aspects of socialism Marxism or libertarian socialism with green politics ecology and alter globalisation Eco socialists generally claim that the expansion of the capitalist system is the cause of social exclusion poverty war and environmental degradation through globalisation and imperialism under the supervision of repressive states and transnational structures 499 Contrary to the depiction of Karl Marx by some environmentalists 500 social ecologists 501 and fellow socialists 502 as a productivist who favoured the domination of nature eco socialists revisited Marx s writings and believe that he was a main originator of the ecological world view 503 Marx discussed a metabolic rift between man and nature stating that private ownership of the globe by single individuals will appear quite absurd as private ownership of one man by another and his observation that a society must hand it the planet down to succeeding generations in an improved condition 504 English socialist William Morris is credited with developing principles of what was later called eco socialism 505 During the 1880s and 1890s Morris promoted his ideas within the Social Democratic Federation and Socialist League 506 Green anarchism blends anarchism with environmental issues An important early influence was Henry David Thoreau and his book Walden 507 as well as Elisee Reclus 508 509 In the late 19th century anarcho naturism fused anarchism and naturist philosophies within individualist anarchist circles in France Spain Cuba 510 and Portugal 511 Murray Bookchin s first book Our Synthetic Environment 512 was followed by his essay Ecology and Revolutionary Thought which introduced ecology as a concept in radical politics 513 In the 1970s Barry Commoner claimed that capitalist technologies were chiefly responsible for environmental degradation as opposed to population pressures 514 In the 1990s socialist feminists Mary Mellor 515 and Ariel Salleh 516 adopt an eco socialist paradigm An environmentalism of the poor combining ecological awareness and social justice has also become prominent 517 Pepper critiqued the current approach of many within green politics particularly deep ecologists 518 Many green parties around the world such as the Dutch Green Left Party GroenLinks employ eco socialist elements Radical red green alliances have been formed in many countries by eco socialists radical greens and other radical left groups In Denmark the Red Green Alliance was formed as a coalition of numerous radical parties Within the European Parliament a number of leftist parties from Northern Europe have organised themselves into the Nordic Green Left Alliance citation needed Syndicalism Edit Main article Syndicalism See also Anarcho syndicalism Syndicalism operates through industrial trade unions It rejects state socialism and the use of establishment politics Syndicalists reject state power in favour of strategies such as the general strike Syndicalists advocate a socialist economy based on federated unions or syndicates of workers who own and manage the means of production Some Marxist currents advocate syndicalism such as De Leonism Anarcho syndicalism views syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy The Spanish Revolution was largely orchestrated by the anarcho syndicalist trade union CNT 519 The International Workers Association is an international federation of anarcho syndicalist labour unions and initiatives 520 Criticism EditMain article Criticism of socialism This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Socialism news newspapers books scholar JSTOR October 2021 Learn how and when to remove this template message Socialism is criticised in terms of its models of economic organization as well as its political and social implications Other critiques are directed at the socialist movement parties or existing states Some forms of criticism occupy theoretical grounds such as in the economic calculation problem presented by proponents of the Austrian School and the socialist calculation debate while others support their criticism by examining historical attempts to establish socialist societies Because of socialism s many varieties most critiques focused on a specific approach Proponents of one approach typically criticise others citation needed Many commenters on the political right point to the mass killings under communist regimes claiming them as an indictment of socialism 521 522 523 Defenders of socialism state that these killings were aberrations caused by specific authoritarian regimes and not caused by socialism itself and point to mass deaths in wars that they claim were caused by capitalism and anti communism as a counterpoint to those killings 522 228 282 See also EditAnarchism and socialism List of anti capitalist and communist parties with national parliamentary representation List of communist ideologies List of socialist economists List of socialist songs List of socialist states Socialism by countryNotes Edit a b Busky Donald F 2000 Democratic Socialism A Global Survey Praeger p 2 ISBN 978 0 275 96886 1 Socialism may be defined as movements for social ownership and control of the economy It is this idea that is the common element found in the many forms of socialism Sinclair Upton 1 January 1918 Upton Sinclair s A Monthly Magazine for Social Justice by Peaceful Means If Possible Socialism you see is a bird with two wings The definition is social ownership and democratic control of the instruments and means of production Arnold N Scott 1998 The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism A Critical Study Oxford University Press p 8 What else does a socialist economic system involve Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership social control or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system Rosser Mariana V and J Barkley Jr 23 July 2003 Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy MIT Press p 53 ISBN 978 0 262 18234 8 Socialism is an economic system characterised by state or collective ownership of the means of production land and capital Bertrand Badie Dirk Berg Schlosser Leonardo Morlino 2011 International Encyclopedia of Political Science SAGE Publications p 2456 ISBN 978 1 4129 5963 6 Socialist systems are those regimes based on the economic and political theory of socialism which advocates public ownership and cooperative management of the means of production and allocation of resources Zimbalist Sherman and Brown Andrew Howard J and Stuart 1988 Comparing Economic Systems A Political Economic Approach Harcourt College Pub p 7 ISBN 978 0 15 512403 5 Pure socialism is defined as a system wherein all of the means of production are owned and run by the government and or cooperative nonprofit groups Brus Wlodzimierz 2015 The Economics and Politics of Socialism Routledge p 87 ISBN 978 0 415 86647 7 This alteration in the relationship between economy and politics is evident in the very definition of a socialist economic system The basic characteristic of such a system is generally reckoned to be the predominance of the social ownership of the means of production a b Nove Alec Socialism New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Second Edition 2008 A society may be defined as socialist if the major part of the means of production of goods and services is in some sense socially owned and operated by state socialised or cooperative enterprises The practical issues of socialism comprise the relationships between management and workforce within the enterprise the interrelationships between production units plan versus markets and if the state owns and operates any part of the economy who controls it and how Horvat Branko 2000 Social ownership In Michie Jonathan ed Reader s Guide to the Social Sciences Volume 1 London and New York Routledge pp 1515 1516 Retrieved 15 October 2021 Just as private ownership defines capitalism social ownership defines socialism The essential characteristic of socialism in theory is that it destroys social hierarchies and therefore leads to a politically and economically egalitarian society Two closely related consequences follow First every individual is entitled to an equal ownership share that earns an aliquot part of the total social dividend Second in order to eliminate social hierarchy in the workplace enterprises are run by those employed and not by the representatives of private or state capital Thus the well known historical tendency of the divorce between ownership and management is brought to an end The society i e every individual equally owns capital and those who work are entitled to manage their own economic affairs Socialism The Free Dictionary 2 Government Politics amp Diplomacy any of various social or political theories or movements in which the common welfare is to be achieved through the establishment of a socialist economic system Retrieved 27 January 2020 O Hara Phillip 2003 Encyclopedia of Political Economy Volume 2 Routledge p 71 ISBN 978 0 415 24187 8 In order of increasing decentralisation at least three forms of socialised ownership can be distinguished state owned firms employee owned or socially owned firms and citizen ownership of equity a b Lamb amp Docherty 2006 p 1 Arnold Scott 1994 The Philosophy and Economics of Market Socialism A Critical Study Oxford University Press pp 7 8 ISBN 978 0 19 508827 4 This term is harder to define since socialists disagree among themselves about what socialism really is It would seem that everyone socialists and nonsocialists alike could at least agree that it is not a system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production To be a socialist is not just to believe in certain ends goals values or ideals It also requires a belief in a certain institutional means to achieve those ends whatever that may mean in positive terms it certainly presupposes at a minimum the belief that these ends and values cannot be achieved in an economic system in which there is widespread private ownership of the means of production Those who favor socialism generally speak of social ownership social control or socialization of the means of production as the distinctive positive feature of a socialist economic system Hastings Mason and Pyper Adrian Alistair and Hugh 21 December 2000 The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought Oxford University Press p 677 ISBN 978 0 19 860024 4 Socialists have always recognized that there are many possible forms of social ownership of which co operative ownership is one Nevertheless socialism has throughout its history been inseparable from some form of common ownership By its very nature it involves the abolition of private ownership of capital bringing the means of production distribution and exchange into public ownership and control is central to its philosophy It is difficult to see how it can survive in theory or practice without this central idea Docherty James C Lamb Peter eds 2006 Historical Dictionary of Socialism 2nd ed Historical Dictionaries of Religions Philosophies and Movements 73 Lanham Maryland Scarecrow Press pp 1 3 ISBN 978 0 8108 5560 1 Kolb Robert 19 October 2007 Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society First Edition SAGE Publications Inc p 1345 ISBN 978 1 4129 1652 3 There are many forms of socialism all of which eliminate private ownership of capital and replace it with collective ownership These many forms all focused on advancing distributive justice for long term social welfare can be divided into two broad types of socialism nonmarket and market Bockman Johanna 2011 Markets in the name of Socialism The Left Wing origins of Neoliberalism Stanford University Press p 20 ISBN 978 0 8047 7566 3 socialism would function without capitalist economic categories such as money prices interest profits and rent and thus would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science While some socialists recognised the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilise the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money Steele David Ramsay 1999 From Marx to Mises Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation Open Court pp 175 177 ISBN 978 0 87548 449 5 Especially before the 1930s many socialists and anti socialists implicitly accepted some form of the following for the incompatibility of state owned industry and factor markets A market transaction is an exchange of property titles between two independent transactors Thus internal market exchanges cease when all of industry is brought into the ownership of a single entity whether the state or some other organization the discussion applies equally to any form of social or community ownership where the owning entity is conceived as a single organization or administration Is Socialism Dead A Comment on Market Socialism and Basic Income Capitalism by Arneson Richard J 1992 Ethics vol 102 no 3 pp 485 511 April 1992 Marxian socialism is often identified with the call to organize economic activity on a nonmarket basis Schweickart David Lawler James Ticktin Hillel Ollman Bertell 1998 Market Socialism The Debate Among Socialists The Difference Between Marxism and Market Socialism pp 61 63 More fundamentally a socialist society must be one in which the economy is run on the principle of the direct satisfaction of human needs Exchange value prices and so money are goals in themselves in a capitalist society or in any market There is no necessary connection between the accumulation of capital or sums of money and human welfare Under conditions of backwardness the spur of money and the accumulation of wealth has led to a massive growth in industry and technology It seems an odd argument to say that a capitalist will only be efficient in producing use value of a good quality when trying to make more money than the next capitalist It would seem easier to rely on the planning of use values in a rational way which because there is no duplication would be produced more cheaply and be of a higher quality The Economics of Feasible Socialism Revisited by Nove Alexander 1991 p 13 Under socialism by definition it private property and factor markets would be eliminated There would then be something like scientific management the science of socially organized production but it would not be economics Kotz David M Socialism and Capitalism Are They Qualitatively Different Socioeconomic Systems PDF University of Massachusetts Retrieved 19 February 2011 This understanding of socialism was held not just by revolutionary Marxist socialists but also by evolutionary socialists Christian socialists and even anarchists At that time there was also wide agreement about the basic institutions of the future socialist system public ownership instead of private ownership of the means of production economic planning instead of market forces production for use instead of for profit Weisskopf Thomas E 1992 Toward a Socialism for the Future in the Wake of the Demise of the Socialism of the Past Review of Radical Political Economics 24 3 4 1 28 doi 10 1177 048661349202400302 Socialism has historically been committed to the improvement of people s material standards of living Indeed in earlier days many socialists saw the promotion of improving material living standards as the primary basis for socialism s claim to superiority over capitalism for socialism was to overcome the irrationality and inefficiency seen as endemic to a capitalist system of economic organization p 2 Prychito David L 2002 Markets Planning and Democracy Essays After the Collapse of Communism Edward Elgar Publishing p 12 ISBN 978 1 84064 519 4 Socialism is a system based upon de facto public or social ownership of the means of production the abolition of a hierarchical division of labor in the enterprise a consciously organized social division of labor Under socialism money competitive pricing and profit loss accounting would be destroyed Von Mises Ludwig 1990 Economic calculation in the Socialist Commonwealth PDF Mises Institute Retrieved 11 November 2019 Hayek Friedrich 1935 The Nature and History of the Problem The Present State of the Debate Collectivist Economic Planning pp 1 40 201 243 Durlauf Steven N Blume Lawrence E ed 1987 The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Online Palgrave Macmillan Retrieved 2 February 2013 doi 10 1057 9780230226203 1570 Biddle Jeff Samuels Warren Davis John 2006 A Companion to the History of Economic Thought Wiley Blackwell p 319 What became known as the socialist calculation debate started when von Mises 1935 1920 launched a critique of socialism Levy David M Peart Sandra J 2008 socialist calculation debate The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics Second Edition Palgrave Macmillan Marangos John Fall 2004 Social Dividend versus Basic Income Guarantee in Market Socialism International Journal of Political Economy Taylor amp Francis 34 3 20 40 JSTOR 40470892 O Hara Phillip 2000 Encyclopedia of Political Economy Volume 2 Routledge p 71 ISBN 978 0 415 24187 8 Market socialism is the general designation for a number of models of economic systems On the one hand the market mechanism is utilized to distribute economic output to organize production and to allocate factor inputs On the other hand the economic surplus accrues to society at large rather than to a class of private capitalist owners through some form of collective public or social ownership of capital Pierson Christopher 1995 Socialism After Communism The New Market Socialism Pennsylvania State Univ Press p 96 ISBN 978 0 271 01478 4 At the heart of the market socialist model is the abolition of the large scale private ownership of capital and its replacement by some form of social ownership Even the most conservative accounts of market socialism insist that this abolition of large scale holdings of private capital is essential This requirement is fully consistent with the market socialists general claim that the vices of market capitalism lie not with the institutions of the market but with the consequences of the private ownership of capital McNally David 1993 Against the Market Political Economy Market Socialism and the Marxist Critique Verso ISBN 978 0 8609 1606 2 Kinna Ruth 2012 Introduction In Kinna Rith Pinta Saku Prichard Alex eds Libertarian Socialism Politics in Black and Red Basingstoke Palgrave Macmillan pp 1 16 ISBN 978 0 230 28037 3 Newman Michael 2005 Socialism A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press p 2 In fact socialism has been both centralist and local organized from above and built from below visionary and pragmatic revolutionary and reformist anti state and statist internationalist and nationalist harnessed to political parties and shunning them an outgrowth of trade unionism and independent of it a feature of rich industrialized countries and poor peasant based communities Ely Richard T 1883 French and German Socialism in Modern Times New York Harper and Brothers pp 204 205 Social democrats forms the extreme wing of the socialists inclined to lay so much stress on equality of enjoyment regardless of the value of one s labor that they might perhaps more properly be called communists They have two distinguishing characteristics The vast majority of them are laborers and as a rule they expect the violent overthrow of existing institutions by revolution to precede the introduction of the socialistic state I would not by any means say that they are all revolutionists but the most of them undoubtedly are The most general demands of the social democrats are the following The state should exist exclusively for the laborers land and capital must become collective property and production be carried on unitedly Private competition in the ordinary sense of the term is to cease Merkel Wolfgang Petring Alexander Henkes Christian Egle Christoph 2008 Social Democracy in Power The Capacity to Reform Routledge Research in Comparative Politics London Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 43820 9 Heywood Andrew 2012 Political Ideologies An Introduction 5th ed Basingstoke England Palgrave Macmillan p 128 ISBN 978 0 230 36725 8 Social democracy is an ideological stance that supports a broad balance between market capitalism on the one hand and state intervention on the other hand Being based on a compromise between the market and the state social democracy lacks a systematic underlying theory and is arguably inherently vague It is nevertheless associated with the following views 1 capitalism is the only reliable means of generating wealth but it is a morally defective means of distributing wealth because of its tendency towards poverty and inequality 2 the defects of the capitalist system can be rectified through economic and social intervention the state being the custodian of the public interest Roemer John E 1994 A Future for Socialism The long term and the short term Harvard University Press pp 25 27 ISBN 978 0 6743 3946 0 Berman Sheri 1998 The Social Democratic Moment Harvard University Press p 57 Over the long term however democratizing Sweden s political system was seen to be important not merely as a means but also as an end in itself Achieving democracy was crucial not only because it would increase the power of the SAP in the Swedish political system but also because it was the form socialism would take once it arrived Political economic and social equality went hand in hand according to the SAP and were all equally important characteristics of the future socialist society ISBN 978 0 6744 4261 0 Busky Donald F 20 July 2000 Democratic Socialism A Global Survey Praeger pp 7 8 ISBN 978 0 2759 6886 1 Bailey David J 2009 The Political Economy of European Social Democracy A Critical Realist Approach Routledge p 77 Giorgio Napolitano launched a medium term programme which tended to justify the governmental deflationary policies and asked for the understanding of the workers since any economic recovery would be linked with the long term goal of an advance towards democratic socialism ISBN 978 0 4156 0425 3 Lamb Peter 2015 Historical Dictionary of Socialism 3rd ed Rowman amp Littlefield p 415 ISBN 978 1 4422 5826 6 Badie Bertrand Berg Schlosser Dirk Morlino Leonardo eds 2011 Social Democracy International Encyclopedia of Political Science 8 SAGE Publications p 2423 Social democracy refers to a political tendency resting on three fundamental features 1 democracy e g equal rights to vote and form parties 2 an economy partly regulated by the state e g through Keynesianism and 3 a welfare state offering social support to those in need e g equal rights to education health service employment and pensions ISBN 978 1 4129 5963 6 Smith J W 2005 Economic Democracy The Political Struggle for the 21st century Radford Institute for Economic Democracy Press ISBN 1 933567 01 5 Gasper Phillip October 2005 The Communist Manifesto A Road Map to History s Most Important Political Document Haymarket Books p 24 ISBN 978 1 931859 25 7 As the nineteenth century progressed socialist came to signify not only concern with the social question but opposition to capitalism and support for some form of social ownership Anthony Giddens Beyond Left and Right The Future of Radical Politics 1998 edition Cambridge England UK Polity Press 1994 1998 p 71 Chapter 1 looks at the foundations of the doctrine by examining the contribution made by various traditions of socialism in the period between the early 19th century and the aftermath of the First World War The two forms that emerged as dominant by the early 1920s were social democracy and communism Michael Newman Socialism A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press 2005 p 5 Kurian George Thomas Kurian ed 2011 The Encyclopedia of Political Science Washington D C CQ Press p 1554 Garrett Ward Sheldon Encyclopedia of Political Thought Fact on File Inc 2001 p 280 Chomsky Noam 1986 The Soviet Union Versus Socialism Chomsky info Retrieved 29 January 2020 Howard M C King J E 2001 State Capitalism in the Soviet Union History of Economics Review 34 1 110 126 doi 10 1080 10370196 2001 11733360 Fitzgibbons Daniel J 11 October 2002 USSR strayed from communism say Economics professors The Campus Chronicle University of Massachusetts Amherst Retrieved 22 September 2021 See also Wolff Richard D 27 June 2015 Socialism Means Abolishing the Distinction Between Bosses and Employees Truthout Retrieved 29 January 2020 Wilhelm John Howard 1985 The Soviet Union Has an Administered Not a Planned Economy Soviet Studies 37 1 118 130 doi 10 1080 09668138508411571 Ellman Michael 2007 The Rise and Fall of Socialist Planning In Estrin Saul Kolodko Grzegorz W Uvalic Milica eds Transition and Beyond Essays in Honour of Mario Nuti New York Palgrave Macmillan p 22 ISBN 978 0 230 54697 4 In the USSR in the late 1980s the system was normally referred to as the administrative command economy What was fundamental to this system was not the plan but the role of administrative hierarchies at all levels of decision making the absence of control over decision making by the population Barrett William ed 1 April 1978 Capitalism Socialism and Democracy A Symposium Commentary Retrieved 14 June 2020 If we were to extend the definition of socialism to include Labor Britain or socialist Sweden there would be no difficulty in refuting the connection between capitalism and democracy Heilbroner Robert L Winter 1991 From Sweden to Socialism A Small Symposium on Big Questions Dissident Barkan Joanne Brand Horst Cohen Mitchell Coser Lewis Denitch Bogdan Feher Ferenc Heller Agnes Horvat Branko Tyler Gus pp 96 110 Retrieved 17 April 2020 Kendall Diana 2011 Sociology in Our Time The Essentials Cengage Learning pp 125 127 ISBN 9781111305505 Sweden Great Britain and France have mixed economies sometimes referred to as democratic socialism an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production governmental distribution of some essential goods and services and free elections For example government ownership in Sweden is limited primarily to railroads mineral resources a public bank and liquor and tobacco operations Li He 2015 Political Thought and China s Transformation Ideas Shaping Reform in Post Mao China Springer pp 60 69 ISBN 9781137427816 The scholars in camp of democratic socialism believe that China should draw on the Sweden experience which is suitable not only for the West but also for China In the post Mao China the Chinese intellectuals are confronted with a variety of models The liberals favor the American model and share the view that the Soviet model has become archaic and should be totally abandoned Meanwhile democratic socialism in Sweden provided an alternative model Its sustained economic development and extensive welfare programs fascinated many Numerous scholars within the democratic socialist camp argue that China should model itself politically and economically on Sweden which is viewed as more genuinely socialist than China There is a growing consensus among them that in the Nordic countries the welfare state has been extraordinarily successful in eliminating poverty Andrew Vincent 2010 Modern Political Ideologies Wiley Blackwell ISBN 978 1 4051 5495 6 p 83 socialism n etymonline Online Etymology Dictionary Retrieved 3 May 2021 Leszek Kolakowski 2005 Main Currents of Marxism The Founders the Golden Age the Breakdown W W Norton p 151 ISBN 978 0 393 06054 6 a b Marvin Perry Myrna Chase Margaret Jacob James R Jacob Western Civilization Ideas Politics and Society From 1600 Volume 2 Ninth Edition Boston Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company 2009 p 540 Gregory Paul Stuart Robert 2013 The Global Economy and its Economic Systems South Western College Publishing p 159 ISBN 978 1 285 05535 0 Socialist writers of the nineteenth century proposed socialist arrangements for sharing as a response to the inequality and poverty of the industrial revolution English socialist Robert Owen proposed that ownership and production take place in cooperatives where all members shared equally French socialist Henri Saint Simon proposed to the contrary socialism meant solving economic problems by means of state administration and planning and taking advantage of new advances in science Oxford English Dictionary etymology of socialism Russell Bertrand 1972 A History of Western Philosophy Touchstone p 781 Williams Raymond 1983 Socialism Keywords A vocabulary of culture and society revised edition Oxford University Press p 288 ISBN 978 0 19 520469 8 Modern usage began to settle from the 1860s and in spite of the earlier variations and distinctions it was socialist and socialism which came through as the predominant words Communist in spite of the distinction that had been made in the 1840s was very much less used and parties in the Marxist tradition took some variant of social and socialist as titles Steele David 1992 From Marx to Mises Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation Open Court Publishing Company p 43 ISBN 978 0 87548 449 5 One widespread distinction was that socialism socialised production only while communism socialised production and consumption Steele David 1992 From Marx to Mises Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation Open Court Publishing Company pp 44 45 ISBN 978 0 87548 449 5 By 1888 the term socialism was in general use among Marxists who had dropped communism now considered an old fashioned term meaning the same as socialism At the turn of the century Marxists called themselves socialists The definition of socialism and communism as successive stages was introduced into Marxist theory by Lenin in 1917 the new distinction was helpful to Lenin in defending his party against the traditional Marxist criticism that Russia was too backward for a socialist revolution Busky Donald F 2000 Democratic Socialism A Global Survey Praeger p 9 ISBN 978 0 275 96886 1 In a modern sense of the word communism refers to the ideology of Marxism Leninism Williams Raymond 1983 Socialism Keywords A Vocabulary of Culture and Society revised ed Oxford University Press p 289 ISBN 978 0 19 520469 8 The decisive distinction between socialist and communist as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used came with the renaming in 1918 of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Bolsheviks as the All Russian Communist Party Bolsheviks From that time on a distinction of socialist from communist often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist became widely current although it is significant that all communist parties in line with earlier usage continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism Hudis Peter Vidal Matt Smith Tony Rotta Tomas Prew Paul eds September 2018 June 2019 The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx Marx s Concept of Socialism Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 069554 5 doi 10 1093 oxfordhb 9780190695545 001 0001 Williams Raymond 1976 Keywords A Vocabulary of Culture and Society Fontana ISBN 978 0 00 633479 8 Engels Frederick Preface to the 1888 English Edition of the Communist Manifesto p 202 Penguin 2002 Todorova Maria 2020 The Lost World of Socialists at Europe s Margins Imagining Utopia 1870s 1920s hardcover ed London Bloomsbury Academic ISBN 9781350150331 Wilson Fred John Stuart Mill Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 10 July 2007 Retrieved 2 August 2016 Mill in contrast advances a form of liberal democratic socialism for the enlargement of freedom as well as to realise social and distributive justice He offers a powerful account of economic injustice and justice that is centered on his understanding of freedom and its conditions Bruce Baum J S Mill and Liberal Socialism Nadia Urbanati and Alex Zacharas eds J S Mill s Political Thought A Bicentennial Reassessment Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2007 Principles of Political Economy with Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy IV 7 21 John Stuart Mill Political Economy IV 7 21 The form of association however which if mankind continue to improve must be expected in the end to predominate is not that which can exist between a capitalist as chief and work people without a voice in the management but the association of the labourers themselves on terms of equality collectively owning the capital with which they carry on their operations and working under managers elected and removable by themselves Robert Gildea 1848 in European Collective Memory in Evans and Strandmann eds The Revolutions in Europe 1848 1849 pp 207 235 Roger Boesche 2003 The First Great Political Realist Kautilya and His Arthashastra Lexington Books p 67 ISBN 978 0 7391 0607 5 Radhakumud Mookerji Chandragupta Maurya and His Times Motilal Banarsidass p 102 Kautiliya polity was based on a considerable amount of socialism and nationalisation of industries pp 276 77 A E Taylor Plato The Man and His Work Dover 2001 p 257 W D Ross Aristotle 6th ed A Short History of the World Progress Publishers Moscow 1974 Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World New York Oxford University Press 1995 p 19 ISBN 978 0 19 506613 5 OCLC 94030758 Abu Dharr al Ghifari Oxford Islamic Studies Online Retrieved 23 January 2010 And Once Again Abu Dharr Retrieved 15 August 2011 Hanna Sami A George H Gardner 1969 Arab Socialism A Documentary Survey Leiden E J Brill pp 273 74 Hanna Sami A 1969 al Takaful al Ijtimai and Islamic Socialism The Muslim World 59 3 4 275 86 doi 10 1111 j 1478 1913 1969 tb02639 x Archived from the original on 13 September 2010 The Gospels by Terry Eagleton 2007 Labour revives faith in Christian Socialism 21 May 1994 Archived from the original on 1 July 2018 Retrieved 1 July 2018 a b Thomas Kurian ed The Encyclopedia of Political Science CQ Press Washington D c 2011 p 1555 Paine Thomas 2004 Common sense with Agrarian justice Penguin ISBN 0 14 101890 9 pp 92 93 Blaug Mark 1986 Who s Who in Economics A Biographical Dictionary of Major Economists 1700 1986 The MIT Press p 358 ISBN 978 0 262 02256 9 Bonnett Alastair 2007 The Other Rights of Man The Revolutionary Plan of Thomas Spence History Today 57 9 42 48 Andrew Vincent Modern political ideologies Wiley Blackwell publishing 2010 p 88 Nik Brandal Oivind Bratberg and Dag Einar Thorsen The Nordic Model of Social Democracy Pallgrave Macmillan 2013 p 20 socialism Encyclopedia Britannica Socialism Encyclopedia Britannica Online The origins of socialism as a political movement lie in the Industrial Revolution a b c Adam Smith Fsmitha com Retrieved 2 June 2010 2 Birth of the Socialist Idea Anu edu au Archived from the original on 7 August 2006 Retrieved 2 June 2010 a b c Newman Michael 2005 Socialism A Very Short Introduction Oxford University Press ISBN 0 19 280431 6 In Fourier s system of Harmony all creative activity including industry craft agriculture etc will arise from liberated passion this is the famous theory of attractive labour Fourier sexualises work itself the life of the Phalanstery is a continual orgy of intense feeling intellection amp activity a society of lovers amp wild enthusiasts The Harmonian does not live with some 1600 people under one roof because of compulsion or altruism but because of the sheer pleasure of all the social sexual economic gastrosophic cultural amp creative relations this association allows amp encourages The Lemonade Ocean amp Modern Times A Position Paper by Hakim Bey Rougerie Jacques La Commune de Paris Paris Presses Universitaires de France ISBN 978 2 13 062078 5 Milza Pierre La Commune Blin Arnaud 2007 The History of Terrorism Berkeley University of California Press p 116 ISBN 978 0 520 24709 3 It is unnecessary to repeat the accounts of the Geneva and Hague Congresses of the International in which the issues between Marx and Bakunin were fought out and the organisation itself split apart into the dying Marxist rump centered around the New York General Council and the anti authoritarian majority centred around the Bakuninist Jura Federation But it is desirable to consider some of the factors underlying the final emergence of a predominantly anarchist International in 1872 George Woodcock Anarchism A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements 1962 p 243 Errico Malatesta A Talk About Anarchist Communism Between Two Workers Anarchy Archives Archived from the original on 10 January 2010 Retrieved 14 April 2016 Nunzio Pernicone Italian Anarchism 1864 1892 pp 111 13 AK Press 2009 James Guillaume Michael Bakunin A Biographical Sketch a b c d Socialism at Encyclopedia Britannica Syndicalism Definition and More from the Free Merriam Webster Dictionary merriam webster com Wiarda Howard J Corporatism and comparative politics M E Sharpe 1996 pp 65 66 156 Rocker Rudolf Anarcho Syndicalism Theory and Practice AK Press 2004 p 73 Cole Margaret 1961 The Story of Fabian Socialism Stanford University Press ISBN 978 0 8047 0091 7 Discovering Imperialism Social Democracy to World War I 25 November 2011 p 249 the pro imperialist majority led by Sidney Webb and George Bernard Shaw advanced an intellectual justification for central control by the British Empire arguing that existing institutions should simply work more efficiently Guild Socialism Encyclopedia Britannica Hewes Amy 1922 Guild Socialism A Two Years Test The American Economic Review 12 2 209 237 ISSN 0002 8282 JSTOR 1802623 SECOND SOCIALIST INTERNATIONAL 1889 1923 organizational history marxisthistory org Retrieved 11 October 2021 a b George Woodcock Anarchism A History of Libertarian Ideas and Movements 1962 pp 263 64 Marx Engels Communist Manifesto Selected Works p 52 Rubio Jose Luis Las internacionales obreras en America Madrid 1971 p 49 Kowalski Werner Geschichte der sozialistischen arbeiter internationale 1923 19 Berlin Dt Verl d Wissenschaften 1985 p 286 Rhodes Campbell 30 April 2013 A perfect picture of the statesman John Christian Watson Museum of Australian Democracy Retrieved 1 March 2020 Adult Children of the Dream The Jerusalem Post JPost com James C Docherty Historical dictionary of socialism The Scarecrow Press Inc London 1997 p 144 Commanding Heights Lenin s Critique of Global Capitalism Pbs org Retrieved 30 November 2010 Lenin Vladimir Meeting of the Petrograd Soviet of workers and soldiers deputies 25 January 1918 Collected works Vol 26 p 239 Lawrence and Wishart 1964 Lenin Vladimir To workers Soldiers and Peasants Collected works Vol 26 p 247 Lawrence and Wishart 1964 Lenin Vladimir Collected Works Vol 26 pp 264 65 Lawrence and Wishart 1964 Caplan Brian Lenin and the First Communist Revolutions IV George Mason University Retrieved 14 February 2008 Strictly the Right Socialist Revolutionaries won whereas the Left Socialist Revolutionaries were in alliance with the Bolsheviks Declaration of the RSDLP Bolsheviks group at the Constituent Assembly meeting 5 January 1918 Lenin Collected Works Vol 26 p 429 Lawrence and Wishart 1964 Draft Decree on the Dissolution of the Constituent Assembly Lenin Collected Works Vol 26 p 434 Lawrence and Wishart 1964 Payne Robert The Life and Death of Lenin Grafton paperback pp 425 40 Lamb amp Docherty 2006 p 77 Famine in Russia 1921 1922 Warwick University Modern Records Centre Retrieved 27 September 2021 Mark B Tauger Natural Disaster and Human Actions in the Soviet Famine of 1931 1933 PDF Archived from the original PDF on 24 August 2012 Retrieved 27 January 2013 Ther Philipp 2016 Europe since 1989 A History Princeton University Press p 132 ISBN 978 0 691 16737 4 Stalinist regimes aimed to catapult the predominantly agrarian societies into the modern age by swift industrialization At the same time they hoped to produce politically loyal working classes by mass employment in large state industries Steelworks were built in Eisenhuttenstadt GDR Nowa Huta Poland Kosice Slovakia and Miskolc Hungary as were various mechanical engineering and chemical combines and other industrial sites As a result of communist modernization living standards in Eastern Europe rose Planned economies moreover meant that wages salaries and the prices of consumer goods were fixed Although the communists were not able to cancel out all regional differences they succeeded in creating largely egalitarian societies Bertil Hessel Introduction Theses Resolutions and Manifestos of the first four congresses of the Third International pxiii Ink Links 1980 We have always proclaimed and repeated this elementary truth of Marxism that the victory of socialism requires the joint efforts of workers in a number of advanced countries Lenin Sochineniya Works 5th ed Vol XLIV p 418 February 1922 Quoted by Mosche Lewin in Lenin s Last Struggle p 4 Pluto 1975 The Munich Soviet or Council Republic of 1919 exhibited certain features of the TAZ even though like most revolutions its stated goals were not exactly temporary Gustav Landauer s participation as Minister of Culture along with Silvio Gesell as Minister of Economics and other anti authoritarian and extreme libertarian socialists such as the poet playwrights Erich Muhsam and Ernst Toller and Ret Marut the novelist B Traven gave the Soviet a distinct anarchist flavor Hakim Bey T A Z The Temporary Autonomous Zone Ontological Anarchy Poetic Terrorism Gaab Jeffrey S 2006 Munich Hofbrauhaus amp History Beer Culture amp Politics Peter Lang p 59 ISBN 978 0 8204 8606 2 p 365 Taylor Edumund The Fall of the Dynasties The Collapse of Old Order 1963 Weidenfeld amp Nicolson Paul Werner Paul Frolich Die Bayerische Raterepublik Tatsachen und Kritik p 144 Janos Andrew C amp Slottman William editors Revolution in perspective essays on the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919 Center for Slavic and East European Studies University of California Berkeley 1971 Jack A Goldstone 2015 The Encyclopedia of Political Revolutions Routledge p 227 ISBN 9781135937584 Peter F Sugar Peter Hanak Tibor Frank 1994 A History of Hungary Indiana University Press ISBN 9780253208675 Werth Nicolas Bartosek Karel Panne Jean Louis Margolin Jean Louis Paczkowski Andrzej Courtois Stephane 1999 Black Book of Communism Crimes Terror Repression Harvard University Press ISBN 0 674 07608 7 Donald Rayfield Stalin and His Hangmen The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him New York Random House 2004 p 83 Complete Destruction of National Groups as Groups The Crimean Turks International Committee for Crimea Retrieved 20 August 2021 Borsanyi The Life of a Communist Revolutionary pp x 436 New information about death of Bela Kun from BBC transmission of Hungarian Telegraph Agency in English 14 February 1989 Brunella Dalla Casa Composizione di classe rivendicazioni e professionalita nelle lotte del biennio rosso a Bologna in AA VV Bologna 1920 le origini del fascismo a cura di Luciano Casali Cappelli Bologna 1982 p 179 1918 1921 The Italian factory occupations and Biennio Rosso libcom org Archived from the original on 5 November 2011 The Unione Sindacale Italiana grew to 800 000 members and the influence of the Italian Anarchist 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toneangivende i politikkutformingen over lengre tid Ferragina Emanuele Seeleib Kaiser Martin October 2011 Welfare Regime Debate Past Present Futures Policy and Politics Policy Press 39 4 583 611 doi 10 1332 030557311X603592 Retrieved 5 August 2020 a b Dolvik Jon Erik Tone Flotten Jon M Hippe Bard Jordfald 2014 Den nordiske modellen mot 2030 Et nytt kapittel Fafo rapport 2014 46 in Norwegian Bokmal Fafo Retrieved 30 November 2019 Brandal Nik Bratberg Oivind Thorsen Dag 2013 The Nordic model of social democracy Springer Moene Karl Ove Wallerstein Michael 2006 Social democracy as a development strategy In Pranab K Bardhan Samuel Bowles Michael Wallerstein eds Globalization and egalitarian redistribution pp 148 168 Byrkjeflot Haldor 2001 The Nordic model of democracy and management The democratic challenge to capitalism Management and democracy in the Nordic countries pp 19 45 Pontusson Jonas 24 August 2011 Once Again A Model Nordic Social Democracy in a Globalized World In Shoch James Ross George W Cronin James E eds What s Left of the Left Democrats and Social Democrats in Challenging Times Duke University Press pp 89 115 ISBN 978 0 19 932251 0 Hernes Gudmund 1978 Makt blandingsokonomi og blandingsadministrasjon In Gudmund Hernes ed Forhandlingsokonomi og blandingsadministrasjon Oslo Universitetsforlaget Maeland John Gunnar Hatland Aksel Pedersen Axel West 14 October 2019 folketrygden Store norske leksikon in Norwegian Bokmal retrieved 19 August 2020 Jenssen Dag 2005 Fra union til sosialdemokrati Nytt Norsk Tidsskrift in Norwegian 22 4 459 463 doi 10 18261 ISSN1504 3053 2005 04 11 ISSN 1504 3053 Mjoset Lars Cappelen Adne 2011 The Integration of the Norwegian Oil Economy into the World Economy The Nordic Varieties of Capitalism Comparative Social Research 28 pp 167 263 doi 10 1108 S0195 6310 2011 0000028008 ISBN 978 0 85724 777 3 Hall Peter A Gingerich Daniel W 2009 Varieties of Capitalism and Institutional Complementarities in the Political Economy An Empirical Analysis British Journal of Political Science 39 3 449 482 doi 10 1017 S0007123409000672 hdl 11858 00 001M 0000 002D D630 E ISSN 0007 1234 JSTOR 27742754 S2CID 6709114 Georgakas Dan 1992 The Hollywood Blacklist Encyclopedia of the American Left paperback ed Champaign Illinois University of Illinois Press ISBN 9780252062506 Hirsch Donald Kett Joseph F Trefil James S 2002 The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy Houghton Mifflin Harcourt p 316 ISBN 978 0 618 22647 4 Eastern Bloc The name applied to the former communist states of eastern Europe including Yugoslavia and Albania as well as the countries of the Warsaw Pact Satyendra Kush 2003 Encyclopaedic dictionary of political science Sarup amp Sons p 65 ISBN 978 81 7890 071 1 the countries of Eastern Europe under communism Compare Janzen Jorg Taraschewski Thomas 2009 Shahshahani Suhayla ed Cities of Pilgrimage Iuaes series 4 Munster LIT Verlag p 190 ISBN 978 3 8258 1618 6 Retrieved 21 December 2012 Until 1990 despite being a formally independent state Mongolia had de facto been an integral part of the Soviet dominated Eastern Bloc John Rettie The day Khrushchev denounced Stalin BBC 18 February 2006 Within the Italian Communist Party PCI a split ensued most ordinary members and the Party leadership including Palmiro Togliatti and Giorgio Napolitano regarded the Hungarian insurgents as counter revolutionaries as reported in l Unita the official PCI newspaper The following are references in English on the conflicting positions of l Unita Antonio Giolitti and party boss Palmiro Togliatti Giuseppe Di Vittorio and Pietro Nenni However Giuseppe Di Vittorio chief of the Communist trade union CGIL repudiated the leadership position as did the prominent party members Antonio Giolitti Loris Fortuna and many other influential communist intellectuals who later were expelled or left the party Pietro Nenni the national secretary of the Italian Socialist Party a close ally of the PCI opposed the Soviet intervention as well Napolitano elected in 2006 as President of the Italian Republic wrote in his 2005 political autobiography that he regretted his justification of Soviet action in Hungary and that at the time he believed in party unity and the international leadership of Soviet communism Napolitano Giorgio 2005 Dal Pci al socialismo europeo Un autobiografia politica From the Communist Party to European Socialism A political autobiography in Italian Laterza ISBN 978 88 420 7715 2 Within the Communist Party of Great Britain CPGB dissent that began with the repudiation of Stalin by John Saville and E P Thompson influential historians and members of the Communist Party Historians Group culminated in a loss of thousands of party members as events unfolded in Hungary Peter Fryer correspondent for the CPGB newspaper The Daily Worker reported accurately on the violent suppression of the uprising but his dispatches were heavily censored Fryer resigned from the paper upon his return and was later expelled from the Communist Party Fryer Peter 1957 Hungarian Tragedy London D Dobson Chapter 9 The Second Soviet Intervention ASIN B0007J7674 In France moderate Communists such as historian Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie resigned questioning the policy of supporting Soviet actions by the French Communist Party The French anarchist philosopher and writer Albert Camus wrote an open letter The Blood of the Hungarians criticising the West s lack of action Even Jean Paul Sartre still a determined Communist Party member criticised the Soviets in his article Le Fantome de Staline in Situations VII Sartre Jean Paul 1956 L intellectuel et les communistes francais in French permanent dead link Le Web de l Humanite 21 June 2005 Retrieved 24 October 2006 Appadorai A 1968 Recent Socialist Thought in India The Review of Politics 30 3 349 362 doi 10 1017 S0034670500041024 JSTOR 1406397 Dirlik Arif 2005 The Marxism in the Chinese revolution Rowman amp Littlefield p 20 ISBN 978 0 7425 3069 0 School of Politics and International Relations University of Southern California Von KleinSmid Institute of International Affairs 1988 Studies in Comparative Communism 21 Butterworth Heinemann p 134 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Smil V 1999 China s great famine 40 years later BMJ Clinical Research Ed 319 7225 1619 1621 doi 10 1136 bmj 319 7225 1619 PMC 1127087 PMID 10600969 Dikotter Frank Mao s Great Famine The History of China s Most Devastating Catastrophe 1958 62 Walker amp Company 2010 p xii at least 45 million people died unnecessarily p xiii 6 to 8 percent of the victims were tortured to death or summarily killed amounting to at least 2 5 million people p 333 a minimum of 45 million excess deaths ISBN 0 8027 7768 6 Non Aligned Movement Definition Mission amp Facts Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 10 July 2020 Friedland William Rosberg Jr Carl 1964 African Socialism California Stanford University Press p 3 Cuba Marks 50 Years Since Triumphant Revolution NPR org 1 January 2009 Retrieved 11 October 2021 Robinson Geoffrey B 2018 The Killing Season A History of the Indonesian Massacres 1965 66 Princeton University Press p 203 ISBN 978 1 4008 8886 3 a US Embassy official in Jakarta Robert Martens had supplied the Indonesian Army with lists containing the names of thousands of PKI officials in the months after the alleged coup attempt According to the journalist Kathy Kadane As many as 5 000 names were furnished over a period of months to the Army there and the Americans later checked off the names of those who had been killed or captured Despite Martens later denials of any such intent these actions almost certainly aided in the death or detention of many innocent people They also sent a powerful message that the US government agreed with and supported the army s campaign against the PKI even as that campaign took its terrible toll in human lives a b Bevins Vincent 2020 The Jakarta Method Washington s Anticommunist Crusade and the Mass Murder Program that Shaped Our World PublicAffairs pp 238 240 ISBN 978 1541742406 Roosa John 2006 Pretext for Mass Murder 30 September Movement and Suharto s Coup d Etat in Indonesia Madison Wisconsin The University of Wisconsin Press ISBN 978 0 299 22034 1 Simpson Bradley 2010 Economists with Guns Authoritarian Development and U S Indonesian Relations 1960 1968 Stanford University Press p 193 ISBN 978 0 8047 7182 5 Washington did everything in its power to encourage and facilitate the army led massacre of alleged PKI members and U S officials worried only that the killing of the party s unarmed supporters might not go far enough permitting Sukarno to return to power and frustrate the Johnson Administration s emerging plans for a post Sukarno Indonesia Mark Aarons 2007 Justice Betrayed Post 1945 Responses to Genocide In David A Blumenthal and Timothy L H McCormack eds The Legacy of Nuremberg Civilising Influence or Institutionalised Vengeance International Humanitarian Law Archived 5 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine Martinus Nijhoff Publishers pp 80 81 ISBN 90 04 15691 7 Farid Hilmar 2005 Indonesia s original sin mass killings and capitalist expansion 1965 66 Inter Asia Cultural Studies 6 1 3 16 doi 10 1080 1462394042000326879 S2CID 145130614 Robinson Geoffrey B 2018 The Killing Season A History of the Indonesian Massacres 1965 66 Princeton University Press p 177 ISBN 978 1 4008 8886 3 Archived from the original on 19 April 2019 Retrieved 1 August 2018 Bevins Vincent 20 October 2017 What the United States Did in Indonesia The Atlantic Retrieved 17 September 2021 a b Carmines Edward G and Geoffrey C Layman 1997 Issue Evolution in Postwar American Politics In Byron Shafer ed Present Discontents NJ Chatham House Publishers Cynthia Kaufman 2003 Ideas for Action Relevant Theory for Radical Change South End Press p 275 ISBN 978 0 89608 693 7 Todd Gitlin The Left s Lost Universalism In Arthur M Melzer Jerry Weinberger and M Richard Zinman eds Politics at the Turn of the Century pp 3 26 Lanham MD Rowman amp Littlefield 2001 Farred Grant 2000 Endgame Identity Mapping the New Left Roots of Identity Politics New Literary History 31 4 627 48 doi 10 1353 nlh 2000 0045 JSTOR 20057628 S2CID 144650061 Jeffrey W Coker Confronting American Labor The New Left Dilemma Univ of Missouri Press 2002 Pearson Hugh 1994 In the Shadow of the Panther Huey Newton and the Price of Black Power in America Perseus Books p 152 ISBN 978 0 201 48341 3 Isserman Maurice 2001 The Other American The Life of Michael Harrington Public Affairs p 281 ISBN 978 1 58648 036 3 There must be a better distribution of wealth and maybe America must move toward a democratic socialism Franklin Robert Michael 1990 Liberating Visions Human Fulfillment and Social Justice in African American Thought Fortress Press p 125 ISBN 978 0 8006 2392 0 a b c Devlin Kevin Western CPs Condemn Invasion Hail Prague Spring Blinken Open Society Archives Retrieved 8 September 2021 Andrew Mitrokhin 2005 p 444 Harvey David 2005 A Brief History of Neoliberalism Oxford University Press p 7 ISBN 978 0 19 928327 9 Richard P McBrien Catholicism Harper Collins 1994 chapter IV Socialism at Encyclopedia Britannica Online One manifestation of this connection was liberation theology sometimes characterised as an attempt to marry Marx and Jesus which emerged among Roman Catholic theologians in Latin America in the 1960s Profile of Salvador Allende BBC 8 September 2003 Robert Buddan 8 March 2009 Michael Manley nation builder Jamaica Gleaner Archived from the original on 25 January 2012 Retrieved 11 January 2012 Where Would Jamaica Be Without Michael Manley Jamaica Gleaner 12 August 2012 Retrieved 11 March 2013 Louis Proyect Nicaragua discusses among other things the reforms and the degree to which socialism was intended or achieved Agrarian Productive Structure in Nicaragua SOLA MONSERRAT Roser 1989 p 69 and ss Louis Proyect Nicaragua about 4 5 of the way down B Arrien Juan Literacy in Nicaragua PDF UNESCO Retrieved 1 August 2007 Wood Elizabeth 2003 Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador Cambridge Cambridge University Press James C Docherty Historical dictionary of socialism The Scarecrow Press Inc London 1997 pp 181 82 Webster Dictionary Definition of Eurocommunism Dictionary Entry Webster s Dictionary Retrieved 9 April 2013 Paolo Virno Michael Hardt Radical Thought in Italy A Potential Politics Minnesota Press 2006 ISBN 978 0 8166 4924 2 Sylvere Lotringer amp Christian Marazzi ed Autonomia Post Political Politics New York Semiotext e 1980 2007 The Dictionary of Contemporary Politics of South America Routledge 1989 Hart Landsberg Martin and Burkett Paul China and Socialism Market Reforms and Class Struggle Monthly Review Retrieved 30 October 2008 China s Average Economic Growth in 90s Ranked 1st in World People s Daily 1 March 2000 Retrieved 10 July 2013 a b Stowe Judy 28 April 1998 Obituary Nguyen Van Linh The Independent London p 20 a b Ackland Len 20 March 1988 Long after U S war Vietnam is still a mess St Petersburg Times Florida p 2 D Murray Geoffrey 1997 Vietnam Dawn of a New Market New York St Martin s Press pp 24 25 ISBN 0 312 17392 X Loan Hoang Thi Bich 18 April 2007 Consistently pursuing the socialist orientation in developing the market economy in Vietnam Communist Review TạpchiCộngsản org vn Archived from the original on 10 May 2011 a b 1 Klein Naomi 2008 The Shock Doctrine The Rise of Disaster Capitalism Picador ISBN 0 312 42799 9 p 276 Philip Whyman Mark Baimbridge and Andrew Mullen 2012 The Political Economy of the European Social Model Routledge Studies in the European Economy Routledge ISBN 0 415 47629 1 p 108 In short Gorbachev aimed to lead the Soviet Union towards the Scandinavian social democratic model 1990 CIA World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Retrieved 9 March 2008 a b Michael Ray Why Did the Soviet Union Collapse Britannica Retrieved 25 September 2021 Richard Parket June 1990 Inside the Collapsing Soviet Economy The Atlantic The peculiar fact is that the Soviet Union produces an enormous abundance of goods When you look at primary production in what is still the world s second largest economy the Soviets come out first globally year after year in things like oil natural gas iron ore and steel Oldfield J D 2000 Structural economic change and the natural environment in the Russian Federation Post Communist Economies 12 1 77 90 D J Peterson 1993 Troubled Lands The Legacy of Soviet Environmental Destruction A Rand Research Study Westview Press ISBN 978 0 8133 1674 1 Retrieved 3 April 2016 Appel Hilary Orenstein Mitchell A 2018 From Triumph to Crisis Neoliberal Economic Reform in Postcommunist Countries Cambridge University Press p 3 ISBN 978 1 108 43505 5 a b Scheidel Walter 2017 The Great Leveler Violence and the History of Inequality from the Stone Age to the Twenty First Century Princeton University Press pp 51 222 23 ISBN 978 0 691 16502 8 Following the dissolution of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and then of the Soviet Union itself in late 1991 exploding poverty drove the surge in income inequality within three years the proportion of people living in poverty had tripled to more than a third of Russia s population By the time of the financial crisis of 1998 their share had grown to almost 60 percent Yet over the longer term rising inequality has been boosted by the decompression of wage incomes much of it resulting from growing regional variation Strongly disproportionate income growth in Moscow and in oil and gas rich parts of the country point to the successful capture of rents by those in the highest income brackets Wealth concentration at the very top had been made possible by the transfer of state assets to private owners See Privatisation raised death rate BBC 15 January 2009 Retrieved 24 November 2018 Rosefielde Steven 2001 Premature Deaths Russia s Radical Economic Transition in Soviet Perspective Europe Asia Studies 53 8 1159 1176 doi 10 1080 09668130120093174 S2CID 145733112 Vlassov Vasiliy Vishnevsky Anatoly 11 April 2017 Privatisation and mortality in Russia Public Health The Lancet 2 5 e207 e208 doi 10 1016 S2468 2667 17 30071 3 PMID 29253482 Azarova Aytalina Irdam Darja Gugushvili Alexi Fazekas Mihaly 11 April 2017 The effect of rapid privatisation on mortality in mono industrial towns in post Soviet Russia a retrospective cohort study Public Health The Lancet 2 5 e231 e238 doi 10 1016 S2468 2667 17 30072 5 PMC 5459934 PMID 28626827 Vladimir Popov 5 June 2018 Mortality and life expectancy in post communist countries The Dialogue of Civilizations Research Institute Final Report Summary PRIVMORT The Impact of Privatization on the Mortality Crisis in Eastern Europe European Research Council 31 August 2017 Archived from the original on 6 October 2021 Retrieved 6 October 2021 we believe the findings provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that rapid privatisation contributed to elevated levels of working age male mortality Ghodsee Kristen 2017 Red Hangover Legacies of Twentieth Century Communism Duke University Press pp 63 64 ISBN 978 0 8223 6949 3 Appel Hilary Orenstein Mitchell A 2018 From Triumph to Crisis Neoliberal Economic Reform in Postcommunist Countries Cambridge University Press p 36 ISBN 978 1 108 43505 5 Milanovic Branko 2015 After the Wall Fell The Poor Balance Sheet of the Transition to Capitalism Challenge 58 2 135 138 doi 10 1080 05775132 2015 1012402 S2CID 153398717 So what is the balan, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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