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Socialist Republic of Serbia

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The Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian:Социјалистичка Република Србија / Socijalistička Republika Srbija), previously known as the People's Republic of Serbia (Serbian:Народна Република Србија / Narodna Republika Srbija, lit.'National Republic of Serbia'), was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. Its formation was initiated in 1941, and achieved in 1944–1946, when it was established as a federated republic within Yugoslavia. In that form, it lasted until the constitutional reforms from 1990 to 1992, when it was reconstituted, as the Republic of Serbia within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. It was the largest constituent state of Yugoslavia, in terms of population and territory. Its capital, Belgrade, was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia.

  • People's Republic of Serbia (1944–1963)
  • Народна Република Србија(Serbian)
  • Narodna Republika Srbija(Serbo-Croatian)

  • Socialist Republic of Serbia (1963–1990)
  • Социјалистичка Република Србија(Serbian)
  • Socijalistička Republika Srbija(Serbo-Croatian)

1944–1992
Flag (1947–1992)
Emblem (1947–1992)
Anthem:
Serbia within Yugoslavia in 1990
StatusConstituent state of Yugoslavia
CapitalBelgrade
Common languagesSerbo-Croatian (Serbian variant)
Hungarian
Albanian
Government1944–1948:
Marxist–Leninist one-party socialist republic
1948–1990:
Titoist one-party socialist republic
1990–1992:
Dominant-party parliamentary republic
Head of state
• 1944–1953 (first)
Siniša Stanković
• 1989–1990 (last)
Slobodan Milošević
Head of government
• 1945–1948 (first)
Blagoje Nešković
• 1989–1990 (last)
Stanko Radmilović
LegislatureNational Assembly
Historical eraCold War, World War II
ASNOS
9–12 November 1944
8 May 1945
28 September 1990
27 April 1992
HDI(1991) 0.719
high
ISO 3166 codeRS

Contents

Map of Federated State of Serbia (1945), with Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija
Further information: History of Serbia

World War II

After the collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the April War (1941), the entire country was occupied and partitioned between Axis powers. Central territories of Serbia and the northern region of Banat were occupied by Nazi Germany, that enforced direct control over the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia, with a puppet Government installed in Belgrade. Southern regions of Metohija and Kosovo were occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed into the Italian Albania. Region of Bačka was annexed by Hungary, while Syrmia was possessed by the Independent State of Croatia. Southeastern parts of Serbia were occupied by Bulgaria.

At the beginning of the occupation, there were two resistance movements: Chetniks and Partisans. They had conflicting ideological and political programs, and by 1943, Chetniks started to collaborate with Axis forces. Partisans advocated transformation of Yugoslavia into a federation, with Serbia becoming one of its federal units. In the autumn of 1941, first provisional institutions were established by partisans in some liberated territories, headed by the Main National Liberation Committee for Serbia. It was seated in Užice, and thus the movement became known as the Republic of Užice. However, the German offensive crushed this proto-state in December of the same year. After that, main partisan forces moved to Bosnia.

People's Republic of Serbia

Flag of the Federated State of Serbia, in 1945

Serbia was liberated in the autumn of 1944, by partisan forces and the Red Army. Soon after the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October, creation of new administration was initiated. In November 1944, the Anti-fascist Assembly for the People's Liberation of Serbia was convened, affirming the policy of reconstituting Yugoslavia as a federation, with Serbia as one of its federal units. Thus was laid the foundation for the creation of the Federated State of Serbia (Serbian:Федерална Држава Србија), as a federated state within new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia.

The process was formalized in April 1945, when the provisional People's Assembly of Serbia was created, also appointing the first People's Government of Serbia. Within Serbia, two autonomous units were created: Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija. On November 29 (1945), Yugoslavia was officially proclaimed as federal republic, and in January 1946, after the first Constitution of federal Yugoslavia was adopted, the Federated State of Serbia was renamed to People's Republic of Serbia (Serbian:Народна Република Србија / Narodna Republika Srbija).

In November 1946, elections for the Constitutional Assembly of Serbia were held, and in January 1947, Constitution of Serbia was adopted, reaffirming its position within Yugoslav federation, and also regulating the position of autonomous units (Vojvodina as autonomous province; Kosovo and Metohija as autonomous region). In 1953, a constitutional law was adopted, introducing further social reforms.

By that time, internal political life in Serbia was fully dominated by the Communist Party of Serbia, formed in May 1945 as a branch of the ruling Communist Party of Yugoslavia. In order to suppress remaining monarchist opposition, communists initiated the creation of a wider political coalition, thus establishing the People's Front of Yugoslavia (PFY), in August 1945. Other political parties were soon dissolved, and remnants of political life were constrained within the PFY, that was under full control of the ruling Communist Party.

Socialist Republic of Serbia

Aleksandar Ranković, vice-president of ASNOS and Peoples's Assembly (1944–1946), and vice-president of Yugoslavia (1963–1966)

In 1963, new Yugoslav Constitution was adopted, renaming the federal state into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and its federal units into socialist republics, thus introducing the name: Socialist Republic of Serbia (Serbian:Социјалистичка Република Србија).

In 1966, one of the most prominent Serbs in the Communist party and also vice-president of Yugoslavia (1963–1966) and founder of Yugoslav intelligence agency OZNA, Aleksandar Ranković was removed from positions due to allegations of spying on SFRY President Josip Broz Tito.

After the Croatian Spring in 1971, almost whole party leadership of Serbia was removed from office, under the charge of being "liberal". Latinka Perović and Marko Nikezić were marked as leaders of this liberal movement inside League of Communists of Serbia.

In 1974, new constitution was adopted, increasing the powers of provinces, and making them de facto republics. For the first time the institution of president was formed, as President of the Presidency of Socialist Republic of Serbia. Assembly was electing 15 members of the presidency and one president for a 4 -year term, and later 2-year term. The new constitution practically suspended Serbia's authority over the provinces.

After the new constitution was adopted, mistakes became obvious. Dragoslav Marković, then President of Serbia ordered a secret study on this issue. The study was completed in 1977 and was named The Blue Book.

For most of its existence in the SFRY, Serbia was loyal and generally subordinate to the federal government. This changed after the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980, when Albanian, as well as Serbian nationalism in Kosovo arose. In 1981 a major protests erupted in Kosovo demanding the status of republic. The League of Communists was split on how to respond. At the same time, economic crisis in Yugoslavia started. The leaders of the country were unable to make any reforms, thanks to the political instability.

President of League of Communists of Serbia Slobodan Milošević visited Kosovo in April 1987 and promised rapid action in order to protect peace and Serbs of Kosovo. Ethnic tensions in Kosovo were heated up when Kosovo Albanian soldier opened fire on his fellow soldiers in Paraćin, in an event known as Paraćin massacre. Then President of Serbia Ivan Stambolić wanted to make compromise, rather than fast solution. He found himself in a clash with Milošević. This conflict culminated with 8th Session and replacement of Stambolić with Petar Gračanin as President of Serbia.

Constitutional reform

In 1988, new amendments to the Yugoslav Constitution were adopted, initiating a process of democratization. During 1988 and 1989, a successful round of coups in the Communist party leadership, known as Antibureucratic revolution, in Vojvodina, Kosovo as well as Montenegro, replaced autonomous leaderships in this regions. The coups were led by Slobodan Milošević; supporter of Serbian nationalism. The events were condemned by the communist governments of the western Yugoslav republics (especially SR Slovenia and SR Croatia), who successfully resisted the attempts to expand the revolt onto their territories, and turned against Milošević. The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990, and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia.

In 1989, Slobodan Milošević was elected as President of the State Presidency of Serbia. He demanded that the federal Yugoslav government act for the interests of Serbia in Kosovo by sending in the Yugoslav People's Army to suppress separatism in the province. At the same time, several reforms of federal electoral system were proposed, with Serbia supporting a "one-citizen, one-vote" system, which would have given a majority of votes to Serbs. By that time, ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia increased, and the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia collapsed, followed by the crisis of federal institutions. After these events, in 1989 Assembly of Socialist Republic of Serbia voted for constitution amendments that revoked high autonomy for provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo.

After Slovenian authorities forbid a group of Serbs supporting his politics to gather in Ljubljana, Milosević started a trade war with Socialist Republic of Slovenia in late 1989. This Serbian-Slovenian conflict culminated in January 1990 on 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia when Slovenians left the meeting followed by Croatian delegates.

After 1990, the state was known simply as Republic of Serbia (Serbian:Република Србија / Republika Srbija), and in December of the same year, Slobodan Milošević was elected as first President of the Republic. In 1992, when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed, Serbia became one of its two constituent republics. In 2003 this state union was re-formed into Serbia and Montenegro, and in 2006 Serbia became an independent republic after Montenegro separated.

Administrative divisions of SR Serbia 1974–1990

Within Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provinces existed: Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo. The central part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia located outside of the two autonomous provinces was generally known as "Serbia proper" ("Uža Srbija").

Geographically SR Serbia bordered Hungary to the north, Romania and Bulgaria to the east and Albania to the south-west. Within Yugoslavia, it bordered SR Macedonia to the south and SR Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia to the west.

1971 census

In 1971, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 8,446,590 people, including:

1981 census

In 1981, total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 9,313,677 people, including:

During the socialist era in Yugoslavia, the only legal political party was the League of Communists of Serbia (SKS), which was part of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia (SKJ). The party remained relatively stable and loyal to the federal party until the late 1980s, when the party became split over what action to take in Kosovo when protests and fights broke out between ethnic Albanians and Serbs.

The more traditional Communists supported President Ivan Stambolić, who advocated continued neutrality as a means to solve the dispute; while more radical and nationalist-leaning members supported Slobodan Milosević, who advocated the protection of Kosovo Serbs, who had claimed that their population was being pressured to leave Kosovo by Albanian separatists. Milosević utilized public sentiment and opposition to Kosovo Albanian separatism to rally large numbers of supporters to help him overthrow the Communist leadership in Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro in what was known as the anti-bureaucratic revolution. Afterward, the Serbian League of Communists selected Milosević as its leader. Milosević took a hard stand on Albanian nationalism in Kosovo and pressured the Yugoslav government to give him emergency powers to deal with Kosovo Albanian separatists. Furthermore, he reduced the autonomy of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and installed politicians loyal to him to serve as their representatives.

In the congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists in 1990, Milosević and his subordinate representatives for Vojvodina, Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro attempted to silence opposition from the Socialist Republic of Slovenia who opposed the actions taken against Kosovo Albanian leadership, by blocking all reforms proposed by the Slovene representatives. The tactic failed and Slovenia, along with its ally Croatia, abdicated from the Yugoslav Communist Party. This caused the Yugoslav Communist party to fall apart, and then the state of Yugoslavia itself one year later.

Since 1945, the most senior state official in Serbia, and thus de facto head of state, was President of the People's Assembly of Serbia, who also presided over the collective Presidency of the People's Assembly (1945–1953), and Presidency of the Assembly (1953–1990). In 1974, new Constitution of Serbia was adopted, and collective state presidency was formed, not as a committee of the Assembly, but as a supreme governing body. Since then, President of the Presidency served as the most senior state official of the Socialist Republic of Serbia. At first, President was elected for 4 years mandate, but in 1982 it was lowered to 2 years.

Main executive body, since 1945, was the People's Government of Serbia. In 1953, it was renamed as the Executive Council of Serbia. It served as the executive branch of the People's Assembly. President of the Executive Council had a role of Prime Minister.

Presidents

Petar Stambolić, President of the National Assembly of Serbia (1953–1957)

Prime Ministers

Blagoje Nešković, President of the People's Government of Serbia (1945–1948)
  1. Pavlowitch 2002.
  2. Cox 2002.
  3. Ćirković 2004.
  4. Ćirković 2004, p. 260-270.
  5. Ćirković 2004, p. 270-271.
  6. Pavlowitch 2002, p. 153-154.
  7. Ćirković 2004, p. 273.
  8. Pavlowitch 2002, p. 159.
  9. Ćirković 2004, p. 274.
  10. National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia: After Second World War
  11. Pavlowitch 2002, p. 154.
  12. Cox 2002, p. 103-104.
  13. Pavlowitch 2002, p. 170-171.
  14. Cox 2002, p. 107.
  15. Pavlowitch 2002, p. 172.
  16. Cox 2002, p. 107-108.
  17. "UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST: Yugoslavia; A Sign of Bad Times in Yugoslavia: Trade War Between Two Republics". The New York Times. 28 January 1990.
  18. Miller 2005, p. 529–581.
  19. From the Great Anti-Fascist People’s Liberation Assembly of Serbia to the Constitution of the People’s Republic of Serbia (November 1944–January 1947)
  20. National Assembly of the People’s Republic of Serbia (1947-1963)
  21. Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Serbia (1963-1974)

Socialist Republic of Serbia
Socialist Republic of Serbia Language Watch Edit This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Socialist Republic of Serbia news newspapers books scholar JSTOR December 2009 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Socialist Republic of Serbia Serbian Sociјalistichka Republika Srbiјa Socijalisticka Republika Srbija previously known as the People s Republic of Serbia Serbian Narodna Republika Srbiјa Narodna Republika Srbija lit National Republic of Serbia was one of the six constituent republics of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Its formation was initiated in 1941 and achieved in 1944 1946 when it was established as a federated republic within Yugoslavia In that form it lasted until the constitutional reforms from 1990 to 1992 when it was reconstituted as the Republic of Serbia within the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia It was the largest constituent state of Yugoslavia in terms of population and territory Its capital Belgrade was also the federal capital of Yugoslavia 1 2 3 People s Republic of Serbia 1944 1963 Narodna Republika Srbiјa Serbian Narodna Republika Srbija Serbo Croatian Socialist Republic of Serbia 1963 1990 Sociјalistichka Republika Srbiјa Serbian Socijalisticka Republika Srbija Serbo Croatian Republic of Serbia 1990 1992 Republika Srbiјa Serbian Republika Srbija Serbo Croatian 1944 1992Flag 1947 1992 Emblem 1947 1992 Anthem Heј Sloveni Hej Sloveni English Hey Slavs source source track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track track Serbia within Yugoslavia in 1990StatusConstituent state of YugoslaviaCapitalBelgradeCommon languagesSerbo Croatian Serbian variant Hungarian AlbanianGovernment1944 1948 Marxist Leninist one party socialist republic 1948 1990 Titoist one party socialist republic 1990 1992 Dominant party parliamentary republicHead of state 1944 1953 first Sinisa Stankovic 1989 1990 last Slobodan MilosevicHead of government 1945 1948 first Blagoje Neskovic 1989 1990 last Stanko RadmilovicLegislatureNational AssemblyHistorical eraCold War World War II ASNOS9 12 November 1944 End of World War II8 May 1945 Last Constitution adopted28 September 1990 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia declared27 April 1992HDI 1991 0 719 highISO 3166 codeRSPreceded by Succeeded byTerritory of the Military Commander in SerbiaKingdom of HungaryIndependent State of CroatiaKingdom of Bulgaria Republic of Serbia Contents 1 History 1 1 World War II 1 2 People s Republic of Serbia 1 3 Socialist Republic of Serbia 1 4 Constitutional reform 2 Administrative divisions 3 Demographics 3 1 1971 census 3 2 1981 census 4 Politics 5 Government 5 1 Presidents 5 2 Prime Ministers 6 See also 7 References 8 Sources 9 External linksHistory Edit Map of Federated State of Serbia 1945 with Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija Further information History of Serbia World War II Edit Main articles Axis occupation of Serbia and Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia After the collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in the April War 1941 the entire country was occupied and partitioned between Axis powers Central territories of Serbia and the northern region of Banat were occupied by Nazi Germany that enforced direct control over the Territory of the Military Commander in Serbia with a puppet Government installed in Belgrade Southern regions of Metohija and Kosovo were occupied by Fascist Italy and annexed into the Italian Albania Region of Backa was annexed by Hungary while Syrmia was possessed by the Independent State of Croatia Southeastern parts of Serbia were occupied by Bulgaria 4 At the beginning of the occupation there were two resistance movements Chetniks and Partisans They had conflicting ideological and political programs and by 1943 Chetniks started to collaborate with Axis forces Partisans advocated transformation of Yugoslavia into a federation with Serbia becoming one of its federal units In the autumn of 1941 first provisional institutions were established by partisans in some liberated territories headed by the Main National Liberation Committee for Serbia It was seated in Uzice and thus the movement became known as the Republic of Uzice However the German offensive crushed this proto state in December of the same year After that main partisan forces moved to Bosnia 5 People s Republic of Serbia Edit Flag of the Federated State of Serbia in 1945 Serbia was liberated in the autumn of 1944 by partisan forces and the Red Army Soon after the liberation of Belgrade on 20 October creation of new administration was initiated In November 1944 the Anti fascist Assembly for the People s Liberation of Serbia was convened affirming the policy of reconstituting Yugoslavia as a federation with Serbia as one of its federal units Thus was laid the foundation for the creation of the Federated State of Serbia Serbian Federalna Drzhava Srbiјa as a federated state within new Democratic Federal Yugoslavia 6 7 The process was formalized in April 1945 when the provisional People s Assembly of Serbia was created also appointing the first People s Government of Serbia Within Serbia two autonomous units were created Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Autonomous Region of Kosovo and Metohija On November 29 1945 Yugoslavia was officially proclaimed as federal republic and in January 1946 after the first Constitution of federal Yugoslavia was adopted the Federated State of Serbia was renamed to People s Republic of Serbia Serbian Narodna Republika Srbiјa Narodna Republika Srbija 8 9 In November 1946 elections for the Constitutional Assembly of Serbia were held 10 and in January 1947 Constitution of Serbia was adopted reaffirming its position within Yugoslav federation and also regulating the position of autonomous units Vojvodina as autonomous province Kosovo and Metohija as autonomous region In 1953 a constitutional law was adopted introducing further social reforms By that time internal political life in Serbia was fully dominated by the Communist Party of Serbia formed in May 1945 as a branch of the ruling Communist Party of Yugoslavia In order to suppress remaining monarchist opposition communists initiated the creation of a wider political coalition thus establishing the People s Front of Yugoslavia PFY in August 1945 Other political parties were soon dissolved and remnants of political life were constrained within the PFY that was under full control of the ruling Communist Party 11 12 9 Socialist Republic of Serbia Edit Aleksandar Rankovic vice president of ASNOS and Peoples s Assembly 1944 1946 and vice president of Yugoslavia 1963 1966 In 1963 new Yugoslav Constitution was adopted renaming the federal state into the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and its federal units into socialist republics thus introducing the name Socialist Republic of Serbia Serbian Sociјalistichka Republika Srbiјa 13 14 In 1966 one of the most prominent Serbs in the Communist party and also vice president of Yugoslavia 1963 1966 and founder of Yugoslav intelligence agency OZNA Aleksandar Rankovic was removed from positions due to allegations of spying on SFRY President Josip Broz Tito 15 16 After the Croatian Spring in 1971 almost whole party leadership of Serbia was removed from office under the charge of being liberal Latinka Perovic and Marko Nikezic were marked as leaders of this liberal movement inside League of Communists of Serbia In 1974 new constitution was adopted increasing the powers of provinces and making them de facto republics For the first time the institution of president was formed as President of the Presidency of Socialist Republic of Serbia Assembly was electing 15 members of the presidency and one president for a 4 year term and later 2 year term The new constitution practically suspended Serbia s authority over the provinces After the new constitution was adopted mistakes became obvious Dragoslav Markovic then President of Serbia ordered a secret study on this issue The study was completed in 1977 and was named The Blue Book For most of its existence in the SFRY Serbia was loyal and generally subordinate to the federal government This changed after the death of Josip Broz Tito in 1980 when Albanian as well as Serbian nationalism in Kosovo arose In 1981 a major protests erupted in Kosovo demanding the status of republic The League of Communists was split on how to respond At the same time economic crisis in Yugoslavia started The leaders of the country were unable to make any reforms thanks to the political instability President of League of Communists of Serbia Slobodan Milosevic visited Kosovo in April 1987 and promised rapid action in order to protect peace and Serbs of Kosovo Ethnic tensions in Kosovo were heated up when Kosovo Albanian soldier opened fire on his fellow soldiers in Paracin in an event known as Paracin massacre Then President of Serbia Ivan Stambolic wanted to make compromise rather than fast solution He found himself in a clash with Milosevic This conflict culminated with 8th Session and replacement of Stambolic with Petar Gracanin as President of Serbia Constitutional reform Edit In 1988 new amendments to the Yugoslav Constitution were adopted initiating a process of democratization During 1988 and 1989 a successful round of coups in the Communist party leadership known as Antibureucratic revolution in Vojvodina Kosovo as well as Montenegro replaced autonomous leaderships in this regions The coups were led by Slobodan Milosevic supporter of Serbian nationalism The events were condemned by the communist governments of the western Yugoslav republics especially SR Slovenia and SR Croatia who successfully resisted the attempts to expand the revolt onto their territories and turned against Milosevic The rising antagonism eventually resulted in the dissolution of the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia in 1990 and subsequently in the breakup of Yugoslavia In 1989 Slobodan Milosevic was elected as President of the State Presidency of Serbia He demanded that the federal Yugoslav government act for the interests of Serbia in Kosovo by sending in the Yugoslav People s Army to suppress separatism in the province At the same time several reforms of federal electoral system were proposed with Serbia supporting a one citizen one vote system which would have given a majority of votes to Serbs By that time ethnic tensions in Yugoslavia increased and the ruling League of Communists of Yugoslavia collapsed followed by the crisis of federal institutions After these events in 1989 Assembly of Socialist Republic of Serbia voted for constitution amendments that revoked high autonomy for provinces of Vojvodina and Kosovo After Slovenian authorities forbid a group of Serbs supporting his politics to gather in Ljubljana Milosevic started a trade war with Socialist Republic of Slovenia in late 1989 This Serbian Slovenian conflict culminated in January 1990 on 14th Congress of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia when Slovenians left the meeting followed by Croatian delegates 17 After 1990 the state was known simply as Republic of Serbia Serbian Republika Srbiјa Republika Srbija and in December of the same year Slobodan Milosevic was elected as first President of the Republic In 1992 when the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was formed Serbia became one of its two constituent republics In 2003 this state union was re formed into Serbia and Montenegro 18 and in 2006 Serbia became an independent republic after Montenegro separated Administrative divisions Edit Administrative divisions of SR Serbia 1974 1990 Within Socialist Republic of Serbia two autonomous provinces existed Socialist Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo The central part of the Socialist Republic of Serbia located outside of the two autonomous provinces was generally known as Serbia proper Uza Srbija Geographically SR Serbia bordered Hungary to the north Romania and Bulgaria to the east and Albania to the south west Within Yugoslavia it bordered SR Macedonia to the south and SR Montenegro Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia to the west Demographics Edit Ethnic groups in Serbia 1981 1971 census Edit In 1971 total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 8 446 590 people including Serbs 6 142 070 72 7 Albanians 984 761 11 66 Hungarians 430 314 5 10 Croats 184 913 2 19 ethnic Muslims 154 330 1 83 ethnic Yugoslavs 123 824 1 47 Slovaks 76 733 0 82 Romanians 57 419 0 62 Bulgarians 53 800 0 58 Romani 49 894 0 54 Macedonians 42 675 0 46 Rusyns 20 608 0 22 Turks 18 220 0 20 Slovenes 15 957 0 17 Vlachs 14 724 0 16 1981 census Edit In 1981 total population of the Socialist Republic of Serbia numbered 9 313 677 people including Serbs 6 331 527 67 96 Albanians 1 303 032 13 99 Yugoslavs 441 941 4 75 Hungarians 390 468 4 19 Muslims 215 166 2 31 Croats 149 368 1 60 Romani 110 956 1 19 Macedonians 48 986 0 53 Slovenes 12 006 0 13 Politics EditDuring the socialist era in Yugoslavia the only legal political party was the League of Communists of Serbia SKS which was part of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia SKJ The party remained relatively stable and loyal to the federal party until the late 1980s when the party became split over what action to take in Kosovo when protests and fights broke out between ethnic Albanians and Serbs The more traditional Communists supported President Ivan Stambolic who advocated continued neutrality as a means to solve the dispute while more radical and nationalist leaning members supported Slobodan Milosevic who advocated the protection of Kosovo Serbs who had claimed that their population was being pressured to leave Kosovo by Albanian separatists Milosevic utilized public sentiment and opposition to Kosovo Albanian separatism to rally large numbers of supporters to help him overthrow the Communist leadership in Vojvodina Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro in what was known as the anti bureaucratic revolution Afterward the Serbian League of Communists selected Milosevic as its leader Milosevic took a hard stand on Albanian nationalism in Kosovo and pressured the Yugoslav government to give him emergency powers to deal with Kosovo Albanian separatists Furthermore he reduced the autonomy of the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina and installed politicians loyal to him to serve as their representatives In the congress of the Yugoslav League of Communists in 1990 Milosevic and his subordinate representatives for Vojvodina Kosovo and the Socialist Republic of Montenegro attempted to silence opposition from the Socialist Republic of Slovenia who opposed the actions taken against Kosovo Albanian leadership by blocking all reforms proposed by the Slovene representatives The tactic failed and Slovenia along with its ally Croatia abdicated from the Yugoslav Communist Party This caused the Yugoslav Communist party to fall apart and then the state of Yugoslavia itself one year later Government EditSince 1945 the most senior state official in Serbia and thus de facto head of state was President of the People s Assembly of Serbia who also presided over the collective Presidency of the People s Assembly 1945 1953 and Presidency of the Assembly 1953 1990 In 1974 new Constitution of Serbia was adopted and collective state presidency was formed not as a committee of the Assembly but as a supreme governing body Since then President of the Presidency served as the most senior state official of the Socialist Republic of Serbia At first President was elected for 4 years mandate but in 1982 it was lowered to 2 years Main executive body since 1945 was the People s Government of Serbia In 1953 it was renamed as the Executive Council of Serbia It served as the executive branch of the People s Assembly President of the Executive Council had a role of Prime Minister Presidents Edit Petar Stambolic President of the National Assembly of Serbia 1953 1957 President of the Presidency of ASNOS 1944 1945 Sinisa Stankovic 12 November 1944 7 April 1945 Presidents of the Presidency of the People s Assembly 1945 1953 19 Sinisa Stankovic 7 April 1945 20 November 1946 Acim Grulovic November 1946 December 1948 Isa Jovanovic December 1948 December 1953 Presidents of the National Assembly 1953 1974 20 21 Petar Stambolic December 1953 April 1957 Jovan Veselinov April 1957 26 June 1963 Dusan Petrovic Sane 26 June 1963 6 May 1967 Milos Minic 6 May 1967 6 May 1969 Dragoslav Markovic 6 May 1969 19 April 1974 Zivan Vasiljevic 19 April 6 May 1974 Presidents of the Presidency 1974 1990 Dragoslav Markovic 6 May 1974 5 May 1978 Dobrivoje Vidic 5 May 1978 5 May 1982 Nikola Ljubicic 5 May 1982 5 May 1984 Dusan Ckrebic 5 May 1984 5 May 1986 Ivan Stambolic 5 May 1986 14 December 1987 Petar Gracanin 14 December 1987 20 March 1989 Ljubisa Igic 20 March 8 May 1989 acting Slobodan Milosevic 8 May 1989 28 September 1990 Prime Ministers Edit Blagoje Neskovic President of the People s Government of Serbia 1945 1948 Minister for Serbia in Yugoslav government Jasa Prodanovic 7 March 1945 9 April 1945 Presidents of the People s Government of Serbia Blagoje Neskovic 9 April 1945 5 September 1948 Petar Stambolic 5 September 1948 5 February 1953 Presidents of the Executive Council of Serbia Petar Stambolic 5 February 1953 16 December 1953 Jovan Veselinov 16 December 1953 6 April 1957 Milos Minic 6 April 1957 9 June 1962 Slobodan Penezic Krcun 9 June 1962 6 November 1964 Stevan Doronjski Acting 6 November 1964 17 November 1964 Dragi Stamenkovic 17 November 1964 6 June 1967 Đurica Jojkic 6 June 1967 7 May 1969 Milenko Bojanic 7 May 1969 6 May 1974 Dusan Ckrebic 6 May 1974 6 May 1978 Ivan Stambolic 6 May 1978 5 May 1982 Branislav Ikonic 5 May 1982 6 May 1986 Desimir Jevtic 6 May 1986 5 December 1989 Stanko Radmilovic 5 December 1989 28 September 1990 See also EditHistory of Serbia History of the Serbs History of YugoslaviaReferences Edit Pavlowitch 2002 Cox 2002 Cirkovic 2004 Cirkovic 2004 p 260 270 Cirkovic 2004 p 270 271 Pavlowitch 2002 p 153 154 Cirkovic 2004 p 273 Pavlowitch 2002 p 159 a b Cirkovic 2004 p 274 National Assembly of the Republic of Serbia After Second World War Pavlowitch 2002 p 154 Cox 2002 p 103 104 Pavlowitch 2002 p 170 171 Cox 2002 p 107 Pavlowitch 2002 p 172 Cox 2002 p 107 108 UPHEAVAL IN THE EAST Yugoslavia A Sign of Bad Times in Yugoslavia Trade War Between Two Republics The New York Times 28 January 1990 Miller 2005 p 529 581 From the Great Anti Fascist People s Liberation Assembly of Serbia to the Constitution of the People s Republic of Serbia November 1944 January 1947 National Assembly of the People s Republic of Serbia 1947 1963 Assembly of the Socialist Republic of Serbia 1963 1974 Sources EditBatakovic Dusan T ed 2005 Histoire du peuple serbe History of the Serbian People in French Lausanne L Age d Homme Bokovoy Melissa K Irvine Jill A Lilly Carol S eds 1997 State Society Relations in Yugoslavia 1945 1992 London Palgrave Macmillan ISBN 9780312126902 Cirkovic Sima 2004 The Serbs Malden Blackwell Publishing Cox John K 2002 The History of Serbia Westport Connecticut Greenwood Press Dimic Ljubodrag 2005 Ideology and culture in Yugoslavia 1945 1955 Velike sile i male drzave u hladnom ratu 1945 1955 Slucaj Jugoslavije Beograd Filozofski fakultet pp 303 320 Jelavich Barbara 1983 History of the Balkans Twentieth Century 2 Cambridge University Press Miller Nicholas 2005 Serbia and Montenegro Eastern Europe An Introduction to the People Lands and Culture 3 Santa Barbara California ABC CLIO pp 529 581 Pavlowitch Stevan K 2002 Serbia The History behind the Name London Hurst amp Company Tomasevich Jozo 2001 War and Revolution in Yugoslavia 1941 1945 Occupation and Collaboration 2 San Francisco Stanford University Press External links Edit Media related to Socialist Republic of Serbia at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Socialist Republic of Serbia amp oldid 1054196454, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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