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Socialist state

This article is about countries constitutionally committed to socialism. For countries governed by Marxist–Leninist communist parties, see Communist state. For a list of self-proclaimed socialist states, see List of socialist states. For constitutional references to socialism in multi-party democracies, see Socialism in liberal democratic constitutions.

A socialist state, socialist republic, or socialist country, sometimes referred to as a workers' state or workers' republic, is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism. The term communist state is often used synonymously in the West specifically when referring to one-party socialist states governed by Marxist–Leninist communist parties, despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism. These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society. Additionally, a number of countries that are multi-party capitalist states make references to socialism in their constitutions, in most cases alluding to the building of a socialist society, naming socialism, claiming to be a socialist state, or including the term people's republic or socialist republic in their country's full name, although this does not necessarily reflect the structure and development paths of these countries' political and economic systems. Currently, these countries include Algeria, Bangladesh, Guyana, India, Nepal, Nicaragua, Portugal, Sri Lanka and Tanzania.

The idea of a socialist state stems from the broader notion of state socialism, the political perspective that the working class needs to use state power and government policy to establish a socialised economic system. This may either mean a system where the means of production, distribution and exchange are nationalised or under state ownership, or simply a system in which social values or workers' interests have economic priority. However, the concept of a socialist state is mainly advocated by Marxist–Leninists and most socialist states have been established by political parties adhering to Marxism–Leninism or some national variation thereof such as Maoism, Stalinism or Titoism. A state, whether socialist or not, is opposed the most by anarchists, who reject the idea that the state can be used to establish a socialist society due to its hierarchical and arguably coercive nature, considering a socialist state or state socialism as an oxymoron. The concept of a socialist state is also considered unnecessary or counterproductive and rejected by some classical, libertarian and orthodox Marxists, libertarian socialists and other socialist political thinkers who view the modern state as a byproduct of capitalism which would have no function in a socialist system.

A socialist state is to be distinguished from a multi-party liberal democracy governed by a self-described socialist party, where the state is not constitutionally bound to the construction of socialism. In such cases, the political system and machinery of government is not specifically structured to pursue the development of socialism. Socialist states in the Marxist–Leninist sense are sovereign states under the control of a vanguard party which is organizing the country's economic, political and social development toward the realization of socialism. Economically, this involves the development of a state capitalist economy with state-directed capital accumulation with the long-term goal of building up the country's productive forces while simultaneously promoting world communism. Academics, political commentators and other scholars tend to distinguish between authoritarian socialist and democratic socialist states, with the first representing the Soviet Bloc and the latter representing Western Bloc countries which have been democratically governed by socialist parties such as Britain, France, Sweden and Western social-democracies in general, among others.

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The first socialist state was the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, established in 1917. In 1922, it merged with the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic into a single federal union called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). The Soviet Union proclaimed itself a socialist state and proclaimed its commitment to building a socialist economy in its 1936 constitution and a subsequent 1977 constitution. It was governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a single-party state ostensibly with a democratic centralism organization, with Marxism–Leninism remaining its official guiding ideology until Soviet Union's dissolution on 26 December 1991. The political systems of these Marxist–Leninist socialist states revolve around the central role of the party which holds ultimate authority. Internally, the communist party practices a form of democracy called democratic centralism.

During the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1961, Nikita Khrushchev announced the completion of socialist construction and declared the optimistic goal of achieving communism in twenty years. The Eastern Bloc was a political and economic bloc of Soviet-aligned socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe which adhered to Marxism–Leninism, Soviet-style governance and economic planning in the form of the administrative-command system and command economy. China's socio-economic structure has been referred to as "nationalistic state capitalism" and the Eastern Bloc (Eastern Europe and the Third World) as "bureaucratic-authoritarian systems."

The People's Republic of China was founded on 1 October 1949 and proclaims itself to be a socialist state in its 1982 constitution. The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea) used to be a Marxist–Leninist state. In 1972, the country adopted a new constitution which changed the official state ideology to Juche which is held to be a distinct Korean re-interpretation of the former ideology. Similarly, direct references to communism in the Lao People's Democratic Republic are not included in its founding documents, although it gives direct power to the governing ruling party, the Marxist–Leninist Lao People's Revolutionary Party. The preamble to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was reunified under the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1976. The 1992 constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party of Cuba is to "guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism (and the progress toward a communist society)". The 2019 constitution retains the aim to work towards the construction of socialism.

Constitutional references to socialism

A number of countries make reference to socialism in their constitutions that are not single-party states embracing Marxism–Leninism and planned economies. In most cases, these are constitutional references to the building of a socialist society and political principles that have little to no bearing on the structure and guidance of these country's machinery of government and economic system. The preamble to the 1976 Constitution of Portugal states that the Portuguese state has as one of its goals opening "the way to socialist society". Algeria, the Congo, India and Sri Lanka have directly used the term socialist in their official constitution and name. Croatia, Hungary and Poland directly denounce "Communism" in their founding documents in reference to their past regimes.

In these cases, the intended meaning of socialism can vary widely and sometimes the constitutional references to socialism are left over from a previous period in the country's history. In the case of many Middle Eastern states, the term socialism was often used in reference to an Arab socialist/nationalist philosophy adopted by specific regimes such as that of Gamal Abdel Nasser and that of the various Ba'ath parties. Examples of countries directly using the term socialist in their names include the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam while a number of countries make references to socialism in their constitutions, but not in their names. These include India and Portugal. In addition, countries such as Belarus, Colombia, France, Russia and Spain use the varied term social state, leaving a more ambiguous meaning. In the constitutions of Croatia, Hungary and Poland, direct condemnation is made to the respective past socialist regimes. The autonomous region of Rojava which operates under the principles of democratic confederalism has been described as a socialist state.

Other uses

During the post-war consensus, nationalization of large industries was relatively widespread and it was not uncommon for commentators to describe some European countries as democratic socialist states seeking to move their countries toward a socialist economy. In 1956, leading British Labour Party politician and author Anthony Crosland claimed that capitalism had been abolished in Britain, although others such as Welshman Aneurin Bevan, Minister of Health in the first post-war Labour government and the architect of the National Health Service, disputed the claim that Britain was a socialist state. For Crosland and others who supported his views, Britain was a socialist state. According to Bevan, Britain had a socialist National Health Service which stood in opposition to the hedonism of Britain's capitalist society, making the following point:

The National Health service and the Welfare State have come to be used as interchangeable terms, and in the mouths of some people as terms of reproach. Why this is so it is not difficult to understand, if you view everything from the angle of a strictly individualistic competitive society. A free health service is pure Socialism and as such it is opposed to the hedonism of capitalist society.

Although as in the rest of Europe the laws of capitalism still operated fully and private enterprise dominated the economy, some political commentators claimed that during the post-war period, when socialist parties were in power, countries such as Britain and France were democratic socialist states and the same is now applied to the Nordic countries and the Nordic model. In the 1980s, the government of President François Mitterrand aimed to expand dirigisme and attempted to nationalize all French banks, but this attempt faced opposition of the European Economic Community because it demanded a free-market capitalist economy among its members. Nevertheless, public ownership in France and the United Kingdom during the height of nationalization in the 1960s and 1970s never accounted for more than 15–20% of capital formation, further dropping to 8% in the 1980s and below 5% in the 1990s after the rise of neoliberalism.

The socialist policies practiced by parties such as the Singaporean People's Action Party (PAP) during its first few decades in power were of a pragmatic kind as characterized by its rejection of nationalization. Despite this, the PAP still claimed to be a socialist party, pointing out its regulation of the private sector, state intervention in the economy and social policies as evidence of this. The Singaporean prime minister Lee Kuan Yew also stated that he has been influenced by the democratic socialist British Labour Party.

Terminology

See also: Communist state

Because most existing socialist states operated along Marxist–Leninist principles of governance, the terms Marxist–Leninist regime and Marxist–Leninist state are used by scholars, particularly when focusing on the political systems of these countries. A people's republic is a type of socialist state with a republican constitution. Although the term initially became associated with populist movements in the 19th century such as the German Völkisch movement and the Narodniks in Russia, it is now associated to communist states. A number of the short-lived communist states which formed during World War I and its aftermath called themselves people's republics. Many of these sprang up in the territory of the former Russian Empire following the October Revolution. Additional people's republics emerged following the Allied victory in World War II, mainly within the Eastern Bloc. In Asia, China became a people's republic following the Chinese Communist Revolution and North Korea also became a people's republic. During the 1960s, Romania and Yugoslavia ceased to use the term people's republic in their official name, replacing it with the term socialist republic as a mark of their ongoing political development. Czechoslovakia also added the term socialist republic into its name during this period. It had become a people's republic in 1948, but the country had not used that term in its official name. Albania used both terms in its official name from 1976 to 1991.

The term socialist state is widely used by Marxist–Leninist parties, theorists and governments to mean a state under the control of a vanguard party that is organizing the economic, social and political affairs of said state toward the construction of socialism. States run by communist parties that adhere to Marxism–Leninism, or some national variation thereof, refer to themselves as socialist states or workers and peasants' states. They involve the direction of economic development toward the building up of the productive forces to underpin the establishment of a socialist economy and usually include that at least the commanding heights of the economy are nationalized and under state ownership. This may or may not include the existence of a socialist economy, depending on the specific terminology adopted and level of development in specific countries. The Leninist definition of a socialist state is a state representing the interests of the working class which presides over a state capitalist economy structured upon state-directed accumulation of capital with the goal of building up the country's productive forces and promoting worldwide socialist revolution while the realization of a socialist economy is held as the long-term goal.

In the Western world, particularly in mass media, journalism and politics, these states and countries are often called communist states (although they do not use this term to refer to themselves), despite the fact that these countries never claimed to have achieved communism in their countries—rather, they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism and the development towards communism thereafter in their countries. Terms used by communist states include national-democratic, people's democratic, people's republican, socialist-oriented and workers and peasants' states.

Marxist theory of the state

Karl Marx and subsequent thinkers in the Marxist tradition conceive of the state as representing the interests of the ruling class, partially out of material necessity for the smooth operation of the modes of production it presides over. Marxists trace the formation of the contemporary form of the sovereign state to the emergence of capitalism as a dominant mode of production, with its organizational precepts and functions designed specifically to manage and regulate the affairs of a capitalist economy. Because this involves governance and laws passed in the interest of the bourgeoisie as a whole and because government officials either come from the bourgeoisie or are dependent upon their interests, Marx characterized the capitalist state as a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie. Extrapolating from this, Marx described a post-revolutionary government on the part of the working class or proletariat as a dictatorship of the proletariat because the economic interests of the proletariat would have to guide state affairs and policy during a transitional state. Alluding further to the establishment of a socialist economy where social ownership displaces private ownership and thus class distinctions on the basis of private property ownership are eliminated, the modern state would have no function and would gradually "wither away" or be transformed into a new form of governance.

Influenced by the pre-Marxist utopian socialist philosopher Henri de Saint-Simon, Friedrich Engels theorized the nature of the state would change during the transition to socialism. Both Saint-Simon and Engels described a transformation of the state from an entity primarily concerned with political rule over people (via coercion and law creation) to a scientific "administration of things" that would be concerned with directing processes of production in a socialist society, essentially ceasing to be a state. Although Marx never referred to a socialist state, he argued that the working class would have to take control of the state apparatus and machinery of government in order to transition out of capitalism and to socialism. The dictatorship of the proletariat would represent this transitional state and would involve working class interests dominating government policy in the same manner that capitalist class interests dominate government policy under capitalism (the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie). Engels argued that as socialism developed, the state would change in form and function. Under socialism, it is not a "government of people, but the administration of things", thereby ceasing to be a state by the traditional definition. With the fall of the Paris Commune, Marx cautiously argued in The Civil War in France that "the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready-made state machinery, and wield it for its own purposes. The centralized state power, with its ubiquitous organs of standing army, police, bureaucracy, clergy, and judicature—organs wrought after the plan of a systematic and hierarchic division of labor originates from the days of absolute monarchy, serving nascent middle class society as a mighty weapon in its struggle against feudalism". In other words, "the centralized state power inherited by the bourgeoisie from the absolute monarchy necessarily assumes, in the course of the intensifying struggles between capital and labor, 'more and more the character of the national power of capital over labour, of a public organized for social enslavement, of an engine of class despotism'".

One of the most influential modern visions of a transitional state representing proletarian interests was based on the Paris Commune in which the workers and working poor took control of the city of Paris in 1871 in reaction to the Franco-Prussian War. Marx described the Paris Commune as the prototype for a revolutionary government of the future, "the form at last discovered" for the emancipation of the proletariat. Engels noted that "all officials, high or low, were paid only the wages received by other workers. [...] In this way an effective barrier to place-hunting and careerism was set up". Commenting on the nature of the state, Engels continued: "From the outset the Commune was compelled to recognize that the working class, once come to power, could not manage with the old state machine". In order not to be overthrown once having conquered power, Engels argues that the working class "must, on the one hand, do away with all the old repressive machinery previously used against it itself, and, on the other, safeguard itself against its own deputies and officials, by declaring them all, without exception, subject to recall at any moment". Engels argued such a state would be a temporary affair and suggested a new generation brought up in "new and free social conditions" will be able to "throw the entire lumber of the state on the scrap-heap".

Reform and revolution

Socialists that embraced reformism, exemplified by Eduard Bernstein, took the view that both socialism and a socialist state will gradually evolve out of political reforms won in the organized socialist political parties and unions. These views are considered a revision of Marxist thought. Bernstein stated: "The socialist movement is everything to me while what people commonly call the goal of Socialism is nothing". Following Marx, revolutionary socialists instead take the view that the working class grows stronger through its battle for reforms (such as in Marx's time the ten-hours bill). In 1848, Marx and Engels wrote:

Now and then the workers are victorious, but only for a time. The real fruit of their battles lies, not in the immediate result, but in the ever expanding union of the workers. [...] [I]t ever rises up again, stronger, firmer, mightier. It compels legislative recognition of particular interests of the workers, by taking advantage of the divisions among the bourgeoisie itself. Thus, the ten-hours' bill in England was carried.

According to the orthodox Marxist conception, these battles eventually reach a point where a revolutionary movement arises. A revolutionary movement is required in the view of Marxists to sweep away the capitalist state and the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie which must be abolished and replaced with a dictatorship of the proletariat to begin constructing a socialist society. In this view, only through revolution can a socialist state be established as written in The Communist Manifesto:

In depicting the most general phases of the development of the proletariat, we traced the more or less veiled civil war, raging within existing society, up to the point where that war breaks out into open revolution, and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat.

Other historic reformist or gradualist movements within socialism, as opposed to revolutionary approaches, include Fabian socialist and Menshevik groupings.

Leninist theory of the state

Main article: Leninism

Whereas Marx, Engels and classical Marxist thinkers had little to say about the organization of the state in a socialist society, presuming the modern state to be specific to the capitalist mode of production, Vladimir Lenin pioneered the idea of a revolutionary state based on his theory of the revolutionary vanguard party and organizational principles of democratic centralism. Adapted to the conditions of semi-feudal Russia, Lenin's concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat involved a revolutionary vanguard party acting as representatives of the proletariat and its interests. According to Lenin's April Theses, the goal of the revolution and vanguard party is not the introduction of socialism (it could only be established on a worldwide scale), but to bring production and the state under the control of the soviets of workers' deputies. Following the October Revolution in Russia, the Bolsheviks consolidated their power and sought to control and direct the social and economic affairs of the state and broader Russian society to safeguard against counterrevolutionary insurrection, foreign invasion and to promote socialist consciousness among the Russian population while simultaneously promoting economic development.

These ideas were adopted by Lenin in 1917 just prior to the October Revolution in Russia and published in The State and Revolution. With the failure of the worldwide revolution, or at least European revolution, envisaged by Lenin and Leon Trotsky, the Russian Civil War and finally Lenin's death, war measures that were deemed to be temporary such as forced requisition of food and the lack of democratic control became permanent and a tool to boost Joseph Stalin's power, leading to the emergence of Marxism–Leninism and Stalinism as well as the notion that socialism can be created and exist in a single state with theory of socialism in one country.

Lenin argued that as socialism is replaced by communism, the state would "wither away" as strong centralized control progressively reduces as local communities gain more empowerment. As he put succinctly, "[s]o long as the state exists there is no freedom. When there will be freedom, there will be no state". In this way, Lenin was thereby proposing a classically dynamic view of progressive social structure which during his own short period of governance emerged as a defensive and preliminary bureaucratic centralist stage. He regarded this structural paradox as the necessary preparation for and antithesis of the desired workers' state which he forecast would follow.

Trotskyist theory of the state

Main article: Trotskyism

Following Stalin's consolidation of power in the Soviet Union and static centralization of political power, Trotsky condemned the Soviet government's policies for lacking widespread democratic participation on the part of the population and for suppressing workers' self-management and democratic participation in the management of the economy. Because these authoritarian political measures were inconsistent with the organizational precepts of socialism, Trotsky characterized the Soviet Union as a deformed workers' state that would not be able to effectively transition to socialism. Ostensibly socialist states where democracy is lacking, yet the economy is largely in the hands of the state, are termed by orthodox Trotskyist theories as degenerated or deformed workers' states and not socialist states.

Anarchism and Marxism

Many democratic and libertarian socialists, including anarchists, mutualists and syndicalists, criticize the concept of establishing a socialist state instead of abolishing the bourgeois state apparatus outright. They use the term state socialism to contrast it with their own form of socialism which involves either collective ownership (in the form of worker cooperatives) or common ownership of the means of production without state centralized planning. Those socialists believe there is no need for a state in a socialist system because there would be no class to suppress and no need for an institution based on coercion and therefore regard the state being a remnant of capitalism. They hold that statism is antithetical to true socialism, the goal of which is the eyes of libertarian socialists such as William Morris, who wrote as follows in a Commonweal article: "State Socialism? — I don't agree with it; in fact I think the two words contradict one another, and that it is the business of Socialism to destroy the State and put Free Society in its place".

Classical and orthodox Marxists also view state socialism as an oxymoron, arguing that while an association for managing production and economic affairs would exist in socialism, it would no longer be a state in the Marxist definition which is based on domination by one class. Preceding the Bolshevik-led revolution in Russia, many socialist groups—including reformists, orthodox Marxist currents such as council communism and the Mensheviks as well as anarchists and other libertarian socialists—criticized the idea of using the state to conduct planning and nationalization of the means of production as a way to establish socialism. Lenin himself acknowledged his policies as state capitalism.

Critical of the economy and government of socialist states, left communists such as the Italian Amadeo Bordiga said that their socialism was a form of political opportunism which preserved rather than destroyed capitalism because of the claim that the exchange of commodities would occur under socialism; the use of popular front organisations by the Communist International; and that a political vanguard organized by organic centralism was more effective than a vanguard organized by democratic centralism. The American Marxist Raya Dunayevskaya also dismissed it as a type of state capitalism because state ownership of the means of production is a form of state capitalism; the dictatorship of the proletariat is a form of democracy and single-party rule is undemocratic; and Marxism–Leninism is neither Marxism nor Leninism, but rather a composite ideology which socialist leaders like Joseph Stalin used to expediently determine what is communism and what is not communism among the Eastern Bloc countries.

Leninism

Although most Marxist–Leninists distinguish between communism and socialism, Bordiga, who did consider himself a Leninist and has been described as being "more Leninist than Lenin", did not distinguish between the two in the same way Marxist–Leninists do. Both Lenin and Bordiga did not see socialism as a separate mode of production from communism, but rather just as how communism looks as it emerges out of capitalism before it has "developed on its own foundations".

This is coherent with Marx and Engels, who used the terms communism and socialism interchangeably. Like Lenin, Bordiga used socialism to mean what Marx called the lower-phase communism. For Bordiga, both stages of socialist or communist society—with stages referring to historical materialism—were characterized by the gradual absence of money, the market and so on, the difference between them being that earlier in the first stage a system of rationing would be used to allocate goods to people while in communism this could be abandoned in favour of full free access. This view distinguished Bordiga from Marxist–Leninists, who tended and still tend to telescope the first two stages and so have money and the other exchange categories surviving into socialism, but Bordiga would have none of this. For him, no society in which money, buying and selling and the rest survived could be regarded as either socialist or communist—these exchange categories would die out before the socialist rather than the communist stage was reached. Stalin made the claim that the Soviet Union had reached the lower stage of communism and argued that the law of value still operated within a socialist economy.

Marx did not use the term socialism to refer to this development and instead called it a communist society that has not yet reached its higher-stage. The term socialism to mean the lower-state of communism was popularized during the Russian Revolution by Lenin. This view is consistent with and helped to inform early concepts of socialism in which the law of value no longer directs economic activity, namely that monetary relations in the form of exchange-value, profit, interest and wage labour would not operate and apply to Marxist socialism. Unlike Stalin, who first claimed to have achieved socialism with the Soviet Constitution of 1936 and then confirmed it in the Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR, Lenin did not call the Soviet Union a socialist state, nor did he claim that it had achieved socialism. He adopted state capitalist policies, defending them from left-wing criticism, but arguing that they were necessary for the future development of socialism and not socialist in themselves. On seeing the Soviet Union's growing coercive power, Lenin was quoted as saying that Russia had reverted to "a bourgeois tsarist machine [...] barely varnished with socialism".

Libertarian socialism

A variety of non-state, libertarian communist and socialist positions reject the concept of a socialist state altogether, believing that the modern state is a byproduct of capitalism and cannot be used for the establishment of a socialist system. They reason that a socialist state is antithetical to socialism and that socialism will emerge spontaneously from the grassroots level in an evolutionary manner, developing its own unique political and economic institutions for a highly organized stateless society. Libertarian communists, including anarchists, councillists, leftists and Marxists, also reject the concept of a socialist state for being antithetical to socialism, but they believe that socialism can only be established through revolution and dissolving the existence of the state. Within the socialist movement, there is criticism towards the use of the term socialist states in relation to countries such as China and previously of Soviet Union and Eastern and Central European states before what some term the "collapse of Stalinism" in 1989.

Anti-authoritarian communists and socialists such as anarchists, other democratic and libertarian socialists as well as revolutionary syndicalists and left communists claim that the so-called socialist states actually presided over state capitalist economies and cannot be called socialist. Those socialists who oppose any system of state control whatsoever believe in a more decentralized approach which puts the means of production directly into the hands of the workers rather than indirectly through state bureaucracies which they claim represent a new elite or class. This leads them to consider state socialism a form of state capitalism (an economy based on centralized management, capital accumulation and wage labor, but with the state owning the means of production) which Engels stated would be the final form of capitalism rather than socialism.

Trotskyism

Some Trotskyists following on from Tony Cliff deny that it is socialism, calling it state capitalism. Other Trotskyists agree that these states could not be described as socialist, but deny that they were state capitalist. They support Leon Trotsky's analysis of pre-restoration Soviet Union as a workers' state that had degenerated into a bureaucratic dictatorship which rested on a largely nationalized industry run according to a production plan and claimed that the former Stalinist states of Central and Eastern Europe were deformed workers' states based on the same relations of production as the Soviet Union. Some Trotskyists such as the Committee for a Workers' International have at times included African, Asian and Middle Eastern socialist states when they have had a nationalized economy as deformed workers' states. Other socialists argued that the neo-Ba'athists promoted capitalists from within the party and outside their countries.

This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves socialist states under any definition at some point in their history, color-coded for the number of years they said they were socialist (click on image to magnify)
Over 70 years
60–70 years
50–60 years
40–50 years
30–40 years
20–30 years
Under 20 years
States that had communist governments in red, states that the Soviet Union believed at one point to be moving toward socialism in orange and other socialist states in yellow (note that not all of the bright red states remained Soviet allies)

Current

Country System Beginning Party Note
China Popular Republic 1949 Communist Party of China With free market reforms progressively implemented from the government of Deng Xiaoping, up to the current socialism with Chinese characteristics.
North Korea Democratic People's Republic 1948 Workers' Party of Korea The official ideology of the state is Juche, started as a national adaptation of Marxism-Leninism but independent of it. In 2009 the word "communism" was removed from the constitution, replacing it with "socialism".
Cuba Socialist Republic 1961 Communist Party of Cuba Initially with a political-economic system one-party and statist. After the fall of the Soviet Union and with the end of CAME, Cuba progressively adopted some market reforms to allow private property in certain sectors.
Laos Democratic People's Republic 1975 Lao People's Revolutionary Party With the market gradually liberalized since the adoption of a new economic mechanism
Vietnam Socialist Republic 1976 Communist Party of Vietnam From the economic opening known as Doi Moi, Vietnam practices the so-called market economy oriented to socialism.

Historical

Country System Beginning End Party Leaders
Afghanistan Democratic Republic 1978 1992 People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan (Khalq) Nur Mohammad Taraki 1978–79 Hafizullah Amin 1979 Babrak Karmal 1979–86 Mohammad Najibullah 1986–92
Albania Democratic Republic and People's Republic 1944 1992 Party of Labour of Albania Enver Hoxha 1944–85 Ramiz Alia 1985–91
Angola People's Republic 1975 1992 MPLA Agostinho Neto 1975–79 José Eduardo dos Santos 1979–92
East Germany Democratic Republic 1949 1990 Socialist Unity Party of Germany Wilhelm Pieck 1946–50 Walter Ulbricht 1950–1971 Erich Honecker 1971–1989
Benin People's Republic 1975 1990 People's Revolutionary Party of Benin Mathieu Kérékou 1975–90
Bulgaria People's Republic 1946 1990 Bulgarian Communist Party Georgi Dimitrov 1946–49 Valko Chervenkov 1949–54 Todor Zhivkov 1954–89 Petar Mladenov 1989–90
Czechoslovakia Federal Socialist Republic 1948 1989 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Klement Gottwald 1948–53 Antonín Novotný 1953–68 Alexander Dubček 1968–69 Gustav Husak 1969–87 Miloš Jakeš 1987–89 Karel Urbánek 1989
Chile Socialist Republic 1932 1932 Socialist Party of Chile Arturo Puga Osorio 1932 Carlos Dávila 1932
Congo-Brazzaville People's Republic 1970 1991 Congolese Party of Labour Marien Ngouabi 1970–77 Military Committee of the CPL 1977–91
Ethiopia Provisional Military Government 1974 1987 Military Junta Mengistu Haile Mariam 1974–1987
Ethiopia People's Democratic Republic 1987 1991 Workers' Party of Ethiopia Mengistu Haile Mariam 1987–91
Grenada Socialist state 1979 1983 New Jewel Movement Maurice Bishop 1979–83 Bernard Coard 1983 Hudson Austin 1983
Hungary People's Republic 1949 1989 Hungarian Working People's Party Mátyás Rákosi 1948–56 Ernő Gerő 1956 János Kádár 1956–88 Károly Grósz 1988–89
Kampuchea Democratic Republic 1975 1979 Communist Party of Kampuchea (Khmer Rouge) Pol Pot 1975–79
Kampuchea (1979-1989)
Cambodia (1989-1991)
People’s Republic (1979-1989)
Republic (1989-1991)
1979 1991 Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party (1979-1989)
Cambodian People’s Party (1989-1991)
Pen Sovan 1979–81 Heng Samrin 1981–91
Mongolia People's Republic 1924 1992 Mongolian People's Party Navaandorjiyn Jadambaa(primero) 1924 Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat(último) 1990–92
Mozambique People's Republic 1975 1990 FRELIMO Samora Machel 1975–86 Political Bureau 1986 Joaquim Chissano 1986–90
Poland People's Republic 1945 1989 Polish United Workers' Party Bolesław Bierut 1948–56 Edward Ochab 1956 Władysław Gomułka 1956–70 Edward Gierek 1970–80 Stanisław Kania 1980–81 Wojciech Jaruzelski 1981–89 Mieczysław Rakowski 1989–90
Romania Popular Republic (since 1965 Socialist Republic) 1947 1989 Romanian Communist Party G. Gheorghiu-Dej 1947–65 Nicolae Ceauşescu 1965–89
Somalia Democratic Republic 1969 1991 Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Mohamed Siad Barre 1969–91
Soviet Union Federation of Socialist Republics 1922 1991 Communist Party of the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin 1917–24 Joseph Stalin 1922–52 Nikita Khrushchev 1953–64 Leonid Brezhnev 1964–82 Yuri Andropov 1982–84 Konstantin Chernenko 1984–85 Mikhail Gorbachev 1985–91
North Vietnam Democratic Republic 1945 1976 Workers' Party of Vietnam Hô Chí Minh 1945–69 Tôn Đức Thắng 1969–76
South Yemen People's Democratic Republic 1967 1990 Yemeni Socialist Party Abdul Fattah Ismail 1967–80 Ali Nasir Muhammad 1980–86 Ali Salem al Beidh 1986–90
Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic 1945 1992 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito 1945–80

Absorbed by the USSR

Country Beginning End Party Leader
Finland 1939 1940 Communist Party of Finland Otto Kuusinen 1939–40
Tannu Tuva 1921 1944 Tuvan People's Revolutionary Party Salchak Toka 1921–44

Non-Marxist socialist states

Country Beginning End Leaders
Algeria 1963 1989 Ahmed Ben Bella 1963–65 Houari Boumédiène 1965–78 Rabah Bitat 1978–79 Chadli Bendjedid 1979–89
Burma 1974 1988 Ne Win 1974–88
Cape Verde 1975 1991 Aristides Pereira 1975–91
Ghana 1960 1966 Kwame Nkrumah 1960–66
Iraq 1968 2003 Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr 1968–79 Saddam Hussein 1979–2003
Libya 1977 2011 Muammar Gadafi 1977–2011
Madagascar 1975 1993 Didier Ratsiraka 1975–93
Seychelles 1977 1992 France-Albert René 1977–92
Syria 1963 2012 Amin al-Hafiz 1963–66 Nureddin al-Atassi 1966–70 Ahmad al-Khatib 1970–71 Hafez al-Asad 1971–2000 Bashar al-Asad 2000–12

Ephemeral

Country Year Leaders
Bavaria (People's State) 1918–1919 Kurt Eisner 1918–1919 Johannes Hoffman 1919
Bavaria (Soviet Republic) 1919 Ernst Toller 1919 Eugen Leviné 1919
Gilan 1920–1921 Mirza Koochak Khan 1920–21
Hungary 1919 Sándor Garbai / Béla Kun (de facto) 1919
Paris (France) 1871 Louis Charles Delescluze 1871
Slovakia 1919 Antonín Janoušek 1919
South Vietnam 1975–1976 Nguyễn Hữu Thọ 1975–76
  1. Wilczynski, J. (2008). The Economics of Socialism after World War Two: 1945–1990. Aldine Transaction. p. 21. ISBN 978-0202362281. Contrary to Western usage, these countries describe themselves as 'Socialist' (not 'Communist'). The second stage (Marx's 'higher phase'), or 'Communism' is to be marked by an age of plenty, distribution according to needs (not work), the absence of money and the market mechanism, the disappearance of the last vestiges of capitalism and the ultimate 'whithering away' of the State.
  2. Steele, David Ramsay (September 1999). From Marx to Mises: Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation. Open Court. p. 45. ISBN 978-0875484495. Among Western journalists the term 'Communist' came to refer exclusively to regimes and movements associated with the Communist International and its offspring: regimes which insisted that they were not communist but socialist, and movements which were barely communist in any sense at all.
  3. Rosser, Mariana V.; Rosser Jr., J. Barkley (23 July 2003). Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy. MIT Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0262182348. Ironically, the ideological father of communism, Karl Marx, claimed that communism entailed the withering away of the state. The dictatorship of the proletariat was to be a strictly temporary phenomenon. Well aware of this, the Soviet Communists never claimed to have achieved communism, always labeling their own system socialist rather than communist and viewing their system as in transition to communism.
  4. Williams, Raymond (1983)."Socialism". Keywords: A vocabulary of culture and society, revised edition. Oxford University Press. p. 289. ISBN 978-0-19-520469-8. The decisive distinction between socialist and communist, as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used, came with the renaming, in 1918, of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party (Bolsheviks) as the All-Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks). From that time on, a distinction of socialist from communist, often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist, became widely current, although it is significant that all communist parties, in line with earlier usage, continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism.
  5. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Democratic Republic of Bangladesh (28 November 1996). "Gathered in the national movement and later within the National Front of Liberation, the Algerian people have made great sacrifices to assume their collective destiny in the framework of recovered freedom and cultural identity and to build authentic people's democratic constitutional institutions. The National Front of Liberation crowned the sacrifices of the best sons of Algeria during the people's war of liberation with independence and built a modern and full sovereign State".
  6. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (4 November 1972). "Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process, a socialist society free from exploitation, a society in which the rule of law, fundamental human rights and freedoms, equality and justice, political, economic and social, will be secured for all citizens".
  7. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana (20 February 1980). "Convinced that the organisation of the State and society on socialist principles is the only means of ensuring social and economic justice for all of the people of Guyana; and, therefore, being motivated and guided by the principles of socialism".
  8. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of India (26 November 1949). "We, the people of India, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens".
  9. Article 4, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (20 September 2015). "Nepal is an independent, indivisible, sovereign, secular, inclusive democratic, socialism-oriented federal democratic republican state".
  10. Article 5, Section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua (1 January 1987). "Liberty, justice, respect for the dignity of the human person, political and social pluralism, the recognition of the distinct identity of the indigenous peoples and those of African descent within the framework of a unitary and indivisible state, the recognition of different forms of property, free international cooperation and respect for the free self-determination of peoples, Christian values, socialist ideals, and practices based on solidarity, and the values and ideals of the Nicaraguan culture and identity, are the principles of the Nicaraguan nation. [...] The socialist ideals promote the common good over individual egoism, seeking to create an ever more inclusive, just and fair society, promoting an economic democracy which redistributes national wealth and eliminates exploitation among human beings".
  11. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic (25 April 1976). "The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people's decision to [...] open up a path towards a socialist society".
  12. Article Preamble, Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (7 September 1978). "[T]o constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy, and assuring to all peoples freedom, equality, justice, fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary".
  13. Article 3, Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania (25 April 1978). "The United Republic is a democratic, secular and socialist state which adheres to multi-party democracy".
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  19. Schumpeter, Joseph (2008) [1942]. Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. Harper Perennial. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-06-156161-0. But there are still others (concepts and institutions) which by virtue of their nature cannot stand transplantation and always carry the flavor of a particular institutional framework. It is extremely dangerous, in fact it amounts to a distortion of historical description, to use them beyond the social world or culture whose denizens they are. Now ownership or property – also, so I believe, taxation – are such denizens of the world of commercial society, exactly as knights and fiefs are denizens of the feudal world. But so is the state (a denizen of commercial society).
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Socialist state
Socialist state Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Socialist country This article is about countries constitutionally committed to socialism For countries governed by Marxist Leninist communist parties see Communist state For a list of self proclaimed socialist states see List of socialist states For constitutional references to socialism in multi party democracies see Socialism in liberal democratic constitutions A socialist state socialist republic or socialist country sometimes referred to as a workers state or workers republic is a sovereign state constitutionally dedicated to the establishment of socialism The term communist state is often used synonymously in the West specifically when referring to one party socialist states governed by Marxist Leninist communist parties despite these countries being officially socialist states in the process of building socialism These countries never describe themselves as communist nor as having implemented a communist society 1 2 3 4 Additionally a number of countries that are multi party capitalist states make references to socialism in their constitutions in most cases alluding to the building of a socialist society naming socialism claiming to be a socialist state or including the term people s republic or socialist republic in their country s full name although this does not necessarily reflect the structure and development paths of these countries political and economic systems Currently these countries include Algeria 5 Bangladesh 6 Guyana 7 India 8 Nepal 9 Nicaragua 10 Portugal 11 Sri Lanka 12 and Tanzania 13 The idea of a socialist state stems from the broader notion of state socialism the political perspective that the working class needs to use state power and government policy to establish a socialised economic system This may either mean a system where the means of production distribution and exchange are nationalised or under state ownership or simply a system in which social values or workers interests have economic priority 14 15 16 However the concept of a socialist state is mainly advocated by Marxist Leninists and most socialist states have been established by political parties adhering to Marxism Leninism or some national variation thereof such as Maoism Stalinism or Titoism 17 A state whether socialist or not is opposed the most by anarchists who reject the idea that the state can be used to establish a socialist society due to its hierarchical and arguably coercive nature considering a socialist state or state socialism as an oxymoron 18 The concept of a socialist state is also considered unnecessary or counterproductive and rejected by some classical libertarian and orthodox Marxists libertarian socialists and other socialist political thinkers who view the modern state as a byproduct of capitalism which would have no function in a socialist system 19 20 21 A socialist state is to be distinguished from a multi party liberal democracy governed by a self described socialist party where the state is not constitutionally bound to the construction of socialism In such cases the political system and machinery of government is not specifically structured to pursue the development of socialism Socialist states in the Marxist Leninist sense are sovereign states under the control of a vanguard party which is organizing the country s economic political and social development toward the realization of socialism Economically this involves the development of a state capitalist economy with state directed capital accumulation with the long term goal of building up the country s productive forces while simultaneously promoting world communism 22 23 Academics political commentators and other scholars tend to distinguish between authoritarian socialist and democratic socialist states with the first representing the Soviet Bloc and the latter representing Western Bloc countries which have been democratically governed by socialist parties such as Britain France Sweden and Western social democracies in general among others 24 25 26 27 Contents 1 Overview 1 1 Constitutional references to socialism 1 2 Other uses 1 3 Terminology 2 Political theories 2 1 Marxist theory of the state 2 1 1 Reform and revolution 2 2 Leninist theory of the state 2 3 Trotskyist theory of the state 3 Controversy 3 1 Anarchism and Marxism 3 2 Leninism 3 3 Libertarian socialism 3 4 Trotskyism 4 List of socialist states 4 1 Current 4 2 Historical 4 3 Absorbed by the USSR 4 4 Non Marxist socialist states 4 5 Ephemeral 5 See also 6 ReferencesOverview EditThe first socialist state was the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic established in 1917 28 In 1922 it merged with the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic the Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic into a single federal union called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics USSR The Soviet Union proclaimed itself a socialist state and proclaimed its commitment to building a socialist economy in its 1936 constitution and a subsequent 1977 constitution It was governed by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union as a single party state ostensibly with a democratic centralism organization with Marxism Leninism remaining its official guiding ideology until Soviet Union s dissolution on 26 December 1991 The political systems of these Marxist Leninist socialist states revolve around the central role of the party which holds ultimate authority Internally the communist party practices a form of democracy called democratic centralism 29 During the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in 1961 Nikita Khrushchev announced the completion of socialist construction and declared the optimistic goal of achieving communism in twenty years 30 The Eastern Bloc was a political and economic bloc of Soviet aligned socialist states in Eastern and Central Europe which adhered to Marxism Leninism Soviet style governance and economic planning in the form of the administrative command system and command economy China s socio economic structure has been referred to as nationalistic state capitalism and the Eastern Bloc Eastern Europe and the Third World as bureaucratic authoritarian systems 31 32 The People s Republic of China was founded on 1 October 1949 and proclaims itself to be a socialist state in its 1982 constitution The Democratic People s Republic of Korea North Korea used to be a Marxist Leninist state In 1972 the country adopted a new constitution which changed the official state ideology to Juche which is held to be a distinct Korean re interpretation of the former ideology 33 Similarly direct references to communism in the Lao People s Democratic Republic are not included in its founding documents although it gives direct power to the governing ruling party the Marxist Leninist Lao People s Revolutionary Party The preamble to the constitution of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam states that Vietnam only entered a transition stage between capitalism and socialism after the country was reunified under the Communist Party of Vietnam in 1976 34 The 1992 constitution of the Republic of Cuba states that the role of the Communist Party of Cuba is to guide the common effort toward the goals and construction of socialism and the progress toward a communist society 35 The 2019 constitution retains the aim to work towards the construction of socialism 36 Constitutional references to socialism Edit See also Socialism in liberal democratic constitutions A number of countries make reference to socialism in their constitutions that are not single party states embracing Marxism Leninism and planned economies In most cases these are constitutional references to the building of a socialist society and political principles that have little to no bearing on the structure and guidance of these country s machinery of government and economic system The preamble to the 1976 Constitution of Portugal states that the Portuguese state has as one of its goals opening the way to socialist society 37 Algeria the Congo India and Sri Lanka have directly used the term socialist in their official constitution and name Croatia Hungary and Poland directly denounce Communism in their founding documents in reference to their past regimes 38 39 40 In these cases the intended meaning of socialism can vary widely and sometimes the constitutional references to socialism are left over from a previous period in the country s history In the case of many Middle Eastern states the term socialism was often used in reference to an Arab socialist nationalist philosophy adopted by specific regimes such as that of Gamal Abdel Nasser and that of the various Ba ath parties Examples of countries directly using the term socialist in their names include the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam while a number of countries make references to socialism in their constitutions but not in their names These include India 41 and Portugal In addition countries such as Belarus Colombia France Russia and Spain use the varied term social state leaving a more ambiguous meaning In the constitutions of Croatia Hungary and Poland direct condemnation is made to the respective past socialist regimes The autonomous region of Rojava which operates under the principles of democratic confederalism has been described as a socialist state 42 Other uses Edit During the post war consensus nationalization of large industries was relatively widespread and it was not uncommon for commentators to describe some European countries as democratic socialist states seeking to move their countries toward a socialist economy 24 25 26 27 In 1956 leading British Labour Party politician and author Anthony Crosland claimed that capitalism had been abolished in Britain although others such as Welshman Aneurin Bevan Minister of Health in the first post war Labour government and the architect of the National Health Service disputed the claim that Britain was a socialist state 43 44 For Crosland and others who supported his views Britain was a socialist state According to Bevan Britain had a socialist National Health Service which stood in opposition to the hedonism of Britain s capitalist society making the following point The National Health service and the Welfare State have come to be used as interchangeable terms and in the mouths of some people as terms of reproach Why this is so it is not difficult to understand if you view everything from the angle of a strictly individualistic competitive society A free health service is pure Socialism and as such it is opposed to the hedonism of capitalist society 45 Although as in the rest of Europe the laws of capitalism still operated fully and private enterprise dominated the economy 46 some political commentators claimed that during the post war period when socialist parties were in power countries such as Britain and France were democratic socialist states and the same is now applied to the Nordic countries and the Nordic model 24 25 26 27 In the 1980s the government of President Francois Mitterrand aimed to expand dirigisme and attempted to nationalize all French banks but this attempt faced opposition of the European Economic Community because it demanded a free market capitalist economy among its members 47 48 Nevertheless public ownership in France and the United Kingdom during the height of nationalization in the 1960s and 1970s never accounted for more than 15 20 of capital formation further dropping to 8 in the 1980s and below 5 in the 1990s after the rise of neoliberalism 46 The socialist policies practiced by parties such as the Singaporean People s Action Party PAP during its first few decades in power were of a pragmatic kind as characterized by its rejection of nationalization Despite this the PAP still claimed to be a socialist party pointing out its regulation of the private sector state intervention in the economy and social policies as evidence of this 49 The Singaporean prime minister Lee Kuan Yew also stated that he has been influenced by the democratic socialist British Labour Party 50 Terminology Edit See also Communist state Because most existing socialist states operated along Marxist Leninist principles of governance the terms Marxist Leninist regime and Marxist Leninist state are used by scholars particularly when focusing on the political systems of these countries 29 A people s republic is a type of socialist state with a republican constitution Although the term initially became associated with populist movements in the 19th century such as the German Volkisch movement and the Narodniks in Russia it is now associated to communist states A number of the short lived communist states which formed during World War I and its aftermath called themselves people s republics Many of these sprang up in the territory of the former Russian Empire following the October Revolution 51 52 53 54 55 Additional people s republics emerged following the Allied victory in World War II mainly within the Eastern Bloc 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 In Asia China became a people s republic following the Chinese Communist Revolution 63 and North Korea also became a people s republic 64 During the 1960s Romania and Yugoslavia ceased to use the term people s republic in their official name replacing it with the term socialist republic as a mark of their ongoing political development Czechoslovakia also added the term socialist republic into its name during this period It had become a people s republic in 1948 but the country had not used that term in its official name 65 Albania used both terms in its official name from 1976 to 1991 66 The term socialist state is widely used by Marxist Leninist parties theorists and governments to mean a state under the control of a vanguard party that is organizing the economic social and political affairs of said state toward the construction of socialism States run by communist parties that adhere to Marxism Leninism or some national variation thereof refer to themselves as socialist states or workers and peasants states They involve the direction of economic development toward the building up of the productive forces to underpin the establishment of a socialist economy and usually include that at least the commanding heights of the economy are nationalized and under state ownership 23 67 This may or may not include the existence of a socialist economy depending on the specific terminology adopted and level of development in specific countries The Leninist definition of a socialist state is a state representing the interests of the working class which presides over a state capitalist economy structured upon state directed accumulation of capital with the goal of building up the country s productive forces and promoting worldwide socialist revolution while the realization of a socialist economy is held as the long term goal 23 In the Western world particularly in mass media journalism and politics these states and countries are often called communist states although they do not use this term to refer to themselves despite the fact that these countries never claimed to have achieved communism in their countries rather they claim to be building and working toward the establishment of socialism and the development towards communism thereafter in their countries 1 2 3 4 Terms used by communist states include national democratic people s democratic people s republican socialist oriented and workers and peasants states 68 Political theories EditMarxist theory of the state Edit Main article Marx s theory of the state Karl Marx and subsequent thinkers in the Marxist tradition conceive of the state as representing the interests of the ruling class partially out of material necessity for the smooth operation of the modes of production it presides over Marxists trace the formation of the contemporary form of the sovereign state to the emergence of capitalism as a dominant mode of production with its organizational precepts and functions designed specifically to manage and regulate the affairs of a capitalist economy Because this involves governance and laws passed in the interest of the bourgeoisie as a whole and because government officials either come from the bourgeoisie or are dependent upon their interests Marx characterized the capitalist state as a dictatorship of the bourgeoisie Extrapolating from this Marx described a post revolutionary government on the part of the working class or proletariat as a dictatorship of the proletariat because the economic interests of the proletariat would have to guide state affairs and policy during a transitional state Alluding further to the establishment of a socialist economy where social ownership displaces private ownership and thus class distinctions on the basis of private property ownership are eliminated the modern state would have no function and would gradually wither away or be transformed into a new form of governance 69 70 Influenced by the pre Marxist utopian socialist philosopher Henri de Saint Simon Friedrich Engels theorized the nature of the state would change during the transition to socialism Both Saint Simon and Engels described a transformation of the state from an entity primarily concerned with political rule over people via coercion and law creation to a scientific administration of things that would be concerned with directing processes of production in a socialist society essentially ceasing to be a state 71 72 73 Although Marx never referred to a socialist state he argued that the working class would have to take control of the state apparatus and machinery of government in order to transition out of capitalism and to socialism The dictatorship of the proletariat would represent this transitional state and would involve working class interests dominating government policy in the same manner that capitalist class interests dominate government policy under capitalism the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie Engels argued that as socialism developed the state would change in form and function Under socialism it is not a government of people but the administration of things thereby ceasing to be a state by the traditional definition 74 75 With the fall of the Paris Commune Marx cautiously argued in The Civil War in France that the working class cannot simply lay hold of the ready made state machinery and wield it for its own purposes The centralized state power with its ubiquitous organs of standing army police bureaucracy clergy and judicature organs wrought after the plan of a systematic and hierarchic division of labor originates from the days of absolute monarchy serving nascent middle class society as a mighty weapon in its struggle against feudalism 76 In other words the centralized state power inherited by the bourgeoisie from the absolute monarchy necessarily assumes in the course of the intensifying struggles between capital and labor more and more the character of the national power of capital over labour of a public organized for social enslavement of an engine of class despotism 77 One of the most influential modern visions of a transitional state representing proletarian interests was based on the Paris Commune in which the workers and working poor took control of the city of Paris in 1871 in reaction to the Franco Prussian War Marx described the Paris Commune as the prototype for a revolutionary government of the future the form at last discovered for the emancipation of the proletariat 76 Engels noted that all officials high or low were paid only the wages received by other workers In this way an effective barrier to place hunting and careerism was set up 78 Commenting on the nature of the state Engels continued From the outset the Commune was compelled to recognize that the working class once come to power could not manage with the old state machine In order not to be overthrown once having conquered power Engels argues that the working class must on the one hand do away with all the old repressive machinery previously used against it itself and on the other safeguard itself against its own deputies and officials by declaring them all without exception subject to recall at any moment Engels argued such a state would be a temporary affair and suggested a new generation brought up in new and free social conditions will be able to throw the entire lumber of the state on the scrap heap 79 Reform and revolution Edit Socialists that embraced reformism exemplified by Eduard Bernstein took the view that both socialism and a socialist state will gradually evolve out of political reforms won in the organized socialist political parties and unions These views are considered a revision of Marxist thought Bernstein stated The socialist movement is everything to me while what people commonly call the goal of Socialism is nothing 80 Following Marx revolutionary socialists instead take the view that the working class grows stronger through its battle for reforms such as in Marx s time the ten hours bill In 1848 Marx and Engels wrote Now and then the workers are victorious but only for a time The real fruit of their battles lies not in the immediate result but in the ever expanding union of the workers I t ever rises up again stronger firmer mightier It compels legislative recognition of particular interests of the workers by taking advantage of the divisions among the bourgeoisie itself Thus the ten hours bill in England was carried 81 According to the orthodox Marxist conception these battles eventually reach a point where a revolutionary movement arises A revolutionary movement is required in the view of Marxists to sweep away the capitalist state and the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie which must be abolished and replaced with a dictatorship of the proletariat to begin constructing a socialist society In this view only through revolution can a socialist state be established as written in The Communist Manifesto In depicting the most general phases of the development of the proletariat we traced the more or less veiled civil war raging within existing society up to the point where that war breaks out into open revolution and where the violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie lays the foundation for the sway of the proletariat 81 Other historic reformist or gradualist movements within socialism as opposed to revolutionary approaches include Fabian socialist and Menshevik groupings Leninist theory of the state Edit Main article Leninism Whereas Marx Engels and classical Marxist thinkers had little to say about the organization of the state in a socialist society presuming the modern state to be specific to the capitalist mode of production Vladimir Lenin pioneered the idea of a revolutionary state based on his theory of the revolutionary vanguard party and organizational principles of democratic centralism Adapted to the conditions of semi feudal Russia Lenin s concept of the dictatorship of the proletariat involved a revolutionary vanguard party acting as representatives of the proletariat and its interests According to Lenin s April Theses the goal of the revolution and vanguard party is not the introduction of socialism it could only be established on a worldwide scale but to bring production and the state under the control of the soviets of workers deputies Following the October Revolution in Russia the Bolsheviks consolidated their power and sought to control and direct the social and economic affairs of the state and broader Russian society to safeguard against counterrevolutionary insurrection foreign invasion and to promote socialist consciousness among the Russian population while simultaneously promoting economic development 22 These ideas were adopted by Lenin in 1917 just prior to the October Revolution in Russia and published in The State and Revolution With the failure of the worldwide revolution or at least European revolution envisaged by Lenin and Leon Trotsky the Russian Civil War and finally Lenin s death war measures that were deemed to be temporary such as forced requisition of food and the lack of democratic control became permanent and a tool to boost Joseph Stalin s power leading to the emergence of Marxism Leninism and Stalinism as well as the notion that socialism can be created and exist in a single state with theory of socialism in one country Lenin argued that as socialism is replaced by communism the state would wither away 82 as strong centralized control progressively reduces as local communities gain more empowerment As he put succinctly s o long as the state exists there is no freedom When there will be freedom there will be no state 83 In this way Lenin was thereby proposing a classically dynamic view of progressive social structure which during his own short period of governance emerged as a defensive and preliminary bureaucratic centralist stage He regarded this structural paradox as the necessary preparation for and antithesis of the desired workers state which he forecast would follow Trotskyist theory of the state Edit Main article Trotskyism Following Stalin s consolidation of power in the Soviet Union and static centralization of political power Trotsky condemned the Soviet government s policies for lacking widespread democratic participation on the part of the population and for suppressing workers self management and democratic participation in the management of the economy Because these authoritarian political measures were inconsistent with the organizational precepts of socialism Trotsky characterized the Soviet Union as a deformed workers state that would not be able to effectively transition to socialism Ostensibly socialist states where democracy is lacking yet the economy is largely in the hands of the state are termed by orthodox Trotskyist theories as degenerated or deformed workers states and not socialist states 84 Controversy EditAnarchism and Marxism Edit Many democratic and libertarian socialists including anarchists mutualists and syndicalists criticize the concept of establishing a socialist state instead of abolishing the bourgeois state apparatus outright They use the term state socialism to contrast it with their own form of socialism which involves either collective ownership in the form of worker cooperatives or common ownership of the means of production without state centralized planning Those socialists believe there is no need for a state in a socialist system because there would be no class to suppress and no need for an institution based on coercion and therefore regard the state being a remnant of capitalism 19 20 21 They hold that statism is antithetical to true socialism 18 the goal of which is the eyes of libertarian socialists such as William Morris who wrote as follows in a Commonweal article State Socialism I don t agree with it in fact I think the two words contradict one another and that it is the business of Socialism to destroy the State and put Free Society in its place 85 Classical and orthodox Marxists also view state socialism as an oxymoron arguing that while an association for managing production and economic affairs would exist in socialism it would no longer be a state in the Marxist definition which is based on domination by one class Preceding the Bolshevik led revolution in Russia many socialist groups including reformists orthodox Marxist currents such as council communism and the Mensheviks as well as anarchists and other libertarian socialists criticized the idea of using the state to conduct planning and nationalization of the means of production as a way to establish socialism 86 Lenin himself acknowledged his policies as state capitalism 87 88 89 90 Critical of the economy and government of socialist states left communists such as the Italian Amadeo Bordiga said that their socialism was a form of political opportunism which preserved rather than destroyed capitalism because of the claim that the exchange of commodities would occur under socialism the use of popular front organisations by the Communist International 91 and that a political vanguard organized by organic centralism was more effective than a vanguard organized by democratic centralism 92 The American Marxist Raya Dunayevskaya also dismissed it as a type of state capitalism 93 because state ownership of the means of production is a form of state capitalism 94 the dictatorship of the proletariat is a form of democracy and single party rule is undemocratic 95 and Marxism Leninism is neither Marxism nor Leninism but rather a composite ideology which socialist leaders like Joseph Stalin used to expediently determine what is communism and what is not communism among the Eastern Bloc countries 96 Leninism Edit Although most Marxist Leninists distinguish between communism and socialism Bordiga who did consider himself a Leninist and has been described as being more Leninist than Lenin 97 did not distinguish between the two in the same way Marxist Leninists do Both Lenin and Bordiga did not see socialism as a separate mode of production from communism but rather just as how communism looks as it emerges out of capitalism before it has developed on its own foundations 98 This is coherent with Marx and Engels who used the terms communism and socialism interchangeably 99 100 Like Lenin Bordiga used socialism to mean what Marx called the lower phase communism 101 For Bordiga both stages of socialist or communist society with stages referring to historical materialism were characterized by the gradual absence of money the market and so on the difference between them being that earlier in the first stage a system of rationing would be used to allocate goods to people while in communism this could be abandoned in favour of full free access This view distinguished Bordiga from Marxist Leninists who tended and still tend to telescope the first two stages and so have money and the other exchange categories surviving into socialism but Bordiga would have none of this For him no society in which money buying and selling and the rest survived could be regarded as either socialist or communist these exchange categories would die out before the socialist rather than the communist stage was reached 91 Stalin made the claim that the Soviet Union had reached the lower stage of communism and argued that the law of value still operated within a socialist economy 102 Marx did not use the term socialism to refer to this development and instead called it a communist society that has not yet reached its higher stage 103 The term socialism to mean the lower state of communism was popularized during the Russian Revolution by Lenin This view is consistent with and helped to inform early concepts of socialism in which the law of value no longer directs economic activity namely that monetary relations in the form of exchange value profit interest and wage labour would not operate and apply to Marxist socialism 104 Unlike Stalin who first claimed to have achieved socialism with the Soviet Constitution of 1936 105 106 107 108 and then confirmed it in the Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR 109 110 111 112 113 Lenin did not call the Soviet Union a socialist state nor did he claim that it had achieved socialism 114 He adopted state capitalist policies 14 15 16 17 defending them from left wing criticism 115 but arguing that they were necessary for the future development of socialism and not socialist in themselves 116 117 On seeing the Soviet Union s growing coercive power Lenin was quoted as saying that Russia had reverted to a bourgeois tsarist machine barely varnished with socialism 118 Libertarian socialism Edit A variety of non state libertarian communist and socialist positions reject the concept of a socialist state altogether believing that the modern state is a byproduct of capitalism and cannot be used for the establishment of a socialist system They reason that a socialist state is antithetical to socialism and that socialism will emerge spontaneously from the grassroots level in an evolutionary manner developing its own unique political and economic institutions for a highly organized stateless society Libertarian communists including anarchists councillists leftists and Marxists also reject the concept of a socialist state for being antithetical to socialism but they believe that socialism can only be established through revolution and dissolving the existence of the state 18 20 21 Within the socialist movement there is criticism towards the use of the term socialist states in relation to countries such as China and previously of Soviet Union and Eastern and Central European states before what some term the collapse of Stalinism in 1989 119 120 121 122 Anti authoritarian communists and socialists such as anarchists other democratic and libertarian socialists as well as revolutionary syndicalists and left communists 123 claim that the so called socialist states actually presided over state capitalist economies and cannot be called socialist 93 Those socialists who oppose any system of state control whatsoever believe in a more decentralized approach which puts the means of production directly into the hands of the workers rather than indirectly through state bureaucracies 18 20 21 which they claim represent a new elite or class 124 125 126 127 This leads them to consider state socialism a form of state capitalism 91 an economy based on centralized management capital accumulation and wage labor but with the state owning the means of production 128 which Engels stated would be the final form of capitalism rather than socialism 129 Trotskyism Edit Some Trotskyists following on from Tony Cliff deny that it is socialism calling it state capitalism 130 Other Trotskyists agree that these states could not be described as socialist 131 but deny that they were state capitalist 132 They support Leon Trotsky s analysis of pre restoration Soviet Union as a workers state that had degenerated into a bureaucratic dictatorship which rested on a largely nationalized industry run according to a production plan 133 134 135 and claimed that the former Stalinist states of Central and Eastern Europe were deformed workers states based on the same relations of production as the Soviet Union 136 Some Trotskyists such as the Committee for a Workers International have at times included African Asian and Middle Eastern socialist states when they have had a nationalized economy as deformed workers states 137 138 Other socialists argued that the neo Ba athists promoted capitalists from within the party and outside their countries 139 List of socialist states EditMain article List of socialist states This is a combined map of all countries that declared themselves socialist states under any definition at some point in their history color coded for the number of years they said they were socialist click on image to magnify Over 70 years 60 70 years 50 60 years 40 50 years 30 40 years 20 30 years Under 20 years States that had communist governments in red states that the Soviet Union believed at one point to be moving toward socialism in orange and other socialist states in yellow note that not all of the bright red states remained Soviet allies Current Edit Country System Beginning Party Note China Popular Republic 1949 Communist Party of China With free market reforms progressively implemented from the government of Deng Xiaoping up to the current socialism with Chinese characteristics North Korea Democratic People s Republic 1948 Workers Party of Korea The official ideology of the state is Juche started as a national adaptation of Marxism Leninism but independent of it In 2009 the word communism was removed from the constitution replacing it with socialism Cuba Socialist Republic 1961 Communist Party of Cuba Initially with a political economic system one party and statist After the fall of the Soviet Union and with the end of CAME Cuba progressively adopted some market reforms to allow private property in certain sectors Laos Democratic People s Republic 1975 Lao People s Revolutionary Party With the market gradually liberalized since the adoption of a new economic mechanism Vietnam Socialist Republic 1976 Communist Party of Vietnam From the economic opening known as Doi Moi Vietnam practices the so called market economy oriented to socialism Historical Edit Country System Beginning End Party LeadersAfghanistan Democratic Republic 1978 1992 People s Democratic Party of Afghanistan Khalq Nur Mohammad Taraki 1978 79 Hafizullah Amin 1979 Babrak Karmal 1979 86 Mohammad Najibullah 1986 92Albania Democratic Republic and People s Republic 1944 1992 Party of Labour of Albania Enver Hoxha 1944 85 Ramiz Alia 1985 91Angola People s Republic 1975 1992 MPLA Agostinho Neto 1975 79 Jose Eduardo dos Santos 1979 92East Germany Democratic Republic 1949 1990 Socialist Unity Party of Germany Wilhelm Pieck 1946 50 Walter Ulbricht 1950 1971 Erich Honecker 1971 1989Benin People s Republic 1975 1990 People s Revolutionary Party of Benin Mathieu Kerekou 1975 90Bulgaria People s Republic 1946 1990 Bulgarian Communist Party Georgi Dimitrov 1946 49 Valko Chervenkov 1949 54 Todor Zhivkov 1954 89 Petar Mladenov 1989 90Czechoslovakia Federal Socialist Republic 1948 1989 Communist Party of Czechoslovakia Klement Gottwald 1948 53 Antonin Novotny 1953 68 Alexander Dubcek 1968 69 Gustav Husak 1969 87 Milos Jakes 1987 89 Karel Urbanek 1989Chile Socialist Republic 1932 1932 Socialist Party of Chile Arturo Puga Osorio 1932 Carlos Davila 1932Congo Brazzaville People s Republic 1970 1991 Congolese Party of Labour Marien Ngouabi 1970 77 Military Committee of the CPL 1977 91Ethiopia Provisional Military Government 1974 1987 Military Junta Mengistu Haile Mariam 1974 1987Ethiopia People s Democratic Republic 1987 1991 Workers Party of Ethiopia Mengistu Haile Mariam 1987 91Grenada Socialist state 1979 1983 New Jewel Movement Maurice Bishop 1979 83 Bernard Coard 1983 Hudson Austin 1983Hungary People s Republic 1949 1989 Hungarian Working People s Party Matyas Rakosi 1948 56 Erno Gero 1956 Janos Kadar 1956 88 Karoly Grosz 1988 89Kampuchea Democratic Republic 1975 1979 Communist Party of Kampuchea Khmer Rouge Pol Pot 1975 79Kampuchea 1979 1989 Cambodia 1989 1991 People s Republic 1979 1989 Republic 1989 1991 1979 1991 Kampuchean People s Revolutionary Party 1979 1989 Cambodian People s Party 1989 1991 Pen Sovan 1979 81 Heng Samrin 1981 91Mongolia People s Republic 1924 1992 Mongolian People s Party Navaandorjiyn Jadambaa primero 1924 Punsalmaagiin Ochirbat ultimo 1990 92Mozambique People s Republic 1975 1990 FRELIMO Samora Machel 1975 86 Political Bureau 1986 Joaquim Chissano 1986 90Poland People s Republic 1945 1989 Polish United Workers Party Boleslaw Bierut 1948 56 Edward Ochab 1956 Wladyslaw Gomulka 1956 70 Edward Gierek 1970 80 Stanislaw Kania 1980 81 Wojciech Jaruzelski 1981 89 Mieczyslaw Rakowski 1989 90Romania Popular Republic since 1965 Socialist Republic 1947 1989 Romanian Communist Party G Gheorghiu Dej 1947 65 Nicolae Ceausescu 1965 89Somalia Democratic Republic 1969 1991 Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party Mohamed Siad Barre 1969 91Soviet Union Federation of Socialist Republics 1922 1991 Communist Party of the Soviet Union Vladimir Lenin 1917 24 Joseph Stalin 1922 52 Nikita Khrushchev 1953 64 Leonid Brezhnev 1964 82 Yuri Andropov 1982 84 Konstantin Chernenko 1984 85 Mikhail Gorbachev 1985 91North Vietnam Democratic Republic 1945 1976 Workers Party of Vietnam Ho Chi Minh 1945 69 Ton Đức Thắng 1969 76South Yemen People s Democratic Republic 1967 1990 Yemeni Socialist Party Abdul Fattah Ismail 1967 80 Ali Nasir Muhammad 1980 86 Ali Salem al Beidh 1986 90Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic 1945 1992 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Josip Broz Tito 1945 80Absorbed by the USSR Edit Country Beginning End Party LeaderFinland 1939 1940 Communist Party of Finland Otto Kuusinen 1939 40Tannu Tuva 1921 1944 Tuvan People s Revolutionary Party Salchak Toka 1921 44Non Marxist socialist states Edit Country Beginning End LeadersAlgeria 1963 1989 Ahmed Ben Bella 1963 65 Houari Boumediene 1965 78 Rabah Bitat 1978 79 Chadli Bendjedid 1979 89Burma 1974 1988 Ne Win 1974 88Cape Verde 1975 1991 Aristides Pereira 1975 91Ghana 1960 1966 Kwame Nkrumah 1960 66Iraq 1968 2003 Ahmed Hasan al Bakr 1968 79 Saddam Hussein 1979 2003Libya 1977 2011 Muammar Gadafi 1977 2011Madagascar 1975 1993 Didier Ratsiraka 1975 93Seychelles 1977 1992 France Albert Rene 1977 92Syria 1963 2012 Amin al Hafiz 1963 66 Nureddin al Atassi 1966 70 Ahmad al Khatib 1970 71 Hafez al Asad 1971 2000 Bashar al Asad 2000 12Ephemeral Edit Country Year Leaders Bavaria People s State 1918 1919 Kurt Eisner 1918 1919 Johannes Hoffman 1919 Bavaria Soviet Republic 1919 Ernst Toller 1919 Eugen Levine 1919 Gilan 1920 1921 Mirza Koochak Khan 1920 21 Hungary 1919 Sandor Garbai Bela Kun de facto 1919 Paris France 1871 Louis Charles Delescluze 1871 Slovakia 1919 Antonin Janousek 1919 South Vietnam 1975 1976 Nguyễn Hữu Thọ 1975 76See also Edit Communism portal Politics portal Socialism portal Anarcho syndicalism Legislatures in communist states Soviet democracy Soviet council Soviet Republic disambiguation Soviet republic system of government Workers councilReferences Edit a b Wilczynski J 2008 The Economics of Socialism after World War Two 1945 1990 Aldine Transaction p 21 ISBN 978 0202362281 Contrary to Western usage these countries describe themselves as Socialist not Communist The second stage Marx s higher phase or Communism is to be marked by an age of plenty distribution according to needs not work the absence of money and the market mechanism the disappearance of the last vestiges of capitalism and the ultimate whithering away of the State a b Steele David Ramsay September 1999 From Marx to Mises Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation Open Court p 45 ISBN 978 0875484495 Among Western journalists the term Communist came to refer exclusively to regimes and movements associated with the Communist International and its offspring regimes which insisted that they were not communist but socialist and movements which were barely communist in any sense at all a b Rosser Mariana V Rosser Jr J Barkley 23 July 2003 Comparative Economics in a Transforming World Economy MIT Press p 14 ISBN 978 0262182348 Ironically the ideological father of communism Karl Marx claimed that communism entailed the withering away of the state The dictatorship of the proletariat was to be a strictly temporary phenomenon Well aware of this the Soviet Communists never claimed to have achieved communism always labeling their own system socialist rather than communist and viewing their system as in transition to communism a b Williams Raymond 1983 Socialism Keywords A vocabulary of culture and society revised edition Oxford University Press p 289 ISBN 978 0 19 520469 8 The decisive distinction between socialist and communist as in one sense these terms are now ordinarily used came with the renaming in 1918 of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Bolsheviks as the All Russian Communist Party Bolsheviks From that time on a distinction of socialist from communist often with supporting definitions such as social democrat or democratic socialist became widely current although it is significant that all communist parties in line with earlier usage continued to describe themselves as socialist and dedicated to socialism Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People s Democratic Republic of Bangladesh 28 November 1996 Gathered in the national movement and later within the National Front of Liberation the Algerian people have made great sacrifices to assume their collective destiny in the framework of recovered freedom and cultural identity and to build authentic people s democratic constitutional institutions The National Front of Liberation crowned the sacrifices of the best sons of Algeria during the people s war of liberation with independence and built a modern and full sovereign State Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the People s Republic of Bangladesh 4 November 1972 Further pledging that it shall be a fundamental aim of the State to realise through the democratic process a socialist society free from exploitation a society in which the rule of law fundamental human rights and freedoms equality and justice political economic and social will be secured for all citizens Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Cooperative Republic of Guyana 20 February 1980 Convinced that the organisation of the State and society on socialist principles is the only means of ensuring social and economic justice for all of the people of Guyana and therefore being motivated and guided by the principles of socialism Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Republic of India 26 November 1949 We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic and to secure to all its citizens Article 4 Section 1 of the Constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal 20 September 2015 Nepal is an independent indivisible sovereign secular inclusive democratic socialism oriented federal democratic republican state Article 5 Section 1 of the Constitution of the Republic of Nicaragua 1 January 1987 Liberty justice respect for the dignity of the human person political and social pluralism the recognition of the distinct identity of the indigenous peoples and those of African descent within the framework of a unitary and indivisible state the recognition of different forms of property free international cooperation and respect for the free self determination of peoples Christian values socialist ideals and practices based on solidarity and the values and ideals of the Nicaraguan culture and identity are the principles of the Nicaraguan nation The socialist ideals promote the common good over individual egoism seeking to create an ever more inclusive just and fair society promoting an economic democracy which redistributes national wealth and eliminates exploitation among human beings Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Portuguese Republic 25 April 1976 The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people s decision to open up a path towards a socialist society Article Preamble Section Preamble of the Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka 7 September 1978 T o constitute Sri Lanka into a democratic socialist republic whilst ratifying the immutable republican principles of representative democracy and assuring to all peoples freedom equality justice fundamental human rights and the independence of the judiciary Article 3 Section 1 of the Constitution of the United Republic of Tanzania 25 April 1978 The United Republic is a democratic secular and socialist state which adheres to multi party democracy a b Lenin Vladimir 1917 The State and Revolution Chapter 5 Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 a b Lenin Vladimir February July 1918 Lenin Collected Works Vol 27 Marxists Internet Archive p 293 Quoted by Aufheben Archived 18 March 2004 at the Wayback Machine a b Lenin Vladimir 1921 The Tax in Kind Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 a b Pena David S 21 September 2007 Tasks of Working Class Governments under the Socialist oriented Market Economy Political Affairs Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 8 February 2020 a b c d McKay Iain ed 2008 Isn t libertarian socialism an oxymoron An Anarchist FAQ I Stirling AK Press ISBN 978 1 902593 90 6 OCLC 182529204 a b Schumpeter Joseph 2008 1942 Capitalism Socialism and Democracy Harper Perennial p 169 ISBN 978 0 06 156161 0 But there are still others concepts and institutions which by virtue of their nature cannot stand transplantation and always carry the flavor of a particular institutional framework It is extremely dangerous in fact it amounts to a distortion of historical description to use them beyond the social world or culture whose denizens they are Now ownership or property also so I believe taxation are such denizens of the world of commercial society exactly as knights and fiefs are denizens of the feudal world But so is the state a denizen of commercial society a b c d McKay Iain ed 2012 Why do anarchists oppose state socialism An Anarchist FAQ II Edinburgh AK Press ISBN 978 1 902593 90 6 OCLC 182529204 a b c d McKay Iain ed 2012 What would an anarchist society look like An Anarchist FAQ II Edinburgh AK Press ISBN 978 1 902593 90 6 OCLC 182529204 a b Fleming Richard Fleming 1989 Lenin s Conception of Socialism Learning from the early experiences of the world s first socialist revolution Forward 9 1 Retrieved 27 December 2015 a b c Lenin Collected Works 27 293 Quoted by Aufheben Archived 18 March 2004 at the Wayback Machine a b c Barrett William ed 1 April 1978 Capitalism Socialism and Democracy A Symposium Commentary Retrieved 14 June 2020 If we were to extend the definition of socialism to include Labor Britain or socialist Sweden there would be no difficulty in refuting the connection between capitalism and democracy a b c Heilbroner Robert L Winter 1991 From Sweden to Socialism A Small Symposium on Big Questions Dissident Barkan Joanne Brand Horst Cohen Mitchell Coser Lewis Denitch Bogdan Feher Ferenc Heller Agnes Horvat Branko Tyler Gus pp 96 110 Retrieved 17 April 2020 a b c Kendall Diana 2011 Sociology in Our Time The Essentials Cengage Learning pp 125 127 ISBN 9781111305505 Sweden Great Britain and France have mixed economies sometimes referred to as democratic socialism an economic and political system that combines private ownership of some of the means of production governmental distribution of some essential goods and services and free elections For example government ownership in Sweden is limited primarily to railroads mineral resources a public bank and liquor and tobacco operations a b c Li He 2015 Political Thought and China s Transformation Ideas Shaping Reform in Post Mao China Springer pp 60 69 ISBN 9781137427816 The scholars in camp of democratic socialism believe that China should draw on the Sweden experience which is suitable not only for the West but also for China In the post Mao China the Chinese intellectuals are confronted with a variety of models The liberals favor the American model and share the view that the Soviet model has become archaic and should be totally abandoned Meanwhile democratic socialism in Sweden provided an alternative model Its sustained economic development and extensive welfare programs fascinated many Numerous scholars within the democratic socialist camp argue that China should model itself politically and economically on Sweden which is viewed as more genuinely socialist than China There is a growing consensus among them that in the Nordic countries the welfare state has been extraordinarily successful in eliminating poverty Jones R J Barry 2002 Routledge Encyclopedia of International Political Economy Volume 3 Routledge p 1461 ISBN 9781136927393 a b Furtak Robert K 1986 Political Systems of the Socialist States An Introduction to Marxist Leninist Regimes New York St Martin s Press ISBN 978 0745000480 Tompson William J 1997 Khrushchev A Political Life New York City St Martin s Press p 238 Morgan W John 2001 Marxism Leninism The Ideology of Twentieth Century Communism In Wright James D ed International Encyclopedia of the Social amp Behavioral Sciences 2nd ed Oxford Elsevier pp 657 662 Andrai Charles F 1994 Comparative Political Systems Policy Performance and Social Change Armonk New York M E Sharpe pp 24 25 Juche is Third Position ideology built on Marx Not Marxist Leninism Free Media Productions Editorials 30 August 2009 Retrieved 25 December 2015 VN Embassy Constitution of 1992 Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine From the Preamble On 2 July 1976 the National Assembly of reunified Vietnam decided to change the country s name to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the country entered a period of transition to socialism strove for national construction and unyieldingly defended its frontiers while fulfilling its internationalist duty Constitution of the Republic of Cuba 1992 Cubanet Archived 9 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine From Article 5 The Communist Party of Cuba a follower of Marti s ideas and of Marxism Leninism and the organized vanguard of the Cuban nation is the highest leading force of society and of the state which organizes and guides the common effort toward the goals of the construction of socialism and the progress toward a communist society Reuters 22 July 2018 Cuba ditches aim of building communism from draft constitution The Guardian Retrieved 5 August 2020 The Preamble to the 1976 Constitution of Portugal stated The Constituent Assembly affirms the Portuguese people s decision to defend their national independence safeguard the fundamental rights of citizens establish the basic principles of democracy secure the primacy of the rule of law in a democratic state and open the way to socialist society Tschentscher Axel Croatia Constitution Servat unibe ch Retrieved 27 December 2019 Tschentscher Axel Hungary Index Servat unibe ch Retrieved 27 December 2019 Tschentscher Axel Poland Constitution Servat unibe ch Retrieved 27 December 2019 The Preamble of the Constitution of India reads We the people of India having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a sovereign socialist secular democratic republic See Preamble to the Constitution of India Wall Derek 25 August 2014 Rojava a beacon of hope fighting Isis Morning Star Archived from the original on 5 January 2016 Retrieved 25 December 2015 The Managerial Society Part Three Fabian Version Socialist Standard Socialist Party of Great Britain 641 January 1958 Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 31 December 2015 Crosland Anthony 2006 1952 The Future of Socialism Constable pp 9 89 ISBN 978 1845294854 Bevan Aneurin 1952 In Place of Fear New York Simon and Schuster p 106 a b Batson Andrew March 2017 The State of the State Sector PDF Gavekal Dragonomics Retrieved 8 December 2018 Even in the statist 1960s 70s SOEs in France and the UK did not account for more than 15 20 of capital formation in the 1980s the developed nation average was around 8 and it dropped below 5 in the 1990s Cobham David November 1984 The Nationalisation of the Banks in Mitterand s France Rationalisations and Reasons Journal of Public Policy 4 4 JSTOR 3998375 Cohen Paul Winter 2010 Lessons from the Nationalization Nation State Owned Enterprises in France Dissident Retrieved 17 April 2020 Morley James W 1993 Driven by Growth Political Change in the Asia Pacific Region Armonk New York M E Sharpe Kerr Roger 9 December 1999 Optimism for the New Millennium Rotary Club of Wellington North Archived from the original on 7 March 2006 Retrieved 10 May 2006 Aslund Anders 2009 How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy Peterson Institute p 12 ISBN 9780881325461 Minahan James 2013 Miniature Empires A Historical Dictionary of the Newly Independent States Routledge p 296 ISBN 9781135940102 Tuncer Kilavuz Idil 2014 Power Networks and Violent Conflict in Central Asia A Comparison of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan Routledge advances in Central Asian studies Volume 5 Routledge p 53 ISBN 9781317805113 volume has extra text help Khabtagaeva Bayarma 2009 Mongolic Elements in Tuvan Turcologica Series Volume 81 Otto Harrassowitz Verlag p 21 ISBN 9783447060950 volume has extra text help Macdonald Fiona Stacey Gillian Steele Philip 2004 Peoples of Eastern Asia Volume 8 Mongolia Nepal Marshall Cavendish p 413 ISBN 9780761475477 volume has extra text help Gjevori Elvin 2018 Democratisation and Institutional Reform in Albania Springer p 21 ISBN 9783319730714 Stankova Marietta 2014 Bulgaria in British Foreign Policy 1943 1949 Anthem Series on Russian East European and Eurasian Studies Anthem Press p 148 ISBN 9781783082353 Muller Rommel Ferdinand Mansfeldova Zdenka 2001 Chapter 5 Czech Republic In Blondel Jean Muller Rommel Ferdinand eds Cabinets in Eastern Europe Palgrave Macmillan p 62 doi 10 1057 9781403905215 6 ISBN 978 1 349 41148 1 Hajdu Jozsef 2011 Labour Law in Hungary Kluwer Law International p 27 ISBN 9789041137920 Frankowski Stanislaw Stephan Paul B 1995 Legal Reform in Post Communist Europe The View from Within Martinus Nijhoff p 23 ISBN 9780792332183 Paquette Laure 2001 NATO and Eastern Europe After 2000 Strategic Interactions with Poland the Czech Republic Romania and Bulgaria Nova p 55 ISBN 9781560729693 Lampe John R 2000 Yugoslavia as History Twice There Was a Country Cambridge University Press p 233 ISBN 9780521774017 The Chinese Revolution of 1949 Office of the Historian Bureau of Public Affairs United States Department of State Kihl Young Whan Kim Hong Nack 2014 North Korea The Politics of Regime Survival Routledge p 8 ISBN 9781317463764 Webb Adrian 2008 The Routledge Companion to Central and Eastern Europe Since 1919 Routledge Companions to History Routledge pp 80 88 ISBN 9781134065219 Da Graca John V 2000 Heads of State and Government 2nd ed St Martin s Press p 56 ISBN 978 1 56159 269 2 Atkins C J 1 April 2009 The Problem of Transition Development Socialism and Lenin s NEP Political Affairs Retrieved 30 July 2009 Nation R Craig 1992 Black Earth Red Star A History of Soviet Security Policy 1917 1991 Cornell University Press pp 85 6 ISBN 978 0801480072 Retrieved 19 December 2014 Engels Friedrich 1962 Institut fur Marxismus Leninismus bein ZK der SED ed Die Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Welke in German 20 Berlin Dietz Verlag Engels Friedrich 1962 Institut fur Marxismus Leninismus bein ZK der SED ed Die Marx Engels Gesamtausgabe Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Welke in German 21 Berlin Dietz Verlag Engels Friedrich 1880 The Development of Utopian Socialism Socialism Utopian and Scientific Marxists org Retrieved 12 January 2016 In 1816 he declares that politics is the science of production and foretells the complete absorption of politics by economics The knowledge that economic conditions are the basis of political institutions appears here only in embryo Yet what is here already very plainly expressed is the idea of the future conversion of political rule over men into an administration of things and a direction of processes of production Henri de Saint Simon Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Retrieved 27 December 2019 Socialism Encyclopaedia Britannica Online Retrieved 27 December 2019 Withering away of the state In Scruton Roger 2007 The Palgrave Macmillan Dictionary of Political Thought 3rd ed Palgrave Macmillan Withering Away of the State In Kurian George Thomas ed 2011 The Encyclopedia of Political Science Washington D C CQ Press a b Marx Karl 1871 The Civil War in France The Paris Commune Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 27 December 2019 Van Den Berg Axel 2018 1988 The Immanent Utopia From Marxism on the State to the State of Marxism Transaction Publishers p 71 ISBN 9781412837330 Engels Friedrich 1891 On the 20th Anniversary of the Paris Commune In Marx Karl 1871 The Civil War in France Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 Engels Friedrich 18 March 1891 The Civil War in France 1891 Introduction Marxists Internert Archive Retrieved 27 December 2019 Steger Manfred 1996 Selected Writings Of Eduard Bernstein 1920 1921 New Jersey Humanities Press a b Marx Karl Engels Friedrich 1848 The Communist Manifesto Chapter I Bourgeois and Proletarians Marxists Internert Archive Retrieved 30 December 2019 Lenin Vladimir 1917 The State and Revolution p 70 cf Chapter V The economic basis for the withering away of the state Freeden Michael Sargent Lyman Tower Stears Marc eds 15 August 2013 The Oxford Handbook of Political Ideologies Oxford Oxford University Press p 371 ISBN 9780199585977 Trotsky Leon 1935 The Workers State Thermidor and Bonapartism New International 2 4 116 122 Trotsky argues that the Soviet Union was at that time a deformed workers state or degenerated workers state and not a socialist republic or state because the bureaucracy wrested the power from the hands of mass organizations thereby necessitating only political revolution rather than a completely new social revolution for workers political control i e state democracy to be reclaimed He argued that it remained at base a workers state because the capitalists and landlords had been expropriated Retrieved 27 December 2019 William Morris 17 May 1890 The Eight Hours and the Demonstration Commonweal 6 227 p 153 Retrieved 4 November 2019 Screpanti Ernesto Zamagni Stefano 2005 An Outline on the History of Economic Thought 2nd ed Oxford p 295 It should not be forgotten however that in the period of the Second International some of the reformist currents of Marxism as well as some of the extreme left wing ones not to speak of the anarchist groups had already criticised the view that State ownership and central planning is the best road to socialism But with the victory of Leninism in Russia all dissent was silenced and socialism became identified with democratic centralism central planning and State ownership of the means of production Lenin Vladimir 1917 Chapter 5 The State and Revolution Lenin Vladimir February July 1918 Lenin Collected Works Vol 27 Marxists Internet Archive p 293 Quoted by Aufheben Archived 18 March 2004 at the Wayback Machine Lenin Vladimir 1921 The Tax in Kind Pena David S 21 September 2007 Tasks of Working Class Governments under the Socialist oriented Market Economy Political Affairs Archived 5 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine a b c Bordiga Amadeo 1952 Dialogue With Stalin Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 11 November 2019 Bordiga Amadeo Theses on the Role of the Communist Party in the Proletarian Revolution Communist International Retrieved 25 March 2019 a b Howard M C King J E State capitalism in the Soviet Union Archived 2 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine Lichtenstein Nelson 2011 American Capitalism Social Thought and Political Economy in the Twentieth Century University of Pennsylvania Press pp 160 161 Ishay Micheline 2007 The Human Rights Reader Major Political Essays Speeches and Documents from Ancient Times to the Present Taylor amp Francis p 245 Todd Allan 2012 History for the IB Diploma Communism in Crisis 1976 89 Cambridge University Press p 16 ASIN B01B997S8W Piccone Paul 1983 Italian Marxism University of California Press p 134 Lenin Vladimir 1917 The State and Revolution Chapther 5 Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 27 December 2019 Steele David 1992 From Marx to Mises Post Capitalist Society and the Challenge of Economic Calculation Open Court Publishing Company pp 44 45 ISBN 978 0 87548 449 5 By 1888 the term socialism was in general use among Marxists who had dropped communism now considered an old fashioned term meaning the same as socialism At the turn of the century Marxists called themselves socialists The definition of socialism and communism as successive stages was introduced into Marxist theory by Lenin in 1917 the new distinction was helpful to Lenin in defending his party against the traditional Marxist criticism that Russia was too backward for a socialist revolution Hudis Peter Vidal Matt Smith Tony Rotta Tomas Prew Paul eds September 2018 June 2019 The Oxford Handbook of Karl Marx Marx s Concept of Socialism Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0190695545 doi 10 1093 oxfordhb 9780190695545 001 0001 Marx Karl 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program Part I Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 Stalin Joseph 1951 Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 27 December 2019 Marx Karl 1875 Part I Critique of the Gotha Program Marxists nternet Archive Retrieved 27 December 2019 Bockman Johanna 2011 Markets in the name of Socialism The Left Wing origins of Neoliberalism Stanford University Press p 20 ISBN 978 0 8047 7566 3 According to nineteenth century socialist views socialism would function without capitalist economic categories such as money prices interest profits and rent Rather it would function according to laws other than those described by current economic science While some socialists recognized the need for money and prices at least during the transition from capitalism to socialism socialists more commonly believed that the socialist economy would soon administratively mobilize the economy in physical units without the use of prices or money Reinalda Bob 2009 Routledge History of International Organizations From 1815 to the Present Day Routledge p 765 ISBN 9781134024056 Laidler Harry W 2013 History of Socialism An Historical Comparative Study of Socialism Communism Utopia Routledge p 412 ISBN 9781136231438 Smith S A 2014 The Oxford Handbook of the History of Communism Oxford University Press p 126 ISBN 9780191667527 The 1936 Constitution described the Soviet Union for the first time as a socialist society rhetorically fulfilling the aim of building socialism in one country as Stalin had promised Fu Hualing Gillespie John Nicholason Penelope Partlett William Edmund eds 2018 Socialist Law in Socialist East Asia Cambridge University Press p 58 ISBN 9781108424813 Ramana R June 1983 Reviewed Work China s Socialist Economy by Xue Muqiao Social Scientist 11 6 68 74 doi 10 2307 3516910 JSTOR 3516910 McCarthy Greg 1985 Brugger Bill ed Chinese Marxism in Flux 1978 1984 Essays on Epistemology Ideology and Political Economy M E Sharpe pp 142 143 ISBN 0873323238 Evans Alfred B 1993 Soviet Marxism Leninism The Decline of an Ideology ABC CLIO p 48 ISBN 9780275947637 Pollock Ethan 2006 Stalin and the Soviet Science Wars Princeton University Press p 210 ISBN 9780691124674 Mommen Andre 2011 Stalin s Economist The Economic Contributions of Jeno Varga Routledge pp 203 213 ISBN 9781136793455 Lenin Vladimir 21 April 1921 The Tax in Kind Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 10 February 2020 No one I think in studying the question of the economic system of Russia has denied its transitional character Nor I think has any Communist denied that the term Soviet Socialist Republic implies the determination of the Soviet power to achieve the transition to socialism and not that the existing economic system is recognised as a socialist order Lenin Vladimir June 1920 Left Wing Communism An Infantile Disorder Contents Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 10 February 2020 Lenin Vladimir 29 April 1918 Session of the All Russia C E C Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 10 February 2020 Reality tells us that state capitalism would be a step forward If in a small space of time we could achieve state capitalism in Russia that would be a victory Lenin Vladimir 21 April 1921 The Tax in Kind Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 10 February 2020 State capitalism would be a step forward as compared with the present state of affairs in our Soviet Republic If in approximately six months time state capitalism became established in our Republic this would be a great success and a sure guarantee that within a year socialism will have gained a permanently firm hold and will have become invincible in this country Serge Victor 1937 From Lenin to Stalin New York Pioneer Publishers p 55 Committee for a Workers International June 1992 The Collapse of Stalinism Marxist net Retrieved 4 November 2019 Ted Grant 1996 The Collapse of Stalinism and the Class Nature of the Russian State Retrieved 4 November 2019 Anthony Arnove Winter 2000 The Fall of Stalinism Ten Years On International Socialist Review 10 Retrieved 4 November 2019 Walter Daum Fall 2002 Theories of Stalinism s Collapse Proletarian Revolution 65 Retrieved 4 November 2019 4 State Capitalism International Communist Current 30 December 2004 Retrieved 25 June 2019 Đilas Milovan 1983 1957 The New Class An Analysis of the Communist System paperback ed San Diego Harcourt Brace Jovanovich ISBN 0 15 665489 X Đilas Milovan 1969 The Unperfect Society Beyond the New Class Translated by Cooke Dorian New York City Harcourt Brace amp World ISBN 0 15 693125 7 Đilas Milovan 1998 Fall of the New Class A History of Communism s Self Destruction hardcover ed Alfred A Knopf ISBN 0 679 43325 2 Trotsky Leon 1991 1937 The Revolution Betrayed What is the Soviet Union and Where is it Going paperback ed Detroit Labor Publications ISBN 0 929087 48 8 Williams Raymond 1985 1976 Capitalism Keywords A Vocabulary of Culture and Society Oxford paperbacks revised ed New York Oxford University Press p 52 ISBN 9780195204698 Retrieved 30 April 2017 A new phrase state capitalism has been widely used in mC20 with precedents from eC20 to describe forms of state ownership in which the original conditions of the definition centralized ownership of the means of production leading to a system of wage labour have not really changed Engels Friedrich 1880 Socialism Utopian and Scientific III Historical Materialism Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 Cliff Tony 1948 The Theory of Bureaucratic Collectivism A Critique Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 Mandel Ernest 1979 Why The Soviet Bureaucracy is not a New Ruling Class Ernest Mandel Internet Archive Retrieved 8 February 2020 Taaffe Peter 1995 The Rise of Militant Preface Trotsky and the Collapse of Stalinism Bertrams The Soviet bureaucracy and Western capitalism rested on mutually antagonistic social systems ISBN 978 0906582473 Trotsky Leon 1936 The Revolution Betrayed Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 11 November 2019 Trotsky Leon 1938 The USSR and Problems of the Transitional Epoch In The Transitional Program Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 11 November 2019 The ABC of Materialist Dialectics From A Petty Bourgeois Opposition in the Socialist Workers Party 1939 Marxists Internet Archive In Trotsky Leon 1942 In Defense of Marxism Retrieved 8 February 2020 Frank Pierre November 1951 Evolution of Eastern Europe Fourth International Marxists Internet Archive Retrieved 11 November 2019 Grant Ted 1978 The Colonial Revolution and the Deformed Workers States The Unbroken Thread Retrieved 21 June 2020 Jayasuriya Siritunga About Us United Socialist Party Retrieved 21 June 2020 Walsh Lynn 1991 Imperialism and the Gulf War Chapter 5 Socialist Alternative Retrieved 21 June 2020 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Socialist state amp oldid 1052149991, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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