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Socialization

This article is about the sociological concept. For other uses, see Socialization (disambiguation).

In sociology, socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society. Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus "the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained".: 5

Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology. Humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive.

Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior, beliefs, and actions of adults as well as of children.

Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes—sometimes labeled "moral"—as regards the society where it occurs. Individual views are influenced by the society's consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or "normal". Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors, maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment; scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes.

Genetic studies have shown that a person's environment interacts with their genotype to influence behavioral outcomes.

Contents

Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries.: 20 In its earliest usages, socialization was simply the act of socializing or another word for socialism. Socialization as a concept originated concurrently with sociology, as sociology was defined as the treatment of "the specifically social, the process and forms of socialization, as such, in contrast to the interests and contents which find expression in socialization". In particular, socialization consisted of the formation and development of social groups, and also the development of a social state of mind in the individuals who associate. Socialization is thus both a cause and an effect of association. The term was relatively uncommon before 1940, but became popular after World War II, appearing in dictionaries and scholarly works such as the theory of Talcott Parsons.

Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral reasoning and developed a theory of how individuals reason situations as right from wrong. The first stage is the pre-conventional stage, where a person (typically children) experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure, with their moral decisions solely reflecting this experience. Second, the conventional stage (typical for adolescents and adults) is characterized by an acceptance of society's conventions concerning right and wrong, even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience. Finally, the post-conventional stage (more rarely achieved) occurs if a person moves beyond society's norms to consider abstract ethical principles when making moral decisions.

Erik H. Erikson (1902–1994) explained the challenges throughout the life course. The first stage in the life course is infancy, where babies learn trust and mistrust. The second stage is toddlerhood where children around the age of two struggle with the challenge of autonomy versus doubt. In stage three, preschool, children struggle to understand the difference between initiative and guilt. Stage four, pre-adolescence, children learn about industriousness and inferiority. In the fifth stage called adolescence, teenagers experience the challenge of gaining identity versus confusion. The sixth stage, young adulthood, is when young people gain insight into life when dealing with the challenge of intimacy and isolation. In stage seven, or middle adulthood, people experience the challenge of trying to make a difference (versus self-absorption). In the final stage, stage eight or old age, people are still learning about the challenge of integrity and despair. This concept has been further developed by Klaus Hurrelmann and Gudrun Quenzel using the dynamic model of "developmental tasks".

George Herbert Mead (1863–1931) developed a theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual's self-concept. Mead's central concept is the self: It is composed of self-awareness and self-image. Mead claimed that the self is not there at birth, rather, it is developed with social experience. Since social experience is the exchange of symbols, people tend to find meaning in every action. Seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intention of others. Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other's point of view. In effect, others are a mirror in which we can see ourselves. Charles Horton Cooley (1902-1983) coined the term looking glass self, which means self-image based on how we think others see us. According to Mead, the key to developing the self is learning to take the role of the other. With limited social experience, infants can only develop a sense of identity through imitation. Gradually children learn to take the roles of several others. The final stage is the generalized other, which refers to widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference for evaluating others.

Contradictory evidence to behaviorism

Behaviorism makes claims that when infants are born they lack social experience or self. The social pre-wiring hypothesis, on the other hand, shows proof through a scientific study that social behavior is partly inherited and can influence infants and also even influence foetuses. Wired to be social means that infants are not taught that they are social beings, but they are born as prepared social beings.

The social pre-wiring hypothesis refers to the ontogeny of social interaction. Also informally referred to as, "wired to be social". The theory questions whether there is a propensity to socially oriented action already present before birth. Research in the theory concludes that newborns are born into the world with a unique genetic wiring to be social.

Circumstantial evidence supporting the social pre-wiring hypothesis can be revealed when examining newborns' behavior. Newborns, not even hours after birth, have been found to display a preparedness for social interaction. This preparedness is expressed in ways such as their imitation of facial gestures. This observed behavior cannot be contributed to any current form of socialization or social construction. Rather, newborns most likely inherit to some extent social behavior and identity through genetics.

Principal evidence of this theory is uncovered by examining Twin pregnancies. The main argument is, if there are social behaviors that are inherited and developed before birth, then one should expect twin foetuses to engage in some form of social interaction before they are born. Thus, ten foetuses were analyzed over a period of time using ultrasound techniques. Using kinematic analysis, the results of the experiment were that the twin foetuses would interact with each other for longer periods and more often as the pregnancies went on. Researchers were able to conclude that the performance of movements between the co-twins was not accidental but specifically aimed.

The social pre-wiring hypothesis was proved correct, "The central advance of this study is the demonstration that 'social actions' are already performed in the second trimester of gestation. Starting from the 14th week of gestation twin foetuses plan and execute movements specifically aimed at the co-twin. These findings force us to predate the emergence of social behavior: when the context enables it, as in the case of twin foetuses, other-directed actions are not only possible but predominant over self-directed actions."

Primary socialization

Main article: Primary socialisation

Primary socialization for a child is very important because it sets the groundwork for all future socialization. Primary Socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes, values, and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture. It is mainly influenced by the immediate family and friends. For example, if a child saw his/her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority, or majority group, then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority/majority groups.

Secondary socialization

Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society. Basically, is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society. Secondary socialization takes place outside the home. It is where children and adults learn how to acting in a way that is appropriate for the situations they are in. Schools require very different behavior from the home, and children must act according to new rules. New teachers have to act in a way that is different from pupils and learn the new rules from people around them. Secondary socialization is usually associated with teenagers and adults and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization. Such examples of secondary socialization are entering a new profession or relocating to a new environment or society.

Anticipatory socialization

Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person "rehearses" for future positions, occupations, and social relationships. For example, a couple might move in together before getting married in order to try out, or anticipate, what living together will be like. Research by Kenneth J. Levine and Cynthia A. Hoffner suggests that parents are the main source of anticipatory socialization in regards to jobs and careers.

Resocialization

Main article: Resocialization

Resocialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes, accepting new ones as part of a transition in one's life. This occurs throughout the human life cycle. Resocialization can be an intense experience, with the individual experiencing a sharp break with his or her past, as well as a need to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values. One common example involves resocialization through a total institution, or "a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff". Resocialization via total institutions involves a two step process: 1) the staff work to root out a new inmate's individual identity & 2) the staff attempt to create for the inmate a new identity. Other examples of this are the experience of a young man or woman leaving home to join the military, or a religious convert internalizing the beliefs and rituals of a new faith. An extreme example would be the process by which a transsexual learns to function socially in a dramatically altered gender role.

Organizational socialization

Main article: Onboarding
Organizational Socialization Chart

Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learns the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role. As newcomers become socialized, they learn about the organization and its history, values, jargon, culture, and procedures. This acquired knowledge about new employees' future work environment affects the way they are able to apply their skills and abilities to their jobs. How actively engaged the employees are in pursuing knowledge affects their socialization process. They also learn about their work group, the specific people they work with on a daily basis, their own role in the organization, the skills needed to do their job, and both formal procedures and informal norms. Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices.

Group socialization

See also: Group dynamics
Group Socialization.

Group socialization is the theory that an individual's peer groups, rather than parental figures, are the primary influence of personality and behavior in adulthood. Parental behavior and the home environment has either no effect on the social development of children, or the effect varies significantly between children. Adolescents spend more time with peers than with parents. Therefore, peer groups have stronger correlations with personality development than parental figures do. For example, twin brothers, whose genetic makeup are identical, will differ in personality because they have different groups of friends, not necessarily because their parents raised them differently. Behavioral genetics suggest that up to fifty percent of the variance in adult personality is due to genetic differences. The environment in which a child is raised accounts for only approximately ten percent in the variance of an adult's personality. As much as twenty percent of the variance is due to measurement error. This suggests that only a very small part of an adult's personality is influenced by factors parents control (i.e. the home environment). Harris claims that while it's true that siblings don't have identical experiences in the home environment (making it difficult to associate a definite figure to the variance of personality due to home environments), the variance found by current methods is so low that researchers should look elsewhere to try to account for the remaining variance. Harris also states that developing long-term personality characteristics away from the home environment would be evolutionarily beneficial because future success is more likely to depend on interactions with peers than interactions with parents and siblings. Also, because of already existing genetic similarities with parents, developing personalities outside of childhood home environments would further diversify individuals, increasing their evolutionary success.

Stages

Individuals and groups change their evaluations and commitments to each other over time. There is a predictable sequence of stages that occur in order for an individual to transition through a group; investigation, socialization, maintenance, resocialization, and remembrance. During each stage, the individual and the group evaluate each other which leads to an increase or decrease in commitment to socialization. This socialization pushes the individual from prospective, new, full, marginal, and ex member.

Stage 1: Investigation This stage is marked by a cautious search for information. The individual compares groups in order to determine which one will fulfill their needs (reconnaissance), while the group estimates the value of the potential member (recruitment). The end of this stage is marked by entry to the group, whereby the group asks the individual to join and they accept the offer.

Stage 2: Socialization Now that the individual has moved from a prospective member to a new member, they must accept the group's culture. At this stage, the individual accepts the group's norms, values, and perspectives (assimilation), and the group adapts to fit the new member's needs (accommodation). The acceptance transition point is then reached and the individual becomes a full member. However, this transition can be delayed if the individual or the group reacts negatively. For example, the individual may react cautiously or misinterpret other members' reactions if they believe that they will be treated differently as a newcomer.

Stage 3: Maintenance During this stage, the individual and the group negotiate what contribution is expected of members (role negotiation). While many members remain in this stage until the end of their membership, some individuals are not satisfied with their role in the group or fail to meet the group's expectations (divergence).

Stage 4: Resocialization If the divergence point is reached, the former full member takes on the role of a marginal member and must be resocialized. There are two possible outcomes of resocialization: differences are resolved and the individual becomes a full member again (convergence), or the group expels the individual or the individual decides to leave (exit).

Stage 5: Remembrance In this stage, former members reminisce about their memories of the group and make sense of their recent departure. If the group reaches a consensus on their reasons for departure, conclusions about the overall experience of the group become part of the group's tradition.

Gender socialization

Henslin (1999:76) contends that "an important part of socialization is the learning of culturally defined gender roles." Gender socialization refers to the learning of behavior and attitudes considered appropriate for a given sex. Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls. This "learning" happens by way of many different agents of socialization. The behaviour that is seen to be appropriate for each gender is largely determined by societal, cultural, and economic values in a given society. Gender socialization can therefore vary considerably among societies with different values. The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender roles, but so are groups including friends, peers, school, work, and the mass media. Gender roles are reinforced through "countless subtle and not so subtle ways" (1999:76). In peer group activities, stereotypic gender roles may also be rejected, renegotiated, or artfully exploited for a variety of purposes.

Carol Gilligan compared the moral development of girls and boys in her theory of gender and moral development. She claimed (1982, 1990) that boys have a justice perspective meaning that they rely on formal rules to define right and wrong. Girls, on the other hand, have a care and responsibility perspective where personal relationships are considered when judging a situation. Gilligan also studied the effect of gender on self-esteem. She claimed that society's socialization of females is the reason why girls' self-esteem diminishes as they grow older. Girls struggle to regain their personal strength when moving through adolescence as they have fewer female teachers and most authority figures are men.

As parents are present in a child's life from the beginning, their influence in a child's early socialization is very important, especially in regards to gender roles. Sociologists have identified four ways in which parents socialize gender roles in their children: Shaping gender related attributes through toys and activities, differing their interaction with children based on the sex of the child, serving as primary gender models, and communicating gender ideals and expectations.

Sociologist of gender R.W. Connell contends that socialization theory is "inadequate" for explaining gender, because it presumes a largely consensual process except for a few "deviants," when really most children revolt against pressures to be conventionally gendered; because it cannot explain contradictory "scripts" that come from different socialization agents in the same society, and because it does not account for conflict between the different levels of an individual's gender (and general) identity.

Racial socialization

Racial socialization, or Racial-ethnic socialization, has been defined as "the developmental processes by which children acquire the behaviors, perceptions, values, and attitudes of an ethnic group, and come to see themselves and others as members of the group". The existing literature conceptualizes racial socialization as having multiple dimensions. Researchers have identified five dimensions that commonly appear in the racial socialization literature: cultural socialization, preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, egalitarianism, and other. Cultural socialization refers to parenting practices that teach children about their racial history or heritage and is sometimes referred to as pride development. Preparation for bias refers to parenting practices focused on preparing children to be aware of, and cope with, discrimination. Promotion of mistrust refers to the parenting practices of socializing children to be wary of people from other races. Egalitarianism refers to socializing children with the belief that all people are equal and should be treated with common humanity.

Oppression socialization

Oppression socialization refers to the process by which "individuals develop understandings of power and political structure, particularly as these inform perceptions of identity, power, and opportunity relative to gender, racialized group membership, and sexuality." This action is a form of political socialization in its relation to power and the persistent compliance of the disadvantaged with their oppression using limited "overt coercion."

Language socialization

Based on comparative research in different societies, focusing on the role of language in child development, linguistic anthropologists Elinor Ochs and Bambi Schieffelin have developed the theory of language socialization. They discovered that the processes of enculturation and socialization do not occur apart from the process of language acquisition, but that children acquire language and culture together in what amounts to an integrated process. Members of all societies socialize children both to and through the use of language; acquiring competence in a language, the novice is by the same token socialized into the categories and norms of the culture, while the culture, in turn, provides the norms of the use of language.

Planned socialization

Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or train others. This type of socialization can take on many forms and can occur at any point from infancy onward.

Natural socialization

Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore, play and discover the social world around them. Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species (and some birds). Planned socialization is mostly a human phenomenon; all through history, people have been making plans for teaching or training others. Both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad qualities: it is useful to learn the best features of both natural and planned socialization in order to incorporate them into life in a meaningful way.

Positive socialization

Positive socialization is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences. We tend to like the people who fill our social learning processes with positive motivation, loving care, and rewarding opportunities. Positive socialization occurs when desired behaviours are reinforced with a reward, encouraging the individual to continue exhibiting similar behaviours in the future.

Negative socialization

Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment, harsh criticisms, or anger to try to "teach us a lesson"; and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us. There are all types of mixes of positive and negative socialization, and the more positive social learning experiences we have, the happier we tend to be—especially if we are able to learn useful information that helps us cope well with the challenges of life. A high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make a person unhappy, leading to defeated or pessimistic feelings about life.

Main article: Institutions

In the social sciences, institutions are the structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of individuals within a given human collectivity. Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence, transcending individual human lives and intentions, and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior.

From the late 1980s, sociological and psychological theories have been connected with the term socialization. One example of this connection is the theory of Klaus Hurrelmann. In his book Social Structure and Personality Development, he develops the model of productive processing of reality. The core idea is that socialization refers to an individual's personality development. It is the result of the productive processing of interior and exterior realities. Bodily and mental qualities and traits constitute a person's inner reality; the circumstances of the social and physical environment embody the external reality. Reality processing is productive because human beings actively grapple with their lives and attempt to cope with the attendant developmental tasks. The success of such a process depends on the personal and social resources available. Incorporated within all developmental tasks is the necessity to reconcile personal individuation and social integration and so secure the "I-dentity".: 42 The process of productive processing of reality is an enduring process throughout the life course.

The problem of order or Hobbesian problem questions the existence of social orders and asks if it is possible to oppose them. Émile Durkheim viewed society as an external force controlling individuals through the imposition of sanctions and codes of law. However, constraints and sanctions also arise internally as feelings of guilt or anxiety. If conformity as an expression of the need for belonging, the process of socialization is not necessarily universal. Behavior may not be influenced by society at all, but instead, be determined biologically. The behavioral sciences during the second half of the twentieth century were dominated by two contrasting models of human political behavior, homo economicus and cultural hegemony, collectively termed the standard social science model. The fields of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology developed in response notions such as dominance hierarchies, cultural group selection, and dual inheritance theory. Behavior is the result of a complex interaction between nature and nurture, or genes and culture. A focus on innate behavior at the expense of learning is termed undersocialization, while attributing behavior to learning when it is the result of evolution is termed oversocialization.

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  • Kramsch, Claire (2003). Language Acquisition and Language Socialization: Ecological Perspectives – Advances in Applied Linguistics. Continuum International Publishing Group, ISBN 0826453724, 978-0826453723
  • McQuail, Dennis (2005). McQuail's Mass Communication Theory: Fifth Edition, London: Sage.
  • Mehan, Hugh (1991). Sociological Foundations Supporting the Study of Cultural Diversity. National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning.
  • White, Graham (1977). Socialisation, London: Longman.

Socialization
Socialization Language Watch Edit This article is about the sociological concept For other uses see Socialization disambiguation In sociology socialization is the process of internalizing the norms and ideologies of society Socialization encompasses both learning and teaching and is thus the means by which social and cultural continuity are attained 1 5 2 Socialization is strongly connected to developmental psychology 3 Humans need social experiences to learn their culture and to survive 4 Socialization essentially represents the whole process of learning throughout the life course and is a central influence on the behavior beliefs and actions of adults as well as of children 5 6 Socialization may lead to desirable outcomes sometimes labeled moral as regards the society where it occurs Individual views are influenced by the society s consensus and usually tend toward what that society finds acceptable or normal Socialization provides only a partial explanation for human beliefs and behaviors maintaining that agents are not blank slates predetermined by their environment 7 scientific research provides evidence that people are shaped by both social influences and genes 8 9 10 11 Genetic studies have shown that a person s environment interacts with their genotype to influence behavioral outcomes 12 Contents 1 History 2 Stages of moral development 3 Stages of psychosocial development 4 Behaviorism 4 1 Contradictory evidence to behaviorism 5 Types of Socialization 5 1 Primary socialization 5 2 Secondary socialization 5 3 Anticipatory socialization 5 4 Resocialization 5 5 Organizational socialization 5 6 Group socialization 5 6 1 Stages 5 7 Gender socialization 5 8 Racial socialization 5 9 Oppression socialization 5 10 Language socialization 5 11 Planned socialization 5 12 Natural socialization 5 13 Positive socialization 5 14 Negative socialization 6 Institutions 7 Productive processing of reality 8 Oversocialization 9 See also 10 References 11 Further readingHistory EditSee also History of sociology Notions of society and the state of nature have existed for centuries 1 20 In its earliest usages socialization was simply the act of socializing or another word for socialism 13 14 15 16 Socialization as a concept originated concurrently with sociology as sociology was defined as the treatment of the specifically social the process and forms of socialization as such in contrast to the interests and contents which find expression in socialization 17 In particular socialization consisted of the formation and development of social groups and also the development of a social state of mind in the individuals who associate Socialization is thus both a cause and an effect of association 18 The term was relatively uncommon before 1940 but became popular after World War II appearing in dictionaries and scholarly works such as the theory of Talcott Parsons 19 Stages of moral development EditMain article Lawrence Kohlberg s stages of moral development Lawrence Kohlberg studied moral reasoning and developed a theory of how individuals reason situations as right from wrong The first stage is the pre conventional stage where a person typically children experience the world in terms of pain and pleasure with their moral decisions solely reflecting this experience Second the conventional stage typical for adolescents and adults is characterized by an acceptance of society s conventions concerning right and wrong even when there are no consequences for obedience or disobedience Finally the post conventional stage more rarely achieved occurs if a person moves beyond society s norms to consider abstract ethical principles when making moral decisions 20 Stages of psychosocial development EditMain article Erikson s stages of psychosocial development Erik H Erikson 1902 1994 explained the challenges throughout the life course The first stage in the life course is infancy where babies learn trust and mistrust The second stage is toddlerhood where children around the age of two struggle with the challenge of autonomy versus doubt In stage three preschool children struggle to understand the difference between initiative and guilt Stage four pre adolescence children learn about industriousness and inferiority In the fifth stage called adolescence teenagers experience the challenge of gaining identity versus confusion The sixth stage young adulthood is when young people gain insight into life when dealing with the challenge of intimacy and isolation In stage seven or middle adulthood people experience the challenge of trying to make a difference versus self absorption In the final stage stage eight or old age people are still learning about the challenge of integrity and despair 21 This concept has been further developed by Klaus Hurrelmann and Gudrun Quenzel using the dynamic model of developmental tasks 22 Behaviorism EditSee also Reciprocal socialization George Herbert Mead 1863 1931 developed a theory of social behaviorism to explain how social experience develops an individual s self concept Mead s central concept is the self It is composed of self awareness and self image Mead claimed that the self is not there at birth rather it is developed with social experience Since social experience is the exchange of symbols people tend to find meaning in every action Seeking meaning leads us to imagine the intention of others Understanding intention requires imagining the situation from the other s point of view In effect others are a mirror in which we can see ourselves Charles Horton Cooley 1902 1983 coined the term looking glass self which means self image based on how we think others see us According to Mead the key to developing the self is learning to take the role of the other With limited social experience infants can only develop a sense of identity through imitation Gradually children learn to take the roles of several others The final stage is the generalized other which refers to widespread cultural norms and values we use as a reference for evaluating others 23 Contradictory evidence to behaviorism Edit Behaviorism makes claims that when infants are born they lack social experience or self The social pre wiring hypothesis on the other hand shows proof through a scientific study that social behavior is partly inherited and can influence infants and also even influence foetuses Wired to be social means that infants are not taught that they are social beings but they are born as prepared social beings The social pre wiring hypothesis refers to the ontogeny of social interaction Also informally referred to as wired to be social The theory questions whether there is a propensity to socially oriented action already present before birth Research in the theory concludes that newborns are born into the world with a unique genetic wiring to be social 24 Circumstantial evidence supporting the social pre wiring hypothesis can be revealed when examining newborns behavior Newborns not even hours after birth have been found to display a preparedness for social interaction This preparedness is expressed in ways such as their imitation of facial gestures This observed behavior cannot be contributed to any current form of socialization or social construction Rather newborns most likely inherit to some extent social behavior and identity through genetics 24 Principal evidence of this theory is uncovered by examining Twin pregnancies The main argument is if there are social behaviors that are inherited and developed before birth then one should expect twin foetuses to engage in some form of social interaction before they are born Thus ten foetuses were analyzed over a period of time using ultrasound techniques Using kinematic analysis the results of the experiment were that the twin foetuses would interact with each other for longer periods and more often as the pregnancies went on Researchers were able to conclude that the performance of movements between the co twins was not accidental but specifically aimed 24 The social pre wiring hypothesis was proved correct The central advance of this study is the demonstration that social actions are already performed in the second trimester of gestation Starting from the 14th week of gestation twin foetuses plan and execute movements specifically aimed at the co twin These findings force us to predate the emergence of social behavior when the context enables it as in the case of twin foetuses other directed actions are not only possible but predominant over self directed actions 24 Types of Socialization EditPrimary socialization Edit Main article Primary socialisation Primary socialization for a child is very important because it sets the groundwork for all future socialization Primary Socialization occurs when a child learns the attitudes values and actions appropriate to individuals as members of a particular culture It is mainly influenced by the immediate family and friends For example if a child saw his her mother expressing a discriminatory opinion about a minority or majority group then that child may think this behavior is acceptable and could continue to have this opinion about minority majority groups Secondary socialization Edit Secondary socialization refers to the process of learning what is the appropriate behavior as a member of a smaller group within the larger society Basically is the behavioral patterns reinforced by socializing agents of society Secondary socialization takes place outside the home It is where children and adults learn how to acting in a way that is appropriate for the situations they are in 25 Schools require very different behavior from the home and children must act according to new rules New teachers have to act in a way that is different from pupils and learn the new rules from people around them 25 Secondary socialization is usually associated with teenagers and adults and involves smaller changes than those occurring in primary socialization Such examples of secondary socialization are entering a new profession or relocating to a new environment or society Anticipatory socialization Edit Main article Anticipatory socialization Anticipatory socialization refers to the processes of socialization in which a person rehearses for future positions occupations and social relationships For example a couple might move in together before getting married in order to try out or anticipate what living together will be like 26 Research by Kenneth J Levine and Cynthia A Hoffner suggests that parents are the main source of anticipatory socialization in regards to jobs and careers 27 Resocialization Edit Main article Resocialization Resocialization refers to the process of discarding former behavior patterns and reflexes accepting new ones as part of a transition in one s life This occurs throughout the human life cycle 28 Resocialization can be an intense experience with the individual experiencing a sharp break with his or her past as well as a need to learn and be exposed to radically different norms and values One common example involves resocialization through a total institution or a setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff Resocialization via total institutions involves a two step process 1 the staff work to root out a new inmate s individual identity amp 2 the staff attempt to create for the inmate a new identity 29 Other examples of this are the experience of a young man or woman leaving home to join the military or a religious convert internalizing the beliefs and rituals of a new faith An extreme example would be the process by which a transsexual learns to function socially in a dramatically altered gender role Organizational socialization Edit Main article Onboarding Organizational Socialization Chart Organizational socialization is the process whereby an employee learns the knowledge and skills necessary to assume his or her organizational role 30 As newcomers become socialized they learn about the organization and its history values jargon culture and procedures This acquired knowledge about new employees future work environment affects the way they are able to apply their skills and abilities to their jobs How actively engaged the employees are in pursuing knowledge affects their socialization process 31 They also learn about their work group the specific people they work with on a daily basis their own role in the organization the skills needed to do their job and both formal procedures and informal norms Socialization functions as a control system in that newcomers learn to internalize and obey organizational values and practices Group socialization Edit See also Group dynamics Group Socialization Group socialization is the theory that an individual s peer groups rather than parental figures are the primary influence of personality and behavior in adulthood 32 Parental behavior and the home environment has either no effect on the social development of children or the effect varies significantly between children 33 Adolescents spend more time with peers than with parents Therefore peer groups have stronger correlations with personality development than parental figures do 34 For example twin brothers whose genetic makeup are identical will differ in personality because they have different groups of friends not necessarily because their parents raised them differently Behavioral genetics suggest that up to fifty percent of the variance in adult personality is due to genetic differences 35 The environment in which a child is raised accounts for only approximately ten percent in the variance of an adult s personality 36 As much as twenty percent of the variance is due to measurement error 37 This suggests that only a very small part of an adult s personality is influenced by factors parents control i e the home environment Harris claims that while it s true that siblings don t have identical experiences in the home environment making it difficult to associate a definite figure to the variance of personality due to home environments the variance found by current methods is so low that researchers should look elsewhere to try to account for the remaining variance 32 Harris also states that developing long term personality characteristics away from the home environment would be evolutionarily beneficial because future success is more likely to depend on interactions with peers than interactions with parents and siblings Also because of already existing genetic similarities with parents developing personalities outside of childhood home environments would further diversify individuals increasing their evolutionary success 32 Stages Edit Individuals and groups change their evaluations and commitments to each other over time There is a predictable sequence of stages that occur in order for an individual to transition through a group investigation socialization maintenance resocialization and remembrance During each stage the individual and the group evaluate each other which leads to an increase or decrease in commitment to socialization This socialization pushes the individual from prospective new full marginal and ex member 38 Stage 1 Investigation This stage is marked by a cautious search for information The individual compares groups in order to determine which one will fulfill their needs reconnaissance while the group estimates the value of the potential member recruitment The end of this stage is marked by entry to the group whereby the group asks the individual to join and they accept the offer Stage 2 Socialization Now that the individual has moved from a prospective member to a new member they must accept the group s culture At this stage the individual accepts the group s norms values and perspectives assimilation and the group adapts to fit the new member s needs accommodation The acceptance transition point is then reached and the individual becomes a full member However this transition can be delayed if the individual or the group reacts negatively For example the individual may react cautiously or misinterpret other members reactions if they believe that they will be treated differently as a newcomer Stage 3 Maintenance During this stage the individual and the group negotiate what contribution is expected of members role negotiation While many members remain in this stage until the end of their membership some individuals are not satisfied with their role in the group or fail to meet the group s expectations divergence Stage 4 Resocialization If the divergence point is reached the former full member takes on the role of a marginal member and must be resocialized There are two possible outcomes of resocialization differences are resolved and the individual becomes a full member again convergence or the group expels the individual or the individual decides to leave exit Stage 5 Remembrance In this stage former members reminisce about their memories of the group and make sense of their recent departure If the group reaches a consensus on their reasons for departure conclusions about the overall experience of the group become part of the group s tradition Gender socialization Edit See also Sociology of gender Gender and socialization Social construction of gender and Role theory Henslin 1999 76 contends that an important part of socialization is the learning of culturally defined gender roles Gender socialization refers to the learning of behavior and attitudes considered appropriate for a given sex Boys learn to be boys and girls learn to be girls This learning happens by way of many different agents of socialization The behaviour that is seen to be appropriate for each gender is largely determined by societal cultural and economic values in a given society Gender socialization can therefore vary considerably among societies with different values The family is certainly important in reinforcing gender roles but so are groups including friends peers school work and the mass media Gender roles are reinforced through countless subtle and not so subtle ways 1999 76 In peer group activities stereotypic gender roles may also be rejected renegotiated or artfully exploited for a variety of purposes 39 Carol Gilligan compared the moral development of girls and boys in her theory of gender and moral development She claimed 1982 1990 that boys have a justice perspective meaning that they rely on formal rules to define right and wrong Girls on the other hand have a care and responsibility perspective where personal relationships are considered when judging a situation Gilligan also studied the effect of gender on self esteem She claimed that society s socialization of females is the reason why girls self esteem diminishes as they grow older Girls struggle to regain their personal strength when moving through adolescence as they have fewer female teachers and most authority figures are men 40 As parents are present in a child s life from the beginning their influence in a child s early socialization is very important especially in regards to gender roles Sociologists have identified four ways in which parents socialize gender roles in their children Shaping gender related attributes through toys and activities differing their interaction with children based on the sex of the child serving as primary gender models and communicating gender ideals and expectations 41 Sociologist of gender R W Connell contends that socialization theory is inadequate for explaining gender because it presumes a largely consensual process except for a few deviants when really most children revolt against pressures to be conventionally gendered because it cannot explain contradictory scripts that come from different socialization agents in the same society and because it does not account for conflict between the different levels of an individual s gender and general identity 42 Racial socialization Edit Racial socialization or Racial ethnic socialization has been defined as the developmental processes by which children acquire the behaviors perceptions values and attitudes of an ethnic group and come to see themselves and others as members of the group 43 The existing literature conceptualizes racial socialization as having multiple dimensions Researchers have identified five dimensions that commonly appear in the racial socialization literature cultural socialization preparation for bias promotion of mistrust egalitarianism and other 44 Cultural socialization refers to parenting practices that teach children about their racial history or heritage and is sometimes referred to as pride development Preparation for bias refers to parenting practices focused on preparing children to be aware of and cope with discrimination Promotion of mistrust refers to the parenting practices of socializing children to be wary of people from other races Egalitarianism refers to socializing children with the belief that all people are equal and should be treated with common humanity 44 Oppression socialization Edit Oppression socialization refers to the process by which individuals develop understandings of power and political structure particularly as these inform perceptions of identity power and opportunity relative to gender racialized group membership and sexuality 45 This action is a form of political socialization in its relation to power and the persistent compliance of the disadvantaged with their oppression using limited overt coercion 45 Language socialization Edit Based on comparative research in different societies focusing on the role of language in child development linguistic anthropologists Elinor Ochs and Bambi Schieffelin have developed the theory of language socialization 46 They discovered that the processes of enculturation and socialization do not occur apart from the process of language acquisition but that children acquire language and culture together in what amounts to an integrated process Members of all societies socialize children both to and through the use of language acquiring competence in a language the novice is by the same token socialized into the categories and norms of the culture while the culture in turn provides the norms of the use of language Planned socialization Edit Planned socialization occurs when other people take actions designed to teach or train others This type of socialization can take on many forms and can occur at any point from infancy onward 47 Natural socialization Edit Natural socialization occurs when infants and youngsters explore play and discover the social world around them Natural socialization is easily seen when looking at the young of almost any mammalian species and some birds Planned socialization is mostly a human phenomenon all through history people have been making plans for teaching or training others Both natural and planned socialization can have good and bad qualities it is useful to learn the best features of both natural and planned socialization in order to incorporate them into life in a meaningful way 47 Positive socialization Edit Positive socialization is the type of social learning that is based on pleasurable and exciting experiences We tend to like the people who fill our social learning processes with positive motivation loving care and rewarding opportunities Positive socialization occurs when desired behaviours are reinforced with a reward encouraging the individual to continue exhibiting similar behaviours in the future 47 Negative socialization Edit Negative socialization occurs when others use punishment harsh criticisms or anger to try to teach us a lesson and often we come to dislike both negative socialization and the people who impose it on us 47 There are all types of mixes of positive and negative socialization and the more positive social learning experiences we have the happier we tend to be especially if we are able to learn useful information that helps us cope well with the challenges of life A high ratio of negative to positive socialization can make a person unhappy leading to defeated or pessimistic feelings about life 47 Institutions EditMain article Institutions In the social sciences institutions are the structures and mechanisms of social order and cooperation governing the behavior of individuals within a given human collectivity Institutions are identified with a social purpose and permanence transcending individual human lives and intentions and with the making and enforcing of rules governing cooperative human behavior 48 Productive processing of reality EditFrom the late 1980s sociological and psychological theories have been connected with the term socialization One example of this connection is the theory of Klaus Hurrelmann In his book Social Structure and Personality Development 49 he develops the model of productive processing of reality The core idea is that socialization refers to an individual s personality development It is the result of the productive processing of interior and exterior realities Bodily and mental qualities and traits constitute a person s inner reality the circumstances of the social and physical environment embody the external reality Reality processing is productive because human beings actively grapple with their lives and attempt to cope with the attendant developmental tasks The success of such a process depends on the personal and social resources available Incorporated within all developmental tasks is the necessity to reconcile personal individuation and social integration and so secure the I dentity 49 42 The process of productive processing of reality is an enduring process throughout the life course 50 Oversocialization EditSee also Political socialization The problem of order or Hobbesian problem questions the existence of social orders and asks if it is possible to oppose them Emile Durkheim viewed society as an external force controlling individuals through the imposition of sanctions and codes of law However constraints and sanctions also arise internally as feelings of guilt or anxiety If conformity as an expression of the need for belonging the process of socialization is not necessarily universal Behavior may not be influenced by society at all but instead be determined biologically 51 The behavioral sciences during the second half of the twentieth century were dominated by two contrasting models of human political behavior homo economicus and cultural hegemony collectively termed the standard social science model The fields of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology developed in response notions such as dominance hierarchies cultural group selection and dual inheritance theory Behavior is the result of a complex interaction between nature and nurture or genes and culture 52 A focus on innate behavior at the expense of learning is termed undersocialization while attributing behavior to learning when it is the result of evolution is termed oversocialization 53 See also EditAcculturation Cultural assimilation Discourse Functional illiteracy Indoctrination Memetics Positive psychology Sharing Shyness Social skills Socialization of animals Structure and agency TPI theory Truth Value personal and cultural References Edit a b Clausen John A ed 1968 Socialisation and Society Boston Little Brown and Company Macionis John J 2013 Sociology 15th ed Boston Pearson p 126 ISBN 978 0133753271 Billingham M 2007 Sociological Perspectives p 336 In Stretch B and Whitehouse M eds 2007 Health and Social Care Book 1 Oxford Heinemann ISBN 978 0 435 49915 0 Macionis John J and Linda M Gerber Sociology Toronto Pearson Canada 2011 Print MLA Style socialization Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Student and Home Edition Chicago Encyclopaedia Britannica 2010 Cromdal Jakob 2006 Socialization In K Brown ed Encyclopedia of language and linguistics North Holland Elsevier pp 462 66 doi 10 1016 B0 08 044854 2 00353 9 ISBN 978 0080448541 Pinker Steven The Blank Slate New York Penguin Books 2002 Dusheck Jennie The Interpretation of Genes Natural History October 2002 Carlson N R et al 2005 Psychology the science of behavior Pearson 3rd Canadian edition ISBN 0 205 45769 X Ridley M 2003 Nature Via Nurture Genes Experience and What Makes us Human Harper Collins ISBN 0 00 200663 4 Westen D 2002 Psychology Brain Behavior amp Culture Wiley amp Sons ISBN 0 471 38754 1 Kendler K S and Baker J H 2007 Genetic influences on measures of the environment a systematic review Psychological Medicine 37 5 615 26 doi 10 1017 S0033291706009524 PMID 17176502 S2CID 43598144 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Fourier and his partisans The London Phalanx 6 September 1841 p 505 hdl 2027 pst 000055430180 The Gentleman s Magazine F Jefferies 1851 p 465 Retrieved 2 April 2017 socialization n OED Online Oxford University Press March 2017 Retrieved 2 April 2017 St Martin Jenna May 2007 Socialization The Politics and History of a Psychological Concept 1900 1970 Master s Thesis Wesleyan University Retrieved 2 April 2017 Simmel Georg 1 January 1895 The Problem of Sociology The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 6 3 52 63 doi 10 1177 000271629500600304 JSTOR 1009553 S2CID 143284719 Giddings Franklin Henry 1897 The theory of socialization A syllabus of sociological principles New York The Macmillan company pp 1 2 Retrieved 2 April 2017 Morawski Jill G St Martin Jenna 2011 The evolving vocabulary of the social sciences The case of socialization History of Psychology 14 1 2 doi 10 1037 a0021984 PMID 21688750 Macionis Gerber 2010 108 Macionis Gerber John Linda 2010 Sociology 7th Canadian Ed Toronto Ontario Pearson Canada Inc p 111 Hurrelmann Klaus and Quenzel Gudrun 2019 Developmental Tasks in Adolescence London New York Routledge Macionis Gerber John Linda 2010 Sociology 7th Canadian Ed Toronto Ontario Pearson Canada Inc p 109 a b c d Umberto Castiello et al 7 October 2010 Wired to Be Social The Ontogeny of Human Interaction PLOS ONE 5 10 e13199 Bibcode 2010PLoSO 513199C doi 10 1371 journal pone 0013199 PMC 2951360 PMID 20949058 a b Mirjalili Seyyed Mohammad Ali Abari Ahmad Ali Foroughi Gholizadeh Azar Yarmohammadian M Hossein 2016 Analysis the Status of Socialization Variables in the Iran High School Textbooks with Emphasize on Motahari s Thoughts Retrieved 9 November 2020 SparkNotes Socialization Levine K J Hoffner C A 2006 Adolescents conceptions of work What is learned from different sources during anticipatory socialization Journal of Adolescent Research 21 6 647 69 doi 10 1177 0743558406293963 S2CID 145667784 Schaefer amp Lamm 1992 113 Macionis John J Sociology 7th Canadian Edition Toronto Pearson 2011 120 121 Adam Alvenfors 1 January 2010 Introduktion Integration Om introduktionsprogrammets betydelse for integration av nyanstallda Cite journal requires journal help Kammeyer Mueller J D Wanberg C R 2003 Unwrapping the organizational entry process Disentangling antecedents and their pathways to adjustment Journal of Applied Psychology 88 5 779 94 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 318 5702 doi 10 1037 0021 9010 88 5 779 PMID 14516244 a b c Harris J R 1995 Where is the child s environment A group socialization theory of development Psychological Review 102 3 458 89 doi 10 1037 0033 295x 102 3 458 S2CID 349830 Maccoby E E amp Martin J A 1983 Socialization in the context of the family Parent child interaction In P H Mussen Series Ed amp E M Hetherington Vol Ed Handbook of Child Psychology Vol 4 Socialization personality and social development 4th ed pp 1 101 New York Wiley Bester G 2007 Personality development of the adolescent peer group versus parents South African Journal of Education 27 2 177 90 McGue M Bouchard T J Jr Iacono W G amp Lykken D T 1993 Behavioral genetics of cognitive stability A life span perspectiveness In R Plominix amp G E McClearn Eds Nature nurture and psychology pp 59 76 Washington DC American Psychological Association Plomin R Daniels D 1987 Why are children in the same family so different from one another Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 3 1 16 doi 10 1017 s0140525x00055941 Reprinted in Plomin R Daniels D June 2011 Why are children in the same family so different from one another Int J Epidemiol 40 3 563 82 doi 10 1093 ije dyq148 PMC 3147063 PMID 21807642 Plomin R 1990 Nature and nurture An introduction to human behavioral genetics Pacific Grove CA Brooks Cole Moreland Richard L Levine John M 1982 Socialization in Small Groups Temporal Changes in Individual Group Relations Advances in Experimental Social Psychology 15 pp 137 92 doi 10 1016 S0065 2601 08 60297 X ISBN 978 0120152155 Cromdal Jakob 2011 Gender as a practical concern in children s management of play participation In S A Speer and E Stokoe ed Conversation and Gender Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 296 309 Macionis Gerber John Linda 2010 Sociology 7th Canadian Ed Toronto Ontario Pearson Canada Inc p 109 Epstein Marina Ward Monique L 2011 Exploring parent adolescent communication about gender Results from adolescent and emerging adult samples Sex Roles 65 1 2 108 18 doi 10 1007 s11199 011 9975 7 PMC 3122487 PMID 21712963 Connell R W 1987 Gender and power society the person and sexual politics Stanford Stanford Univ Press pp 191 94 ISBN 978 0804714303 Rotherman M amp Phinney J 1987 Introduction Definitions and perspectives in the study of children s ethnic socialization In J Phinney amp M Rotherman Eds Children s ethnic socialization Pluralism and development pp 10 28 Beverly Hills CA Sage Publications a b Hughes D Rodriguez J Smith E Johnson D Stevenson H Spicer P 2006 Parents ethnic racial socialization practices A review of research and directions for future study Developmental Psychology 42 5 747 770 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 525 3222 doi 10 1037 0012 1649 42 5 747 PMID 16953684 a b Glasberg Davita Silfen Shannon Deric 2011 Political sociology Oppression resistance and the state Thousand Oaks Pine Forge Press p 47 Schieffelin Bambi B Ochs Elinor 1987 Language Socialization across Cultures Volume 3 of Studies in the Social and Cultural Foundations of Language Cambridge University Press ISBN 0521339197 978 0521339193 Schieffelin Bambi B 1990 The Give and Take of Everyday Life Language Socialization of Kaluli Children P CUP Archive ISBN 0521386543 978 0521386548 Duranti Alessandro Ochs Elinor Schieffelin Bambi B 2011 The Handbook of Language Socialization Volume 72 of Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 1444342886 978 1444342888 a b c d e Archived copy Archived from the original on 2012 10 25 Retrieved 2012 10 04 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Miller Seumas 1 January 2014 Zalta Edward N ed The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy a b Hurrelmann Klaus 1989 reissued 2009 Social Structure and Personality Development Cambridge Cambridge University Press Hurrelmann Klaus Bauer Ullrich 2018 Socialisation During the Life Course London New York Routledge Wrong Dennis H 1 January 1961 The Oversocialized Conception of Man in Modern Sociology American Sociological Review 26 2 183 93 doi 10 2307 2089854 JSTOR 2089854 S2CID 3250854 Gintis Herbert van Schaik Carel Boehm Christopher June 2015 Zoon Politikon The Evolutionary Origins of Human Political Systems PDF Current Anthropology 56 3 327 53 doi 10 1086 681217 Searle Jason 1 January 2015 Traditional Economics and the Fiduciary Illusion A Socio Legal Understanding of Corporate Governance Brigham Young University Prelaw Review 29 1 Retrieved 2 April 2017 Further reading EditWikiquote has quotations related to SocializationBayley Robert Schecter Sandra R 2003 Multilingual Matters ISBN 1853596353 978 1853596353 Bogard Kimber 2008 Citizenship attitudes and allegiances in diverse youth Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology 14 4 286 96 doi 10 1037 1099 9809 14 4 286 PMID 18954164 Duff Patricia A Hornberger Nancy H 2010 Language Socialization Encyclopedia of Language and Education Volume 8 Springer ISBN 9048194660 978 9048194667 Kramsch Claire 2003 Language Acquisition and Language Socialization Ecological Perspectives Advances in Applied Linguistics Continuum International Publishing Group ISBN 0826453724 978 0826453723 McQuail Dennis 2005 McQuail s Mass Communication Theory Fifth Edition London Sage Mehan Hugh 1991 Sociological Foundations Supporting the Study of Cultural Diversity National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning White Graham 1977 Socialisation London Longman Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Socialization amp oldid 1051089554, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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