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Sodium metabisulfite

Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite (IUPAC spelling; Br. E. sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite) is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5. The substance is sometimes referred to as disodium metabisulfite. It is used as a disinfectant, antioxidant, and preservative agent.

Names
Other names
Sodium pyrosulfite
Sodium disulfite
Identifiers
  • 7681-57-4 Y
3D model (JSmol)
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.794
EC Number
  • 231-673-0
E number E223 (preservatives)
RTECS number
  • UX8225000
UNII
  • InChI=1S/2Na.H2O5S2/c;;1-6(2)7(3,4)5/h;;(H,1,2)(H,3,4,5)/q2*+1;/p-2
  • [O-]S(=O)S(=O)(=O)[O-].[Na+].[Na+]
Properties
Na2S2O5, Na-O-(S=O)-O-(S=O)-O-Na
Molar mass 190.107g/mol
Appearance White to yellow powder
Odor Faint SO2
Density 1.48g/cm3
Melting point 170 °C (338 °F; 443 K) decomposition begins at 150 °C
  • 45.1g/100mL (0°C)
  • 65.3g/100mL (20°C)
  • 81.7g100 mL (100°C)
Solubility Very soluble in glycerol
Slightly soluble in ethanol
Hazards
Safety data sheet Mallinckrodt MSDS
GHS pictograms
GHS Signal word Danger
H302, H318
P264, P270, P280, P301+312, P305+351+338, P310, P330, P501
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
2
0
1
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
None
REL (Recommended)
TWA 5mg/m3
IDLH (Immediate danger)
N.D.
Related compounds
Other anions
Sodium sulfite
Sodium bisulfite
Other cations
Potassium metabisulfite
Related compounds
Sodium dithionite
Sodium thiosulfate
Sodium sulfate
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
Nverify (what is YN ?)
Infobox references

Contents

Sodium disulfite can be prepared by treating a solution of sodium hydroxide with sulfur dioxide. When conducted in warm water, Na2SO3 initially precipitates as a yellow solid. With more SO2, the solid dissolves to give the disulfite, which crystallises upon cooling.

SO2 + 2 NaOH → Na2SO3 + H2O
SO2 + Na2SO3 → Na2S2O5

which yields a residue of colourless solid Na2S2O5.

The anion metabisulfite consists of an SO2 group linked to an SO3 group, with the negative charge more localised on the SO3 end. The S–S bond length is 2.22 Å, and the "thionate" and "thionite" S–O distances are 1.46 and 1.50 Å, respectively.

Upon dissolution in water, bisulfite is generated:

Na2S2O5 + H2O → 2 Na+ + 2 HSO3

Sodium and potassium metabisulfite have many major and niche uses. It is widely used for preserving food and beverages.

  • Sodium metabisulfite is added as an excipient to medications which contain adrenaline (epinephrine), in order to prevent the oxidation of adrenaline. For example, it is added to combination drug formulations which contain a local anaesthetic and adrenaline, and to the formulation in epinephrine autoinjectors, such as the EpiPen. This lengthens the shelf life of the formulation, although the sodium metabisulphite reacts with adrenaline, causing it to degrade and form epinephrine sulphonate.
  • In combination with sodium hydrosulfite it is used as a rust-stain remover
  • It is used in photography.
  • Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps. Some brands contain 98% sodium metabisulfite, and cause degradation of lignin in the stumps, facilitating removal.
  • It is also used as an excipient in some tablets, such as paracetamol.
  • A very important health related aspect of this substance is that it can be added to a blood smear in a test for sickle cell anaemia (and other similar forms of haemoglobin mutation). The substance causes defunct cells to sickle (through a complex polymerisation) hence confirming disease.
  • It is used as a bleaching agent in the production of coconut cream
  • It is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in shrunken items of clothing made of natural fibres, thus allowing the garment to go back to its original shape after washing
  • It is used as a SO2 source (mixed with air or oxygen) for the destruction of cyanide in commercial gold cyanidation processes.
  • It is used as a SO2 source (mixed with air or oxygen) for the precipitation of elemental gold in chloroauric solutions.
  • It is used in the water treatment industry to quench residual chlorine.
  • It is used in tint etching iron-based metal samples for microstructural analysis.
  • It is used as a fungicide for anti-microbe and mould prevention during shipping of consumer goods such as shoes and clothing. Plastic stickers and packaging (such as Micro-Pak) containing the anhydrous, sodium metabisulfite solid active ingredient are added prior to shipping. The devices absorb moisture from the atmosphere during shipping and release low levels of sulfur dioxide.
  • It is used for preserving fruit during shipping.
  • It is used as a solvent in the extraction of starch from tubers, fruit, and cereal crops.
  • It is used as a pickling agent to treat high pressure reverse osmosis water desalination membranes for extended storage periods between uses.
  1. NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0566". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
  2. Barberá, José Jiménez; Metzger, Adolf; Wolf, Manfred (2000). "Sulfites, Thiosulfates, and Dithionitesl Chemistry". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a25_477.
  3. Catherine E. Housecroft; Alan G. Sharpe (2008). "Chapter 16: The group 16 elements". Inorganic Chemistry, 3rd Edition. Pearson. p. 520. ISBN 978-0-13-175553-6.
  4. Johnstone, H. F. (1946). "Sulfites and Pyrosulfites of the Alkali Metals". Inorganic Syntheses. Inorganic Syntheses. 2. pp. 162–167. doi:10.1002/9780470132333.ch49. ISBN 9780470132333.
  5. K. L. Carter, T. A. Siddiquee, K. L. Murphy, D. W. Bennett "The surprisingly elusive crystal structure of sodium metabisulfite" Acta Crystallogr. (2004). B60, 155–162. doi:10.1107/S0108768104003325
  6. McGee, Douglas L. (2013). "Local and topical anesthesia". In Roberts, James R.; Jerris, R. Hedges (eds.). Roberts and Hedges' Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine (6th ed.). Elsevier/Saunders. p. 519. ISBN 9781455748594.
  7. Niazi, Safaraz K. (2009). Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations. Volume 6, Sterile Products (2nd ed.). New York: Informa Healthcare. p. 410. ISBN 9781420081312.
  8. Barnes, Andrew R. (2013). "Chapter 48. Chemical stability in dosage forms". In Aulton, Michael E.; Taylor, Kevin M.G. (eds.). Aulton's pharmaceutics : the design and manufacture of medicines (4th ed.). Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. p. 833. ISBN 9780702053931.
  9. "Ingredients". Summit Brands. Summit Brands. 31 October 2019. Retrieved25 April 2021.
  10. Anchell, Steve (2008).The darkroom cookbook (3rd ed.). Amsterdam: Focal Press. pp. 193. ISBN 978-0240810553.
  11. http://www.bonideproducts.com/lbonide/msds/sds271.pdf
  12. "Color Metallography". 2011-05-04.
  13. https://www.asminternational.org/documents/10192/1874035/htp00102p025.pdf/ace8f01d-bf9a-4048-b948-a3aeb2d8a536
  14. "Micro-Pak Enhanced Packaging Stickers"(PDF). 2020-05-05.
  15. "15 - Litchi (Litchi chinensis Sonn.)". Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition. Woodhead. 2020-05-05. pp. 361–409e. doi:10.1533/9780857092885.361. ISBN 9781845697358.
  16. Manek, Rahul V.; Builders, Philip F.; Kolling, William M.; Emeje, Martins; Kunle, Olobayo O. (June 2012). "Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus". AAPS PharmSciTech. 13 (2): 379–388. doi:10.1208/s12249-012-9761-z. ISSN 1530-9932. PMC3364391. PMID 22350737.
  17. Nawab, Anjum; Alam, Feroz; Haq, Muhammad Abdul; Hasnain, Abid (2016). "Biodegradable film from mango kernel starch: Effect of plasticizers on physical, barrier, and mechanical properties". Starch - Stärke. 68 (9–10): 919–928. doi:10.1002/star.201500349. ISSN 1521-379X.
  18. Nyakabau, Tatenda; Wokadala, Obiro Cuthbert; Emmambux, Mohammad Naushad (2013). "Effect of steeping additives on tef starch extraction and its quality". Starch - Stärke. 65 (9–10): 738–746. doi:10.1002/star.201200241. hdl:2263/41924. ISSN 1521-379X.
  19. Park, S. H.; Bean, S. R.; Wilson, J. D.; Schober, T. J. (2006). "Rapid Isolation of Sorghum and Other Cereal Starches Using Sonication". Cereal Chemistry. 83 (6): 611–616. doi:10.1094/CC-83-0611. ISSN 1943-3638.

Sodium metabisulfite
Sodium metabisulfite Language Watch Edit Sodium metabisulfite or sodium pyrosulfite IUPAC spelling Br E sodium metabisulphite or sodium pyrosulphite is an inorganic compound of chemical formula Na2S2O5 The substance is sometimes referred to as disodium metabisulfite It is used as a disinfectant antioxidant and preservative agent 2 NamesOther names Sodium pyrosulfite Sodium disulfiteIdentifiersCAS Number 7681 57 4 Y3D model JSmol Interactive imageChEBI CHEBI 114786 NChEMBL ChEMBL2016976 NECHA InfoCard 100 028 794EC Number 231 673 0E number E223 preservatives PubChem CID 656671RTECS number UX8225000UNII 4VON5FNS3C YCompTox Dashboard EPA DTXSID0029684InChI InChI 1S 2Na H2O5S2 c 1 6 2 7 3 4 5 h H 1 2 H 3 4 5 q2 1 p 2SMILES O S O S O O O Na Na PropertiesChemical formula Na2S2O5 Na O S O O S O O NaMolar mass 190 107 g molAppearance White to yellow powderOdor Faint SO2Density 1 48 g cm3Melting point 170 C 338 F 443 K decomposition begins at 150 CSolubility in water 45 1 g 100 mL 0 C 65 3 g 100 mL 20 C 81 7 g 100 mL 100 C Solubility Very soluble in glycerol Slightly soluble in ethanolHazardsSafety data sheet Mallinckrodt MSDSGHS pictogramsGHS Signal word DangerGHS hazard statements H302 H318GHS precautionary statements P264 P270 P280 P301 312 P305 351 338 P310 P330 P501NFPA 704 fire diamond 201NIOSH US health exposure limits PEL Permissible None 1 REL Recommended TWA 5 mg m3 1 IDLH Immediate danger N D 1 Related compoundsOther anions Sodium sulfite Sodium bisulfiteOther cations Potassium metabisulfiteRelated compounds Sodium dithionite Sodium thiosulfate Sodium sulfateExcept where otherwise noted data are given for materials in their standard state at 25 C 77 F 100 kPa N verify what is Y N Infobox references Contents 1 Preparation 2 Chemical structure 3 Reactivity 4 Uses 5 References 6 External linksPreparation EditSodium disulfite can be prepared by treating a solution of sodium hydroxide with sulfur dioxide 3 When conducted in warm water Na2SO3 initially precipitates as a yellow solid With more SO2 the solid dissolves to give the disulfite which crystallises upon cooling 4 SO2 2 NaOH Na2SO3 H2O SO2 Na2SO3 Na2S2O5 which yields a residue of colourless solid Na2S2O5 Chemical structure EditThe anion metabisulfite consists of an SO2 group linked to an SO3 group with the negative charge more localised on the SO3 end The S S bond length is 2 22 A and the thionate and thionite S O distances are 1 46 and 1 50 A respectively 5 Reactivity EditMain article Bisulfite Reactions Upon dissolution in water bisulfite is generated Na2S2O5 H2O 2 Na 2 HSO3 Uses EditSodium and potassium metabisulfite have many major and niche uses It is widely used for preserving food and beverages Sodium metabisulfite is added as an excipient to medications which contain adrenaline epinephrine in order to prevent the oxidation of adrenaline 6 For example it is added to combination drug formulations which contain a local anaesthetic and adrenaline 6 and to the formulation in epinephrine autoinjectors such as the EpiPen 7 This lengthens the shelf life of the formulation 6 although the sodium metabisulphite reacts with adrenaline causing it to degrade and form epinephrine sulphonate 8 In combination with sodium hydrosulfite it is used as a rust stain remover 9 It is used in photography 10 Concentrated sodium metabisulfite can be used to remove tree stumps Some brands contain 98 sodium metabisulfite and cause degradation of lignin in the stumps facilitating removal 11 It is also used as an excipient in some tablets such as paracetamol A very important health related aspect of this substance is that it can be added to a blood smear in a test for sickle cell anaemia and other similar forms of haemoglobin mutation The substance causes defunct cells to sickle through a complex polymerisation hence confirming disease It is used as a bleaching agent in the production of coconut cream It is used as a reducing agent to break sulfide bonds in shrunken items of clothing made of natural fibres thus allowing the garment to go back to its original shape after washing It is used as a SO2 source mixed with air or oxygen for the destruction of cyanide in commercial gold cyanidation processes It is used as a SO2 source mixed with air or oxygen for the precipitation of elemental gold in chloroauric solutions It is used in the water treatment industry to quench residual chlorine It is used in tint etching iron based metal samples for microstructural analysis 12 13 It is used as a fungicide for anti microbe and mould prevention during shipping of consumer goods such as shoes and clothing Plastic stickers and packaging such as Micro Pak containing the anhydrous sodium metabisulfite solid active ingredient are added prior to shipping The devices absorb moisture from the atmosphere during shipping and release low levels of sulfur dioxide 14 It is used for preserving fruit during shipping 15 It is used as a solvent in the extraction of starch from tubers 16 fruit 17 and cereal crops 18 19 It is used as a pickling agent to treat high pressure reverse osmosis water desalination membranes for extended storage periods between uses References Edit a b c NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards 0566 National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health NIOSH Barbera Jose Jimenez Metzger Adolf Wolf Manfred 2000 Sulfites Thiosulfates and Dithionitesl Chemistry Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Weinheim Wiley VCH doi 10 1002 14356007 a25 477 Catherine E Housecroft Alan G Sharpe 2008 Chapter 16 The group 16 elements Inorganic Chemistry 3rd Edition Pearson p 520 ISBN 978 0 13 175553 6 Johnstone H F 1946 Sulfites and Pyrosulfites of the Alkali Metals Inorganic Syntheses Inorganic Syntheses 2 pp 162 167 doi 10 1002 9780470132333 ch49 ISBN 9780470132333 K L Carter T A Siddiquee K L Murphy D W Bennett The surprisingly elusive crystal structure of sodium metabisulfite Acta Crystallogr 2004 B60 155 162 doi 10 1107 S0108768104003325 a b c McGee Douglas L 2013 Local and topical anesthesia In Roberts James R Jerris R Hedges eds Roberts and Hedges Clinical Procedures in Emergency Medicine 6th ed Elsevier Saunders p 519 ISBN 9781455748594 Niazi Safaraz K 2009 Handbook of Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Formulations Volume 6 Sterile Products 2nd ed New York Informa Healthcare p 410 ISBN 9781420081312 Barnes Andrew R 2013 Chapter 48 Chemical stability in dosage forms In Aulton Michael E Taylor Kevin M G eds Aulton s pharmaceutics the design and manufacture of medicines 4th ed Churchill Livingstone Elsevier p 833 ISBN 9780702053931 Ingredients Summit Brands Summit Brands 31 October 2019 Retrieved 25 April 2021 Anchell Steve 2008 The darkroom cookbook 3rd ed Amsterdam Focal Press pp 193 ISBN 978 0240810553 http www bonideproducts com lbonide msds sds271 pdf Color Metallography 2011 05 04 https www asminternational org documents 10192 1874035 htp00102p025 pdf ace8f01d bf9a 4048 b948 a3aeb2d8a536 Micro Pak Enhanced Packaging Stickers PDF 2020 05 05 15 Litchi Litchi chinensis Sonn Postharvest Biology and Technology of Tropical and Subtropical Fruits Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science Technology and Nutrition Woodhead 2020 05 05 pp 361 409e doi 10 1533 9780857092885 361 ISBN 9781845697358 Manek Rahul V Builders Philip F Kolling William M Emeje Martins Kunle Olobayo O June 2012 Physicochemical and binder properties of starch obtained from Cyperus esculentus AAPS PharmSciTech 13 2 379 388 doi 10 1208 s12249 012 9761 z ISSN 1530 9932 PMC 3364391 PMID 22350737 Nawab Anjum Alam Feroz Haq Muhammad Abdul Hasnain Abid 2016 Biodegradable film from mango kernel starch Effect of plasticizers on physical barrier and mechanical properties Starch Starke 68 9 10 919 928 doi 10 1002 star 201500349 ISSN 1521 379X Nyakabau Tatenda Wokadala Obiro Cuthbert Emmambux Mohammad Naushad 2013 Effect of steeping additives on tef starch extraction and its quality Starch Starke 65 9 10 738 746 doi 10 1002 star 201200241 hdl 2263 41924 ISSN 1521 379X Park S H Bean S R Wilson J D Schober T J 2006 Rapid Isolation of Sorghum and Other Cereal Starches Using Sonication Cereal Chemistry 83 6 611 616 doi 10 1094 CC 83 0611 ISSN 1943 3638 External links EditInternational Chemical Safety Card 1461 The surprisingly elusive crystal structure of sodium metabisulfite CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sodium metabisulfite amp oldid 1049031278, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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