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Sodium phosphates

Sodium phosphate is a generic term for a variety of salts of sodium (Na+) and phosphate (PO43−). Phosphate also forms families or condensed anions including di-, tri-, tetra-, and polyphosphates. Most of these salts are known in both anhydrous (water-free) and hydrated forms. The hydrates are more common than the anhydrous forms.

Sodium phosphates have many applications in food and for water treatment. For example, sodium phosphates are often used as emulsifiers (as in processed cheese), thickening agents, and leavening agents for baked goods. They are also used to control pH of processed foods. They are also used in medicine for constipation and to prepare the bowel for medical procedures. Moreover, they are used in detergents for softening water, and as an efficient anti rust solution.

Sodium phosphates are popular in commerce in part because they are inexpensive and because they are nontoxic at normal levels of consumption. However, oral sodium phosphates when taken at high doses for bowel preparation for colonoscopy may in some individuals carry a risk of kidney injury under the form of phosphate nephropathy. There are several oral phosphate formulations which are prepared extemporaneously. Oral phosphate prep drugs have been withdrawn in the United States, although evidence of causality is equivocal. Since safe and effective replacements for phosphate purgatives are available, several medical authorities have recommended general disuse of oral phosphates.

Three families of sodium monophosphates are common, those derived from orthophosphate (PO43−), hydrogen phosphate (HPO42−), and dihydrogenphosphate (H2PO4). Some of the most well known salts are shown in the table.

name formula CAS registry number
monosodium phosphate (anhydrous) NaH2PO4 7558-80-7
monosodium phosphate (monohydrate) NaH2PO4(H2O) 10049-21-5
monosodium phosphate (dihydrate) NaH2PO4(H2O)2 13472-35-0
disodium phosphate (anhydrous) Na2HPO4 7558-79-4
disodium phosphate (dihydrate) HNa2PO4(H2O)2 10028-24-7
disodium phosphate (heptahydrate) HNa2PO4(H2O)7 7782-85-6
disodium phosphate (octahydrate) HNa2PO4(H2O)8
disodium phosphate (dodecahydrate) HNa2PO4(H2O)12 10039-32-4
trisodium phosphate (anhydrous, hexagonal) Na3PO4
trisodium phosphate (anhydrous, cubic) Na3PO4 7601-54-9
trisodium phosphate (hemihydrate) Na3PO4(H2O)0.5
trisodium phosphate (hexahydrate) Na3PO4(H2O)6
trisodium phosphate (octahydrate) Na3PO4(H2O)8
trisodium phosphate (dodecahydrate) Na3PO4(H2O)12 10101-89-0

In addition to these phosphates, sodium forms a number of useful salts with pyrophosphates (also called diphosphates), triphosphates and high polymers. Of these salts, those of the diphosphates are particularly common commercially.

name formula CAS Registry number
monosodium diphosphate (anhydrous) NaH3P2O7
disodium diphosphate (anhydrous) Na2H2P2O7 7758-16-9
disodium diphosphate (hexahydrate) Na2H2P2O7(H2O)6
trisodium diphosphate (anhydrous) Na3HP2O7
trisodium diphosphate (monohydrate) Na3HP2O7(H2O)
trisodium diphosphate (nonahydrate) Na3HP2O7(H2O)9
tetrasodium diphosphate (anhydrous) Na4P2O7 7722-88-5
tetrasodium diphosphate (decahydrate) Na4P2O7(H2O)10 13472-36-1

Beyond the diphosphates, sodium salts are known triphosphates, e.g. sodium triphosphate and tetraphosphates. The cyclic polyphosphates, called metaphosphates, include the trimer sodium trimetaphosphate and the tetramer, Na3P3O9 and Na4P4O12, respectively.

Polymeric sodium phosphates are formed upon heating mixtures of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4, which induces a condensation reaction. The specific polyphosphate generated depends on the details of the heating and annealling. One derivative is the glassy (i.e., amorphous) Graham's salt. It is a linear polyphosphate the average formula NaO(NaPO3)Na2. Crystalline high molecular weight polyphosphates include Kurrol's salt and Maddrell's salt (CAS#10361-03-2). These species have the formula [NaPO3]n[NaPO3(OH)]2 where n can be as great as 2000. In terms of their structures, these polymers consist of PO3 "monomers", with the chains are terminated by protonated phosphates.

  1. Klaus Schrödter; Gerhard Bettermann; Thomas Staffel; Friedrich Wahl; Thomas Klein; Thomas Hofmann (2012). "Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_465.pub3.
  2. http://www.sodiumphosphateformula.com/tag/monosodium-phosphate
  3. Lampila, Lucina E. (2013). "Applications and functions of food-grade phosphates". Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1301 (1): 37–44. Bibcode:2013NYASA1301...37L. doi:10.1111/nyas.12230. PMID 24033359. S2CID 206223856.
  4. Razzaque, M. S. (2011). "Phosphate toxicity: New insights into an old problem". Clinical Science. 120 (3): 91–97. doi:10.1042/CS20100377. PMC3120105. PMID 20958267.
  5. Markawitz, GB; Parezelli, MA (Aug 12, 2007), "Acute Phosphate Nephropathyl", Kidney Int., 76 (10), pp. 1027–34, doi:10.1038/ki.2009.308, PMID 19675530
  6. Mackey, AC; Breen, L; Amand, KS; Evigan, M (August 2007), "Sodium phosphate tablets and acute Phosphate Nephropathy", Am J Gastroenterol, 104 (8), pp. 1903–6, doi:10.1038/ajg.2009.342, PMID 19661931, S2CID 12551005
  7. Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 530. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
  • Bell, Russel N (April 1973), "Sodium Aluminum Phosphate Cheese Emulsifying Agent", US Patent 3726960
  • Lien, YH (16 July 2008), "Is bowel preparation before colonoscopy a risky business for the kidney?", Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, 4 (11): 606–14, doi:10.1038/ncpneph0939, PMID 18797448, S2CID 340122

Sodium phosphates
Sodium phosphates Language Watch Edit Sodium phosphate is a generic term for a variety of salts of sodium Na and phosphate PO43 Phosphate also forms families or condensed anions including di tri tetra and polyphosphates Most of these salts are known in both anhydrous water free and hydrated forms The hydrates are more common than the anhydrous forms 1 Sodium dihydrogen phosphate Sodium hydrogen phosphate Trisodium phosphate Contents 1 Uses 2 Adverse effects 3 Monophosphates 4 Di and polyphosphates 5 References 6 External linksUses EditSodium phosphates have many applications in food and for water treatment For example sodium phosphates are often used as emulsifiers as in processed cheese 2 thickening agents and leavening agents for baked goods They are also used to control pH of processed foods 3 They are also used in medicine for constipation and to prepare the bowel for medical procedures Moreover they are used in detergents for softening water and as an efficient anti rust solution Adverse effects EditSodium phosphates are popular in commerce in part because they are inexpensive and because they are nontoxic at normal levels of consumption 4 However oral sodium phosphates when taken at high doses for bowel preparation for colonoscopy may in some individuals carry a risk of kidney injury under the form of phosphate nephropathy There are several oral phosphate formulations which are prepared extemporaneously Oral phosphate prep drugs have been withdrawn in the United States although evidence of causality is equivocal 5 Since safe and effective replacements for phosphate purgatives are available several medical authorities have recommended general disuse of oral phosphates 6 Monophosphates EditThree families of sodium monophosphates are common those derived from orthophosphate PO43 hydrogen phosphate HPO42 and dihydrogenphosphate H2PO4 Some of the most well known salts are shown in the table name formula CAS registry numbermonosodium phosphate anhydrous NaH2PO4 7558 80 7monosodium phosphate monohydrate NaH2PO4 H2O 10049 21 5monosodium phosphate dihydrate NaH2PO4 H2O 2 13472 35 0disodium phosphate anhydrous Na2HPO4 7558 79 4disodium phosphate dihydrate HNa2PO4 H2O 2 10028 24 7disodium phosphate heptahydrate HNa2PO4 H2O 7 7782 85 6disodium phosphate octahydrate HNa2PO4 H2O 8disodium phosphate dodecahydrate HNa2PO4 H2O 12 10039 32 4trisodium phosphate anhydrous hexagonal Na3PO4trisodium phosphate anhydrous cubic Na3PO4 7601 54 9trisodium phosphate hemihydrate Na3PO4 H2O 0 5trisodium phosphate hexahydrate Na3PO4 H2O 6trisodium phosphate octahydrate Na3PO4 H2O 8trisodium phosphate dodecahydrate Na3PO4 H2O 12 10101 89 0Di and polyphosphates EditIn addition to these phosphates sodium forms a number of useful salts with pyrophosphates also called diphosphates triphosphates and high polymers Of these salts those of the diphosphates are particularly common commercially name formula CAS Registry numbermonosodium diphosphate anhydrous NaH3P2O7disodium diphosphate anhydrous Na2H2P2O7 7758 16 9disodium diphosphate hexahydrate Na2H2P2O7 H2O 6trisodium diphosphate anhydrous Na3HP2O7trisodium diphosphate monohydrate Na3HP2O7 H2O trisodium diphosphate nonahydrate Na3HP2O7 H2O 9tetrasodium diphosphate anhydrous Na4P2O7 7722 88 5tetrasodium diphosphate decahydrate Na4P2O7 H2O 10 13472 36 1 Beyond the diphosphates sodium salts are known triphosphates e g sodium triphosphate and tetraphosphates The cyclic polyphosphates called metaphosphates include the trimer sodium trimetaphosphate and the tetramer Na3P3O9 and Na4P4O12 respectively Polymeric sodium phosphates are formed upon heating mixtures of NaH2PO4 and Na2HPO4 which induces a condensation reaction The specific polyphosphate generated depends on the details of the heating and annealling One derivative is the glassy i e amorphous Graham s salt It is a linear polyphosphate the average formula NaO NaPO3 Na2 Crystalline high molecular weight polyphosphates include Kurrol s salt and Maddrell s salt CAS 10361 03 2 These species have the formula NaPO3 n NaPO3 OH 2 where n can be as great as 2000 In terms of their structures these polymers consist of PO3 monomers with the chains are terminated by protonated phosphates 1 7 References Edit a b Klaus Schrodter Gerhard Bettermann Thomas Staffel Friedrich Wahl Thomas Klein Thomas Hofmann 2012 Phosphoric Acid and Phosphates Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry Weinheim Wiley VCH doi 10 1002 14356007 a19 465 pub3 http www sodiumphosphateformula com tag monosodium phosphate Lampila Lucina E 2013 Applications and functions of food grade phosphates Ann N Y Acad Sci 1301 1 37 44 Bibcode 2013NYASA1301 37L doi 10 1111 nyas 12230 PMID 24033359 S2CID 206223856 Razzaque M S 2011 Phosphate toxicity New insights into an old problem Clinical Science 120 3 91 97 doi 10 1042 CS20100377 PMC 3120105 PMID 20958267 Markawitz GB Parezelli MA Aug 12 2007 Acute Phosphate Nephropathyl Kidney Int 76 10 pp 1027 34 doi 10 1038 ki 2009 308 PMID 19675530 Mackey AC Breen L Amand KS Evigan M August 2007 Sodium phosphate tablets and acute Phosphate Nephropathy Am J Gastroenterol 104 8 pp 1903 6 doi 10 1038 ajg 2009 342 PMID 19661931 S2CID 12551005 Greenwood Norman N Earnshaw Alan 1997 Chemistry of the Elements 2nd ed Butterworth Heinemann p 530 ISBN 978 0 08 037941 8 External links EditBell Russel N April 1973 Sodium Aluminum Phosphate Cheese Emulsifying Agent US Patent 3726960 Lien YH 16 July 2008 Is bowel preparation before colonoscopy a risky business for the kidney Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology 4 11 606 14 doi 10 1038 ncpneph0939 PMID 18797448 S2CID 340122 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sodium phosphates amp oldid 1049031651, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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