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Sodomy

Sodomy () or buggery (British English) is generally anal or oral sex between people, or sexual activity between a person and a non-human animal (bestiality), but it may also mean any non-procreative sexual activity. Originally, the term sodomy, which is derived from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis, was commonly restricted to anal sex. Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized the behavior. In the Western world, many of these laws have been overturned or are routinely not enforced.

The term is derived from the Ecclesiastical Latin peccatum Sodomiticum or "sin of Sodom", which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek wordΣόδομα (Sódoma). Genesis (chapters 18–20) tells how God wished to destroy the "sinful" cities of Sodom and Gomorrah. Two angels are invited by Lot to take refuge with his family for the night.

The men of Sodom surround Lot's house and demand that he bring the messengers out so that they may "know" them (the expression includes sexual connotations). Lot protests that the "messengers" are his guests and offers the Sodomites his virgin daughters instead, but then they threaten to "do worse" with Lot than they would with his guests. Then the angels strike the Sodomites blind, "so that they wearied themselves to find the door" (Genesis 19:4–11, KJV).

In modern English

In current usage, the term is particularly used in law. Laws prohibiting sodomy were seen frequently in past Jewish, Christian, and Islamic civilizations, but the term has little modern usage outside Africa, Asia, and the United States.

These laws in the United States have been challenged and have sometimes been found unconstitutional or been replaced with different legislation.

The word sod, a noun or verb (to "sod off") used as an insult, is derived from sodomite. It is a general-purpose insult term for anyone the speaker dislikes without specific reference to their sexual behaviour. Sod is used as slang in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth and is considered mildly offensive. (The word 'sod' also has a meaning of "(clump of) earth" with an unrelated etymology, in which sense it is rare but not offensive.)

Cognates in other languages

Many cognates in other languages, such as French sodomie (verb sodomiser), Spanish sodomía (verb sodomizar), and Portuguese sodomia (verb sodomizar), are used exclusively for penetrative anal sex, at least since the early nineteenth century. In those languages, the term is also often current vernacular (not just legal, unlike in other cultures) and a formal way of referring to any practice of anal penetration; the word sex is commonly associated with consent and pleasure with regard to all involved parties and often avoids directly mentioning two common aspects of social taboo – human sexuality and the anus – without a shunning or archaic connotation to its use.

In modern German, the word Sodomie has no connotation of anal or oral sex and specifically refers to bestiality. The same goes for the Polish sodomia. The Norwegian word sodomi carries both senses. In Danish, sodomi is rendered as "unnatural carnal knowledge with someone of the same sex or (now) with animals".

In Arabic and Persian, the word for sodomy,لواط‎ (Arabic pronunciation: liwāṭ; Persian pronunciation lavât), is derived from the same source as in Western culture, with much the same connotations as English (referring to most sexual acts prohibited by the Qur'an). Its direct reference is to Lot (لوط Lūṭ in Arabic) and a more literal interpretation of the word is "the practice of Lot", but more accurately it means "the practice of Lot's people" (the Sodomites) rather than Lot himself.

Religious and legal interpretation

While religion and the law have had a fundamental role in the historical definition and punishment of sodomy, sodomitical texts present considerable opportunities for ambiguity and interpretation. Sodomy is both a real occurrence and an imagined category. In the course of the eighteenth century, what is identifiable as sodomy often becomes identified with effeminacy, for example, or in opposition to a discourse of manliness.

In this regard, Ian McCormick has argued that

"an adequate and imaginative reading involves a series of intertextual interventions in which histories become stories, fabrications and reconstructions in lively debate with, and around, 'dominant' heterosexualities ... Deconstructing what we think we see may well involve reconstructing ourselves in surprising and unanticipated ways."

Buggery

The modern English word "bugger" is derived from the French term bougre, that evolved from the Latin Bulgarus or "Bulgarian". The Catholic Church used the word to describe members of a religious sect known as the Bogomils, who originated in medieval Bulgaria in the 10th Century and spread throughout Western Europe by the 15th century. The Church used it as a term of offence against a group they considered heretical.

The first use of the word "buggery" appears in Middle English in 1330 where it is associated with "abominable heresy"; though the sexual sense of "bugger" is not recorded until 1555. The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology quotes a similar form: "bowgard" (and "bouguer"), but claims that the Bulgarians were heretics

"as belonging to the Greek Church, sp. Albigensian".

Webster's Third New International Dictionary gives the only meaning of the word "bugger" as a sodomite,

"from the adherence of the Bulgarians to the Eastern Church considered heretical".

Bugger is still commonly used in modern English as an exclamation, while "buggery" is synonymous with the act of sodomy.

The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, John Martin, 1852

Hebrew Bible

In the Hebrew Bible, Sodom was a city destroyed by God because of the evil of its inhabitants. No specific sin is given as the reason for God's great wrath. The story of Sodom's destruction – and of Abraham's failed attempt to intercede with God and prevent that destruction – appears in Genesis 18–19. The connection between Sodom and homosexuality is derived from the described attempt by a mob of the city's people to rape Lot's male guests. Some suggest the sinfulness for which Sodom was destroyed might have consisted mainly in the violation of obligations of hospitality, which were important for the original writers of the Biblical account. In Judges 19–21, there is an account, similar in many ways, where Gibeah, a city of the Benjamin tribe, is destroyed by the other tribes of Israel in revenge for a mob of its inhabitants raping and killing a woman. Neither view about why Sodom was destroyed takes into account the fact that its destruction was planned before the guests arrived in the city, Genesis 18:17.

Many times in the Pentateuch and Prophets, writers use God's destruction of Sodom to demonstrate His awesome power. This happens in Deuteronomy 29; Isaiah 1, 3, and 13; Jeremiah 49 and 50; Lamentations 4; Amos 4.11; and Zephaniah 2.9. Deuteronomy 32, Jeremiah 23.14, and Lamentations 4 reference the sinfulness of Sodom, but do not specify any particular sin.

Specific sins which Sodom is linked to by the prophets of the Old Testament are adultery and lying (Jeremiah 23:14).

In Ezekiel 16, a long comparison is made between Sodom and the kingdom of Judah. "Yet you have not merely walked in their ways or done according to their abominations; but, as if that were too little, you acted more corruptly in all your conduct than they." (v. 47, NASB) "Behold, this was the guilt of your sister Sodom: she and her daughters had arrogance, abundant food and careless ease, but she did not help the poor and needy. Thus they were haughty and committed abominations before Me. (vss. 49–50, NASB) (Note that the Hebrew for the word "thus" is the conjunction "ו" which is usually translated "and", therefore KJV, NIV, and CEV omit the word entirely.)

There is no explicit mention of any sexual sin in Ezekiel's summation and "abomination" is used to describe many sins.

The Authorized King James Version translates Deuteronomy 23:17 as: "There shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel, nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel," but the word corresponding to "sodomite" in the Hebrew original, Qadesh (Hebrew:קדש), does not refer to Sodom, and has been translated in the New International Version as "shrine prostitute"; male shrine prostitutes may have served barren women in fertility rites rather than engaging in homosexual acts; this also applies to other instances of the word sodomite in the King James Version.

Roman Empire period

New Testament

The New Testament, like the Old Testament, references Sodom as a place of God's anger against sin, but the Epistle of Jude provides a certain class of sin as causative of its destruction, the meaning of which is disputed.

Jude 1:5 I will therefore put you in remembrance, though ye once knew this, how that the Lord, having saved the people out of the land of Egypt, afterward destroyed them that believed not.


6 And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.


7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha, and the cities about them in like manner, giving themselves over to fornication, and going after strange flesh, are set forth for an example, suffering the vengeance of eternal fire.

The Greek word in the New Testament from which the phrase is translated "giving themselves over to fornication," is ekporneuō (ek and porneuō). As one word, it is not used elsewhere in the New Testament, but occurs in the Septuagint to denote whoredom (Genesis 38:24 and Exodus 34:15). Some modern translations as the NIV render it as "sexual immorality."

The Greek words for "strange flesh" are heteros, which almost always basically denotes "another/other," and sarx, a common word for "flesh," and usually refers to the physical body or the nature of man or of an ordinance.

In the Christian expansion of the prophets, they further linked Sodom to the sins of impenitence (Matthew 11:23), careless living (Luke 17:28), fornication (Jude 1:7 KJV), and an overall "filthy" lifestyle (2 Peter 2:7), which word (aselgeiais) elsewhere is rendered in the KJV as lasciviousness (Mark 7:22; 2 Corinthians 12:21; Ephesians 4:19; 1 Peter 4:3; Jude 1:4) or wantonness (Romans 13:13; 2 Peter 2:18).

Epistle of Jude

The Epistle of Jude in the New Testament echoes the Genesis narrative and potentially adds the sexually immoral aspects of Sodom's sins: "just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities, which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire, serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire" (v. 7, English Standard Version). The phrase rendered "sexual immorality and unnatural desire" is translated "strange flesh" or "false flesh," but it is not entirely clear what it refers to.

One theory is that it is just a reference to the "strange flesh" of the intended rape victims, who were angels, not men. Countering this is traditional interpretation, which notes that the angels were sent to investigate an ongoing regional problem (Gn. 18) of fornication, and extraordinarily so, that of a homosexual nature, "out of the order of nature." "Strange" is understood to mean "outside the moral law," (Romans 7:3; Galatians 1:6) while it is doubted that either Lot or the men of Sodom understood that the strangers were angels at the time.

Philo

The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher, Philo (20 BCE – 50 CE), described the inhabitants of Sodom in an extra-biblical account:

"As men, being unable to bear discreetly a satiety of these things, get restive like cattle, and become stiff-necked, and discard the laws of nature, pursuing a great and intemperate indulgence of gluttony, and drinking, and unlawful connections; for not only did they go mad after other women, and defile the marriage bed of others, but also those who were men lusted after one another, doing unseemly things, and not regarding or respecting their common nature, and though eager for children, they were convicted by having only an abortive offspring; but the conviction produced no advantage, since they were overcome by violent desire; and so by degrees, the men became accustomed to be treated like women, and in this way engendered among themselves the disease of females, and intolerable evil; for they not only, as to effeminacy and delicacy, became like women in their persons, but they also made their souls most ignoble, corrupting in this way the whole race of men, as far as depended on them" (133–35; ET Jonge 422–23).

Josephus

The Jewish historian Josephus used the term "Sodomites" in summarizing the Genesis narrative: "About this time the Sodomites grew proud, on account of their riches and great wealth; they became unjust towards men, and impious towards God, in so much that they did not call to mind the advantages they received from him: they hated strangers, and abused themselves with Sodomitical practices" "Now when the Sodomites saw the young men to be of beautiful countenances, and this to an extraordinary degree, and that they took up their lodgings with Lot, they resolved themselves to enjoy these beautiful boys by force and violence; and when Lot exhorted them to sobriety, and not to offer any thing immodest to the strangers, but to have regard to their lodging in his house; and promised that if their inclinations could not be governed, he would expose his daughters to their lust, instead of these strangers; neither thus were they made ashamed." (Antiquities 1.11.1,3 – c. 96CE). His assessment goes beyond the Biblical data, though it is seen by conservatives as defining what manner of fornication (Jude 1:7) Sodom was given to.[citation needed]

Medieval Christendom

Dante and Virgil interview the sodomites, from Guido da Pisa [it]'s commentary on the Commedia, c. 1345

The primarily sexual meaning of the word sodomia for Christians did not evolve before the 6th century AD.[citation needed] Roman Emperor Justinian I, in his novels no. 77 (dating 538) and no. 141 (dating 559) amended to his Corpus iuris civilis, and declared that Sodom's sin had been specifically same-sex activities and desire for them. He also linked "famines, earthquakes, and pestilences" upon cities as being due to "such crimes," during a time of recent earthquakes and other disasters (see Extreme weather events of 535–536). While adhering to the death penalty by beheading as punishment for homosexuality or adultery, Justinian's legal novels heralded a change in Roman legal paradigm, in that he introduced a concept of not only secular but also divine punishment for homosexual behavior.[citation needed]

Christians earlier than Justinian are also seen to denounce same-sex relations. St. John Chrysostom in the 4th century regarded such relations as worse than murder in his fourth homily on Romans 1:26–27 [1], while Paul the Apostle in the Epistle to the Romans referred to same-sex relations as "shameful lust" and which acts were contrary to nature, with men suffering a "due penalty" in their bodies. Just like the Jews, early Christians prior to Justinian I are not known to have used the word sodomia for the carnal sin they abhorred, though Philo of Alexandria (20 BCE – 50 CE) and Methodius of Olympus (260–312) attributed homosexual relations to Sodom, as may have Josephus, (37 – c. 100) Augustine of Hippo, (354–430) and certain pseudepigraphacal texts.

Justinian's interpretation of the story of Sodom might have been forgotten today (as some[who?] hold it had been, along with his law novelizations regarding homosexual behavior immediately after his death) had it not been made use of in fake Charlemagnian capitularies, fabricated by a Frankish monk using the pseudonym Benedictus Levita ("Benedict the Levite") around 850 CE, as part of the Pseudo-Isidore. Benedict Levita's three capitularies, particularly dealing with Justinian's interpretation of the story of Sodom, were:

  • XXI. De diversis malorum flagitiis. ("No. 21: On manifold disgraceful wrongs")
  • CXLIII. De sceleribus nefandis ob quae regna percussa sunt, ut penitus caveantur. ("No. 143: On sinful vices due to which empires have crumbled, so that we shall do our best to beware of them")
  • CLX. De patratoribus diversorum malorum. ("No. 160: On the perpetrators of manifold evil deeds")

Burning had been part of the standard penalty for homosexual behavior, particularly common in Germanic protohistory (as according to Germanic folklore, sexual deviance and especially same-sex desire were caused by a form of malevolence or spiritual evil called nith, rendering those people characterized by it as non-human fiends, as nithings). Benedictus Levita most probably was of the Germanic tribe of the Franks.[citation needed]

Benedictus Levita broadened the meaning for sodomy to all sexual acts not related to procreation that were therefore deemed counter nature (so for instance, even solitary masturbation and anal intercourse between a male and a female were covered), while among these, he still emphasized all interpersonal acts not taking place between human men and women, especially homosexuality.[citation needed]

Monks accused of sodomy burned at the stake, Ghent 1578

Benedictus Levita’s rationale was that the punishment of such acts was in order to protect all Christianity from divine punishments, such as natural disasters for carnal sins committed by individuals, but also for heresy, superstition, and heathenry. Because his crucial demands for capital punishment had been so unheard of in ecclesiastical history previously, based upon the humane Christian concept of forgiveness and mercy, it took several centuries before Benedictus Levita’s demands for legal reform began to take tangible shape within larger ecclesiastical initiatives.

This came about with the Medieval Inquisition in 1184. The sects of Cathars and Waldensians were a common target, and these heretics were not only persecuted for alleged satanism, but were increasingly accused of fornication and sodomy. In 1307, accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges levelled during the Trial of the Knights Templar. Some of these charges were specifically directed at the Grand Master of the order, Jacques de Molay. It is this event which led into the medieval and early-modern witch hunts that were also largely connoted with sodomy.

Persecution of Cathars and the Bogomiles sect in Bulgaria led to the use of a term closely related to sodomy: buggery derives from French bouggerie, meaning "of Bulgaria". The association of sodomy with hereticism, satanism, and witchcraft was supported by the Inquisition trials.

The Book of Wisdom, which is included in the Biblical canon by Orthodox and Roman Catholics, but excluded by modern Jews, Protestants, and other Christian denominations, makes reference to the story of Sodom, further emphasizing that their sin had been failing to practice hospitality:

"And punishments came upon the sinners not without former signs by the force of thunders: for they suffered justly according to their own wickedness, insomuch as they used a more hard and hateful behavior toward strangers."
"For the Sodomites did not receive those, whom they knew not when they came: but these brought friends into bondage, that had well deserved of them." (KJV

Sodomy laws in 18th-century Europe

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A wanted poster, published in the city of Amsterdam in 1730, accusing ten men of "the abominable crime of sodomy" (de verfoeyelyke Crimen van Sodomie)

An examination of trials for rape and sodomy during the 18th century at the Old Bailey in London shows that the treatment of rape was often lenient, while the treatment of sodomy was often severe. However, the difficulty of proving that penetration and ejaculation had occurred meant that men were often convicted of the lesser charge of "assault with sodomitical intent," which was not a capital offence. Sodomy crimes in England could mean "sexually assaulting a young child," and could result in a sentence of death recorded, i.e., not an actual death sentence at all.

In 18th century France, sodomy was still theoretically a capital crime, and there are a handful of cases where sodomites were executed. However, in several of these, other crimes were involved as well. Records from the Bastille and the police lieutenant d'Argenson, as well as other sources, show that many who were arrested were exiled, sent to a regiment, or imprisoned in places (generally the hospital) associated with moral crimes (such as prostitution). Of these, a number were involved in prostitution or had approached children, or otherwise gone beyond merely having homosexual relations. Ravaisson (a 19th-century writer who edited the Bastille records) suggested that the authorities preferred to handle these cases discreetly, lest public punishments in effect publicize "this vice."[citation needed]

Periodicals of the time sometimes casually named known sodomites, and at one point, even suggested that sodomy was increasingly popular. This does not imply that sodomites necessarily lived in security – specific police agents, for instance, watched the Tuileries, even then a known “cruising area.” But, as with much sexual behaviour under the Old Regime, discretion was a key concern on all sides (especially since members of prominent families were sometimes implicated); the law seemed most concerned with those who were the least discreet.[citation needed]

In 1730, there was a wave of sodomy trials in the Netherlands; some 250 men were summoned before the authorities; 91 faced decrees of exile for not appearing. At least 60 men were sentenced to death.

The last two Englishmen that were hanged for sodomy were executed in 1835. James Pratt and John Smith died in front of Newgate Prison in London on 27 November 1835 or 8 April 1835. They had been prosecuted under the Offences against the Person Act 1828, which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act.

Main article: Sodomy law

Laws criminalizing sodomy rarely spell out precise sexual acts, but are typically understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be unnatural or immoral. Sodomy typically includes anal sex, oral sex, and bestiality. In practice, sodomy laws have rarely been enforced against heterosexual couples, and have mostly been used to target homosexuals.

Queer anarchists protesting against homophobia, with banner reading "Sodomize," on 11 October 2009

As of June 2019, 69 countries as well as five sub-national jurisdictions have laws criminalizing homosexuality. In 2006 that number was 92. Among these 69 countries, 44 of them criminalize not only male homosexuality but also female homosexuality. In 11 of them, homosexuality is punished with the death penalty.

Abrahamic religions (namely Judaism, Samaritanism, Christianity, the Baháʼí Faith, and Islam) have traditionally affirmed and endorsed a patriarchal and heteronormative approach towards human sexuality, favouring exclusively penetrative vaginal intercourse between men and women over all other forms of human sexual activity, including autoeroticism, masturbation, oral sex, non-penetrative and non-heterosexual sexual intercourse (all of which have been variously labeled as "sodomy"), believing and teaching that such behaviors are forbidden because they're considered sinful, and further compared to or derived from the behavior of the alleged residents of Sodom and Gomorrah. However, the status of LGBT people in early Christianity and early Islam is debated.

Judaism

Behold, this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom, pride, fullness of bread, and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters, neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy. And they were haughty, and committed abomination before me: therefore I took them away as I saw good.

KJV, Ezekiel 16:49–50).

Classical Jewish texts are seen by many as not stressing the homosexual aspect of the attitude of the inhabitants of Sodom as much as their cruelty and lack of hospitality to the "stranger". The 13th-century Jewish scholar, Nachmanides, wrote: “According to our sages, they were notorious for every evil, but their fate was sealed for their persistence in not supporting the poor and the needy.” His contemporary, Rabbenu Yonah, expresses the same view: “Scripture attributes their annihilation to their failure to practice tzedakah [charity or justice].” Prohibitions on same-sex activities among men (#157) and bestiality (#155–156) are among the 613 commandments as listed by Maimonides in the 12th century; however, their source in Leviticus 18 does not contain the word sodomy. The idea that homosexual intercourse was involved as at least a part of the evil of Sodom arises from the story in Genesis 19 (NIV):

Before they had gone to bed, all the men from every part of the city of Sodom – both young and old – surrounded the house. They called to Lot, "Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us so that we can have sex with them." (Gen.19:4–7 compare)

Christianity

The traditional interpretation sees the primary sin of Sodom as being homoerotic sexual acts, connecting the Sodom narrative with Leviticus 18, which lists various sexual crimes, which, according to verses 27 and 28, would result in the land being "defiled":

for the inhabitants of the land, who were before you, committed all of these abominations, and the land became defiled; otherwise the land will vomit you out for defiling it, as it vomited out the nation that was before you.

Some scholars, such as Per-Axel Sverker, align this passage with the traditional interpretation, claiming that the word abomination refers to sexual misconduct, and that while homoerotic acts were not the only reason Sodom and Gomorrah were condemned, it was a significant part of the picture.

Others, the earliest of whom was Derrick Sherwin Bailey, claim that this passage contradicts the traditional interpretation altogether. In their view, the sins of Sodom were related more to violation of hospitality laws than sexual sins. This also coincides with traditional Jewish interpretations of these texts as well.

The primary word in contention is the Hebrew word yâda, used for know in the Old Testament. Biblical scholars disagree on what "know" in this instance refers to, but most of conservative Christianity interprets it to mean "sexual intercourse," while the opposing position interprets it to mean "interrogate." Lot's offering of his two virgins has been interpreted to mean that Lot is offering a compromise to assure the crowd that the two men have no untoward intentions in town, or that he is offering his virgins as a substitute for the men to "know" by sexual intercourse.

Those who oppose the interpretation of sexual intent toward Lot's guests point out that there are over 930 occurrences of the Hebrew word (yâda‛) for "know" in the Old Testament, and its use to denote sexual intercourse only occurs about a dozen times, and in the Septuagint it is not rendered sexually. Countering this is the argument that most of the uses of yâda‛ denoting sex is in Genesis, (including once for premarital sex: Genesis 38:26), and in verse 8, sex the obvious meaning. Its use in the parallel story in Judges 19 is also invoked in support of this meaning, with it otherwise providing the only instance of "knowing" someone by violence.

Islam

While the Quran clearly disapproves of the sexual practices of the "people of Lot" ("What, of all creatures do ye come unto the males, and leave the wives your Lord created for you?"), only one passage has occasionally been interpreted as taking a particular legal position towards such activities:

"And as for those who are guilty of an indecency from among your women, call to witnesses against them four (witnesses) from among you; then if they bear witness confine them to the houses until death takes them away or Allah opens some way for them (15). And as for the two who are guilty of indecency from among you, give them both a punishment; then if they repent and amend, turn aside from them; surely Allah is oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful. (16)"[4:15–16 (Translated by Shakir)]

Most exegetes hold that these verses refer to illicit heterosexual relationships, although a minority view attributed to the Mu'tazilite scholar, Abu Muslim al-Isfahani, interpreted them as referring to homosexual relations. This view was widely rejected by medieval scholars, but has found some acceptance in modern times.

Hadith (reports of Muhammad's sayings and deeds from those close to him in his lifetime) on the subject are inconsistent, with different writers interpreting the Prophet in different ways. Shariah (Islamic law) defines sodomy outside marriage as adultery or fornication or both, and it thus attracts the same penalties as those crimes (flogging or death), although the exact punishment varies with schools and scholars. In practice, few modern Muslim countries have legal systems based fully on Shariah, and an increasing number of Muslims do not look to shariah but to the Quran itself for moral guidance. For sodomy within marriage, the majority of Shiite interpreters hold that: ⑴ anal intercourse, while strongly disliked, is not haram (forbidden) provided the wife agrees; and ⑵, if the wife does not agree, then it is preferable to refrain.

Despite the formal disapproval of religious authority, gender segregation in Muslim societies and the strong emphasis on virility leads some adolescents and unmarried young men to seek alternative sexual outlets to women, especially with males younger than themselves. Not all sodomy is homosexual – for some young men, heterosexual sodomy is considered better than vaginal penetration, and female prostitutes report demand for anal penetration from their male clients.

  1. These sub-national jurisdictions are: the province of Aceh (Indonesia), Marawi City (Philippines) the Cook Islands (New Zealand), Gaza (Palestine) and Chechnya (Russia).
Citations
  1. Shirelle Phelps (2001). World of Criminal Justice: N–Z. Gale Group. p. 686. ISBN 0787650730. RetrievedJanuary 13, 2014.
  2. John Scheb; John Scheb, II (2013). Criminal Law and Procedure. Cengage Learning. p. 185. ISBN 978-1285546131. RetrievedJanuary 13, 2014.
  3. David Newton (2009). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook, Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 978-1598843071. RetrievedJanuary 13, 2014.
  4. J. D. Douglas; Merrill C. Tenney (2011). Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary. Zondervan. pp. 1584 pages. ISBN 978-0310492351. RetrievedSeptember 21, 2013.
  5. Nicholas C. Edsall (2006). Toward Stonewall: Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World. University of Virginia Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN 0813925436. RetrievedSeptember 21, 2013.
  6. Colin Sumner (2008). The Blackwell Companion to Criminology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 310–320. ISBN 978-0470998953. RetrievedSeptember 21, 2013.
  7. Sullivan, Andrew (March 24, 2003). "Unnatural Law". The New Republic. Archived from the original on July 2, 2010. RetrievedNovember 27, 2009. Since the laws had rarely been enforced against heterosexuals, there was no sense of urgency about their repeal. (Or Sullivan, Andrew (2003-03-24). "Unnatural Law". The New Republic. Vol. 228 no. 11.)
  8. "Sodomy". myetymology.com. Archived from the original on 2012-09-16.
  9. "sodomy laws". Archived from the original on 2007-07-04.
  10. "Lawrence v. Texas in which The U.S. Supreme Court ruled 6–3 that sodomy laws are unconstitutional on June 26, 2003". cornell.edu. Archived from the original on 6 April 2018. Retrieved7 May 2018.
  11. "sod". Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary. Main Entry. Archived from the original on 2009-04-22. [3, noun]. Etymology: short for sodomite. Date: 1818.
  12. Soanes, Catherine; Hawker, Sara (2005). "sod2". Compact Oxford English Dictionary. ISBN 978-0-19-861022-9. Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. RetrievedJune 23, 2005. Origin: abbreviation of sodomite
  13. See Paragraph 175 StGB, version of June 28, 1935.
  14. "Sodomi". Ordbog over det danske Sprog.
  15. McCormick, Ian. Secret Sexualities: A Sourcebook of 17th and 18th Century Writing. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 9, 11.
  16. "buggery". Oxford English Dictionary.
  17. Bogomilism Study. Archived from the original on 2015-08-10.
  18. Boswell, pp. 92–98
  19. Anderson, Ray Sherman (2001), The shape of practical theology: empowering ministry with theological praxis, InterVarsity Press, p. 267, ISBN 978-0-8308-1559-3
  20. Jewett, Paul; Shuster, Marguerite (1996), Who we are: our dignity as human : a neo-evangelical theology, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, p. 296, ISBN 978-0-8028-4075-2
  21. Boswell, p. 97
  22. Albert Barnes' Notes on the Bible
  23. Vincent's Word Studies
  24. Commentary on the Old and New Testaments by Robert Jamieson, A. R. Fausset and David Brown
  25. Word pictures in the New Testament, Archibald Thomas Robertson
  26. Gill, Gn. 19
  27. The works of Philo a contemporary of Josephius Archived 2016-01-19 at the Wayback Machine p. 528
  28. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-12-16. Retrieved2009-12-31.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  29. trans. in Derrick Sherwin Bailey, Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition, (London: Longmans, Green, 1955), 73-74
  30. For the legal and cultural background in Republican and Imperial Rome prior to Christian rule, see Sexuality in ancient Rome and Lex Scantinia.
  31. Jewish philosopher, writing on the life of Abraham
  32. Commentary on the sin of Sodom
  33. Josephus, Antiquities, 1.11.1
  34. 33–34; ET Jonge 422–23
  35. Esler, Philip F. (Spring 2004). "The Sodom tradition in Romans". Biblical Theology Bulletin.
  36. Augustine of Hippo, Confessions. Commenting on the story of Sodom from Genesis 19
  37. "The Twelve Patriarchs, Excerpts and Epistles, The Clementia, Apocrypha, Decretals, Memoirs of Edessa and Syriac Documents, Remains of the First". www.ccel.org. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. ANF08.iii.xiv. Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved7 May 2018.
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  40. Legman, G. (1966). The Guilt of the Templars. New York: Basic Books. p. 11.
  41. W.A.P. (1911)."Templars" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  42. Oxford English Dictionary
  43. See The Oxford Dictionary of the Middle Ages (2010), p. 809 for some important points:
    • by sodomy was understood all homosexual activity, and not only anal intercourse;
    • by the later Middle Ages, civil courts were as much involved as ecclesiastical ones;
    • though accusations became frequent, the number of condemned remained low, and the number of executed very low.
  44. "Wisdom 19:13–14". KJV.
  45. Crimes tried at the Old Bailey Archived 2017-06-02 at the Wayback Machine, Proceedings of the Old Bailey online
  46. Zipporah Osei (24 May 2019). "An Author Learned of a Mortifying Research Mistake Live on the Radio. Here's How Twitter Reacted". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved24 May 2019. a death sentence was being recorded, not carried out, so a prisoner could instead have been pardoned and freed [...] the case of Thomas Silver, a 14-year-old she believed was sentenced to death for a homosexual act. Wolf said in the interview that she found several dozen similar “executions.” A newspaper report from the time, which Sweet presented to Wolf during the interview, shows that Silver was actually shown mercy because of his age [...] the 14-year-old was in fact convicted of sexually assaulting a young child.
  47. Rictor Norton, The Dutch Purge of Homosexuals 1730 Archived 2012-05-18 at the Wayback Machine
  48. "A history of London's Newgate prison". www.capitalpunishmentuk.org. Archived from the original on 4 November 2017. Retrieved7 May 2018.
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  50. Weeks, Jeff (1981). Sex, Politics and Society: The Regulation of Sexuality Since 1800. London: Longman Publishing Group. ISBN 0-582-48334-4.
  51. Shirelle Phelps (2001). World of Criminal Justice: N–Z. Gale Group. p. 686. ISBN 0787650730. Retrieved13 January 2014.
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  53. David Newton (2009). Gay and Lesbian Rights: A Reference Handbook, Second Edition. ABC-CLIO. p. 85. ISBN 978-1598843071. Retrieved13 January 2014.
  54. Sullivan, Andrew (24 March 2003). "Unnatural Law". The New Republic. Retrieved27 November 2009. Since the laws had rarely been enforced against heterosexuals, there was no sense of urgency about their repeal. (Or Sullivan, Andrew (24 March 2003). "Unnatural Law". The New Republic. Vol. 228 no. 11.)
  55. Mendos, Lucas Ramón (March 2019). "State-sponsored Homophobia"(PDF) (13th ed.). Geneva, Switzerland: International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association. Retrieved28 August 2021.
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  66. Murray, Stephen O. (1997). "The Will Not to Know: Islamic Accomodations of Male Homosexuality". In Murray, Stephen O.; Roscoe, Will (eds.). Islamic Homosexualities: Culture, History, and Literature. New York and London: NYU Press. pp. 14–54. doi:10.18574/9780814761083-022 (inactive 31 October 2021). ISBN 9780814774687. JSTOR j.ctt9qfmm4. OCLC 35526232. S2CID 141668547.CS1 maint: DOI inactive as of October 2021 (link)
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  75. A Reformed Response to Daniel Helminiak's Gay Theology, by Derrick K. Olliff and Dewey H. Hodges
  76. John J. McNeil, The Church and the Homosexual, p. 50
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Look up Sodomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up buggery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Sodomy
Sodomy Language Watch Edit Sodomy ˈ s ɒ d em i or buggery British English is generally anal or oral sex between people or sexual activity between a person and a non human animal bestiality but it may also mean any non procreative sexual activity 1 2 3 Originally the term sodomy which is derived from the story of Sodom and Gomorrah in the Book of Genesis 4 was commonly restricted to anal sex 5 6 Sodomy laws in many countries criminalized the behavior 6 In the Western world many of these laws have been overturned or are routinely not enforced 7 Francois Elluin Sodomites provoking the wrath of God from Le Pot Pourri de Loth 1781 Contents 1 Terminology 1 1 In modern English 1 2 Cognates in other languages 1 3 Religious and legal interpretation 1 4 Buggery 2 History 2 1 Hebrew Bible 2 2 Roman Empire period 2 2 1 New Testament 2 2 2 Epistle of Jude 2 2 3 Philo 2 2 4 Josephus 2 3 Medieval Christendom 2 4 Sodomy laws in 18th century Europe 3 Modern sodomy laws 4 Abrahamic religions 4 1 Judaism 4 2 Christianity 4 3 Islam 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 External linksTerminologyThe term is derived from the Ecclesiastical Latin peccatum Sodomiticum or sin of Sodom which in turn comes from the Ancient Greek word Sodoma Sodoma 8 Genesis chapters 18 20 tells how God wished to destroy the sinful cities of Sodom and Gomorrah Two angels are invited by Lot to take refuge with his family for the night The men of Sodom surround Lot s house and demand that he bring the messengers out so that they may know them the expression includes sexual connotations Lot protests that the messengers are his guests and offers the Sodomites his virgin daughters instead but then they threaten to do worse with Lot than they would with his guests Then the angels strike the Sodomites blind so that they wearied themselves to find the door Genesis 19 4 11 KJV In modern English In current usage the term is particularly used in law Laws prohibiting sodomy were seen frequently in past Jewish Christian and Islamic civilizations but the term has little modern usage outside Africa Asia and the United States 9 These laws in the United States have been challenged and have sometimes been found unconstitutional or been replaced with different legislation 10 The word sod a noun or verb to sod off used as an insult is derived from sodomite 11 12 It is a general purpose insult term for anyone the speaker dislikes without specific reference to their sexual behaviour Sod is used as slang in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth and is considered mildly offensive The word sod also has a meaning of clump of earth with an unrelated etymology in which sense it is rare but not offensive Cognates in other languages Many cognates in other languages such as French sodomie verb sodomiser Spanish sodomia verb sodomizar and Portuguese sodomia verb sodomizar are used exclusively for penetrative anal sex at least since the early nineteenth century In those languages the term is also often current vernacular not just legal unlike in other cultures and a formal way of referring to any practice of anal penetration the word sex is commonly associated with consent and pleasure with regard to all involved parties and often avoids directly mentioning two common aspects of social taboo human sexuality and the anus without a shunning or archaic connotation to its use In modern German the word Sodomie has no connotation of anal or oral sex and specifically refers to bestiality 13 The same goes for the Polish sodomia The Norwegian word sodomi carries both senses In Danish sodomi is rendered as unnatural carnal knowledge with someone of the same sex or now with animals 14 In Arabic and Persian the word for sodomy لواط Arabic pronunciation liwaṭ Persian pronunciation lavat is derived from the same source as in Western culture with much the same connotations as English referring to most sexual acts prohibited by the Qur an Its direct reference is to Lot لوط Luṭ in Arabic and a more literal interpretation of the word is the practice of Lot but more accurately it means the practice of Lot s people the Sodomites rather than Lot himself Religious and legal interpretation While religion and the law have had a fundamental role in the historical definition and punishment of sodomy sodomitical texts present considerable opportunities for ambiguity and interpretation Sodomy is both a real occurrence and an imagined category In the course of the eighteenth century what is identifiable as sodomy often becomes identified with effeminacy for example or in opposition to a discourse of manliness In this regard Ian McCormick has argued that an adequate and imaginative reading involves a series of intertextual interventions in which histories become stories fabrications and reconstructions in lively debate with and around dominant heterosexualities Deconstructing what we think we see may well involve reconstructing ourselves in surprising and unanticipated ways 15 Buggery The modern English word bugger is derived from the French term bougre that evolved from the Latin Bulgarus or Bulgarian The Catholic Church used the word to describe members of a religious sect known as the Bogomils who originated in medieval Bulgaria in the 10th Century and spread throughout Western Europe by the 15th century The Church used it as a term of offence against a group they considered heretical The first use of the word buggery appears in Middle English in 1330 where it is associated with abominable heresy though the sexual sense of bugger is not recorded until 1555 16 The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology quotes a similar form bowgard and bouguer but claims that the Bulgarians were heretics as belonging to the Greek Church sp Albigensian Webster s Third New International Dictionary gives the only meaning of the word bugger as a sodomite from the adherence of the Bulgarians to the Eastern Church considered heretical 17 Bugger is still commonly used in modern English as an exclamation while buggery is synonymous with the act of sodomy History The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah John Martin 1852 Hebrew Bible In the Hebrew Bible Sodom was a city destroyed by God because of the evil of its inhabitants No specific sin is given as the reason for God s great wrath The story of Sodom s destruction and of Abraham s failed attempt to intercede with God and prevent that destruction appears in Genesis 18 19 The connection between Sodom and homosexuality is derived from the described attempt by a mob of the city s people to rape Lot s male guests Some suggest the sinfulness for which Sodom was destroyed might have consisted mainly in the violation of obligations of hospitality which were important for the original writers of the Biblical account 18 In Judges 19 21 there is an account similar in many ways where Gibeah a city of the Benjamin tribe is destroyed by the other tribes of Israel in revenge for a mob of its inhabitants raping and killing a woman Neither view about why Sodom was destroyed takes into account the fact that its destruction was planned before the guests arrived in the city Genesis 18 17 Many times in the Pentateuch and Prophets writers use God s destruction of Sodom to demonstrate His awesome power This happens in Deuteronomy 29 Isaiah 1 3 and 13 Jeremiah 49 and 50 Lamentations 4 Amos 4 11 and Zephaniah 2 9 Deuteronomy 32 Jeremiah 23 14 and Lamentations 4 reference the sinfulness of Sodom but do not specify any particular sin Specific sins which Sodom is linked to by the prophets of the Old Testament are adultery and lying Jeremiah 23 14 In Ezekiel 16 a long comparison is made between Sodom and the kingdom of Judah Yet you have not merely walked in their ways or done according to their abominations but as if that were too little you acted more corruptly in all your conduct than they v 47 NASB Behold this was the guilt of your sister Sodom she and her daughters had arrogance abundant food and careless ease but she did not help the poor and needy Thus they were haughty and committed abominations before Me vss 49 50 NASB Note that the Hebrew for the word thus is the conjunction ו which is usually translated and therefore KJV NIV and CEV omit the word entirely There is no explicit mention of any sexual sin in Ezekiel s summation and abomination is used to describe many sins The Authorized King James Version translates Deuteronomy 23 17 as There shall be no whore of the daughters of Israel nor a sodomite of the sons of Israel but the word corresponding to sodomite in the Hebrew original Qadesh Hebrew קדש does not refer to Sodom and has been translated in the New International Version as shrine prostitute male shrine prostitutes may have served barren women in fertility rites rather than engaging in homosexual acts this also applies to other instances of the word sodomite in the King James Version 19 20 Roman Empire period New Testament The New Testament like the Old Testament references Sodom as a place of God s anger against sin but the Epistle of Jude provides a certain class of sin as causative of its destruction the meaning of which is disputed Jude 1 5 I will therefore put you in remembrance though ye once knew this how that the Lord having saved the people out of the land of Egypt afterward destroyed them that believed not 6 And the angels which kept not their first estate but left their own habitation he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day 7 Even as Sodom and Gomorrha and the cities about them in like manner giving themselves over to fornication and going after strange flesh are set forth for an example suffering the vengeance of eternal fire Authorized King James Version Compare Jude 1 7 in multiple versions The Greek word in the New Testament from which the phrase is translated giving themselves over to fornication is ekporneuō ek and porneuō As one word it is not used elsewhere in the New Testament but occurs in the Septuagint to denote whoredom Genesis 38 24 and Exodus 34 15 Some modern translations as the NIV render it as sexual immorality The Greek words for strange flesh are heteros which almost always basically denotes another other and sarx a common word for flesh and usually refers to the physical body or the nature of man or of an ordinance In the Christian expansion of the prophets they further linked Sodom to the sins of impenitence Matthew 11 23 careless living Luke 17 28 fornication Jude 1 7 KJV and an overall filthy lifestyle 2 Peter 2 7 which word aselgeiais elsewhere is rendered in the KJV as lasciviousness Mark 7 22 2 Corinthians 12 21 Ephesians 4 19 1 Peter 4 3 Jude 1 4 or wantonness Romans 13 13 2 Peter 2 18 Epistle of Jude The Epistle of Jude in the New Testament echoes the Genesis narrative and potentially adds the sexually immoral aspects of Sodom s sins just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the surrounding cities which likewise indulged in sexual immorality and pursued unnatural desire serve as an example by undergoing a punishment of eternal fire v 7 English Standard Version The phrase rendered sexual immorality and unnatural desire is translated strange flesh or false flesh but it is not entirely clear what it refers to One theory is that it is just a reference to the strange flesh of the intended rape victims who were angels not men 21 Countering this is traditional interpretation which notes that the angels were sent to investigate an ongoing regional problem Gn 18 of fornication and extraordinarily so that of a homosexual nature 22 23 out of the order of nature 24 Strange is understood to mean outside the moral law 25 Romans 7 3 Galatians 1 6 while it is doubted that either Lot or the men of Sodom understood that the strangers were angels at the time 26 Philo The Hellenistic Jewish philosopher Philo 20 BCE 50 CE described the inhabitants of Sodom in an extra biblical account As men being unable to bear discreetly a satiety of these things get restive like cattle and become stiff necked and discard the laws of nature pursuing a great and intemperate indulgence of gluttony and drinking and unlawful connections for not only did they go mad after other women and defile the marriage bed of others but also those who were men lusted after one another doing unseemly things and not regarding or respecting their common nature and though eager for children they were convicted by having only an abortive offspring but the conviction produced no advantage since they were overcome by violent desire and so by degrees the men became accustomed to be treated like women and in this way engendered among themselves the disease of females and intolerable evil for they not only as to effeminacy and delicacy became like women in their persons but they also made their souls most ignoble corrupting in this way the whole race of men as far as depended on them 133 35 ET Jonge 422 23 27 Josephus The Jewish historian Josephus used the term Sodomites in summarizing the Genesis narrative About this time the Sodomites grew proud on account of their riches and great wealth they became unjust towards men and impious towards God in so much that they did not call to mind the advantages they received from him they hated strangers and abused themselves with Sodomitical practices Now when the Sodomites saw the young men to be of beautiful countenances and this to an extraordinary degree and that they took up their lodgings with Lot they resolved themselves to enjoy these beautiful boys by force and violence and when Lot exhorted them to sobriety and not to offer any thing immodest to the strangers but to have regard to their lodging in his house and promised that if their inclinations could not be governed he would expose his daughters to their lust instead of these strangers neither thus were they made ashamed Antiquities 1 11 1 3 28 c 96CE His assessment goes beyond the Biblical data though it is seen by conservatives as defining what manner of fornication Jude 1 7 Sodom was given to citation needed Medieval Christendom Dante and Virgil interview the sodomites from Guido da Pisa it s commentary on the Commedia c 1345 The primarily sexual meaning of the word sodomia for Christians did not evolve before the 6th century AD citation needed Roman Emperor Justinian I in his novels no 77 dating 538 and no 141 dating 559 amended to his Corpus iuris civilis and declared that Sodom s sin had been specifically same sex activities and desire for them He also linked famines earthquakes and pestilences upon cities as being due to such crimes 29 during a time of recent earthquakes and other disasters see Extreme weather events of 535 536 While adhering to the death penalty by beheading as punishment for homosexuality or adultery Justinian s legal novels heralded a change in Roman legal paradigm 30 in that he introduced a concept of not only secular but also divine punishment for homosexual behavior citation needed Christians earlier than Justinian are also seen to denounce same sex relations St John Chrysostom in the 4th century regarded such relations as worse than murder in his fourth homily on Romans 1 26 27 1 while Paul the Apostle in the Epistle to the Romans referred to same sex relations as shameful lust and which acts were contrary to nature with men suffering a due penalty in their bodies Just like the Jews early Christians prior to Justinian I are not known to have used the word sodomia for the carnal sin they abhorred though Philo of Alexandria 20 BCE 50 CE 31 and Methodius of Olympus 260 312 32 attributed homosexual relations to Sodom as may have Josephus 37 c 100 33 34 35 Augustine of Hippo 354 430 36 and certain pseudepigraphacal texts 37 38 39 Justinian s interpretation of the story of Sodom might have been forgotten today as some who hold it had been along with his law novelizations regarding homosexual behavior immediately after his death had it not been made use of in fake Charlemagnian capitularies fabricated by a Frankish monk using the pseudonym Benedictus Levita Benedict the Levite around 850 CE as part of the Pseudo Isidore Benedict Levita s three capitularies particularly dealing with Justinian s interpretation of the story of Sodom were XXI De diversis malorum flagitiis No 21 On manifold disgraceful wrongs CXLIII De sceleribus nefandis ob quae regna percussa sunt ut penitus caveantur No 143 On sinful vices due to which empires have crumbled so that we shall do our best to beware of them CLX De patratoribus diversorum malorum No 160 On the perpetrators of manifold evil deeds Burning had been part of the standard penalty for homosexual behavior particularly common in Germanic protohistory as according to Germanic folklore sexual deviance and especially same sex desire were caused by a form of malevolence or spiritual evil called nith rendering those people characterized by it as non human fiends as nithings Benedictus Levita most probably was of the Germanic tribe of the Franks citation needed Benedictus Levita broadened the meaning for sodomy to all sexual acts not related to procreation that were therefore deemed counter nature so for instance even solitary masturbation and anal intercourse between a male and a female were covered while among these he still emphasized all interpersonal acts not taking place between human men and women especially homosexuality citation needed Monks accused of sodomy burned at the stake Ghent 1578 Benedictus Levita s rationale was that the punishment of such acts was in order to protect all Christianity from divine punishments such as natural disasters for carnal sins committed by individuals but also for heresy superstition and heathenry Because his crucial demands for capital punishment had been so unheard of in ecclesiastical history previously based upon the humane Christian concept of forgiveness and mercy it took several centuries before Benedictus Levita s demands for legal reform began to take tangible shape within larger ecclesiastical initiatives This came about with the Medieval Inquisition in 1184 The sects of Cathars and Waldensians were a common target and these heretics were not only persecuted for alleged satanism but were increasingly accused of fornication and sodomy In 1307 accusations of sodomy and homosexuality were major charges levelled during the Trial of the Knights Templar Some of these charges were specifically directed at the Grand Master of the order Jacques de Molay 40 It is this event which led into the medieval and early modern witch hunts that were also largely connoted with sodomy 41 Persecution of Cathars and the Bogomiles sect in Bulgaria led to the use of a term closely related to sodomy buggery derives from French bouggerie meaning of Bulgaria 42 The association of sodomy with hereticism satanism and witchcraft was supported by the Inquisition trials 43 The Book of Wisdom which is included in the Biblical canon by Orthodox and Roman Catholics but excluded by modern Jews Protestants and other Christian denominations makes reference to the story of Sodom further emphasizing that their sin had been failing to practice hospitality And punishments came upon the sinners not without former signs by the force of thunders for they suffered justly according to their own wickedness insomuch as they used a more hard and hateful behavior toward strangers For the Sodomites did not receive those whom they knew not when they came but these brought friends into bondage that had well deserved of them KJV 44 Sodomy laws in 18th century Europe This section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed April 2010 Learn how and when to remove this template message A wanted poster published in the city of Amsterdam in 1730 accusing ten men of the abominable crime of sodomy de verfoeyelyke Crimen van Sodomie An examination of trials for rape and sodomy during the 18th century at the Old Bailey in London shows that the treatment of rape was often lenient while the treatment of sodomy was often severe However the difficulty of proving that penetration and ejaculation had occurred meant that men were often convicted of the lesser charge of assault with sodomitical intent which was not a capital offence 45 Sodomy crimes in England could mean sexually assaulting a young child and could result in a sentence of death recorded i e not an actual death sentence at all 46 In 18th century France sodomy was still theoretically a capital crime and there are a handful of cases where sodomites were executed However in several of these other crimes were involved as well Records from the Bastille and the police lieutenant d Argenson as well as other sources show that many who were arrested were exiled sent to a regiment or imprisoned in places generally the hospital associated with moral crimes such as prostitution Of these a number were involved in prostitution or had approached children or otherwise gone beyond merely having homosexual relations Ravaisson a 19th century writer who edited the Bastille records suggested that the authorities preferred to handle these cases discreetly lest public punishments in effect publicize this vice citation needed Periodicals of the time sometimes casually named known sodomites and at one point even suggested that sodomy was increasingly popular This does not imply that sodomites necessarily lived in security specific police agents for instance watched the Tuileries even then a known cruising area But as with much sexual behaviour under the Old Regime discretion was a key concern on all sides especially since members of prominent families were sometimes implicated the law seemed most concerned with those who were the least discreet citation needed In 1730 there was a wave of sodomy trials in the Netherlands some 250 men were summoned before the authorities 91 faced decrees of exile for not appearing At least 60 men were sentenced to death 47 The last two Englishmen that were hanged for sodomy were executed in 1835 James Pratt and John Smith died in front of Newgate Prison in London on 27 November 1835 48 or 8 April 1835 49 They had been prosecuted under the Offences against the Person Act 1828 which had replaced the 1533 Buggery Act Modern sodomy lawsMain article Sodomy law Laws criminalizing sodomy rarely spell out precise sexual acts but are typically understood by courts to include any sexual act deemed to be unnatural or immoral 50 Sodomy typically includes anal sex oral sex and bestiality 51 52 53 In practice sodomy laws have rarely been enforced against heterosexual couples and have mostly been used to target homosexuals 54 Queer anarchists protesting against homophobia with banner reading Sodomize on 11 October 2009 As of June 2019 69 countries as well as five sub national jurisdictions a have laws criminalizing homosexuality 55 In 2006 that number was 92 56 Among these 69 countries 44 of them criminalize not only male homosexuality but also female homosexuality In 11 of them homosexuality is punished with the death penalty 55 Abrahamic religionsAbrahamic religions namely Judaism Samaritanism Christianity the Bahaʼi Faith and Islam have traditionally affirmed and endorsed a patriarchal and heteronormative approach towards human sexuality 57 favouring exclusively penetrative vaginal intercourse between men and women over all other forms of human sexual activity 57 including autoeroticism masturbation oral sex non penetrative and non heterosexual sexual intercourse all of which have been variously labeled as sodomy believing and teaching that such behaviors are forbidden because they re considered sinful 57 and further compared to or derived from the behavior of the alleged residents of Sodom and Gomorrah 57 58 59 60 61 However the status of LGBT people in early Christianity 62 63 64 and early Islam 65 66 67 is debated Judaism Behold this was the iniquity of thy sister Sodom pride fullness of bread and abundance of idleness was in her and in her daughters neither did she strengthen the hand of the poor and needy And they were haughty and committed abomination before me therefore I took them away as I saw good KJV Ezekiel 16 49 50 Classical Jewish texts are seen by many as not stressing the homosexual aspect of the attitude of the inhabitants of Sodom as much as their cruelty and lack of hospitality to the stranger 68 The 13th century Jewish scholar Nachmanides wrote According to our sages they were notorious for every evil but their fate was sealed for their persistence in not supporting the poor and the needy His contemporary Rabbenu Yonah expresses the same view Scripture attributes their annihilation to their failure to practice tzedakah charity or justice 69 Prohibitions on same sex activities among men 157 and bestiality 155 156 are among the 613 commandments as listed by Maimonides in the 12th century however their source in Leviticus 18 does not contain the word sodomy The idea that homosexual intercourse was involved as at least a part of the evil of Sodom arises from the story in Genesis 19 NIV Before they had gone to bed all the men from every part of the city of Sodom both young and old surrounded the house They called to Lot Where are the men who came to you tonight Bring them out to us so that we can have sex with them Gen 19 4 7 compare Christianity The traditional interpretation sees the primary sin of Sodom as being homoerotic sexual acts 70 71 connecting the Sodom narrative with Leviticus 18 which lists various sexual crimes which according to verses 27 and 28 would result in the land being defiled for the inhabitants of the land who were before you committed all of these abominations and the land became defiled otherwise the land will vomit you out for defiling it as it vomited out the nation that was before you Some scholars such as Per Axel Sverker align this passage with the traditional interpretation claiming that the word abomination refers to sexual misconduct and that while homoerotic acts were not the only reason Sodom and Gomorrah were condemned it was a significant part of the picture Others the earliest of whom was Derrick Sherwin Bailey claim that this passage contradicts the traditional interpretation altogether In their view the sins of Sodom were related more to violation of hospitality laws than sexual sins 72 This also coincides with traditional Jewish interpretations of these texts as well 73 The primary word in contention is the Hebrew word yada used for know in the Old Testament Biblical scholars disagree on what know in this instance refers to but most of conservative Christianity interprets it to mean sexual intercourse 74 75 while the opposing position interprets it to mean interrogate 76 Lot s offering of his two virgins has been interpreted to mean that Lot is offering a compromise to assure the crowd that the two men have no untoward intentions in town or that he is offering his virgins as a substitute for the men to know by sexual intercourse Those who oppose the interpretation of sexual intent toward Lot s guests point out that there are over 930 occurrences of the Hebrew word yada for know in the Old Testament and its use to denote sexual intercourse only occurs about a dozen times and in the Septuagint it is not rendered sexually Countering this is the argument that most of the uses of yada denoting sex is in Genesis 77 including once for premarital sex Genesis 38 26 and in verse 8 sex the obvious meaning Its use in the parallel story in Judges 19 is also invoked in support of this meaning 78 79 with it otherwise providing the only instance of knowing someone by violence Islam While the Quran clearly disapproves of the sexual practices of the people of Lot What of all creatures do ye come unto the males and leave the wives your Lord created for you 80 only one passage has occasionally been interpreted as taking a particular legal position towards such activities 81 And as for those who are guilty of an indecency from among your women call to witnesses against them four witnesses from among you then if they bear witness confine them to the houses until death takes them away or Allah opens some way for them 15 And as for the two who are guilty of indecency from among you give them both a punishment then if they repent and amend turn aside from them surely Allah is oft returning to mercy the Merciful 16 4 15 16 Translated by Shakir Most exegetes hold that these verses refer to illicit heterosexual relationships although a minority view attributed to the Mu tazilite scholar Abu Muslim al Isfahani interpreted them as referring to homosexual relations This view was widely rejected by medieval scholars but has found some acceptance in modern times 82 Hadith reports of Muhammad s sayings and deeds from those close to him in his lifetime on the subject are inconsistent with different writers interpreting the Prophet in different ways 83 Shariah Islamic law defines sodomy outside marriage as adultery or fornication or both and it thus attracts the same penalties as those crimes flogging or death although the exact punishment varies with schools and scholars 84 In practice few modern Muslim countries have legal systems based fully on Shariah and an increasing number of Muslims do not look to shariah but to the Quran itself for moral guidance 84 For sodomy within marriage the majority of Shiite interpreters hold that anal intercourse while strongly disliked is not haram forbidden provided the wife agrees and if the wife does not agree then it is preferable to refrain 85 Despite the formal disapproval of religious authority gender segregation in Muslim societies and the strong emphasis on virility leads some adolescents and unmarried young men to seek alternative sexual outlets to women especially with males younger than themselves 86 Not all sodomy is homosexual for some young men heterosexual sodomy is considered better than vaginal penetration and female prostitutes report demand for anal penetration from their male clients 87 See alsoHomosexuality and Christianity Prison rape Religion and sexuality The Bible and homosexuality Javed Iqbal serial killer pakistani man wrongfully convicted of sodomyNotes These sub national jurisdictions are the province of Aceh Indonesia Marawi City Philippines the Cook Islands New Zealand Gaza Palestine and Chechnya Russia ReferencesCitations Shirelle Phelps 2001 World of Criminal Justice N Z Gale Group p 686 ISBN 0787650730 Retrieved January 13 2014 John Scheb John Scheb II 2013 Criminal Law and Procedure Cengage Learning p 185 ISBN 978 1285546131 Retrieved January 13 2014 David Newton 2009 Gay and Lesbian Rights A Reference Handbook Second Edition ABC CLIO p 85 ISBN 978 1598843071 Retrieved January 13 2014 J D Douglas Merrill C Tenney 2011 Zondervan Illustrated Bible Dictionary Zondervan pp 1584 pages ISBN 978 0310492351 Retrieved September 21 2013 Nicholas C Edsall 2006 Toward Stonewall Homosexuality and Society in the Modern Western World University of Virginia Press pp 3 4 ISBN 0813925436 Retrieved September 21 2013 a b Colin Sumner 2008 The Blackwell Companion to Criminology John Wiley amp Sons pp 310 320 ISBN 978 0470998953 Retrieved September 21 2013 Sullivan Andrew March 24 2003 Unnatural Law The New Republic Archived from the original on July 2 2010 Retrieved November 27 2009 Since the laws had rarely been enforced against heterosexuals there was no sense of urgency about their repeal Or Sullivan Andrew 2003 03 24 Unnatural Law The New Republic Vol 228 no 11 Sodomy myetymology com Archived from the original on 2012 09 16 sodomy laws Archived from the original on 2007 07 04 Lawrence v Texas in which The U S Supreme Court ruled 6 3 that sodomy laws are unconstitutional on June 26 2003 cornell edu Archived from the original on 6 April 2018 Retrieved 7 May 2018 sod Merriam Webster s Online Dictionary Main Entry Archived from the original on 2009 04 22 3 noun Etymology short for sodomite Date 1818 Soanes Catherine Hawker Sara 2005 sod2 Compact Oxford English Dictionary ISBN 978 0 19 861022 9 Archived from the original on May 17 2008 Retrieved June 23 2005 Origin abbreviation of sodomite See Paragraph 175 StGB version of June 28 1935 Sodomi Ordbog over det danske Sprog McCormick Ian Secret Sexualities A Sourcebook of 17th and 18th Century Writing London New York Routledge pp 9 11 buggery Oxford English Dictionary Bogomilism Study Archived from the original on 2015 08 10 Boswell pp 92 98 Anderson Ray Sherman 2001 The shape of practical theology empowering ministry with theological praxis InterVarsity Press p 267 ISBN 978 0 8308 1559 3 Jewett Paul Shuster Marguerite 1996 Who we are our dignity as human a neo evangelical theology Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 296 ISBN 978 0 8028 4075 2 Boswell p 97 Albert Barnes Notes on the Bible Vincent s Word Studies Commentary on the Old and New Testaments by Robert Jamieson A R Fausset and David Brown Word pictures in the New Testament Archibald Thomas Robertson Gill Gn 19 The works of Philo a contemporary of Josephius Archived 2016 01 19 at the Wayback Machine p 528 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2009 12 16 Retrieved 2009 12 31 CS1 maint archived copy as title link trans in Derrick Sherwin Bailey Homosexuality and the Western Christian Tradition London Longmans Green 1955 73 74 For the legal and cultural background in Republican and Imperial Rome prior to Christian rule see Sexuality in ancient Rome and Lex Scantinia Jewish philosopher writing on the life of Abraham Commentary on the sin of Sodom Josephus Antiquities 1 11 1 33 34 ET Jonge 422 23 Esler Philip F Spring 2004 The Sodom tradition in Romans Biblical Theology Bulletin Augustine of Hippo Confessions Commenting on the story of Sodom from Genesis 19 The Twelve Patriarchs Excerpts and Epistles The Clementia Apocrypha Decretals Memoirs of Edessa 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accusations became frequent the number of condemned remained low and the number of executed very low Wisdom 19 13 14 KJV Crimes tried at the Old Bailey Archived 2017 06 02 at the Wayback Machine Proceedings of the Old Bailey online Zipporah Osei 24 May 2019 An Author Learned of a Mortifying Research Mistake Live on the Radio Here s How Twitter Reacted The Chronicle of Higher Education Retrieved 24 May 2019 a death sentence was being recorded not carried out so a prisoner could instead have been pardoned and freed the case of Thomas Silver a 14 year old she believed was sentenced to death for a homosexual act Wolf said in the interview that she found several dozen similar executions A newspaper report from the time which Sweet presented to Wolf during the interview shows that Silver was actually shown mercy because of his age the 14 year old was in fact convicted of sexually assaulting a young child Rictor Norton The Dutch Purge of Homosexuals 1730 Archived 2012 05 18 at the Wayback 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Sodom Inhospitality or Homosexuality by Dave Miller Ph D Apologetics Press Dr James B DeYoung Homosexuality pp 118 122 Sura 26 165 167 quoted in Wafer p 88 Wafer Jim 1997 Muhammad and Male Homosexuality In Stephen O Murray and Will Roscoe ed Islamic Homosexualities Culture History and Literature New York University Press p 88 ISBN 9780814774687 Retrieved 24 July 2010 Everett K Rowson 2006 Homosexuality In Jane Dammen McAuliffe ed Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾan 2 Brill pp 444 445 Wafer p 89 a b Jivraj amp de Jong p 2 Chapter Three The Islamic Sexual Morality 2 Its Structure Al Islam org Archived from the original on 16 October 2013 Retrieved 7 May 2018 Schmitt amp Sofer p 36 Dialmy pp 32 35 footnote 34 BibliographyBoswell John Christianity Social Tolerance and Homosexuality University Of Chicago Press 8th Edition edition 2005 Crompton Louis Homosexuality and Civilization Belknap Press 2003 Dialmy Abdessamad 2010 Which Sex Education for Young Muslims World Congress of Muslim Philanthropists Davenport Hines Richard Sex Death and Punishment Attitudes to sex and sexuality in Britain since the Renaissance William Collins and Sons Ltd 1990 Hays Richard B 2004 The Moral Vision of the New Testament London Continuum pg 381 Goldberg Jonathan Reclaiming Sodom London and New York Routledge 1994 Jahangir Junaid bin 2010 Implied Cases for Muslim Same Sex Unions In Samar Habib ed Islam and homosexuality Volume 2 ABC CLIO ISBN 9780313379055 Jordan Mark D The Invention of Sodomy in Christian Theology Chicago University of Chicago Press 1998 Laqueur Thomas Making Sex Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud Harvard University Press 1990 Maccubbin Robert Purks ed Tis Nature s Fault Unauthorized Sexuality During the Enlightenment Cambridge University Press 1988 McCormick Ian ed Secret Sexualities A Sourcebook of 17th and 18th Century Writing London and New York Routledge Schmitt Arno Sofer Jehoeda 1992 Sexuality and Eroticism among Males in Muslim Societies Haworth Press ISBN 9781560240471 Schmitt Arno 2001 2002 Liwat im Fiqh Mannliche Homosexualitat Volume IV Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies Archived from the original on 2011 09 06 Van Jivraj Suhraiya de Jong Anisa 2001 Muslim Moral Instruction on Homosexuality Yoesuf Foundation Conference on Islam in the West and Homosexuality Strategies for Action Wafer Jim 1997 Mohammad and Male Homosexuality In Stephen O Murray Will Roscoe eds Islamic Homosexualities Culture History and Literature New York University Press ISBN 9780814774687 External linksLook up Sodomy in Wiktionary the free dictionary Look up buggery in Wiktionary the free dictionary Sodomy by Prof Eugene F Rice Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sodomy amp oldid 1054127186, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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