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Sumbawa

Sumbawa is an Indonesian island, located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain, with Lombok to the west, Flores to the east, and Sumba further to the southeast. Along with Lombok, it forms the province of West Nusa Tenggara, but there have been plans by the Indonesian government to split the island off into a separate province. Traditionally, the island is known as the source of sappanwood, as well as honey and sandalwood. Its savanna-like climate and vast grasslands are used to breed horses and cattle, as well as to hunt deer.

Sumbawa
Sumbawa
Geography
LocationSouth East Asia
Coordinates8°47′S118°5′E /8.783°S 118.083°E /-8.783; 118.083Coordinates: 8°47′S118°5′E /8.783°S 118.083°E /-8.783; 118.083
ArchipelagoLesser Sunda Islands
Area15,414.50 km2 (5,951.57 sq mi)
Area rank57th
Highest elevation2,850 m (9350 ft)
Highest pointMount Tambora
Administration
Indonesia
ProvinceWest Nusa Tenggara
Demographics
Population1,561,461 (2020 Census)
Pop. density101.30/km2 (262.37/sq mi)
Ethnic groupsSumbawa people, Bima people
The caldera of Mt Tambora, 2011

Sumbawa has an area (including minor offshore islands) of 15,414.50 square kilometres or 5,951.57 square miles (three times the size of Lombok) with a population (at the 2020 Census) of 1,561,461. It marks the boundary between the islands to the west, which were influenced by religion and culture spreading from India, and the region to the east that was less influenced. In particular this applies to both Hinduism and Islam.

Contents

The 14th-century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa; Dompu, Bima, Sape and one on the Sang Hyang Api island just off the coast of northeast Sumbawa. Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java. Because of Sumbawa's natural resources, it was regularly invaded by outside forces – from the Javanese, Balinese, Makassar, to the Dutch and Japanese. The Dutch first arrived in 1605, but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century.

For a short period of time, the Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled a part of western Sumbawa. The eastern parts of the island, on the other hand, were home to the Sultanate of Bima, an Islamic polity that had links to the Bugis and Makassar peoples of South Sulawesi, as well as other Malay-Islamic polities in the archipelago.

Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey, horses, sappanwood, which is used to make red dye, and sandalwood, which is used for incense and medications. The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally.

In the 18th century, the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora, a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa, thus creating the Tambora coffee variant. Tambora's colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time, ejecting 160 cubic kilometres (38 cu mi) of ash and debris into the atmosphere. The eruption killed up to 71,000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the "Year Without a Summer" in 1816. It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Papuan affinity, known to archaeologists as the "Tambora culture".

Sumbawa is administratively divided into four regencies (kabupaten) and one kota (city). They are:

Name Capital Area
(km2)
Population
2010
Census
Population
2015
Census
Population
2020
Census
Bima City Bima 207.50 142,579 159,445 155,140 0.722 (High)
Bima Regency Woha 4,389.40 439,228 468,201 514,105 0.626 (Medium)
Dompu Regency Dompu 2,324.60 218,973 238,061 236,665 0.635 (Medium)
Sumbawa Regency Sumbawa Besar 6,643.98 415,789 440,730 509,753 0.628 (Medium)
West Sumbawa Regency
(Sumbawa Barat)
Taliwang 1,849.02 114,951 133,054 145,798 0.671 (Medium)
Total Sumbawa 15,414.50 1,331,520 1,439,491 1,561,461

The Indonesian Government is currently considering the division of Nusu Tenggara Barat Province to create a separate Sumbawa Island province. There is no information as to whether the remaining part of the present province (i.e. the districts comprising Lombok Island) would then be renamed.

Islam, the dominant faith of the island, was introduced by the Makassarese of Sulawesi.

Sumbawa had, historically speaking, three major linguistic groups who spoke languages that were unintelligible to each other. One group centered in the western side of the island speaks Basa Semawa (Indonesian: Bahasa Sumbawa) which is similar to the Sasak language from nearby Lombok; the second group in the east speaks Nggahi Mbojo (Bahasa Bima). They were once separated by the Tambora culture, which spoke a language related to neither. After the demise of Tambora due to the 1815 eruption, local kingdoms based in Sumbawa Besar and Bima became the two focal points of Sumbawa. This division of the island into two parts remains today; Sumbawa Besar and Bima are the two largest towns on the island, and are the centers of distinct cultural groups that share the island.

The population of the island (including minor outlying islands) was 1.56 million at the latest decennial census in 2020, comprising 29.46% of the population of the entire Province of West Nusa Tenggara's 5.32 million people. Due to lack of work opportunities on the island and its frequent droughts, many people on the island seek work in the Middle East as laborers or domestic servants; some 500,000 workers, or over 10% of the population of West Nusa Tenggara, have left the country to work overseas.

Beach on Moyo Island, North Sumbawa 2012

The island is bounded by bodies of water; to the west is Alas Strait, south is the Indian Ocean, Saleh Bay creates a major north-central indentation in the island, and the Flores Sea runs the length of the northern coastline. The Sape Strait lies to the east of the island and separates Sumbawa from Flores and the Komodo Islands, there are a number bays and gulfs, most notably Bima Bay, Cempi Bay, and Waworada Bay.

Sumbawa's most distinguishing features are Saleh Bay and the Sanggar Peninsula. On the latter stands Mount Tambora (8°14’41”S, 117°59’35”E), a large stratovolcano famous for its VEI 7 eruption in 1815, one of only a few eruptions of such magnitude in the last 2,000 years. The eruption obliterated most of Tambora's summit, reducing its height by about a third and leaving a six kilometer-wide caldera. Regardless, Tambora remains the highest point on the island. Highlands rise in four spots on the island, as well as on Sangeang Island. The large western lobe of Sumbawa is dominated by a large central highland, and Tambora, Dompu and Bima each have more minor highlands.

There are a number of large surrounding islands, most notably are Moyo Island, volcanically active Sangeang Island, and the tourist Komodo Islands (administered under Flores) to the east.

Sumbawa is part of the Lesser Sundas deciduous forests ecoregion.

List of offshore islands

There are a number of smaller offshore islands which fall within the regencies based on Sumbawa Island:

  • West Sumbawa Regency
    • Susait
    • Dua
    • Belang
    • Songi
    • Ular
    • Kenawa
    • Natano
  • Sumbawa Besar Regency
  • Saleh Bay, Sumbawa Besar Regency
    • Moyo Island
    • Dangar Besar
    • Liang
    • Ngali
    • Tengar
    • Kelapang
    • Dompo
    • Takebo
    • Paming
    • Lipa
    • Rakit
  • Dompu Regency
    • P. Besar
    • P. Nisa Pudu
    • P. Nisa Rate

We want to say that there has been a decline, but a slow decline. There is no seriousness from the government. (In reference to around 20 children dying from malnutrition on Sumbawa in October, 2012) —Ida, Alliance of Prosperous Villages (ADS)
Batu hijau mine, 2006

Many of the island residents are at risk of starvation when crops fail due to lack of rainfall.[citation needed] The majority of the population works in agriculture. Tourism is just beginning, with a few surf spots renowned for being world class, Jelenga and Supersuck Beaches near the mine, as well as Hu'u and Lakey Beach in the Gulf of Cempi.

Newmont Mine

A large gold and copper mine, Newmont Mining Corporation's Batu Hijau mine began commercial operations in 2000, a decade after the copper and gold were discovered. Newmont holds a 45% stake in the operation through its shareholding in PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara. A local unit of Japan's Sumitomo Corporation has a 35% share. The mine is located in southwest Sumbawa.

Due to the mine, Sumbawa Barat Regency along with other remote mining towns, and Jakarta, have the highest GDP per capita rates in Indonesia, Sumbawa Barat's is 156.25 million rupiah (US$17,170) as of 2010[update], Newmont and its partners have invested about $1.9 billion in the mine. The reserves are expected to last until 2034, making Batu Hijau one of the largest copper mines in the world.

Harbour of Poto Tano

There is a road network in Sumbawa, but it is poorly maintained and has long portions of rough gravel. Frequent ferry service to Sumbawa (Poto Tano) from Lombok (Labuhan Lombok) exists, however ferry service to Flores from Sape is infrequent. Bima is the largest city on Sumbawa and has ferry and bus service directly to Java and Bali, though service breakdowns are common.

The most convenient way to reach Sumbawa is via air. There are commercial flight service connected island's main airport, the Bima airport, to Denpasar and Makassar.

  1. Jakarta Post, 14 November 2013
  2. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  3. Jong Boers, B.D. de (2007), ‘The ‘Arab’ of the Indonesian Archipelago: The Famed Horse Breeds of Sumbawa’ in: Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart (eds), Breeds of Empire: The ‘invention’ of the horse in Southern Africa and Maritime Southeast Asia, 1500–1950. Copenhagen: NIAS Press, pp 51–64.
  4. Jong Boers, B.D. de (1997), "Sustainability and time perspective in natural resource management: The exploitation of sappan trees in the forests of Sumbawa, Indonesia (1500–1875)" in: Peter Boomgaard, Freek Colombijn en David Henley (eds), Paper landscapes; Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia. Leiden: KITLV Press, pp. 260–281.
  5. Donohue, Mark (2008-01-03). "The Papuan Language of Tambora". Oceanic Linguistics. 46 (2): 520–537. doi:10.1353/ol.2008.0014. ISSN 1527-9421.
  6. Roach, John (February 27, 2006). ""Lost Kingdom" Discovered on Volcanic Island in Indonesia". National Geographic News. National Geographic Society. Retrieved13 April 2018.
  7. Officials support new province for Sumbawa | The Jakarta Post
  8. "Indonesia (Urban City Population): Provinces & Cities - Statistics & Maps on City Population". Citypopulation.de. Retrieved15 September 2014.
  9. "Local Government Asks People to Be Careful of Drought Hazard Threats". Gaung NTB. March 30, 2010. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012.
  10. Frode F. Jacobsen (2009). Hadrami Arabs in Present-day Indonesia: An Indonesia-oriented Group with an Arab Signature. Routledge. p. 30. ISBN 978-1-134-01852-9.
  11. "Warum wird diese Seite angezeigt?". Informationsphere.com. Retrieved18 November 2014.
  12. West Nusa Tenggara Map, Provincial Tourism and Cultural Office, West Nusa Tenggara, 2008
  13. "Malnourishment 'Not Taken Seriously' as 20 Kids Die in Indonesia's NTB". Jakarta Globe. Jakarta. 2012-10-17. Retrieved2012-10-21.
  14. [1] Archived October 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine
  15. "Perkembangan Beberapa Indikator, Utama Sosial-Ekonomi, Indonesia"(PDF). Bps.go.id. Retrieved18 November 2014.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSumbawa.

Sumbawa
Sumbawa Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Soembawa Sumbawa is an Indonesian island located in the middle of the Lesser Sunda Islands chain with Lombok to the west Flores to the east and Sumba further to the southeast Along with Lombok it forms the province of West Nusa Tenggara but there have been plans by the Indonesian government to split the island off into a separate province 1 Traditionally the island is known as the source of sappanwood as well as honey and sandalwood Its savanna like climate and vast grasslands are used to breed horses and cattle as well as to hunt deer SumbawaSumbawaGeographyLocationSouth East AsiaCoordinates8 47 S 118 5 E 8 783 S 118 083 E 8 783 118 083 Coordinates 8 47 S 118 5 E 8 783 S 118 083 E 8 783 118 083ArchipelagoLesser Sunda IslandsArea15 414 50 km2 5 951 57 sq mi Area rank57thHighest elevation2 850 m 9350 ft Highest pointMount TamboraAdministrationIndonesiaProvinceWest Nusa TenggaraDemographicsPopulation1 561 461 2020 Census Pop density101 30 km2 262 37 sq mi Ethnic groupsSumbawa people Bima peopleThe caldera of Mt Tambora 2011 Sumbawa has an area including minor offshore islands of 15 414 50 square kilometres or 5 951 57 square miles three times the size of Lombok with a population at the 2020 Census of 1 561 461 2 It marks the boundary between the islands to the west which were influenced by religion and culture spreading from India and the region to the east that was less influenced In particular this applies to both Hinduism and Islam Contents 1 History 2 Administration 3 Demographics 4 Geography 4 1 List of offshore islands 5 Economy 5 1 Newmont Mine 6 Transport 7 References 8 External linksHistory EditThe 14th century Nagarakretagama mentioned several principalities identified to be on Sumbawa Dompu Bima Sape and one on the Sang Hyang Api island just off the coast of northeast Sumbawa Four principalities in western Sumbawa were dependencies of the Majapahit Empire of eastern Java Because of Sumbawa s natural resources it was regularly invaded by outside forces from the Javanese Balinese Makassar to the Dutch and Japanese The Dutch first arrived in 1605 but did not effectively rule Sumbawa until the early 20th century For a short period of time the Balinese kingdom of Gelgel ruled a part of western Sumbawa The eastern parts of the island on the other hand were home to the Sultanate of Bima an Islamic polity that had links to the Bugis and Makassar peoples of South Sulawesi as well as other Malay Islamic polities in the archipelago Historical evidence indicates that people on Sumbawa island were known in the East Indies for their honey horses 3 sappanwood which is used to make red dye 4 and sandalwood which is used for incense and medications The area was thought to be highly productive agriculturally In the 18th century the Dutch introduced coffee plantation on the western slopes of Mount Tambora a volcano on the north side of Sumbawa thus creating the Tambora coffee variant Tambora s colossal eruption in 1815 was one of the most powerful of all time ejecting 160 cubic kilometres 38 cu mi of ash and debris into the atmosphere The eruption killed up to 71 000 people and triggered a period of global cooling known as the Year Without a Summer in 1816 It also apparently destroyed a small culture of Papuan 5 affinity known to archaeologists as the Tambora culture 6 Administration EditSumbawa is administratively divided into four regencies kabupaten and one kota city They are Name Capital Area km2 Population 2010 Census Population 2015 Census Population 2020 CensusBima City Bima 207 50 142 579 159 445 155 140 0 722 High Bima Regency Woha 4 389 40 439 228 468 201 514 105 0 626 Medium Dompu Regency Dompu 2 324 60 218 973 238 061 236 665 0 635 Medium Sumbawa Regency Sumbawa Besar 6 643 98 415 789 440 730 509 753 0 628 Medium West Sumbawa Regency Sumbawa Barat Taliwang 1 849 02 114 951 133 054 145 798 0 671 Medium Total Sumbawa 15 414 50 1 331 520 1 439 491 1 561 461 The Indonesian Government is currently considering the division of Nusu Tenggara Barat Province to create a separate Sumbawa Island province 7 There is no information as to whether the remaining part of the present province i e the districts comprising Lombok Island would then be renamed Demographics EditIslam the dominant faith of the island was introduced by the Makassarese of Sulawesi Sumbawa had historically speaking three major linguistic groups who spoke languages that were unintelligible to each other One group centered in the western side of the island speaks Basa Semawa Indonesian Bahasa Sumbawa which is similar to the Sasak language from nearby Lombok the second group in the east speaks Nggahi Mbojo Bahasa Bima They were once separated by the Tambora culture which spoke a language related to neither After the demise of Tambora due to the 1815 eruption local kingdoms based in Sumbawa Besar and Bima became the two focal points of Sumbawa This division of the island into two parts remains today Sumbawa Besar and Bima are the two largest towns on the island and are the centers of distinct cultural groups that share the island The population of the island including minor outlying islands was 1 56 million at the latest decennial census in 2020 comprising 29 46 2 of the population of the entire Province of West Nusa Tenggara s 5 32 million people 8 Due to lack of work opportunities on the island and its frequent droughts 9 many people on the island seek work in the Middle East as laborers or domestic servants some 500 000 workers or over 10 of the population of West Nusa Tenggara have left the country to work overseas 10 Geography Edit Beach on Moyo Island North Sumbawa 2012 The island is bounded by bodies of water to the west is Alas Strait south is the Indian Ocean Saleh Bay creates a major north central indentation in the island and the Flores Sea runs the length of the northern coastline The Sape Strait lies to the east of the island and separates Sumbawa from Flores and the Komodo Islands there are a number bays and gulfs most notably Bima Bay Cempi Bay and Waworada Bay Sumbawa s most distinguishing features are Saleh Bay and the Sanggar Peninsula On the latter stands Mount Tambora 8 14 41 S 117 59 35 E a large stratovolcano famous for its VEI 7 eruption in 1815 one of only a few eruptions of such magnitude in the last 2 000 years The eruption obliterated most of Tambora s summit reducing its height by about a third and leaving a six kilometer wide caldera Regardless Tambora remains the highest point on the island Highlands rise in four spots on the island as well as on Sangeang Island The large western lobe of Sumbawa is dominated by a large central highland and Tambora Dompu and Bima each have more minor highlands There are a number of large surrounding islands most notably are Moyo Island volcanically active Sangeang Island 11 and the tourist Komodo Islands administered under Flores to the east Sumbawa is part of the Lesser Sundas deciduous forests ecoregion List of offshore islands Edit 12 There are a number of smaller offshore islands which fall within the regencies based on Sumbawa Island West Sumbawa Regency Susait Dua Belang Songi Ular Kenawa Natano Sumbawa Besar Regency Panjang Island Saringi Kemudang Ayer Tawat Romo Medang Island Saleh Bay Sumbawa Besar Regency Moyo Island Dangar Besar Liang Ngali Tengar Kelapang Dompo Takebo Paming Lipa Rakit Dompu Regency P Besar P Nisa Pudu P Nisa Rate Bima Regency Tambora Peninsula exclave Satonda Island Bima Regency Sangeang Island Sanai Island Matagate Island Banta IslandEconomy EditWe want to say that there has been a decline but a slow decline There is no seriousness from the government In reference to around 20 children dying from malnutrition on Sumbawa in October 2012 Ida Alliance of Prosperous Villages ADS 13 Batu hijau mine 2006 Many of the island residents are at risk of starvation when crops fail due to lack of rainfall citation needed The majority of the population works in agriculture Tourism is just beginning with a few surf spots renowned for being world class Jelenga and Supersuck Beaches 12 near the mine as well as Hu u and Lakey Beach 12 in the Gulf of Cempi Newmont Mine Edit A large gold and copper mine Newmont Mining Corporation s Batu Hijau mine began commercial operations in 2000 a decade after the copper and gold were discovered 14 Newmont holds a 45 stake in the operation through its shareholding in PT Newmont Nusa Tenggara A local unit of Japan s Sumitomo Corporation has a 35 share The mine is located in southwest Sumbawa Due to the mine Sumbawa Barat Regency along with other remote mining towns and Jakarta have the highest GDP per capita rates in Indonesia Sumbawa Barat s is 156 25 million rupiah US 17 170 as of 2010 update 15 Newmont and its partners have invested about 1 9 billion in the mine The reserves are expected to last until 2034 making Batu Hijau one of the largest copper mines in the world Harbour of Poto TanoTransport EditThere is a road network in Sumbawa but it is poorly maintained and has long portions of rough gravel Frequent ferry service to Sumbawa Poto Tano from Lombok Labuhan Lombok exists however ferry service to Flores from Sape is infrequent Bima is the largest city on Sumbawa and has ferry and bus service directly to Java and Bali though service breakdowns are common The most convenient way to reach Sumbawa is via air There are commercial flight service connected island s main airport the Bima airport to Denpasar and Makassar References Edit Jakarta Post 14 November 2013 a b Badan Pusat Statistik Jakarta 2021 Jong Boers B D de 2007 The Arab of the Indonesian Archipelago The Famed Horse Breeds of Sumbawa in Greg Bankoff and Sandra Swart eds Breeds of Empire The invention of the horse in Southern Africa and Maritime Southeast Asia 1500 1950 Copenhagen NIAS Press pp 51 64 Jong Boers B D de 1997 Sustainability and time perspective in natural resource management The exploitation of sappan trees in the forests of Sumbawa Indonesia 1500 1875 in Peter Boomgaard Freek Colombijn en David Henley eds Paper landscapes Explorations in the environmental history of Indonesia Leiden KITLV Press pp 260 281 Donohue Mark 2008 01 03 The Papuan Language of Tambora Oceanic Linguistics 46 2 520 537 doi 10 1353 ol 2008 0014 ISSN 1527 9421 Roach John February 27 2006 Lost Kingdom Discovered on Volcanic Island in Indonesia National Geographic News National Geographic Society Retrieved 13 April 2018 Officials support new province for Sumbawa The Jakarta Post Indonesia Urban City Population Provinces amp Cities Statistics amp Maps on City Population Citypopulation de Retrieved 15 September 2014 Local Government Asks People to Be Careful of Drought Hazard Threats Gaung NTB March 30 2010 Archived from the original on March 16 2012 Frode F Jacobsen 2009 Hadrami Arabs in Present day Indonesia An Indonesia oriented Group with an Arab Signature Routledge p 30 ISBN 978 1 134 01852 9 Warum wird diese Seite angezeigt Informationsphere com Retrieved 18 November 2014 a b c West Nusa Tenggara Map Provincial Tourism and Cultural Office West Nusa Tenggara 2008 Malnourishment Not Taken Seriously as 20 Kids Die in Indonesia s NTB Jakarta Globe Jakarta 2012 10 17 Retrieved 2012 10 21 1 Archived October 1 2011 at the Wayback Machine Perkembangan Beberapa Indikator Utama Sosial Ekonomi Indonesia PDF Bps go id Retrieved 18 November 2014 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sumbawa Sumbawa Tourist Attraction West Nusa Tenggara Hagerdal Hans 2017 Held s History of Sumbawa Amsterdam Amsterdam University Press 2 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sumbawa amp oldid 1037338206, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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