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Soft drink

"Soda pop" redirects here. For other uses, see Soda pop (disambiguation).

A soft drink (see § Terminology for other names) is a drink that usually contains water (often carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural and/or artificial flavoring. The sweetener may be a sugar, high-fructose corn syrup, fruit juice, a sugar substitute (in the case of diet drinks), or some combination of these. Soft drinks may also contain caffeine, colorings, preservatives, and/or other ingredients.

A glass of cola served with ice cubes
Soft drink vending machine in Japan

Soft drinks are called "soft" in contrast with "hard" alcoholic drinks. Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink, but the alcohol content must be less than 0.5% of the total volume of the drink in many countries and localities if the drink is to be considered non-alcoholic. Fruit punch, tea (even kombucha), and other such non-alcoholic drinks are technically soft drinks by this definition, but are not generally referred to as such.

Soft drinks may be served cold, over ice cubes, or at room temperature. They are available in many container formats, including cans, glass bottles, and plastic bottles. Containers come in a variety of sizes, ranging from small bottles to large multi-liter containers. Soft drinks are widely available at fast food restaurants, movie theaters, convenience stores, casual-dining restaurants, dedicated soda stores, vending machines, and bars from soda fountain machines. Soft drinks are usually served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues. In casual dining restaurants and bars, soft drinks are often served in glasses made from glass or plastic. Soft drinks may be drunk with straws or sipped directly from the cups.

Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts. In Western countries, in bars and other places where alcohol is served (e.g. airplanes, restaurants and nightclubs), many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice. One well-known example is the rum and coke, which may also contain lime juice. Some homemade fruit punch recipes, which may or may not contain alcohol, contain a mixture of various fruit juices and a soft drink (e.g. ginger ale). At ice cream parlors and 1950s-themed diners, ice cream floats consisting of a soft drink poured over ice cream, such as root beer floats, are often sold. Some types of soft drinks are lemon-lime drinks, orange soda, cola, grape soda, and root beer.

Within a decade of the invention of carbonated water by Joseph Priestley in 1767 inventors in Britain and in Europe had used his concept to produce the drink in greater quantities, with one such inventor, J. J. Schweppe, forming Schweppes in 1783 and selling the world's first bottled soft drink. Soft drink brands founded in the 19th century include R. White's Lemonade in 1845 and Coca-Cola in 1886. Subsequent brands include Pepsi, Irn-Bru, Sprite, Fanta, Dr Pepper and 7 UP.

Contents

While the term "soft drink" is commonly used in product labeling and on restaurant menus, in many countries these drinks are more commonly referred to by regional names, including carbonated drink, cool drink, cold drink, fizzy drink, fizzy juice, lolly water, pop, seltzer, soda, coke, soda pop, tonic, and mineral. Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks, they may also be called sugary drinks.

In the United States, the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names. Over half of the survey respondents preferred the term "soda", which was dominant in the Northeastern United States, California, and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St. Louis. The term "pop", which was preferred by 25% of the respondents, was most popular in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest, while the genericized trademark "coke", used by 12% of the respondents, was most popular in the Southern United States. The term "tonic" is distinctive to eastern Massachusetts, although usage is declining.

In the English-speaking parts of Canada, the term "pop" is prevalent, but "soft drink" is the most common English term used in Montreal.

In the United Kingdom and Ireland, the term "fizzy drink" is common. "Pop" and "fizzy pop" are used in Northern England, South Wales, and the Midlands, while "mineral" or "lemonade" (as a general term) are used in Ireland. In Scotland, "fizzy juice" or even simply "juice" is colloquially encountered. In Australia and New Zealand, "soft drink" or "fizzy drink" is typically used. In South African English, "cool drink" is any soft drink.

In other languages, various names are used: descriptive names as "non-alcoholic beverages", equivalents of "soda water", or generalized prototypical names. For example, the Bohemian variant of the Czech language (but not Moravian dialects) uses "limonáda" for all such beverages, not only for those from lemons. Similarly, the Slovak language uses "malinovka" (= "raspberry water") for all such beverages, not only for raspberry ones.

The origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit-flavored drinks. In the medieval Middle East, a variety of fruit-flavored soft drinks were widely drunk, such as sharbat, and were often sweetened with ingredients such as sugar, syrup and honey. Other common ingredients included lemon, apple, pomegranate, tamarind, jujube, sumac, musk, mint and ice. Middle Eastern drinks later became popular in medieval Europe, where the word "syrup" was derived from Arabic. In Tudor England, 'water imperial' was widely drunk; it was a sweetened drink with lemon flavor and containing cream of tartar. 'Manays Cryste' was a sweetened cordial flavored with rosewater, violets or cinnamon.

Another early type of soft drink was lemonade, made of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey, but without carbonated water. The Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks in 1676. Vendors carried tanks of lemonade on their backs and dispensed cups of the soft drink to Parisians.

Carbonated drinks

Bubbles of carbon dioxide float to the surface of a carbonated soft drink.

Carbonated drinks or fizzy drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide. The dissolution of CO2 in a liquid, gives rise to fizz or effervescence. The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure. When the pressure is removed, the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles, which causes the solution to become effervescent, or fizzy. A common example is the dissolving of carbon dioxide in water, resulting in carbonated water. Carbon dioxide is only weakly soluble in water, therefore it separates into a gas when the pressure is released.

Carbonated beverages are prepared by mixing the flavored syrup with carbonated water, both chilled. Carbonation levels range up to 5 volumes of CO2 per liquid volume. Ginger ale, colas, and related drinks are carbonated with 3.5 volumes. Other drinks, often fruity ones, are carbonated less.

Equipment used by Joseph Priestley in his experiments on gases and the carbonation of water

In the late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water (also known as soda water) is the major and defining component of most soft drinks.

Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to his friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.

"Within a decade, inventors in Britain and in Europe had taken Priestley's basic idea—get some "fixed air," mix it with water, shake—and created contraptions that could make carbonated water more quickly, in greater quantities. One of those inventors was named Johann Jacob Schweppe, who sold bottled soda water and whose business is still around today."

—The Great Soda-Water Shake Up, The Atlantic, October 2014.

Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors (spices, juices, and wine) to carbonated water in the late eighteenth century. Thomas Henry, an apothecary from Manchester, was the first to sell artificial mineral water to the general public for medicinal purposes, beginning in the 1770s. His recipe for 'Bewley's Mephitic Julep' consisted of 3 drachms of fossil alkali to a quart of water, and the manufacture had to 'throw in streams of fixed air until all the alkaline taste is destroyed'.

Johann Jacob Schweppe developed a process to manufacture bottled carbonated mineral water. He founded the Schweppes Company in Geneva in 1783 to sell carbonated water, and relocated his business to London in 1792. His drink soon gained in popularity; among his new found patrons was Erasmus Darwin. In 1843, the Schweppes company commercialized Malvern Water at the Holywell Spring in the Malvern Hills, and received a Royal Warrant from King William IV.

It was not long before flavoring was combined with carbonated water. The earliest reference to carbonated ginger beer is in a Practical Treatise on Brewing. published in 1809. The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered at the time to be a healthy practice, and was promoted by advocates of temperance. Pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water. They used birch bark (see birch beer), dandelion, sarsaparilla, fruit extracts, and other substances.

Mass market and industrialization

An 1883 advertisement for Schweppes Mineral-Waters

Soft drinks soon outgrew their origins in the medical world and became a widely consumed product, available cheaply for the masses. By the 1840s, there were more than fifty soft drink manufacturers in London, an increase from just ten in the 1820s. Carbonated lemonade was widely available in British refreshment stalls in 1833, and in 1845, R. White's Lemonade went on sale in the UK. For the Great Exhibition of 1851 held at Hyde Park in London, Schweppes was designated the official drink supplier and sold over a million bottles of lemonade, ginger beer, Seltzer water and soda-water. There was a Schweppes soda water fountain, situated directly at the entrance to the exhibition.

Mixer drinks became popular in the second half of the century. Tonic water was originally quinine added to water as a prophylactic against malaria and was consumed by British officials stationed in the tropical areas of South Asia and Africa. As the quinine powder was so bitter people began mixing the powder with soda and sugar, and a basic tonic water was created. The first commercial tonic water was produced in 1858. The mixed drink gin and tonic also originated in British colonial India, when the British population would mix their medicinal quinine tonic with gin.

The Codd-neck bottle invented in 1872 provided an effective seal, preventing the soft drinks from going 'flat'

A persistent problem in the soft drinks industry was the lack of an effective sealing of the bottles. Carbonated drink bottles are under great pressure from the gas, so inventors tried to find the best way to prevent the carbon dioxide or bubbles from escaping. The bottles could also explode if the pressure was too great. Hiram Codd devised a patented bottling machine while working at a small mineral water works in the Caledonian Road, Islington, in London in 1870. His Codd-neck bottle was designed to enclose a marble and a rubber washer in the neck. The bottles were filled upside down, and pressure of the gas in the bottle forced the marble against the washer, sealing in the carbonation. The bottle was pinched into a special shape to provide a chamber into which the marble was pushed to open the bottle. This prevented the marble from blocking the neck as the drink was poured. R. White’s, by now the biggest soft drinks company in London and south-east England, featured a wide range of drinks on their price list in 1887, all of which were sold in Codd’s glass bottles, with choices including strawberry soda, raspberry soda, cherryade and cream soda.

New York in 1890. A street sign "SODA" is visible at the bottom left part of the image

In 1892, the "Crown Cork Bottle Seal" was patented by William Painter, a Baltimore, Maryland machine shop operator. It was the first bottle top to successfully keep the bubbles in the bottle. In 1899, the first patent was issued for a glass-blowing machine for the automatic production of glass bottles. Earlier glass bottles had all been hand-blown. Four years later, the new bottle-blowing machine was in operation. It was first operated by Michael Owens, an employee of Libby Glass Company. Within a few years, glass bottle production increased from 1,400 bottles a day to about 58,000 bottles a day.

In America, soda fountains were initially more popular, and many Americans would frequent the soda fountain daily. Beginning in 1806, Yale University chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven, Connecticut. He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters. Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York City also began selling soda water in the early 19th century. In the 1830s, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains. Due to problems in the U.S. glass industry, bottled drinks remained a small portion of the market throughout much of the 19th century. (However, they were known in England. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, published in 1848, the caddish Huntingdon, recovering from months of debauchery, wakes at noon and gulps a bottle of soda-water.)

In the early 20th century, sales of bottled soda increased exponentially around the world, and in the second half of the 20th century, canned soft drinks became an important share of the market. During the 1920s, "Home-Paks" was invented. "Home-Paks" is the familiar six-pack cartons made from cardboard. Vending machines also began to appear in the 1920s. Since then, soft drink vending machines have become increasingly popular. Both hot and cold drinks are sold in these self-service machines throughout the world.

Per capita consumption of soda varies considerably around the world. As of 2014, the top consuming countries per capita were Argentina, the United States, Chile, and Mexico. Developed countries in Europe and elsewhere in the Americas had considerably lower consumption. Annual average consumption in the United States, at 153.5 liters, was about twice that in the United Kingdom (77.7) or Canada (85.3).

In recent years, soda consumption has generally declined in the West. According to one estimate, per capita consumption in the United States reached its peak in 1998 and has continually fallen since. A study in the journal Obesity found that from 2003 to 2014 the proportion of Americans who drank a sugary beverage on a given day fell from approximately 62% to 50% for adults, and from 80% to 61% for children. The decrease has been attributed to, among other factors, an increased awareness of the dangers of obesity, and government efforts to improve diets.

At the same time, soda consumption has increased in some low or middle income countries such as Cameroon, Georgia, India, and Vietnam as soda manufacturers increasingly target these markets and consumers have increasing discretionary income.

A jug of bottler's flavor for 7-Up. The syrup-like concentrate lacks sugar and is sold to franchisees to refill.

Soft drinks are made by mixing dry or fresh ingredients with water. Production of soft drinks can be done at factories or at home. Soft drinks can be made at home by mixing a syrup or dry ingredients with carbonated water, or by Lacto-fermentation. Syrups are commercially sold by companies such as Soda-Club; dry ingredients are often sold in pouches, in a style of the popular U.S. drink mix Kool-Aid. Carbonated water is made using a soda siphon or a home carbonation system or by dropping dry ice into water. Food-grade carbon dioxide, used for carbonating drinks, often comes from ammonia plants.

Drinks like ginger ale and root beer are often brewed using yeast to cause carbonation.

Of most importance is that the ingredient meets the agreed specification on all major parameters. This is not only the functional parameter (in other words, the level of the major constituent), but the level of impurities, the microbiological status, and physical parameters such as color, particle size, etc.

Some soft drinks contain measurable amounts of alcohol. In some older preparations, this resulted from natural fermentation used to build the carbonation. In the United States, soft drinks (as well as other products such as non-alcoholic beer) are allowed by law to contain up to 0.5% alcohol by volume. Modern drinks introduce carbon dioxide for carbonation, but there is some speculation that alcohol might result from fermentation of sugars in a non-sterile environment. A small amount of alcohol is introduced in some soft drinks where alcohol is used in the preparation of the flavoring extracts such as vanilla extract.

Further information: List of soft drink producers
Hartwall Jaffa soft drinks

Market control of the soft drink industry varies on a country-by-country basis. However, PepsiCo and The Coca-Cola Company remain the two largest producers of soft drinks in most regions of the world. In North America, Keurig Dr Pepper and Jones Soda also hold a significant amount of market share.[citation needed]

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The over-consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks is associated with obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dental caries, and low nutrient levels. Experimental studies tend to support a causal role[clarification needed] for sugar-sweetened soft drinks in these ailments, though this is challenged by other researchers. According to a 2013 systematic review of systematic reviews, 83.3% of the systematic reviews without reported conflict of interest concluded that sugar-sweetened soft drinks consumption could be a potential risk factor for weight gain.

Obesity and weight-related diseases

From 1977 to 2002, Americans doubled their consumption of sweetened beverages—a trend that was paralleled by doubling the prevalence of obesity. The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight and obesity, and changes in consumption can help predict changes in weight.

The consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks can also be associated with many weight-related diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk factors.

Dental decay

Soft drinks displayed on grocery store shelves.

Most soft drinks contain high concentrations of simple carbohydrates: glucose, fructose, sucrose and other simple sugars. If oral bacteria ferment carbohydrates and produce acids that may dissolve tooth enamel and induce dental decay, then sweetened drinks may increase the risk of dental caries. The risk would be greater if the frequency of consumption is high.

A large number of soda pops are acidic as are many fruits, sauces, and other foods. Drinking acidic drinks over a long period and continuous sipping may erode the tooth enamel. A 2007 study determined that some flavored sparkling waters are as erosive or more so than orange juice.

Using a drinking straw is often advised by dentists as the drink does not come into as much contact with the teeth. It has also been suggested that brushing teeth right after drinking soft drinks should be avoided as this can result in additional erosion to the teeth due to mechanical action of the toothbrush on weakened enamel.

Bone density and bone loss

A 2006 study of several thousand men and women, found that women who regularly drank cola-based sodas (three or more a day) had significantly lower bone mineral density (BMD) of about 4% in the hip compared to women who did not consume colas. The study found that the effect of regular consumption of cola sodas was not significant on men's BMD.

Benzene

In 2006, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency published the results of its survey of benzene levels in soft drinks, which tested 150 products and found that four contained benzene levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water.

The United States Food and Drug Administration released its own test results of several soft drinks containing benzoates and ascorbic or erythorbic acid. Five tested drinks contained benzene levels above the Environmental Protection Agency's recommended standard of 5 ppb. As of 2006, the FDA stated its belief that "the levels of benzene found in soft drinks and other beverages to date do not pose a safety concern for consumers".

Kidney stones

A study published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology in 2013 concluded that consumption of soft drinks was associated with a 23% higher risk of developing kidney stones.

Schools

Since at least 2006, debate on whether high-calorie soft drink vending machines should be allowed in schools has been on the rise. Opponents of the soft drink vending machines believe that soft drinks are a significant contributor to childhood obesity and tooth decay, and that allowing soft drink sales in schools encourages children to believe they are safe to consume in moderate to large quantities. Opponents also argue that schools have a responsibility to look after the health of the children in their care, and that allowing children easy access to soft drinks violates that responsibility. Vending machine proponents believe that obesity is a complex issue and soft drinks are not the only cause. A 2011 bill to tax soft drinks in California failed, with some opposing lawmakers arguing that parents—not the government—should be responsible for children's drink choices.

On May 3, 2006, the Alliance for a Healthier Generation, Cadbury Schweppes, The Coca-Cola Company, PepsiCo, and the American Beverage Association announced new guidelines that will voluntarily remove high-calorie soft drinks from all U.S. schools.

On May 19, 2006, the British education secretary, Alan Johnson, announced new minimum nutrition standards for school food. Among a wide range of measures, from September 2006, school lunches will be free from carbonated drinks. Schools will also end the sale of junk food (including carbonated drinks) in vending machines and tuck shops.

In 2008, Samantha K Graff published an article in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science regarding the "First Amendment Implications of Restricting Food and Beverages Marketing in Schools". The article examines a school district's policy regarding limiting the sale and marketing of soda in public schools, and how certain policies can invoke a violation of the First Amendment. Due to district budget cuts and loss in state funding, many school districts allow commercial businesses to market and advertise their product (including junk food and soda) to public school students for additional revenue. Junk food and soda companies have acquired exclusive rights to vending machines throughout many public school campuses. Opponents of corporate marketing and advertising on school grounds urge school officials to restrict or limit a corporation's power to promote, market, and sell their product to school students. In the 1970s, the Supreme Court ruled that advertising was not a form of free expression, but a form of business practices which should be regulated by the government. In the 1976 case of Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council, the Supreme Court ruled that advertising, or "commercial speech", to some degree is protected under the First Amendment. To avoid a First Amendment challenge by corporations, public schools could create contracts that restrict the sale of certain product and advertising. Public schools can also ban the selling of all food and drink products on campus, while not infringing on a corporation's right to free speech.

On December 13, 2010, President Obama signed the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 (effective in 2014) that mandates schools that receive federal funding must offer healthy snacks and drinks to students. The act bans the selling of soft drinks to students and requires schools to provide healthier options such as water, unflavored low-fat milk, 100% fruit and vegetable drinks or sugar-free carbonated drinks. The portion sizes available to students will be based on age: eight ounces for elementary schools, twelve ounces for middle and high schools. Proponents of the act predict the new mandate it will make it easier for students to make healthy drink choices while at school.

In 2015, Terry-McElarth and colleagues published a study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine on regular soda policies and their effect on school drink availability and student consumption. The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a program beginning in the 2014–2015 school year that requires schools participating in federally reimbursable meal programs to remove all competitive venues (a la carte cafeteria sales, vending machines, and stores/snack bars/carts), on the availability of unhealthy drinks at schools and student consumption. The study analyzed state- and school district-level policies mandating soda bans and found that state bans were associated with significantly lower school soda availability but district bans showed no significant associations. In addition, no significant correlation was observed between state policies and student consumption. Among student populations, state policy was directly associated with significantly lower school soda availability and indirectly associated with lower student consumption. The same was not observed for other student populations.

Taxation

Main article: Sugary drink tax

In the United States, legislators, health experts and consumer advocates are considering levying higher taxes on the sale of soft drinks and other sweetened products to help curb the epidemic of obesity among Americans, and its harmful impact on overall health. Some speculate that higher taxes could help reduce soda consumption. Others say that taxes should help fund education to increase consumer awareness of the unhealthy effects of excessive soft drink consumption, and also help cover costs of caring for conditions resulting from overconsumption. The food and drink industry holds considerable clout in Washington, DC, as it has contributed more than $50 million to legislators since 2000.

In January 2013, a British lobby group called for the price of sugary fizzy drinks to be increased, with the money raised (an estimated £1 billion at 20p per litre) to be put towards a "Children's Future Fund", overseen by an independent body, which would encourage children to eat healthily in school.

In 2017, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Bahrain imposed a 50% tax on soft drinks and a 100% tax on energy drinks to curb excess consumption of the commodity and for additional revenue.

Bans

In March 2013, New York City's mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed to ban the sale of non-diet soft drinks larger than 16 ounces, except in convenience stores and supermarkets. A lawsuit against the ban was upheld by a state judge, who voiced concerns that the ban was "fraught with arbitrary and capricious consequences". Bloomberg announced that he would be appealing the verdict. The state appellate courts upheld the trial court decision, and the ban remains unenforceable as of 2021.

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Soft drink
Soft drink Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Soft drinks Soda pop redirects here For other uses see Soda pop disambiguation A soft drink see Terminology for other names is a drink that usually contains water often carbonated a sweetener and a natural and or artificial flavoring The sweetener may be a sugar high fructose corn syrup fruit juice a sugar substitute in the case of diet drinks or some combination of these Soft drinks may also contain caffeine colorings preservatives and or other ingredients A glass of cola served with ice cubes Soft drink vending machine in Japan Soft drinks are called soft in contrast with hard alcoholic drinks Small amounts of alcohol may be present in a soft drink but the alcohol content must be less than 0 5 of the total volume of the drink in many countries and localities 1 2 if the drink is to be considered non alcoholic 3 Fruit punch tea even kombucha and other such non alcoholic drinks are technically soft drinks by this definition but are not generally referred to as such Soft drinks may be served cold over ice cubes or at room temperature They are available in many container formats including cans glass bottles and plastic bottles Containers come in a variety of sizes ranging from small bottles to large multi liter containers Soft drinks are widely available at fast food restaurants movie theaters convenience stores casual dining restaurants dedicated soda stores vending machines and bars from soda fountain machines Soft drinks are usually served in paper or plastic disposable cups in the first three venues In casual dining restaurants and bars soft drinks are often served in glasses made from glass or plastic Soft drinks may be drunk with straws or sipped directly from the cups Soft drinks are mixed with other ingredients in several contexts In Western countries in bars and other places where alcohol is served e g airplanes restaurants and nightclubs many mixed drinks are made by blending a soft drink with hard liquor and serving the drink over ice One well known example is the rum and coke which may also contain lime juice Some homemade fruit punch recipes which may or may not contain alcohol contain a mixture of various fruit juices and a soft drink e g ginger ale At ice cream parlors and 1950s themed diners ice cream floats consisting of a soft drink poured over ice cream such as root beer floats are often sold Some types of soft drinks are lemon lime drinks orange soda cola grape soda and root beer Within a decade of the invention of carbonated water by Joseph Priestley in 1767 inventors in Britain and in Europe had used his concept to produce the drink in greater quantities with one such inventor J J Schweppe forming Schweppes in 1783 and selling the world s first bottled soft drink 4 5 Soft drink brands founded in the 19th century include R White s Lemonade in 1845 and Coca Cola in 1886 Subsequent brands include Pepsi Irn Bru Sprite Fanta Dr Pepper and 7 UP Contents 1 Terminology 2 History 2 1 Carbonated drinks 2 2 Mass market and industrialization 3 Consumption 4 Production 5 Producers 6 Health concerns 6 1 Obesity and weight related diseases 6 2 Dental decay 6 3 Bone density and bone loss 6 4 Benzene 6 5 Kidney stones 7 Government regulation 7 1 Schools 7 2 Taxation 7 3 Bans 8 See also 9 References 10 Further readingTerminology EditSee also Names for soft drinks in the United States While the term soft drink is commonly used in product labeling and on restaurant menus in many countries these drinks are more commonly referred to by regional names including carbonated drink cool drink cold drink fizzy drink fizzy juice lolly water pop seltzer soda coke soda pop tonic and mineral 6 7 Due to the high sugar content in typical soft drinks they may also be called sugary drinks In the United States the 2003 Harvard Dialect Survey tracked the usage of the nine most common names Over half of the survey respondents preferred the term soda which was dominant in the Northeastern United States California and the areas surrounding Milwaukee and St Louis The term pop which was preferred by 25 of the respondents was most popular in the Midwest and Pacific Northwest while the genericized trademark coke used by 12 of the respondents was most popular in the Southern United States 6 The term tonic is distinctive to eastern Massachusetts although usage is declining 8 In the English speaking parts of Canada the term pop is prevalent but soft drink is the most common English term used in Montreal 9 In the United Kingdom and Ireland the term fizzy drink is common Pop and fizzy pop are used in Northern England South Wales and the Midlands while 10 mineral 7 or lemonade as a general term are used in Ireland In Scotland fizzy juice or even simply juice is colloquially encountered In Australia and New Zealand soft drink 11 or fizzy drink is typically used 12 In South African English cool drink is any soft drink 13 In other languages various names are used descriptive names as non alcoholic beverages equivalents of soda water or generalized prototypical names For example the Bohemian variant of the Czech language but not Moravian dialects uses limonada for all such beverages not only for those from lemons Similarly the Slovak language uses malinovka raspberry water for all such beverages not only for raspberry ones History EditThe origins of soft drinks lie in the development of fruit flavored drinks In the medieval Middle East a variety of fruit flavored soft drinks were widely drunk such as sharbat and were often sweetened with ingredients such as sugar syrup and honey Other common ingredients included lemon apple pomegranate tamarind jujube sumac musk mint and ice Middle Eastern drinks later became popular in medieval Europe where the word syrup was derived from Arabic 14 In Tudor England water imperial was widely drunk it was a sweetened drink with lemon flavor and containing cream of tartar Manays Cryste was a sweetened cordial flavored with rosewater violets or cinnamon 15 Another early type of soft drink was lemonade made of water and lemon juice sweetened with honey but without carbonated water The Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks in 1676 Vendors carried tanks of lemonade on their backs and dispensed cups of the soft drink to Parisians 16 Carbonated drinks Edit Bubbles of carbon dioxide float to the surface of a carbonated soft drink Carbonated drinks or fizzy drinks are beverages that contain dissolved carbon dioxide The dissolution of CO2 in a liquid gives rise to fizz or effervescence The process usually involves carbon dioxide under high pressure When the pressure is removed the carbon dioxide is released from the solution as small bubbles which causes the solution to become effervescent or fizzy A common example is the dissolving of carbon dioxide in water resulting in carbonated water Carbon dioxide is only weakly soluble in water therefore it separates into a gas when the pressure is released Carbonated beverages are prepared by mixing the flavored syrup with carbonated water both chilled Carbonation levels range up to 5 volumes of CO2 per liquid volume Ginger ale colas and related drinks are carbonated with 3 5 volumes Other drinks often fruity ones are carbonated less 17 Equipment used by Joseph Priestley in his experiments on gases and the carbonation of water In the late 18th century scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters In 1767 Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water 18 when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds England His invention of carbonated water also known as soda water is the major and defining component of most soft drinks 19 Priestley found that water treated in this manner had a pleasant taste and he offered it to his friends as a refreshing drink In 1772 Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol or sulfuric acid as it is now called onto chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water 19 Within a decade inventors in Britain and in Europe had taken Priestley s basic idea get some fixed air mix it with water shake and created contraptions that could make carbonated water more quickly in greater quantities One of those inventors was named Johann Jacob Schweppe who sold bottled soda water and whose business is still around today The Great Soda Water Shake Up The Atlantic October 2014 5 Another Englishman John Mervin Nooth improved Priestley s design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid Bergman s apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts Swedish chemist Jons Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors spices juices and wine to carbonated water in the late eighteenth century Thomas Henry an apothecary from Manchester was the first to sell artificial mineral water to the general public for medicinal purposes beginning in the 1770s His recipe for Bewley s Mephitic Julep consisted of 3 drachms of fossil alkali to a quart of water and the manufacture had to throw in streams of fixed air until all the alkaline taste is destroyed 15 Johann Jacob Schweppe developed a process to manufacture bottled carbonated mineral water 5 He founded the Schweppes Company in Geneva in 1783 to sell carbonated water 20 and relocated his business to London in 1792 His drink soon gained in popularity among his new found patrons was Erasmus Darwin In 1843 the Schweppes company commercialized Malvern Water at the Holywell Spring in the Malvern Hills and received a Royal Warrant from King William IV 21 It was not long before flavoring was combined with carbonated water The earliest reference to carbonated ginger beer is in a Practical Treatise on Brewing published in 1809 The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered at the time to be a healthy practice and was promoted by advocates of temperance Pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water They used birch bark see birch beer dandelion sarsaparilla fruit extracts and other substances Mass market and industrialization Edit An 1883 advertisement for Schweppes Mineral Waters Soft drinks soon outgrew their origins in the medical world and became a widely consumed product available cheaply for the masses By the 1840s there were more than fifty soft drink manufacturers in London an increase from just ten in the 1820s 22 Carbonated lemonade was widely available in British refreshment stalls in 1833 22 and in 1845 R White s Lemonade went on sale in the UK 23 For the Great Exhibition of 1851 held at Hyde Park in London Schweppes was designated the official drink supplier and sold over a million bottles of lemonade ginger beer Seltzer water and soda water 22 There was a Schweppes soda water fountain situated directly at the entrance to the exhibition 15 Mixer drinks became popular in the second half of the century Tonic water was originally quinine added to water as a prophylactic against malaria and was consumed by British officials stationed in the tropical areas of South Asia and Africa As the quinine powder was so bitter people began mixing the powder with soda and sugar and a basic tonic water was created The first commercial tonic water was produced in 1858 24 The mixed drink gin and tonic also originated in British colonial India when the British population would mix their medicinal quinine tonic with gin 15 The Codd neck bottle invented in 1872 provided an effective seal preventing the soft drinks from going flat A persistent problem in the soft drinks industry was the lack of an effective sealing of the bottles Carbonated drink bottles are under great pressure from the gas so inventors tried to find the best way to prevent the carbon dioxide or bubbles from escaping The bottles could also explode if the pressure was too great Hiram Codd devised a patented bottling machine while working at a small mineral water works in the Caledonian Road Islington in London in 1870 His Codd neck bottle was designed to enclose a marble and a rubber washer in the neck The bottles were filled upside down and pressure of the gas in the bottle forced the marble against the washer sealing in the carbonation The bottle was pinched into a special shape to provide a chamber into which the marble was pushed to open the bottle This prevented the marble from blocking the neck as the drink was poured 15 R White s by now the biggest soft drinks company in London and south east England featured a wide range of drinks on their price list in 1887 all of which were sold in Codd s glass bottles with choices including strawberry soda raspberry soda cherryade and cream soda 25 New York in 1890 A street sign SODA is visible at the bottom left part of the image In 1892 the Crown Cork Bottle Seal was patented by William Painter a Baltimore Maryland machine shop operator It was the first bottle top to successfully keep the bubbles in the bottle In 1899 the first patent was issued for a glass blowing machine for the automatic production of glass bottles Earlier glass bottles had all been hand blown Four years later the new bottle blowing machine was in operation It was first operated by Michael Owens an employee of Libby Glass Company Within a few years glass bottle production increased from 1 400 bottles a day to about 58 000 bottles a day In America soda fountains were initially more popular and many Americans would frequent the soda fountain daily Beginning in 1806 Yale University chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven Connecticut He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York City also began selling soda water in the early 19th century In the 1830s John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains Due to problems in the U S glass industry bottled drinks remained a small portion of the market throughout much of the 19th century However they were known in England In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall published in 1848 the caddish Huntingdon recovering from months of debauchery wakes at noon and gulps a bottle of soda water 26 In the early 20th century sales of bottled soda increased exponentially around the world and in the second half of the 20th century canned soft drinks became an important share of the market During the 1920s Home Paks was invented Home Paks is the familiar six pack cartons made from cardboard Vending machines also began to appear in the 1920s Since then soft drink vending machines have become increasingly popular Both hot and cold drinks are sold in these self service machines throughout the world Consumption EditPer capita consumption of soda varies considerably around the world As of 2014 the top consuming countries per capita were Argentina the United States Chile and Mexico Developed countries in Europe and elsewhere in the Americas had considerably lower consumption Annual average consumption in the United States at 153 5 liters was about twice that in the United Kingdom 77 7 or Canada 85 3 27 In recent years soda consumption has generally declined in the West According to one estimate per capita consumption in the United States reached its peak in 1998 and has continually fallen since 28 A study in the journal Obesity found that from 2003 to 2014 the proportion of Americans who drank a sugary beverage on a given day fell from approximately 62 to 50 for adults and from 80 to 61 for children 29 The decrease has been attributed to among other factors an increased awareness of the dangers of obesity and government efforts to improve diets At the same time soda consumption has increased in some low or middle income countries such as Cameroon Georgia India and Vietnam as soda manufacturers increasingly target these markets and consumers have increasing discretionary income 27 Production Edit A jug of bottler s flavor for 7 Up The syrup like concentrate lacks sugar and is sold to franchisees to refill Soft drinks are made by mixing dry or fresh ingredients with water Production of soft drinks can be done at factories or at home Soft drinks can be made at home by mixing a syrup or dry ingredients with carbonated water or by Lacto fermentation Syrups are commercially sold by companies such as Soda Club dry ingredients are often sold in pouches in a style of the popular U S drink mix Kool Aid Carbonated water is made using a soda siphon or a home carbonation system or by dropping dry ice into water Food grade carbon dioxide used for carbonating drinks often comes from ammonia plants 30 Drinks like ginger ale and root beer are often brewed using yeast to cause carbonation Of most importance is that the ingredient meets the agreed specification on all major parameters This is not only the functional parameter in other words the level of the major constituent but the level of impurities the microbiological status and physical parameters such as color particle size etc 31 Some soft drinks contain measurable amounts of alcohol In some older preparations this resulted from natural fermentation used to build the carbonation In the United States soft drinks as well as other products such as non alcoholic beer are allowed by law to contain up to 0 5 alcohol by volume Modern drinks introduce carbon dioxide for carbonation but there is some speculation that alcohol might result from fermentation of sugars in a non sterile environment A small amount of alcohol is introduced in some soft drinks where alcohol is used in the preparation of the flavoring extracts such as vanilla extract 32 Producers EditFurther information List of soft drink producers Hartwall Jaffa soft drinks Market control of the soft drink industry varies on a country by country basis However PepsiCo and The Coca Cola Company remain the two largest producers of soft drinks in most regions of the world In North America Keurig Dr Pepper and Jones Soda also hold a significant amount of market share citation needed Health concerns EditThis section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information November 2020 This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources Please review the contents of the section and add the appropriate references if you can Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources Soft drink news newspapers books scholar JSTOR November 2020 The over consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks is associated with obesity 33 34 35 36 hypertension 37 type 2 diabetes 38 dental caries and low nutrient levels 35 Experimental studies tend to support a causal role clarification needed for sugar sweetened soft drinks in these ailments 34 35 though this is challenged by other researchers 39 40 41 According to a 2013 systematic review of systematic reviews 83 3 of the systematic reviews without reported conflict of interest concluded that sugar sweetened soft drinks consumption could be a potential risk factor for weight gain 42 Obesity and weight related diseases Edit From 1977 to 2002 Americans doubled their consumption of sweetened beverages 43 a trend that was paralleled by doubling the prevalence of obesity 44 The consumption of sugar sweetened beverages is associated with weight and obesity and changes in consumption can help predict changes in weight 45 The consumption of sugar sweetened soft drinks can also be associated with many weight related diseases including diabetes 38 metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors 46 Dental decay Edit Soft drinks displayed on grocery store shelves Most soft drinks contain high concentrations of simple carbohydrates glucose fructose sucrose and other simple sugars If oral bacteria ferment carbohydrates and produce acids that may dissolve tooth enamel and induce dental decay then sweetened drinks may increase the risk of dental caries The risk would be greater if the frequency of consumption is high 47 A large number of soda pops are acidic as are many fruits sauces and other foods Drinking acidic drinks over a long period and continuous sipping may erode the tooth enamel A 2007 study determined that some flavored sparkling waters are as erosive or more so than orange juice 48 Using a drinking straw is often advised by dentists as the drink does not come into as much contact with the teeth It has also been suggested that brushing teeth right after drinking soft drinks should be avoided as this can result in additional erosion to the teeth due to mechanical action of the toothbrush on weakened enamel 49 Bone density and bone loss Edit A 2006 study of several thousand men and women found that women who regularly drank cola based sodas three or more a day had significantly lower bone mineral density BMD of about 4 in the hip compared to women who did not consume colas 50 The study found that the effect of regular consumption of cola sodas was not significant on men s BMD 50 Benzene Edit Main article Benzene in soft drinks In 2006 the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency published the results of its survey of benzene levels in soft drinks 51 which tested 150 products and found that four contained benzene levels above the World Health Organization WHO guidelines for drinking water The United States Food and Drug Administration released its own test results of several soft drinks containing benzoates and ascorbic or erythorbic acid Five tested drinks contained benzene levels above the Environmental Protection Agency s recommended standard of 5 ppb As of 2006 the FDA stated its belief that the levels of benzene found in soft drinks and other beverages to date do not pose a safety concern for consumers 52 Kidney stones Edit A study published in the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology in 2013 concluded that consumption of soft drinks was associated with a 23 higher risk of developing kidney stones 53 Government regulation EditSchools Edit Since at least 2006 debate on whether high calorie soft drink vending machines should be allowed in schools has been on the rise Opponents of the soft drink vending machines believe that soft drinks are a significant contributor to childhood obesity and tooth decay and that allowing soft drink sales in schools encourages children to believe they are safe to consume in moderate to large quantities 54 Opponents also argue that schools have a responsibility to look after the health of the children in their care and that allowing children easy access to soft drinks violates that responsibility 55 Vending machine proponents believe that obesity is a complex issue and soft drinks are not the only cause 56 A 2011 bill to tax soft drinks in California failed with some opposing lawmakers arguing that parents not the government should be responsible for children s drink choices 57 On May 3 2006 the Alliance for a Healthier Generation 58 Cadbury Schweppes The Coca Cola Company PepsiCo and the American Beverage Association announced new guidelines 59 that will voluntarily remove high calorie soft drinks from all U S schools On May 19 2006 the British education secretary Alan Johnson announced new minimum nutrition standards for school food Among a wide range of measures from September 2006 school lunches will be free from carbonated drinks Schools will also end the sale of junk food including carbonated drinks in vending machines and tuck shops In 2008 Samantha K Graff published an article in the Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science regarding the First Amendment Implications of Restricting Food and Beverages Marketing in Schools The article examines a school district s policy regarding limiting the sale and marketing of soda in public schools and how certain policies can invoke a violation of the First Amendment Due to district budget cuts and loss in state funding many school districts allow commercial businesses to market and advertise their product including junk food and soda to public school students for additional revenue Junk food and soda companies have acquired exclusive rights to vending machines throughout many public school campuses Opponents of corporate marketing and advertising on school grounds urge school officials to restrict or limit a corporation s power to promote market and sell their product to school students In the 1970s the Supreme Court ruled that advertising was not a form of free expression but a form of business practices which should be regulated by the government In the 1976 case of Virginia State Board of Pharmacy v Virginia Citizens Consumer Council 60 the Supreme Court ruled that advertising or commercial speech to some degree is protected under the First Amendment To avoid a First Amendment challenge by corporations public schools could create contracts that restrict the sale of certain product and advertising Public schools can also ban the selling of all food and drink products on campus while not infringing on a corporation s right to free speech 61 On December 13 2010 President Obama signed the Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act of 2010 62 effective in 2014 that mandates schools that receive federal funding must offer healthy snacks and drinks to students The act bans the selling of soft drinks to students and requires schools to provide healthier options such as water unflavored low fat milk 100 fruit and vegetable drinks or sugar free carbonated drinks The portion sizes available to students will be based on age eight ounces for elementary schools twelve ounces for middle and high schools Proponents of the act predict the new mandate it will make it easier for students to make healthy drink choices while at school 63 In 2015 Terry McElarth and colleagues published a study in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine on regular soda policies and their effect on school drink availability and student consumption The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a program beginning in the 2014 2015 school year that requires schools participating in federally reimbursable meal programs to remove all competitive venues a la carte cafeteria sales vending machines and stores snack bars carts on the availability of unhealthy drinks at schools and student consumption The study analyzed state and school district level policies mandating soda bans and found that state bans were associated with significantly lower school soda availability but district bans showed no significant associations In addition no significant correlation was observed between state policies and student consumption Among student populations state policy was directly associated with significantly lower school soda availability and indirectly associated with lower student consumption The same was not observed for other student populations 64 Taxation Edit Main article Sugary drink tax In the United States legislators health experts and consumer advocates are considering levying higher taxes on the sale of soft drinks and other sweetened products to help curb the epidemic of obesity among Americans and its harmful impact on overall health Some speculate that higher taxes could help reduce soda consumption 65 Others say that taxes should help fund education to increase consumer awareness of the unhealthy effects of excessive soft drink consumption and also help cover costs of caring for conditions resulting from overconsumption 66 The food and drink industry holds considerable clout in Washington DC as it has contributed more than 50 million to legislators since 2000 67 In January 2013 a British lobby group called for the price of sugary fizzy drinks to be increased with the money raised an estimated 1 billion at 20p per litre to be put towards a Children s Future Fund overseen by an independent body which would encourage children to eat healthily in school 68 In 2017 the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia the United Arab Emirates and the Kingdom of Bahrain imposed a 50 tax on soft drinks and a 100 tax on energy drinks to curb excess consumption of the commodity and for additional revenue 69 Bans Edit In March 2013 New York City s mayor Michael Bloomberg proposed to ban the sale of non diet soft drinks larger than 16 ounces except in convenience stores and supermarkets A lawsuit against the ban was upheld by a state judge who voiced concerns that the ban was fraught with arbitrary and capricious consequences Bloomberg announced that he would be appealing the verdict 70 The state appellate courts upheld the trial court decision and the ban remains unenforceable as of 2021 71 72 See also Edit Drink portal Ade Diet Coke and Mentos eruption Diet soda Fizz keeper Hard soda Industrial gas Kombucha List of brand name soft drink products List of soft drink flavors List of soft drinks by country List of drinks Low alcohol beer Nitrogenation Nucleation Premix and postmix Soda fountain Squash drink References Edit Electronic Code of Federal Regulations United States Government Archived from the original on June 13 2011 Retrieved February 25 2011 See 7 71 paragraphs e and f What Is Meant By Alcohol Free The Alcohol Free Community Alcoholfree co uk January 8 2012 Retrieved March 26 2013 Bangor Daily News April 8 2010 http www bangordailynews com detail 126224 html permanent dead link Schweppes Holdings Limited Royalwarrant org Retrieved October 13 2021 Schweppes was founded in 1783 the world s first ever soft drink Schweppes soda water was born a b c The Great Soda Water Shake Up The Atlantic Retrieved October 13 2021 a b Vaux Bert 2003 105 What is your generic term for a sweetened carbonated beverage Harvard Dialect Survey Retrieved June 3 2011 a b Funny Irish Words and Phrases Grammar yourdictionary com Retrieved March 26 2013 In Boston the word tonic gives way to soda BostonGlobe com Retrieved September 8 2015 Hannay Chris May 18 2012 Why do some places say pop and others say soda Your questions answered The Globe and Mail Retrieved September 8 2015 The Best of British effingpot com Archived from the original on August 29 2015 Retrieved September 8 2015 For example in Coca Cola Amatil admits cutting back on sugar as attitudes change on health and investment The Sydney Morning Herald September 11 2015 Retrieved September 12 2015 Fizzy Drinks Everything you need to know www lifeeducation org au Retrieved September 11 2021 Definition of cool drink Collins English Dictionary Retrieved September 11 2015 Meri Josef W 2005 Medieval Islamic Civilization An Encyclopedia Routledge p 106 ISBN 1135455961 a b c d e Colin Emmins SOFT DRINKS Their origins and history PDF Soft Drink Encyclopaedia Britannica Philip Crandall Chin Shu Chen Steven Nagy Georges Perras Johannes A Buchel William Riha 2000 Beverages Nonalcoholic Ullmann s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry doi 10 1002 14356007 a04 035 ISBN 3527306730 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Mary Bellis March 6 2009 Joseph Priestley Soda Water Joseph Priestley Inventors about com Retrieved June 8 2009 a b Impregnating Water with Fixed Air PDF Archived from the original PDF on April 21 2017 Retrieved May 8 2013 Morgenthaler Jeffrey 2014 Bar Book Elements of Cocktail Technique Chronicle Books p 54 ISBN 9781452130279 Heritage Meet Jacob Schweppe Archived from the original on October 12 2018 Retrieved July 6 2015 a b c Emmins Colin 1991 SOFT DRINKS Their origins and history PDF Great Britain Shire Publications Ltd p 8 and 11 ISBN 0 7478 0125 8 Chester 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Retrieved June 8 2009 Bes Rastrollo M Sayon Orea C Ruiz Canela M Martinez Gonzalez MA July 2016 Impact of sugars and sugar taxation on body weight control A comprehensive literature review Obesity Silver Spring Md 24 7 1410 26 doi 10 1002 oby 21535 PMID 27273733 a b Malik VS Schulze MB Hu FB 2006 Intake of sugar sweetened beverages and weight gain a systematic review The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 2 274 88 doi 10 1093 ajcn 84 2 274 PMC 3210834 PMID 16895873 a b c Vartanian LR Schwartz MB Brownell KD 2007 Effects of soft drink consumption on nutrition and health a systematic review and meta analysis American Journal of Public Health 97 4 667 75 doi 10 2105 AJPH 2005 083782 PMC 1829363 PMID 17329656 Woodward Lopez G Kao J Ritchie L 2011 To what extent have sweetened beverages contributed to the obesity epidemic Public Health Nutrition 14 3 499 509 doi 10 1017 S1368980010002375 PMID 20860886 Kim Y Je Y April 2016 Prospective association of sugar sweetened and artificially 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Tucker KL Morita K Qiao N Hannan MT Cupples LA Kiel DP 2006 Colas but not other carbonated beverages are associated with low bone mineral density in older women The Framingham Osteoporosis Study The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 84 4 936 42 doi 10 1093 ajcn 84 4 936 PMID 17023723 of benzene levels in soft drinks Food gov uk March 31 2006 Archived from the original on October 6 2008 Retrieved June 8 2009 US FDA CFSAN Questions and Answers on the Occurrence of Benzene in Soft Drinks and Other Beverages Archived from the original on March 26 2008 Retrieved March 26 2008 Ferraro PM Taylor EN Gambaro G Curhan GC 2013 Soda and other beverages and the risk of kidney stones Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 8 8 1389 95 doi 10 2215 CJN 11661112 PMC 3731916 PMID 23676355 Non diet sodas to be pulled from schools Associated Press May 5 2006 Issue 17 Debates from four states over selling soda in schools Berkeley Media Studies Group November 1 2008 Archived from the original on October 12 2013 Retrieved January 4 2019 State s soda tax plan falls flat Daily Democrat May 29 2013 Soda tax nixed in state assembly committee ABC News Los Angeles April 25 2011 Archived from the original on October 10 2012 Clockwork net Alliance for a Healthier Generation HealthierGeneration org Retrieved February 13 2017 Clockwork net Schools HealthierGeneration org Archived from the original on September 1 2010 Retrieved February 13 2017 Va Pharmacy Bd v Va Consumer Council 425 U S 748 1976 Justia com Retrieved February 13 2017 Graff S K 2008 First Amendment Implications of Restricting Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 615 1 157 77 doi 10 1177 0002716207308398 JSTOR 25097981 S2CID 154286599 Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act Food and Nutrition Service USDA gov Retrieved February 13 2017 Healthy Hunger Free Kids Act Food and Nutrition Service www fns usda gov Retrieved March 4 2016 Terry McElrath YM Chriqui JF O Malley PM Chaloupka FJ Johnston LD 2015 Regular soda policies school availability and high school student consumption American Journal of Preventive Medicine 48 4 436 44 doi 10 1016 j amepre 2014 10 022 PMC 4380673 PMID 25576493 Duffey KJ Gordon Larsen P Shikany JM Guilkey D Jacobs DR Popkin BM 2010 Food price and diet and health outcomes 20 years of the CARDIA Study Archives of Internal Medicine 170 5 420 6 doi 10 1001 archinternmed 2009 545 PMC 3154748 PMID 20212177 USA Today Experts penny per ounce to fight obesity health costs Sept 18 2009 September 18 2009 Retrieved April 11 2010 Center for Responsive Politics Food and Beverage industry profile Opensecrets org February 18 2013 Retrieved March 26 2013 61 organisations call for a sugary drinks duty Govtoday co uk January 29 2013 Archived from the original on February 16 2013 Retrieved March 26 2013 Backholer K Blake M amp Vandevijvere S 2017 Sugar sweetened beverage taxation An update on the year that was 2017 Public Health Nutrition 20 18 3219 3224 doi 10 1017 s1368980017003329 PMID 29160766 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link New York Soda Ban Struck Down Bloomberg Promises Appeal US News and World Report USNews com March 11 2013 Retrieved March 26 2013 Archived copy Archived from the original on July 22 2021 Retrieved July 22 2021 CS1 maint archived copy as title link https www menshealth com nutrition a30999936 new york bloomberg soda ban Further reading Edit Beverage group Pull soda from primary schools USA Today August 17 2005 After soda ban nutritionists say more can be done The Boston Globe May 4 2006 Critics Say Soda Policy for Schools Lacks Teeth The New York Times August 22 2006Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soft drinks Look up soft drink in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikibooks has more on the topic of Soft drinkWikivoyage has a travel guide for Soft drink Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soft drink amp oldid 1053288099, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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