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Soft palate

The soft palate (also known as the velum, palatal velum, or muscular palate) is, in mammals, the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth. The soft palate is part of the palate of the mouth; the other part is the hard palate. The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone.

Contents

Muscles

Dissection of the muscles of the palate from behind.

The five muscles of the soft palate play important roles in swallowing and breathing. The muscles are:

  1. Tensor veli palatini, which is involved in swallowing
  2. Palatoglossus, involved in swallowing
  3. Palatopharyngeus, involved in breathing
  4. Levator veli palatini, involved in swallowing
  5. Musculus uvulae, which moves the uvula

These muscles are innervated by the pharyngeal plexus via the vagus nerve, with the exception of the tensor veli palatini. The tensor veli palatini is innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve (V3).

The soft palate is moveable, consisting of muscle fibers sheathed in mucous membrane. It is responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing, and also for closing off the airway. During sneezing, it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth.

In humans, the uvula hangs from the end of the soft palate. Touching the uvula or the end of the soft palate evokes a strong gag reflex in most people.

Speech

A speech sound made with the middle part of the tongue (dorsum) touching the soft palate is known as a velar consonant.

It is possible for the soft palate to retract and elevate during speech to separate the oral cavity (mouth) from the nasal cavity in order to produce the oral speech sounds. If this separation is incomplete, air escapes through the nose, causing speech to be perceived as nasal.

Modelling

Within the microstructure of the soft palate lie a variety of variably-oriented fibers that create a nonuniform surface with a nonuniform density distribution. The tissue has been characterized as viscoelastic, nonlinear, and anisotropic in the direction of the fibers. Young modulus values range from 585 Pa at the posterior free edge of the soft palate to 1409 Pa where the soft palate attaches to the maxilla. These properties are useful when quantifying the effects of corrective orthopedic devices such as the Hotz Plate on cleft lip.

Quantitative analyses have been done on bilateral and unilateral cleft palate to better understand geometric differences in cleft palate throughout the course of its development and correction. Despite the difficulty in finding common, comparable landmarks between normal soft palates and cleft palates, analytical methods have been devised to assess differences in degree of curvature of the alveolar crest, two-dimensional and three-dimensional surface area, and slope of the alveolar crest.

Finite element analysis has demonstrated effective modeling of soft-palate extension and movement. It has also been an effective tool for evaluating the craniofacial effects of corrective orthopedic devices and cleft lip.

Disease

See also: Oral pathology

Pathology of the soft palate includes mucosal lesions such as pemphigus vulgaris dsg - 3, herpangina and migratory stomatitis, and muscular conditions such as the congenital cleft palate and cleft uvula.

Palatal petechiae.

Petechiae on the soft palate are mainly associated with streptococcal pharyngitis, and as such it is an uncommon but highly specific finding. 10 to 30 percent of palatal petechiae cases are estimated to be caused by suction, which can be habitual or secondary to fellatio.

  • Soft palate without tonsils (after tonsillectomy)

  • Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx.

  • The mouth cavity. The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward.

  • Lateral wall of nasal cavity. (Soft palate visible in lower right)

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Soft palate.
This article uses anatomical terminology.
  1. Walker, H. Kenneth (1990). "Cranial Nerves IX and X: The Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves". In Walker, H. Kenneth; Hall, W. Dallas; Hurst, J. Willis (eds.). Clinical Methods: The History, Physical, and Laboratory Examinations (3rd ed.). Butterworths. pp. 327–328. ISBN 9780409900774. Archived from the original on 2018-05-04. Retrieved2017-09-12.
  2. Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. p. 1000. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0.
  3. Birch, M. J.; Srodon, P. D. (2009). "Biomechanical Properties of the Human Soft Palate". The Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal. 46 (3): 268–74. doi:10.1597/08-012.1. PMID 19642755.
  4. Berkowitz, S; Krischer, J; Pruzansky, S (1974). "Quantitative analysis of cleft palate casts. A geometric study". The Cleft Palate Journal. 11: 134–61. PMID 4524356.
  5. Zadik, Yehuda; Drucker, Scott; Pallmon, Sarit (2011). "Migratory stomatitis (ectopic geographic tongue) on the floor of the mouth". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 65 (2): 459–60. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2010.04.016. PMID 21763590.
  6. Fact Sheet: Tonsillitis Archived 2011-11-26 at the Wayback Machine from American Academy of Otolaryngology. "Updated 1/11". Retrieved November 2011
  7. Brook, I; Dohar, J. E. (2006). "Management of group a beta-hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children". The Journal of Family Practice. 55 (12): S1–11, quiz S12. PMID 17137534.
  8. Page 134 Archived 2018-05-04 at the Wayback Machine in: Michael Glick; Greenberg, Martin Harry; Burket, Lester W. (2003). Burket's oral medicine: diagnosis & treatment. Hamilton, Ont: BC Decker. ISBN 978-1-55009-186-1.

Soft palate
Soft palate Language Watch Edit The soft palate also known as the velum palatal velum or muscular palate is in mammals the soft tissue constituting the back of the roof of the mouth The soft palate is part of the palate of the mouth the other part is the hard palate The soft palate is distinguished from the hard palate at the front of the mouth in that it does not contain bone Soft palateUpper respiratory system with soft palate labeled near center DetailsArteryLesser palatine arteries ascending palatine arteryNervePharyngeal branch of vagus nerve medial pterygoid nerve lesser palatine nerves glossopharyngeal nerve 1 IdentifiersLatinPalatum molle velum palatinumMeSHD010160TA98A05 1 01 104 A05 2 01 003TA22780FMA55021Anatomical terminology edit on Wikidata Contents 1 Structure 1 1 Muscles 2 Function 2 1 Speech 2 2 Modelling 3 Clinical significance 3 1 Disease 4 Additional images 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksStructure EditMuscles Edit Dissection of the muscles of the palate from behind The five muscles of the soft palate play important roles in swallowing and breathing The muscles are Tensor veli palatini which is involved in swallowing Palatoglossus involved in swallowing Palatopharyngeus involved in breathing Levator veli palatini involved in swallowing Musculus uvulae which moves the uvula These muscles are innervated by the pharyngeal plexus via the vagus nerve with the exception of the tensor veli palatini The tensor veli palatini is innervated by the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve V3 2 Function EditThe soft palate is moveable consisting of muscle fibers sheathed in mucous membrane It is responsible for closing off the nasal passages during the act of swallowing and also for closing off the airway During sneezing it protects the nasal passage by diverting a portion of the excreted substance to the mouth In humans the uvula hangs from the end of the soft palate Touching the uvula or the end of the soft palate evokes a strong gag reflex in most people Speech Edit A speech sound made with the middle part of the tongue dorsum touching the soft palate is known as a velar consonant It is possible for the soft palate to retract and elevate during speech to separate the oral cavity mouth from the nasal cavity in order to produce the oral speech sounds If this separation is incomplete air escapes through the nose causing speech to be perceived as nasal Modelling Edit Within the microstructure of the soft palate lie a variety of variably oriented fibers that create a nonuniform surface with a nonuniform density distribution The tissue has been characterized as viscoelastic nonlinear and anisotropic in the direction of the fibers Young modulus values range from 585 Pa at the posterior free edge of the soft palate to 1409 Pa where the soft palate attaches to the maxilla 3 These properties are useful when quantifying the effects of corrective orthopedic devices such as the Hotz Plate on cleft lip Quantitative analyses have been done on bilateral and unilateral cleft palate to better understand geometric differences in cleft palate throughout the course of its development and correction 4 Despite the difficulty in finding common comparable landmarks between normal soft palates and cleft palates analytical methods have been devised to assess differences in degree of curvature of the alveolar crest two dimensional and three dimensional surface area and slope of the alveolar crest Finite element analysis has demonstrated effective modeling of soft palate extension and movement It has also been an effective tool for evaluating the craniofacial effects of corrective orthopedic devices and cleft lip Clinical significance EditDisease Edit See also Oral pathology Pathology of the soft palate includes mucosal lesions such as pemphigus vulgaris dsg 3 herpangina and migratory stomatitis 5 and muscular conditions such as the congenital cleft palate and cleft uvula Palatal petechiae Petechiae on the soft palate are mainly associated with streptococcal pharyngitis 6 and as such it is an uncommon but highly specific finding 7 10 to 30 percent of palatal petechiae cases are estimated to be caused by suction which can be habitual or secondary to fellatio 8 Additional images Edit Soft palate without tonsils after tonsillectomy Sagittal section of nose mouth pharynx and larynx The mouth cavity The cheeks have been slit transversely and the tongue pulled forward Lateral wall of nasal cavity Soft palate visible in lower right See also EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Soft palate This article uses anatomical terminology Palatine tonsilReferences Edit Walker H Kenneth 1990 Cranial Nerves IX and X The Glossopharyngeal and Vagus Nerves In Walker H Kenneth Hall W Dallas Hurst J Willis eds Clinical Methods The History Physical and Laboratory Examinations 3rd ed Butterworths pp 327 328 ISBN 9780409900774 Archived from the original on 2018 05 04 Retrieved 2017 09 12 Drake Richard L Vogl Wayne Tibbitts Adam W M Mitchell illustrations by Richard Richardson Paul 2005 Gray s anatomy for students Philadelphia Elsevier Churchill Livingstone p 1000 ISBN 978 0 8089 2306 0 Birch M J Srodon P D 2009 Biomechanical Properties of the Human Soft Palate The Cleft Palate Craniofacial Journal 46 3 268 74 doi 10 1597 08 012 1 PMID 19642755 Berkowitz S Krischer J Pruzansky S 1974 Quantitative analysis of cleft palate casts A geometric study The Cleft Palate Journal 11 134 61 PMID 4524356 Zadik Yehuda Drucker Scott Pallmon Sarit 2011 Migratory stomatitis ectopic geographic tongue on the floor of the mouth Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 65 2 459 60 doi 10 1016 j jaad 2010 04 016 PMID 21763590 Fact Sheet Tonsillitis Archived 2011 11 26 at the Wayback Machine from American Academy of Otolaryngology Updated 1 11 Retrieved November 2011 Brook I Dohar J E 2006 Management of group a beta hemolytic streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis in children The Journal of Family Practice 55 12 S1 11 quiz S12 PMID 17137534 Page 134 Archived 2018 05 04 at the Wayback Machine in Michael Glick Greenberg Martin Harry Burket Lester W 2003 Burket s oral medicine diagnosis amp treatment Hamilton Ont BC Decker ISBN 978 1 55009 186 1 External links EditImage at WebMD Anatomy figure 34 01 03 at Human Anatomy Online SUNY Downstate Medical Center Diagram of the regions of the oral cavity Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soft palate amp oldid 1026129801, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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