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Sogdia

Sogdia () (Sogdian: soɣd) or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization in present-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan. Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire, and listed on the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great. Sogdiana was first conquered by Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid Empire, and then was annexed by the Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great in 328 BC. It would continue to change hands under the Seleucid Empire, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Kushan Empire, Hephthalite Empire, and Sasanian Empire.

Sogdia

Sogdiana, c. 300 BC, then under the Seleucid Empire, one of the successor states to the empire created by Alexander the Great
Languages Sogdian language
Religions Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, Islam, Nestorian Christianity
Capitals Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Kesh
Area Between the Amu Darya and the Syr Darya
Existed 6th century BC to 11th century AD
Currency Imitations of Sassanian coins and Chinese cash coins as well as "hybrids" of both.

The Sogdian city-states, although never politically united, were centered on the city of Samarkand. Sogdiana lay north of Bactria, east of Khwarezm, and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus (Amu Darya) and the Jaxartes (Syr Darya), including the fertile valley of the Zeravshan (called the Polytimetus by the ancient Greeks). Sogdian territory corresponds to the modern provinces of Samarkand and Bokhara in modern Uzbekistan, as well as the Sughd province of modern Tajikistan. In the High Middle Ages, Sogdian cities included sites stretching towards Issyk Kul, such as that at the archeological site of Suyab. Sogdian, an Eastern Iranian language, is no longer spoken, but a descendant of one of its dialects, Yaghnobi, is still spoken by the Yaghnobis of Tajikistan. It was widely spoken in Central Asia as a lingua franca and served as one of the First Turkic Khaganate's court languages for writing documents.

Sogdians also lived in Imperial China and rose to prominence in the military and government of the Chinese Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). Sogdian merchants and diplomats travelled as far west as the Byzantine Empire. They played an important part as middlemen in the trade route of the Silk Road. While originally following the faiths of Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism and, to a lesser extent, Nestorian Christianity from West Asia, the gradual conversion to Islam among the Sogdians and their descendants began with the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana in the 8th century. The Sogdian conversion to Islam was virtually complete by the end of the Samanid Empire in 999, coinciding with the decline of the Sogdian language, as it was largely supplanted by Persian.

Contents

Details of a replication of the Ambassadors' Painting from Afrasiyab, Samarkand, showing men on a camel, 7th century AD

Oswald Szemerényi devotes a thorough discussion to the etymologies of ancient ethnic words for the Scythians in his work Four Old Iranian Ethnic Names: Scythian – Skudra – Sogdian – Saka. In it, the names provided by the Greek historian Herodotus and the names of his title, except Saka, as well as many other words for "Scythian," such as Assyrian Aškuz and Greek Skuthēs, descend from *skeud-, an ancient Indo-European root meaning "propel, shoot" (cf. English shoot). *skud- is the zero-grade; that is, a variant in which the -e- is not present. The restored Scythian name is *Skuda (archer), which among the Pontic or Royal Scythians became *Skula, in which the d has been regularly replaced by an l. According to Szemerényi, Sogdiana (Old Persian:Suguda-; Uzbek:Sug'd, Sug'diyona; Persian:سغد‎, romanized: Soġd; Tajik:Суғд, سغد, romanized: Suġd; Chinese:粟特; Greek:Σογδιανή, romanized: Sogdiane) was named from the Skuda form. Starting from the names of the province given in Old Persian inscriptions, Sugda and Suguda, and the knowledge derived from Middle Sogdian that Old Persian -gd- applied to Sogdian was pronounced as voiced fricatives, -γδ-, Szemerényi arrives at *Suγδa as an Old Sogdian endonym. Applying sound changes apparent in other Sogdian words and inherent in Indo-European, he traces the development of *Suγδa from Skuda, "archer," as follows: Skuda > *Sukuda by anaptyxis > *Sukuδa > *Sukδa (syncope) > *Suγδa (assimilation).

Prehistory

Further information: Indo-Iranians

Centuries before the conquest of Sogdiana by the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, Sogdiana possessed a Bronze Age urban culture that was gradually displaced by the Indo-European migrations of the Iron Age. This large-scale migration included Eastern Iranian speaking peoples such as the Sogdians. The original Bronze Age towns appear in the archaeological record beginning with the settlement at Sarazm, Tajikistan, spanning as far back as the 4th millennium BC, and then at Kök Tepe, near modern-day Bulungur, Uzbekistan, from at least the 15th century BC.

Achaemenid period

Sogdians on an Achaemenid Persian relief from the Apadana of Persepolis, offering tributary gifts to the Persian king Darius I, 5th century BC
Sogdian soldier circa 338 BCE, tomb of Artaxerxes III.

Achaemenid ruler Cyrus the Great conquered Sogdiana while campaigning in Central Asia in 546–539 BC, a fact mentioned by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus in his Histories. Darius I introduced the Aramaic writing system and coin currency to Central Asia, in addition to incorporating Sogdians into his standing army as regular soldiers and cavalrymen. A contingent of Sogdian soldiers fought in the main army of Xerxes I during his second, ultimately-failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC. A Persian inscription from Susa claims that the palace there was adorned with lapis lazuli and carnelian originating from Sogdiana.

Given the absence of any named satraps (i.e. Achaemenid provincial governors) for Sogdiana in historical records, modern scholarship has concluded that Sogdiana was governed from the satrapy of nearby Bactria. The satraps were often relatives of the ruling Persian kings, especially sons who were not designated as the heir apparent. Sogdiana likely remained under Persian control until roughly 400 BC, during the reign of Artaxerxes II. Rebellious states of the Persian Empire took advantage of the weak Artaxerxes II, and some, such as Egypt, were able to regain their independence. Persia's massive loss of Central Asian territory is widely attributed to the ruler's lack of control. However, unlike Egypt, which was quickly recaptured by the Persian Empire, Sogdiana remained independent until it was conquered by Alexander the Great. When the latter invaded the Persian Empire, Pharasmanes, an already independent king of Khwarezm, allied with the Macedonians and sent troops to Alexander in 329 BC for his war against the Scythians of the Black Sea region (even though this anticipated campaign never materialized).

During the Achaemenid period (550–330 BC), the Sogdians lived as a nomadic people much like the neighboring Yuezhi, who spoke Bactrian, an Indo-Iranian language closely related to Sogdian, and were already engaging in overland trade. Some of them had also gradually settled the land to engage in agriculture. Similar to how the Yuezhi offered tributary gifts of jade to the emperors of China, the Sogdians are recorded in Persian records as submitting precious gifts of lapis lazuli and carnelian to Darius I, the Persian king of kings. Although the Sogdians were at times independent and living outside the boundaries of large empires, they never formed a great empire of their own like the Yuezhi, who established the Kushan Empire (30–375 AD) of Central and South Asia.

Hellenistic period

Left image: The Sampul tapestry, a woolen wall hanging from Lop County, Hotan Prefecture, Xinjiang, China, showing a possibly Greek soldier from the Greco-Bactrian kingdom (250–125 BC), with blue eyes, wielding a spear, and wearing what appears to be a diadem headband; depicted above him is a centaur, from Greek mythology, a common motif in Hellenistic art
Right image: painted clay and alabaster head of a Zoroastrian priest wearing a distinctive Bactrian-style headdress, Takhti-Sangin, Tajikistan, 3rd–2nd century BC
Left image: a gold coin of Diodotus, c. 250 BC
Right image: a barbaric copy of a coin of Euthydemus I, from the region of Sogdiana; the legend on the reverse is in Aramaic script.

A now-independent and warlike Sogdiana formed a border region insulating the Achaemenid Persians from the nomadic Scythians to the north and east. It was led at first by Bessus, the Achaemenid satrap of Bactria. After assassinating Darius III in his flight from the Macedonian Greek army, he became claimant to the Achaemenid throne. The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes, a fortress in Sogdiana, was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great, the basileus of Macedonian Greece, and conqueror of the Persian Achaemenid Empire. Oxyartes, a Sogdian nobleman of Bactria, had hoped to keep his daughter Roxana safe at the fortress of the Sogdian Rock, yet after its fall Roxana was soon wed to Alexander as one of his several wives. Roxana, a Sogdian whose name Roshanak means "little star", was the mother of Alexander IV of Macedon, who inherited his late father's throne in 323 BC (although the empire was soon divided in the Wars of the Diadochi).

After an extended campaign putting down Sogdian resistance and founding military outposts manned by his Macedonian veterans, Alexander united Sogdiana with Bactria into one satrapy. The Sogdian nobleman and warlord Spitamenes (370–328 BC), allied with Scythian tribes, led an uprising against Alexander's forces. This revolt was put down by Alexander and his generals Amyntas, Craterus, and Coenus, with the aid of native Bactrian and Sogdian troops. With the Scythian and Sogdian rebels defeated, Spitamenes was allegedly betrayed by his own wife and beheaded. Pursuant with his own marriage to Roxana, Alexander encouraged his men to marry Sogdian women in order to discourage further revolt. This included Apama, daughter of the rebel Spitamenes, who wed Seleucus I Nicator and bore him a son and future heir to the Seleucid throne. According to the Roman historian Appian, Seleucus I named three new Hellenistic cities in Asia after her (see Apamea).

The military power of the Sogdians never recovered. Subsequently, Sogdiana formed part of the Hellenistic Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a breakaway state from the Seleucid Empire founded in 248 BC by Diodotus I, for roughly a century. Euthydemus I, a former satrap of Sogdiana, seems to have held the Sogdian territory as a rival claimant to the Greco-Bactrian throne; his coins were later copied locally and bore Aramaic inscriptions. The Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides I may have recovered sovereignty of Sogdia temporarily. Finally the area was occupied by nomads when the Scythians and Yuezhis overran it around 145 BC. From then until about 40 BC the Yuezhi tepidly minted coins imitating and still bearing the images of the Greco-Bactrian kings Eucratides I and Heliocles I, yet soon afterwards they began minting unique coins bearing the faces of their own rulers as a prelude to asserting themselves as a world power under the Kushan Empire.

The American historian Homer H. Dubs offered the suggestion that a lost legion from the Roman army of Crassus that fought at Carrhae encountered and even fought a Chinese army of the Han Dynasty in the region:

... [In 36 BC a] Han expedition into central Asia, west of the Jaxartes River, apparently encountered and defeated a contingent of Roman legionaries. The Romans may have been the enslaved remnants of Crassus' army, defeated by the Parthians and forced to fight on their eastern frontier. Sogdiana (modern Bukhara), east of the Oxus River, on the Polytimetus River, was apparently the most easterly penetration ever made by Roman forces in Asia. The margin of Chinese victory appears to have been their crossbows, whose bolts and darts seem easily to have penetrated Roman shields and armour.

However, this interpretation has been disputed by scholars such as Schuyler V. Cammann.

Central Asia and the Silk Road

Left image: a Sogdian silk brocade textile fragment, dated c. 700 AD
Right image: and a Sogdian silver wine cup with mercury gilding, 7th century AD
Left image: A Chinese Eastern Han (25–220 AD) ceramic statuette of a Sogdian caravan leader of the Silk Road, wearing a distinctive Sogdian cap
Right image: A grey pottery figurine of a Sogdian groom, Chinese Tang Dynasty, 7th century AD

Most merchants did not travel the entire Silk Road, but would trade goods through middlemen based in oasis towns, such as Khotan or Dunhuang. The Sogdians, however, established a trading network across the 1500 miles from Sogdiana to China. In fact, the Sogdians turned their energies to trade so thoroughly that the Saka of the Kingdom of Khotan called all merchants suli, "Sogdian", whatever their culture or ethnicity. Unlike the empires of antiquity, the Sogdian region was not a territory confined within fixed borders, but rather a network of city-states, from one oasis to another, linking Sogdiana to Byzantium, India, Indochina and China. Sogdian contacts with China were initiated by the embassy of the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) of the former Han dynasty. Zhang wrote a report of his visit to the Western Regions in Central Asia and named the area of Sogdiana as "Kangju".

Left image: Sogdian men feasting and eating at a banquet, from a wall mural of Panjakent, Tajikistan, 7th century AD
Right image: Detail of a mural from Varakhsha, 6th century AD, showing elephant riders fighting tigers and monsters.

Following Zhang Qian's embassy and report, commercial Chinese relations with Central Asia and Sogdiana flourished, as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC. In his Shiji published in 94 BC, Chinese historian Sima Qian remarked that "the largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons, while even the smaller parties included over 100 members ... In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out." In terms of the silk trade, the Sogdians also served as the primary middlemen between the Chinese Han Empire and the Parthian Empire of the Middle East and West Asia. Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century, their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century.

Left image: Sancai-glazed figurine depicting a Sogdian holding a wineskin, Chinese Tang dynasty, c. 675–750 AD
Right image: ceramic figurine of a Sogdian merchant in northern China, Tang Dynasty, 7th century AD
Left image: Sogdian coin, 6th century, British Museum
Right image: Chinese-influenced Sogdian coin, from Kelpin, 8th century, British Museum

Subsequent to their domination by Alexander the Great, the Sogdians from the city of Marakanda (Samarkand) became dominant as traveling merchants, occupying a key position along the ancient Silk Road. They played an active role in the spread of faiths such as Manicheism, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism along the Silk Road. The Chinese Sui Shu (Book of Sui) describes Sogdians as "skilled merchants" who attracted many foreign traders to their land to engage in commerce. They were described by the Chinese as born merchants, learning their commercial skills at an early age. It appears from sources, such as documents found by Sir Aurel Stein and others, that by the 4th century they may have monopolized trade between India and China. A letter written by Sogdian merchants dated 313 AD and found in the ruins of a watchtower in Gansu, was intended to be sent to merchants in Samarkand, warning them that after Liu Cong of Han Zhao sacked Luoyang and the Jin emperor fled the capital, there was no worthwhile business there for Indian and Sogdian merchants. Furthermore, in 568 AD, a Turko-Sogdian delegation travelled to the Roman emperor in Constantinople to obtain permission to trade and in the following years commercial activity between the states flourished. Put simply, the Sogdians dominated trade along the Silk Road from the 2nd century BC until the 10th century.

Suyab and Talas in modern-day Kyrgyzstan were the main Sogdian centers in the north that dominated the caravan routes of the 6th to 8th centuries. Their commercial interests were protected by the resurgent military power of the Göktürks, whose empire was built on the political power of the Ashina clan and economic clout of the Sogdians. Sogdian trade, with some interruptions, continued into the 9th century. For instance, camels, women, girls, silver, and gold were seized from Sogdia during a raid by Qapaghan Qaghan (692–716), ruler of the Second Turkic Khaganate. In the 10th century, Sogdiana was incorporated into the Uighur Empire, which until 840 encompassed northern Central Asia. This khaganate obtained enormous deliveries of silk from Tang China in exchange for horses, in turn relying on the Sogdians to sell much of this silk further west. Peter B. Golden writes that the Uyghurs not only adopted the writing system and religious faiths of the Sogdians, such as Manichaeism, Buddhism, and Christianity, but also looked to the Sogdians as "mentors", while gradually replacing them in their roles as Silk Road traders and purveyors of culture. Muslim geographers of the 10th century drew upon Sogdian records dating to 750–840. After the end of the Uyghur Empire, Sogdian trade underwent a crisis. Following the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana in the 8th century, the Samanids resumed trade on the northwestern road leading to the Khazars and the Urals and the northeastern one toward the nearby Turkic tribes.

During the 5th and 6th century, many Sogdians took up residence in the Hexi Corridor, where they retained autonomy in terms of governance and had a designated official administrator known as a sabao, which suggests their importance to the socioeconomic structure of China. The Sogdian influence on trade in China is also made apparent by a Chinese document which lists taxes paid on caravan trade in the Turpan region and shows that twenty-nine out of the thirty-five commercial transactions involved Sogdian merchants, and in thirteen of those cases both the buyer and the seller were Sogdian. Trade goods brought to China included grapes, alfalfa, and Sassanian silverware, as well as glass containers, Mediterranean coral, brass Buddhist images, Roman wool cloth, and Baltic amber. These were exchanged for Chinese paper, copper, and silk. In the 7th century, the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang noted with approval that Sogdian boys were taught to read and write at the age of five, though their skill was turned to trade, disappointing the scholarly Xuanzang. He also recorded the Sogdians working in other capacities such as farmers, carpetweavers, glassmakers, and woodcarvers.

Trade and diplomacy with the Byzantine Empire

Historical knowledge about Sogdia is somewhat hazy during the period of the Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD) in Persia. The subsequent Sasanian Empire of Persia conquered and incorporated Sogdia as a satrapy in 260, an inscription dating to the reign of Shapur I noting that its limits formed the northeastern Sasanian borderlands with the Kushan Empire. However, by the 5th century the region was captured by the rival Hephthalite Empire.

Shortly after the smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire from China by Nestorian Christian monks, the 6th-century Byzantine historian Menander Protector writes of how the Sogdians attempted to establish a direct trade of Chinese silk with the Byzantine Empire. After forming an alliance with the Sasanian ruler Khosrow I to defeat the Hephthalite Empire, Istämi, the Göktürk ruler of the First Turkic Khaganate, was approached by Sogdian merchants requesting permission to seek an audience with the Sassanid king of kings for the privilege of traveling through Persian territories in order to trade with the Byzantines. Istämi refused the first request, but when he sanctioned the second one and had the Sogdian embassy sent to the Sassanid king, the latter had the members of the embassy poisoned. Maniah, a Sogdian diplomat, convinced Istämi to send an embassy directly to Byzantium's capital Constantinople, which arrived in 568 and offered not only silk as a gift to Byzantine ruler Justin II, but also proposed an alliance against Sassanid Persia. Justin II agreed and sent an embassy to the Turkic Khaganate, ensuring the direct silk trade desired by the Sogdians.

It appears, however, that direct trade with the Sogdians remained limited in light of the small amount of Roman and Byzantine coins found in Central Asian and Chinese archaeological sites belonging to this era. Although Roman embassies apparently reached Han China from 166 AD onwards, and the ancient Romans imported Han Chinese silk while the Han-dynasty Chinese imported Roman glasswares as discovered in their tombs, Valerie Hansen (2012) wrote that no Roman coins from the Roman Republic (507–27 BC) or the Principate (27 BC – 330 AD) era of the Roman Empire have been found in China. However, Warwick Ball (2016) upends this notion by pointing to a hoard of sixteen Roman coins found at Xi'an, China (formerly Chang'an), dated to the reigns of various emperors from Tiberius (14–37 AD) to Aurelian (270–275 AD). The earliest gold solidus coins from the Eastern Roman Empire found in China date to the reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius II (r. 408–450) and altogether only forty-eight of them have been found (compared to thirteen-hundred silver coins) in Xinjiang and the rest of China. The use of silver coins in Turfan persisted long after the Tang campaign against Karakhoja and Chinese conquest of 640, with a gradual adoption of Chinese bronze coinage over the course of the 7th century. The fact that these Eastern Roman coins were almost always found with Sasanian Persian silver coins and Eastern Roman gold coins were used more as ceremonial objects like talismans, confirms the pre-eminent importance of Greater Iran in Chinese Silk Road commerce of Central Asia compared to Eastern Rome.

Sogdian merchants, generals, and statesmen of Imperial China

Left image: kneeling Sogdian donors to the Buddha (fresco, with detail), Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, near Turpan in the eastern Tarim Basin, China, 8th century
Right image: the stone tomb gate and couch of An Jia (安伽), a Northern Zhou (557–581 AD) period Sogdian nobleman, excavated from Chang'an (modern Xi'an), China; An Jia held the title of Sar-pav of Tongzhou prefecture and was in charge of commercial affairs of foreign merchants from Middle Asia, who made businesses in China; the stone gate is flanked by two lions and the horizontal tablet is carved with a sacrificial scene in accordance with Zoroastrianism

Aside from the Sogdians of Central Asia who acted as middlemen in the Silk Road trade, other Sogdians settled down in China for generations. Although many Sogdians had fled Luoyang following the collapse of the Jin Dynasty's control over northern China in 311 AD, some Sogdians continued living in Gansu. Sogdian families living in Gansu created funerary epitaphs explaining the history of their illustrious houses. For instance, a sabao (薩保, from Sanskrit sarthavaha, meaning caravan leader) from Anxi (western Sogdiana or Parthia) who lived in Jiuquan during the Northern Wei (386 – 535 AD), was the ancestor of An Tugen, a man who rose from a common merchant to become a top ranking minister of state for the Northern Qi (550 – 577 AD). Valerie Hansen asserts that around this time and extending into the Tang Dynasty (618 – 907 AD), the Sogdians "became the most influential of the non-Chinese groups resident in China," settling throughout Chinese territory, marrying Chinese women, purchasing land, with newcomers living there permanently instead of returning to their homelands in Sogdiana. They were concentrated in large numbers around Luoyang and Chang'an, and also Xiangyang in present-day Hubei, building Zoroastrian temples to service their communities once they reached the threshold of roughly 100 households. From the Northern Qi to Tang periods, the leaders of these communities, the sabao, were incorporated into the official hierarchy of state officials. Their burial practices blended both Chinese forms such as carved funerary beds with Zoroastrian sensibilities in mind, such as separating the body from both the earth and water.

Two Buddhist monks on a mural of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan, Xinjiang, China, 9th century AD. Albert von Le Coq (1913) assumed the blue-eyed, red-haired monk was a Tocharian, modern scholarship however identified similar Caucasian figures of (No. 9) as ethnic Sogdians, who were a minority in Turpan during the Tang Dynasty in 7th–8th century and Uyghur rule (9th–13th century).

In addition to being merchants, monks, and government officials, Sogdians also served as soldiers in the Tang military. An Lushan, whose father was Sogdian and mother a Gokturk, rose to the position of a military governor (jiedushi) in the northeast before leading the An Lushan Rebellion (755 – 763 AD), which split the loyalties of the Sogdians in China. The An Lushan rebellion was supported by many Sogdians, and in its aftermath many of them were slain or changed their names to escape their Sogdian heritage, so that little is known about the Sogdian presence in North China since that time. Sogdians continued as active traders in China following the defeat of the rebellion, but many of them were compelled to hide their ethnic identity. A prominent case was An Chongzhang, Minister of War, and Duke of Liang who, in 756, asked Emperor Suzong of Tang to allow him to change his name to Li Baoyu because of his shame in sharing the same surname with the rebel leader. This change of surnames was enacted retroactively for all of his family members, so that his ancestors would also be bestowed the surname Li.

During the Tang and subsequent Five Dynasties and Song Dynasty, a large community of Sogdians also existed in the multicultural entrepôt of Dunhuang, Gansu, a major center of Buddhist learning and home to the Buddhist Mogao Caves. Although Dunhuang and the Hexi Corridor were captured by the Tibetan Empire after the An Lushan Rebellion, in 848 the ethnic Han Chinese general Zhang Yichao (799–872) managed to wrestle control of the region from the Tibetans during their civil war, establishing the Guiyi Circuit under Emperor Xuānzong of Tang (r. 846–859). Although the region occasionally fell under the rule of different states, it retained its multilingual nature as evidenced by an abundance of manuscripts (religious and secular) in Chinese and Tibetan, but also Sogdian, Khotanese (another Eastern Iranian language native to the region), Uyghur, and Sanskrit.

From the Chinese surnames listed in the Tang-era Dunhuang manuscript Pelliot chinois 3319V (containing the following text: 石定信右全石丑子石定奴福延福全保昌張丑子李千子李定信), the names of the Nine Zhaowu Clans (昭武九姓), the prominent ethnic Sogdian communities of China, have been deduced. Each "clan" is indicating a different place of birth, as the Sogdians were from different city-states, and used the name of their hometown as their Chinese surname. Of these the most common Sogdian surname throughout China was Shí (石, generally given to those from Chach, modern Tashkent), whereas the surnames Shǐ (史, from Kesh, modern Shahrisabz), An (安, from Bukhara), Mi (米, from Panjakent), Kāng (康, from Samarkand), Cáo (曹, from Kabudhan, north of the Zeravshan River), and (何, from Kushaniyah) appear frequently in Dunhuang manuscripts and registers. The influence of Sinicized and multilingual Sogdians during this Guiyijun (歸義軍) period (c. 850 – c. 1000 AD) of Dunhuang is evident in a large number of manuscripts written in Chinese characters from left to right instead of vertically, mirroring the direction of how the Sogdian alphabet is read. Sogdians of Dunhuang also commonly formed and joined lay associations among their local communities, convening at Sogdian-owned taverns in scheduled meetings mentioned in their epistolary letters. Sogdians living in Turfan under the Tang dynasty and Gaochang Kingdom engaged in a variety of occupations that included: farming, military service, painting, leather crafting and selling products such as iron goods. The Sogdians had been migrating to Turfan since the 4th century, yet the pace of migration began to climb steadily with the Muslim conquest of Persia and Fall of the Sasanian Empire in 651, followed by the Islamic conquest of Samarkand in 712.

Arab Muslim conquest of Central Asia

Left image: a lion motif on Sogdian polychrome silk, 8th century AD, most likely from Bukhara
Right image: a caftan worn by a horseman along the Silk Road, 8th–10th century AD, Metropolitan Museum of Art

Qutayba ibn Muslim (669–716), Governor of Greater Khorasan under the Umayyad Caliphate (661–750), initiated the Muslim conquest of Sogdia during the early 8th century, with the local ruler of Balkh offering him aid as an Umayyad ally. However, when his successor al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah governed Khorasan (717–719), many native Sogdians, who had converted to Islam, began to revolt when they were no longer exempt from paying the tax on non-Muslims, the jizya, because of a new law stating that proof of circumcision and literacy in the Quran was necessary for new converts. With the aid of the Turkic Turgesh, the Sogdians were able to expel the Umayyad Arab garrison from Samarkand, and Umayyad attempts to restore power there were rebuffed until the arrival of Sa'id ibn Amr al-Harashi (fl. 720–735). The Sogdian ruler (i.e. ikhshid) of Samarkand, Gurak, who had previously overthrown the pro-Umayyad Sogdian ruler Tarkhun in 710, decided that resistance against al-Harashi's large Arab force was pointless, and thereafter persuaded his followers to declare allegiance to the Umayyad governor. Divashtich (r. 706–722), the Sogdian ruler of Panjakent, led his forces to the Zarafshan Range (near modern Zarafshan, Tajikistan), whereas the Sogdians following Karzanj, the ruler of Pai (modern Kattakurgan, Uzbekistan), fled to the Principality of Farghana, where their ruler at-Tar (or Alutar) promised them safety and refuge from the Umayyads. However, at-Tar secretly informed al-Harashi of the Sogdians hiding in Khujand, who were then slaughtered by al-Harashi's forces after their arrival.

A Tang Dynasty Chinese ceramic statuette of a Sogdian merchant riding on a Bactrian camel

The Umayyads fell in 750 to the Abbasid Caliphate, which quickly asserted itself in Central Asia after winning the Battle of Talas (along the Talas River in modern Talas Oblast, Kyrgyzstan) in 751, against the Chinese Tang Dynasty. This conflict incidentally introduced Chinese papermaking to the Islamic world. The cultural consequences and political ramifications of this battle meant the retreat of the Chinese empire from Central Asia. It also allowed for the rise of the Samanid Empire (819–999), a Persian state centered at Bukhara (in what is now modern Uzbekistan) that nominally observed the Abbasids as their overlords, yet retained a great deal of autonomy and upheld the mercantile legacy of the Sogdians. Yet the Sogdian language gradually declined in favor of the Persian language of the Samanids (the ancestor to the modern Tajik language), the spoken language of renowned poets and intellectuals of the age such as Ferdowsi (940–1020). So too did the original religions of the Sogdians decline; Zoroastrianism, Buddhism, Manichaeism, and Nestorian Christianity disappeared in the region by the end of the Samanid period. The Samanids were also responsible for converting the surrounding Turkic peoples to Islam, which presaged the conquest of their empire in 999 by an Islamic Turkic power, the Kara-Khanid Khanate (840–1212).

During the early 13th century, Khwarezmia was invaded by the early Mongol Empire and its ruler Genghis Khan destroyed the once vibrant cities of Bukhara and Samarkand. However, in 1370, Samarkand saw a revival as the capital of the Timurid Empire. The Turko-Mongol ruler Timur forcefully brought artisans and intellectuals from across Asia to Samarkand, transforming it not only into a trade hub but also one of the most important cities of the Islamic world.

The 6th century is thought to be the peak of Sogdian culture, judging by its highly developed artistic tradition. By this point, the Sogdians were entrenched in their role as the central Asian traveling and trading merchants, transferring goods, culture and religion. During the Middle Ages, the valley of the Zarafshan around Samarkand retained its Sogdian name, Samarkand. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica, medieval Arab geographers considered it one of the four fairest regions of the world. Where the Sogdians moved in considerable numbers, their language made a considerable impact. For instance, during China's Han dynasty, the native name of the Tarim Basin city-state of Loulan was "Kroraina," possibly from Greek due to nearby Hellenistic influence. However, centuries later in 664 AD, the Tang Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang labelled it as "Nafupo" (納縛溥), which according to Dr. Hisao Matsuda is a transliteration of the Sogdian word Navapa meaning "new water."

Art

Main article: Sogdian art

The Afrasiab paintings of the 6th to 7th centuries in Samarkand, Uzbekistan, offer a rare surviving example of Sogdian art. The paintings, showing scenes of daily life and events such as the arrival of foreign ambassadors, are located within the ruins of aristocratic homes. It is unclear if any of these palatial residences served as the official palace of the rulers of Samarkand. The oldest surviving Sogdian monumental wall murals date to the 5th century and are located at Panjakent, Tajikistan. In addition to revealing aspects of their social and political lives, Sogdian art has also been instrumental in aiding historians' understanding of their religious beliefs. For instance, it is clear that Buddhist Sogdians incorporated some of their own Iranian deities into their version of the Buddhist Pantheon. At Zhetysu, Sogdian gilded bronze plaques on a Buddhist temple show a pairing of a male and female deity with outstretched hands holding a miniature camel, a common non-Buddhist image similarly found in the paintings of Samarkand and Panjakent.

Language

Left image: The "Bugut" inscription of Mongolia, written shortly after 581 AD in the Sogdian alphabet, and commissioned by the First Turkic Khaganate to relate the history of their ruling Gokturk khans
Right image: a contract written in Chinese from the Tang dynasty in Turpan that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins, dated 661 AD

The Sogdians spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Sogdian, closely related to Bactrian, Khwarazmian, and the Khotanese language Saka, widely spoken Eastern Iranian languages of Central Asia in ancient times. Sogdian was also prominent in the oasis city-state of Turfan in the Tarim Basin region of Northwest China (in modern Xinjiang). Judging by the Sogdian Bugut inscription of Mongolia written c. 581, the Sogdian language was also an official language of the First Turkic Khaganate established by the Gokturks.

Sogdian was written largely in three scripts: the Sogdian alphabet, the Syriac alphabet, and the Manichaean alphabet, each derived from the Aramaic alphabet, which had been widely used in both the Achaemenid and Parthian empires of ancient Iran. The Sogdian alphabet formed the basis of the Old Uyghur alphabet of the 8th century, which in turn was used to create the Mongolian script of the early Mongol Empire during the 13th century. Later in 1599, the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people.

The Yaghnobi people living in the Sughd province of Tajikistan still speak a dialect of the Sogdian language. Yaghnobi is largely a continuation of the medieval Sogdian dialect from the Osrushana region of the western Fergana Valley. The great majority of the Sogdian people assimilated with other local groups such as the Bactrians, Chorasmians, and in particular with Persians, and came to speak Persian. In 819, the Persians founded the Samanid Empire in the region. They are among the ancestors of the modern Tajiks. Numerous Sogdian cognates can be found in the modern Tajik language, although the latter is a Western Iranian language.

Clothing

Left image: a male mannequin showing the medieval-era clothing for Sogdian men from Panjakent, Tajikistan National Museum, Dushanbe
Right image: a female mannequin showing the medieval-era clothing for Sogdian women from Afrasiyab (Samarkand), Tajikistan National Museum, Dushanbe

Early medieval Sogdian costumes can be divided in two periods: Hephtalitic (5th and 6th centuries) and Turkic (7th and early 8th centuries). The latter did not become common immediately after the political dominance of the Gökturks but only in c. 620 when, especially following Western Turkic Khagan Ton-jazbgu's reforms, Sogd was Turkized and the local nobility was officially included in the Khaganate's administration.

For both sexes clothes were tight-fitted, and narrow waists and wrists were appreciated. The silhouettes for grown men and young girls emphasized wide shoulders and narrowed to the waist; the silhouettes for female aristocrats were more complicated. The Sogdian clothing underwent a thorough process of Islamization in the ensuing centuries, with few of the original elements remaining. In their stead, turbans, kaftans, and sleeved coats became more common.

Religious beliefs

Sogdians, depicted on a Chinese Sogdian sarcophagus of the Northern Qi Dynasty (550–577 AD)
Left image: An 8th-century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy.
Right image: Chinese Tang Dynasty era statues of Sogdian merchants
Sogdians in a religious procession, a 5th–6th-century tomb mural discovered at Tung-wan City.

The Sogdians practiced a variety of religious faiths. However, Zoroastrianism was most likely their main religion, as demonstrated by material evidence, such as the discovery in Samarkand, Panjakent and Er-Kurgan of murals depicting votaries making offerings before fire altars and ossuaries holding the bones of the dead - in accordance with Zoroastrian ritual. At Turfan, Sogdian burials shared similar features with traditional Chinese practices, yet they still retained essential Zoroastrian rituals, such as allowing the bodies to be picked clean by scavengers before burying the bones in ossuaries. They also sacrificed animals to Zoroastrian deities, including the supreme deity Ahura Mazda. Zoroastrianism remained the dominant religion among Sogdians until after the Islamic conquest, when they gradually converted to Islam, as is shown by Richard Bulliet's "conversion curve".

The Sogdian religious texts found in China and dating to the Northern Dynasties, Sui, and Tang are mostly Buddhist (translated from Chinese sources), Manichaean, and Nestorian Christian, with only a small minority of Zoroastrian texts. But, tombs of Sogdian merchants in China dated to the last third of the 6th century show predominantly Zoroastrian motifs or Zoroastrian-Manichaean syncretism, while archaeological remains from Sogdiana appear fairly Iranian and conservatively Zoroastrian.

However, the Sogdians epitomized the religious plurality found along the trade routes. The largest body of Sogdian texts are Buddhist, and Sogdians were among the principal translators of Buddhist sutras into Chinese. However, Buddhism did not take root in Sogdiana itself. Additionally, the Bulayiq monastery to the north of Turpan contained Sogdian Christian texts, and there are numerous Manichaean texts in Sogdiana from nearby Qocho. The reconversion of Sogdians from Buddhism to Zoroastrianism coincided with the adoption of Zoroastrianism by the Sassanid Empire of Persia. From the 4th century onwards, Sogdian Buddhist pilgrims left behind evidence of their travels along the steep cliffs of the Indus River and Hunza Valley. It was here that they carved images of the Buddha and holy stupas in addition to their full names, in hopes that the Buddha would grant them his protection.

The Sogdians also practiced Manichaeism, the faith of Mani, which they spread among the Uyghurs. The Uyghur Khaganate (744–840 AD) developed close ties to Tang China once it had aided the Tang in suppressing the rebellion of An Lushan and his Göktürk successor Shi Siming, establishing an annual trade relationship of one million bolts of Chinese silk for one hundred thousand horses. The Uyghurs relied on Sogdian merchants to sell much of this silk further west along the Silk Road, a symbiotic relationship that led many Uyghurs to adopt Manichaeism from the Sogdians. However, evidence of Manichaean liturgical and canonical texts of Sogdian origin remains fragmentary and sparse compared to their corpus of Buddhist writings. The Uyghurs were also followers of Buddhism. For instance, they can be seen wearing silk robes in the praṇidhi scenes of the Uyghur Bezeklik Buddhist murals of Xinjiang, China, particularly Scene 6 from Temple 9 showing .

In addition to Puranic cults, there were five Hindu deities known to have been worshipped in Sogdiana. These were Brahma, Indra, Mahadeva (Shiva), Narayana, and Vaishravana; the gods Brahma, Indra, and Shiva were known by their Sogdian names Zravan, Adbad and Veshparkar, respectively. Durga, a mother goddess in Shaktism, may be represented in Sogdian art as a four-armed goddess riding atop a lion. As seen in an 8th-century mural from Panjakent, portable fire altars can be "associated" with Mahadeva-Veshparkar, Brahma-Zravan, and Indra-Abdab, according to Braja Bihārī Kumar.

Among the Sogdian Christians known in China from inscriptions and texts were An Yena, a Christian from An country (Bukhara). Mi Jifen a Christian from Mi country (Maymurgh), Kang Zhitong, a Sogdian Christian cleric from Kang country (Samarkand), Mi Xuanqing a Sogdian Christian cleric from Mi country (Maymurgh), Mi Xuanying, a Sogdian Christian cleric from Mi country (Maymurgh), An Qingsu, a Sogdian Christian monk from An country (Bukhara).

When visiting Yuan-era Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China during the late 13th century, the Venetian explorer and merchant Marco Polo noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built there. His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar-Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there, in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century. Nestorian Christianity had existed in China earlier during the Tang Dynasty when a Persian monk named Alopen came to Chang'an in 653 to proselytize, as described in a dual Chinese and Syriac language inscription from Chang'an (modern Xi'an), dated to the year 781. Within the Syriac inscription is a list of priests and monks, one of whom is named Gabriel, the archdeacon of "Xumdan" and "Sarag", the Sogdian names for the Chinese capital cities Chang'an and Luoyang, respectively. In regards to textual material, the earliest Christian gospel texts translated into Sogdian coincide with the reign of the Sasanian Persian monarch Yazdegerd II (r. 438–457), and were translated from the Peshitta, the standard version of the Bible in Syriac Christianity.

A Sogdian gilded silver dish with the image of a tiger, with clear influence from Persian Sasanian art and silverwares,[citation needed] 7th to 8th centuries AD
Silk road figure head, probably Sogdian, Chinese Sui Dynasty (581–618), Musée Cernuschi, Paris

Slavery existed in China since ancient times, although during the Han dynasty the proportion of slaves to the overall population was roughly 1%, far lower than the estimate for the contemporary Greco-Roman world (estimated at about 15% of the entire population). During the Tang period, slaves were not allowed to marry a commoner's daughter, were not allowed to have sexual relations with any female member of their master's family, and although fornication with female slaves was forbidden in the Tang code of law, it was widely practiced. Manumission was also permitted when a slave woman gave birth to her master's son, which allowed for her elevation to the legal status of a commoner, yet she could only live as a concubine and not as the wife of her former master.

Sogdian and Chinese merchants regularly traded in slaves in and around Turpan during the Tang dynasty. Turpan under Tang dynasty rule was a center of major commercial activity between Chinese and Sogdian merchants. There were many inns in Turpan. Some provided Sogdian sex workers with an opportunity to service the Silk Road merchants, since the official histories report that there were markets in women at Kucha and Khotan. The Sogdian-language contract buried at the Astana graveyard demonstrates that at least one Chinese man bought a Sogdian girl in 639 AD. One of the archaeologists who excavated the Astana site, Wu Zhen, contends that, although many households along the Silk Road bought individual slaves, as we can see in the earlier documents from Niya, the Turpan documents point to a massive escalation in the volume of the slave trade. In 639 a female Sogdian slave was sold to a Chinese man, as recorded in an Astana cemetery legal document written in Sogdian. Khotan and Kucha were places where women were commonly sold, with ample evidence of the slave trade in Turfan thanks to contemporary textual sources that have survived. In Tang poetry Sogdian girls also frequently appear as serving maids in the taverns and inns of the capital Chang'an.

Sogdian slave girls and their Chinese male owners made up the majority of Sogdian female-Chinese male pairings, while free Sogdian women were the most common spouse of Sogdian men. A smaller number of Chinese women were paired with elite Sogdian men. Sogdian man-and-woman pairings made up eighteen out of twenty-one marriages according to existing documents.

A document dated 731 AD reveals that precisely forty bolts of silk were paid to a certain Mi Lushan, a slave dealing Sogdian, by a Chinese man named Tang Rong (唐榮) of Chang'an, for the purchase of an eleven-year-old girl. A person from Xizhou, a Tokharistani (i.e. Bactrian), and three Sogdians verified the sale of the girl.

In 1916, the French Sinologist and historian Paul Pelliot used Tang Chinese manuscripts excavated from Dunhuang, Gansu to identify an ancient Sogdian colony south of Lop Nur in Xinjiang (Northwest China), which he argued was the base for the spread of Buddhism and Nestorian Christianity in China. In 1926, Japanese scholar Kuwabara compiled evidence for Sogdians in Chinese historical sources, and by 1933, Chinese historian Xiang Da published his Tang Chang'an and Central Asian Culture, detailing the Sogdian influence on Chinese social religious life in the Tang-era Chinese capital city. The Canadian Sinologist Edwin G. Pulleyblank published an article in 1952, demonstrating the presence of a Sogdian colony founded in Six Hu Prefectures of the Ordos Loop during the Chinese Tang period, composed of Sogdians and Turkic peoples who migrated from the Mongolian steppe. The Japanese historian Ikeda on wrote an article in 1965, outlining the history of the Sogdians inhabiting Dunhuang from the beginning of the 7th century, analyzing lists of their Sinicized names and the role of Zoroastrianism and Buddhism in their religious life. Yoshida Yutaka and Kageyama Etsuko, Japanese ethnographers and linguists of the Sogdian language, were able to reconstruct Sogdian names from forty-five different Chinese transliterations, noting that these were common in Turfan whereas Sogdians living closer to the center of Chinese civilization for generations adopted traditional Chinese names.

A minted coin of Khunak, king of Bukhara, early 8th century, showing the crowned king on the obverse, and a Zoroastrian fire altar on the reverse
Roxana, wife of Alexander the Great and mother of Alexander IV
Pranidhi scene, temple 9 (Cave 20) of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves, Turfan, Xinjiang, China, 9th century AD, with kneeling figures praying in front of the Buddha who Albert von Le Coq assumed were Persian people (German: "Perser"), noting their Caucasian features and green eyes, and comparing the hat of the man on the left (in the green coat) to headgear worn by Sasanian Persian princes. However, modern scholarship has identified (No. 9) as depicting Sogdians, who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority during the phases of Tang Chinese (7th–8th century) and Uyghur rule (9th–13th century).

Citations

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Notes

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Coordinates:40°24′N69°24′E /40.4°N 69.4°E /40.4; 69.4

Sogdia
Sogdia Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Sogdiana Sogdia ˈ s ɒ ɡ d i e Sogdian soɣd or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization in present day Uzbekistan Tajikistan Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan Sogdiana was also a province of the Achaemenid Empire and listed on the Behistun Inscription of Darius the Great 4 5 6 Sogdiana was first conquered by Cyrus the Great the founder of the Achaemenid Empire and then was annexed by the Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great in 328 BC It would continue to change hands under the Seleucid Empire Greco Bactrian Kingdom Kushan Empire Hephthalite Empire and Sasanian Empire Sogdia Sogdiana c 300 BC then under the Seleucid Empire one of the successor states to the empire created by Alexander the GreatLanguages Sogdian languageReligions Zoroastrianism Manichaeism Buddhism Islam Nestorian Christianity 1 Capitals Samarkand Bukhara Khujand KeshArea Between the Amu Darya and the Syr DaryaExisted 6th century BC to 11th century ADCurrency Imitations of Sassanian coins and Chinese cash coins as well as hybrids of both 2 3 The Sogdian city states although never politically united were centered on the city of Samarkand Sogdiana lay north of Bactria east of Khwarezm and southeast of Kangju between the Oxus Amu Darya and the Jaxartes Syr Darya including the fertile valley of the Zeravshan called the Polytimetus by the ancient Greeks 7 Sogdian territory corresponds to the modern provinces of Samarkand and Bokhara in modern Uzbekistan as well as the Sughd province of modern Tajikistan In the High Middle Ages Sogdian cities included sites stretching towards Issyk Kul such as that at the archeological site of Suyab Sogdian an Eastern Iranian language is no longer spoken but a descendant of one of its dialects Yaghnobi is still spoken by the Yaghnobis of Tajikistan It was widely spoken in Central Asia as a lingua franca and served as one of the First Turkic Khaganate s court languages for writing documents Sogdians also lived in Imperial China and rose to prominence in the military and government of the Chinese Tang dynasty 618 907 AD Sogdian merchants and diplomats travelled as far west as the Byzantine Empire They played an important part as middlemen in the trade route of the Silk Road While originally following the faiths of Zoroastrianism Manichaeism Buddhism and to a lesser extent Nestorian Christianity from West Asia the gradual conversion to Islam among the Sogdians and their descendants began with the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana in the 8th century The Sogdian conversion to Islam was virtually complete by the end of the Samanid Empire in 999 coinciding with the decline of the Sogdian language as it was largely supplanted by Persian Contents 1 Name 2 History 2 1 Prehistory 2 2 Achaemenid period 2 3 Hellenistic period 2 4 Central Asia and the Silk Road 2 5 Trade and diplomacy with the Byzantine Empire 2 6 Sogdian merchants generals and statesmen of Imperial China 2 7 Arab Muslim conquest of Central Asia 3 Language and culture 3 1 Art 3 2 Language 3 3 Clothing 3 4 Religious beliefs 4 Commerce and slave trade 5 Modern historiography 6 Notable people 7 Diaspora areas 8 See also 9 References 9 1 Citations 9 2 Notes 9 3 Sources 10 Further reading 11 External linksName Edit Details of a replication of the Ambassadors Painting from Afrasiyab Samarkand showing men on a camel 7th century AD Oswald Szemerenyi devotes a thorough discussion to the etymologies of ancient ethnic words for the Scythians in his work Four Old Iranian Ethnic Names Scythian Skudra Sogdian Saka In it the names provided by the Greek historian Herodotus and the names of his title except Saka as well as many other words for Scythian such as Assyrian Askuz and Greek Skuthes descend from skeud an ancient Indo European root meaning propel shoot cf English shoot 8 skud is the zero grade that is a variant in which the e is not present The restored Scythian name is Skuda archer which among the Pontic or Royal Scythians became Skula in which the d has been regularly replaced by an l According to Szemerenyi Sogdiana Old Persian Suguda Uzbek Sug d Sug diyona Persian سغد romanized Soġd Tajik Sugd سغد romanized Suġd Chinese 粟特 Greek Sogdianh romanized Sogdiane was named from the Skuda form Starting from the names of the province given in Old Persian inscriptions Sugda and Suguda and the knowledge derived from Middle Sogdian that Old Persian gd applied to Sogdian was pronounced as voiced fricatives gd Szemerenyi arrives at Sugda as an Old Sogdian endonym 9 Applying sound changes apparent in other Sogdian words and inherent in Indo European he traces the development of Sugda from Skuda archer as follows Skuda gt Sukuda by anaptyxis gt Sukuda gt Sukda syncope gt Sugda assimilation 10 History EditFurther information Transoxiana Turkestan History of Central Asia History of Uzbekistan and History of Tajikistan Prehistory Edit Further information Indo Iranians Centuries before the conquest of Sogdiana by the Achaemenid Empire of Persia Sogdiana possessed a Bronze Age urban culture that was gradually displaced by the Indo European migrations of the Iron Age This large scale migration included Eastern Iranian speaking peoples such as the Sogdians 11 The original Bronze Age towns appear in the archaeological record beginning with the settlement at Sarazm Tajikistan spanning as far back as the 4th millennium BC and then at Kok Tepe near modern day Bulungur Uzbekistan from at least the 15th century BC 12 Achaemenid period Edit Sogdians on an Achaemenid Persian relief from the Apadana of Persepolis offering tributary gifts to the Persian king Darius I 5th century BC Sogdian soldier circa 338 BCE tomb of Artaxerxes III Achaemenid ruler Cyrus the Great conquered Sogdiana while campaigning in Central Asia in 546 539 BC 13 a fact mentioned by the ancient Greek historian Herodotus in his Histories 11 Darius I introduced the Aramaic writing system and coin currency to Central Asia in addition to incorporating Sogdians into his standing army as regular soldiers and cavalrymen 14 A contingent of Sogdian soldiers fought in the main army of Xerxes I during his second ultimately failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC 6 15 A Persian inscription from Susa claims that the palace there was adorned with lapis lazuli and carnelian originating from Sogdiana 6 Given the absence of any named satraps i e Achaemenid provincial governors for Sogdiana in historical records modern scholarship has concluded that Sogdiana was governed from the satrapy of nearby Bactria 16 The satraps were often relatives of the ruling Persian kings especially sons who were not designated as the heir apparent 11 Sogdiana likely remained under Persian control until roughly 400 BC during the reign of Artaxerxes II 17 Rebellious states of the Persian Empire took advantage of the weak Artaxerxes II and some such as Egypt were able to regain their independence Persia s massive loss of Central Asian territory is widely attributed to the ruler s lack of control However unlike Egypt which was quickly recaptured by the Persian Empire Sogdiana remained independent until it was conquered by Alexander the Great When the latter invaded the Persian Empire Pharasmanes an already independent king of Khwarezm allied with the Macedonians and sent troops to Alexander in 329 BC for his war against the Scythians of the Black Sea region even though this anticipated campaign never materialized 17 During the Achaemenid period 550 330 BC the Sogdians lived as a nomadic people much like the neighboring Yuezhi who spoke Bactrian an Indo Iranian language closely related to Sogdian 18 and were already engaging in overland trade Some of them had also gradually settled the land to engage in agriculture 19 Similar to how the Yuezhi offered tributary gifts of jade to the emperors of China the Sogdians are recorded in Persian records as submitting precious gifts of lapis lazuli and carnelian to Darius I the Persian king of kings 19 Although the Sogdians were at times independent and living outside the boundaries of large empires they never formed a great empire of their own like the Yuezhi who established the Kushan Empire 30 375 AD of Central and South Asia 19 Hellenistic period Edit Further information Wars of Alexander the Great Chronology of the expedition of Alexander the Great into Asia and Hellenistic civilization Left image The Sampul tapestry a woolen wall hanging from Lop County Hotan Prefecture Xinjiang China showing a possibly Greek soldier from the Greco Bactrian kingdom 250 125 BC with blue eyes wielding a spear and wearing what appears to be a diadem headband depicted above him is a centaur from Greek mythology a common motif in Hellenistic art 20 Right image painted clay and alabaster head of a Zoroastrian priest wearing a distinctive Bactrian style headdress Takhti Sangin Tajikistan 3rd 2nd century BC Left image a gold coin of Diodotus c 250 BC Right image a barbaric copy of a coin of Euthydemus I from the region of Sogdiana the legend on the reverse is in Aramaic script A now independent and warlike Sogdiana formed a border region insulating the Achaemenid Persians from the nomadic Scythians to the north and east 21 It was led at first by Bessus the Achaemenid satrap of Bactria After assassinating Darius III in his flight from the Macedonian Greek army 22 23 he became claimant to the Achaemenid throne The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great the basileus of Macedonian Greece and conqueror of the Persian Achaemenid Empire 24 Oxyartes a Sogdian nobleman of Bactria had hoped to keep his daughter Roxana safe at the fortress of the Sogdian Rock yet after its fall Roxana was soon wed to Alexander as one of his several wives 25 Roxana a Sogdian whose name Roshanak means little star 26 27 28 was the mother of Alexander IV of Macedon who inherited his late father s throne in 323 BC although the empire was soon divided in the Wars of the Diadochi 29 After an extended campaign putting down Sogdian resistance and founding military outposts manned by his Macedonian veterans Alexander united Sogdiana with Bactria into one satrapy The Sogdian nobleman and warlord Spitamenes 370 328 BC allied with Scythian tribes led an uprising against Alexander s forces This revolt was put down by Alexander and his generals Amyntas Craterus and Coenus with the aid of native Bactrian and Sogdian troops 30 With the Scythian and Sogdian rebels defeated Spitamenes was allegedly betrayed by his own wife and beheaded 31 Pursuant with his own marriage to Roxana Alexander encouraged his men to marry Sogdian women in order to discourage further revolt 25 32 This included Apama daughter of the rebel Spitamenes who wed Seleucus I Nicator and bore him a son and future heir to the Seleucid throne 33 According to the Roman historian Appian Seleucus I named three new Hellenistic cities in Asia after her see Apamea 33 34 The military power of the Sogdians never recovered Subsequently Sogdiana formed part of the Hellenistic Greco Bactrian Kingdom a breakaway state from the Seleucid Empire founded in 248 BC by Diodotus I for roughly a century 35 36 Euthydemus I a former satrap of Sogdiana seems to have held the Sogdian territory as a rival claimant to the Greco Bactrian throne his coins were later copied locally and bore Aramaic inscriptions 37 The Greco Bactrian king Eucratides I may have recovered sovereignty of Sogdia temporarily Finally the area was occupied by nomads when the Scythians and Yuezhis overran it around 145 BC From then until about 40 BC the Yuezhi tepidly minted coins imitating and still bearing the images of the Greco Bactrian kings Eucratides I and Heliocles I yet soon afterwards they began minting unique coins bearing the faces of their own rulers as a prelude to asserting themselves as a world power under the Kushan Empire 38 The American historian Homer H Dubs offered the suggestion that a lost legion from the Roman army of Crassus that fought at Carrhae encountered and even fought a Chinese army of the Han Dynasty in the region In 36 BC a Han expedition into central Asia west of the Jaxartes River apparently encountered and defeated a contingent of Roman legionaries The Romans may have been the enslaved remnants of Crassus army defeated by the Parthians and forced to fight on their eastern frontier Sogdiana modern Bukhara east of the Oxus River on the Polytimetus River was apparently the most easterly penetration ever made by Roman forces in Asia The margin of Chinese victory appears to have been their crossbows whose bolts and darts seem easily to have penetrated Roman shields and armour 39 However this interpretation has been disputed by scholars such as Schuyler V Cammann 40 Central Asia and the Silk Road Edit Main articles Sino Persian relations and Cities along the Silk Road Left image a Sogdian silk brocade textile fragment dated c 700 AD Right image and a Sogdian silver wine cup with mercury gilding 7th century AD Left image A Chinese Eastern Han 25 220 AD ceramic statuette of a Sogdian caravan leader of the Silk Road wearing a distinctive Sogdian cap Right image A grey pottery figurine of a Sogdian groom Chinese Tang Dynasty 7th century AD Most merchants did not travel the entire Silk Road but would trade goods through middlemen based in oasis towns such as Khotan or Dunhuang The Sogdians however established a trading network across the 1500 miles from Sogdiana to China In fact the Sogdians turned their energies to trade so thoroughly that the Saka of the Kingdom of Khotan called all merchants suli Sogdian whatever their culture or ethnicity 41 Unlike the empires of antiquity the Sogdian region was not a territory confined within fixed borders but rather a network of city states from one oasis to another linking Sogdiana to Byzantium India Indochina and China 42 Sogdian contacts with China were initiated by the embassy of the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian during the reign of Emperor Wu r 141 87 BC of the former Han dynasty Zhang wrote a report of his visit to the Western Regions in Central Asia and named the area of Sogdiana as Kangju 43 Left image Sogdian men feasting and eating at a banquet from a wall mural of Panjakent Tajikistan 7th century AD Right image Detail of a mural from Varakhsha 6th century AD showing elephant riders fighting tigers and monsters Following Zhang Qian s embassy and report commercial Chinese relations with Central Asia and Sogdiana flourished 44 as many Chinese missions were sent throughout the 1st century BC In his Shiji published in 94 BC Chinese historian Sima Qian remarked that the largest of these embassies to foreign states numbered several hundred persons while even the smaller parties included over 100 members In the course of one year anywhere from five to six to over ten parties would be sent out 45 In terms of the silk trade the Sogdians also served as the primary middlemen between the Chinese Han Empire and the Parthian Empire of the Middle East and West Asia 46 Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade between China and Central Asia along the Silk Roads as late as the 10th century their language serving as a lingua franca for Asian trade as far back as the 4th century 47 48 Left image Sancai glazed figurine depicting a Sogdian holding a wineskin Chinese Tang dynasty c 675 750 AD Right image ceramic figurine of a Sogdian merchant in northern China Tang Dynasty 7th century AD Left image Sogdian coin 6th century British Museum Right image Chinese influenced Sogdian coin from Kelpin 8th century British Museum Subsequent to their domination by Alexander the Great the Sogdians from the city of Marakanda Samarkand became dominant as traveling merchants occupying a key position along the ancient Silk Road 49 They played an active role in the spread of faiths such as Manicheism Zoroastrianism and Buddhism along the Silk Road The Chinese Sui Shu Book of Sui describes Sogdians as skilled merchants who attracted many foreign traders to their land to engage in commerce 50 They were described by the Chinese as born merchants learning their commercial skills at an early age It appears from sources such as documents found by Sir Aurel Stein and others that by the 4th century they may have monopolized trade between India and China A letter written by Sogdian merchants dated 313 AD and found in the ruins of a watchtower in Gansu was intended to be sent to merchants in Samarkand warning them that after Liu Cong of Han Zhao sacked Luoyang and the Jin emperor fled the capital there was no worthwhile business there for Indian and Sogdian merchants 15 51 Furthermore in 568 AD a Turko Sogdian delegation travelled to the Roman emperor in Constantinople to obtain permission to trade and in the following years commercial activity between the states flourished 52 Put simply the Sogdians dominated trade along the Silk Road from the 2nd century BC until the 10th century 41 Suyab and Talas in modern day Kyrgyzstan were the main Sogdian centers in the north that dominated the caravan routes of the 6th to 8th centuries 53 Their commercial interests were protected by the resurgent military power of the Gokturks whose empire was built on the political power of the Ashina clan and economic clout of the Sogdians 54 55 56 Sogdian trade with some interruptions continued into the 9th century For instance camels women girls silver and gold were seized from Sogdia during a raid by Qapaghan Qaghan 692 716 ruler of the Second Turkic Khaganate 57 In the 10th century Sogdiana was incorporated into the Uighur Empire which until 840 encompassed northern Central Asia This khaganate obtained enormous deliveries of silk from Tang China in exchange for horses in turn relying on the Sogdians to sell much of this silk further west 58 Peter B Golden writes that the Uyghurs not only adopted the writing system and religious faiths of the Sogdians such as Manichaeism Buddhism and Christianity but also looked to the Sogdians as mentors while gradually replacing them in their roles as Silk Road traders and purveyors of culture 59 Muslim geographers of the 10th century drew upon Sogdian records dating to 750 840 After the end of the Uyghur Empire Sogdian trade underwent a crisis Following the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana in the 8th century the Samanids resumed trade on the northwestern road leading to the Khazars and the Urals and the northeastern one toward the nearby Turkic tribes 55 During the 5th and 6th century many Sogdians took up residence in the Hexi Corridor where they retained autonomy in terms of governance and had a designated official administrator known as a sabao which suggests their importance to the socioeconomic structure of China The Sogdian influence on trade in China is also made apparent by a Chinese document which lists taxes paid on caravan trade in the Turpan region and shows that twenty nine out of the thirty five commercial transactions involved Sogdian merchants and in thirteen of those cases both the buyer and the seller were Sogdian 60 Trade goods brought to China included grapes alfalfa and Sassanian silverware as well as glass containers Mediterranean coral brass Buddhist images Roman wool cloth and Baltic amber These were exchanged for Chinese paper copper and silk 41 In the 7th century the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Xuanzang noted with approval that Sogdian boys were taught to read and write at the age of five though their skill was turned to trade disappointing the scholarly Xuanzang He also recorded the Sogdians working in other capacities such as farmers carpetweavers glassmakers and woodcarvers 61 Trade and diplomacy with the Byzantine Empire Edit Further information First Perso Turkic War Byzantine Sasanian wars Byzantine silk Sogdian warriors Sino Roman relations Byzantine Mongol alliance and Europeans in Medieval China Historical knowledge about Sogdia is somewhat hazy during the period of the Parthian Empire 247 BC 224 AD in Persia 62 63 The subsequent Sasanian Empire of Persia conquered and incorporated Sogdia as a satrapy in 260 62 an inscription dating to the reign of Shapur I noting that its limits formed the northeastern Sasanian borderlands with the Kushan Empire 63 However by the 5th century the region was captured by the rival Hephthalite Empire 62 Shortly after the smuggling of silkworm eggs into the Byzantine Empire from China by Nestorian Christian monks the 6th century Byzantine historian Menander Protector writes of how the Sogdians attempted to establish a direct trade of Chinese silk with the Byzantine Empire After forming an alliance with the Sasanian ruler Khosrow I to defeat the Hephthalite Empire Istami the Gokturk ruler of the First Turkic Khaganate was approached by Sogdian merchants requesting permission to seek an audience with the Sassanid king of kings for the privilege of traveling through Persian territories in order to trade with the Byzantines 46 Istami refused the first request but when he sanctioned the second one and had the Sogdian embassy sent to the Sassanid king the latter had the members of the embassy poisoned 46 Maniah a Sogdian diplomat convinced Istami to send an embassy directly to Byzantium s capital Constantinople which arrived in 568 and offered not only silk as a gift to Byzantine ruler Justin II but also proposed an alliance against Sassanid Persia Justin II agreed and sent an embassy to the Turkic Khaganate ensuring the direct silk trade desired by the Sogdians 46 64 65 It appears however that direct trade with the Sogdians remained limited in light of the small amount of Roman and Byzantine coins found in Central Asian and Chinese archaeological sites belonging to this era Although Roman embassies apparently reached Han China from 166 AD onwards 66 and the ancient Romans imported Han Chinese silk while the Han dynasty Chinese imported Roman glasswares as discovered in their tombs 67 68 Valerie Hansen 2012 wrote that no Roman coins from the Roman Republic 507 27 BC or the Principate 27 BC 330 AD era of the Roman Empire have been found in China 69 However Warwick Ball 2016 upends this notion by pointing to a hoard of sixteen Roman coins found at Xi an China formerly Chang an dated to the reigns of various emperors from Tiberius 14 37 AD to Aurelian 270 275 AD 70 The earliest gold solidus coins from the Eastern Roman Empire found in China date to the reign of Byzantine emperor Theodosius II r 408 450 and altogether only forty eight of them have been found compared to thirteen hundred silver coins in Xinjiang and the rest of China 69 The use of silver coins in Turfan persisted long after the Tang campaign against Karakhoja and Chinese conquest of 640 with a gradual adoption of Chinese bronze coinage over the course of the 7th century 69 The fact that these Eastern Roman coins were almost always found with Sasanian Persian silver coins and Eastern Roman gold coins were used more as ceremonial objects like talismans confirms the pre eminent importance of Greater Iran in Chinese Silk Road commerce of Central Asia compared to Eastern Rome 71 Sogdian merchants generals and statesmen of Imperial China Edit Further information Ethnic groups in Chinese history Ethnic minorities in China and Western Regions Left image kneeling Sogdian donors to the Buddha fresco with detail Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan in the eastern Tarim Basin China 8th century Right image the stone tomb gate and couch of An Jia 安伽 a Northern Zhou 557 581 AD period Sogdian nobleman 72 excavated from Chang an modern Xi an China An Jia held the title of Sar pav of Tongzhou prefecture and was in charge of commercial affairs of foreign merchants from Middle Asia who made businesses in China the stone gate is flanked by two lions and the horizontal tablet is carved with a sacrificial scene in accordance with Zoroastrianism Aside from the Sogdians of Central Asia who acted as middlemen in the Silk Road trade other Sogdians settled down in China for generations Although many Sogdians had fled Luoyang following the collapse of the Jin Dynasty s control over northern China in 311 AD some Sogdians continued living in Gansu 51 Sogdian families living in Gansu created funerary epitaphs explaining the history of their illustrious houses For instance a sabao 薩保 from Sanskrit sarthavaha meaning caravan leader 64 from Anxi western Sogdiana or Parthia who lived in Jiuquan during the Northern Wei 386 535 AD was the ancestor of An Tugen a man who rose from a common merchant to become a top ranking minister of state for the Northern Qi 550 577 AD 50 Valerie Hansen asserts that around this time and extending into the Tang Dynasty 618 907 AD the Sogdians became the most influential of the non Chinese groups resident in China settling throughout Chinese territory marrying Chinese women purchasing land with newcomers living there permanently instead of returning to their homelands in Sogdiana 50 They were concentrated in large numbers around Luoyang and Chang an and also Xiangyang in present day Hubei building Zoroastrian temples to service their communities once they reached the threshold of roughly 100 households 50 From the Northern Qi to Tang periods the leaders of these communities the sabao were incorporated into the official hierarchy of state officials 50 Their burial practices blended both Chinese forms such as carved funerary beds with Zoroastrian sensibilities in mind such as separating the body from both the earth and water 73 Two Buddhist monks on a mural of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves near Turpan Xinjiang China 9th century AD Albert von Le Coq 1913 assumed the blue eyed red haired monk was a Tocharian 74 modern scholarship however identified similar Caucasian figures of the same cave temple No 9 as ethnic Sogdians 75 who were a minority in Turpan during the Tang Dynasty in 7th 8th century and Uyghur rule 9th 13th century 76 In addition to being merchants monks and government officials Sogdians also served as soldiers in the Tang military 77 An Lushan whose father was Sogdian and mother a Gokturk rose to the position of a military governor jiedushi in the northeast before leading the An Lushan Rebellion 755 763 AD which split the loyalties of the Sogdians in China 77 The An Lushan rebellion was supported by many Sogdians and in its aftermath many of them were slain or changed their names to escape their Sogdian heritage 78 79 so that little is known about the Sogdian presence in North China since that time 80 Sogdians continued as active traders in China following the defeat of the rebellion but many of them were compelled to hide their ethnic identity A prominent case was An Chongzhang Minister of War and Duke of Liang who in 756 asked Emperor Suzong of Tang to allow him to change his name to Li Baoyu because of his shame in sharing the same surname with the rebel leader 77 This change of surnames was enacted retroactively for all of his family members so that his ancestors would also be bestowed the surname Li 77 During the Tang and subsequent Five Dynasties and Song Dynasty a large community of Sogdians also existed in the multicultural entrepot of Dunhuang Gansu a major center of Buddhist learning and home to the Buddhist Mogao Caves 81 Although Dunhuang and the Hexi Corridor were captured by the Tibetan Empire after the An Lushan Rebellion in 848 the ethnic Han Chinese general Zhang Yichao 799 872 managed to wrestle control of the region from the Tibetans during their civil war establishing the Guiyi Circuit under Emperor Xuanzong of Tang r 846 859 82 83 Although the region occasionally fell under the rule of different states it retained its multilingual nature as evidenced by an abundance of manuscripts religious and secular in Chinese and Tibetan but also Sogdian Khotanese another Eastern Iranian language native to the region Uyghur and Sanskrit 84 From the Chinese surnames listed in the Tang era Dunhuang manuscript Pelliot chinois 3319V containing the following text 石定信右全石丑子石定奴福延福全保昌張丑子李千子李定信 the names of the Nine Zhaowu Clans 昭武九姓 76 the prominent ethnic Sogdian communities of China have been deduced Each clan is indicating a different place of birth as the Sogdians were from different city states and used the name of their hometown as their Chinese surname 85 Of these the most common Sogdian surname throughout China was Shi 石 generally given to those from Chach modern Tashkent whereas the surnames Shǐ 史 from Kesh modern Shahrisabz An 安 from Bukhara Mi 米 from Panjakent Kang 康 from Samarkand Cao 曹 from Kabudhan north of the Zeravshan River and He 何 from Kushaniyah appear frequently in Dunhuang manuscripts and registers 76 86 The influence of Sinicized and multilingual Sogdians during this Guiyijun 歸義軍 period c 850 c 1000 AD of Dunhuang is evident in a large number of manuscripts written in Chinese characters from left to right instead of vertically mirroring the direction of how the Sogdian alphabet is read 87 Sogdians of Dunhuang also commonly formed and joined lay associations among their local communities convening at Sogdian owned taverns in scheduled meetings mentioned in their epistolary letters 88 Sogdians living in Turfan under the Tang dynasty and Gaochang Kingdom engaged in a variety of occupations that included farming military service painting leather crafting and selling products such as iron goods 76 The Sogdians had been migrating to Turfan since the 4th century yet the pace of migration began to climb steadily with the Muslim conquest of Persia and Fall of the Sasanian Empire in 651 followed by the Islamic conquest of Samarkand in 712 76 Arab Muslim conquest of Central Asia Edit Main article Muslim conquest of Transoxiana Further information Asad ibn Abdallah al Qasri and Sogdian city states Left image a lion motif on Sogdian polychrome silk 8th century AD most likely from Bukhara Right image a caftan worn by a horseman along the Silk Road 8th 10th century AD Metropolitan Museum of Art Qutayba ibn Muslim 669 716 Governor of Greater Khorasan under the Umayyad Caliphate 661 750 initiated the Muslim conquest of Sogdia during the early 8th century with the local ruler of Balkh offering him aid as an Umayyad ally 63 89 However when his successor al Jarrah ibn Abdallah governed Khorasan 717 719 many native Sogdians who had converted to Islam began to revolt when they were no longer exempt from paying the tax on non Muslims the jizya because of a new law stating that proof of circumcision and literacy in the Quran was necessary for new converts 63 90 With the aid of the Turkic Turgesh the Sogdians were able to expel the Umayyad Arab garrison from Samarkand and Umayyad attempts to restore power there were rebuffed until the arrival of Sa id ibn Amr al Harashi fl 720 735 The Sogdian ruler i e ikhshid of Samarkand Gurak who had previously overthrown the pro Umayyad Sogdian ruler Tarkhun in 710 decided that resistance against al Harashi s large Arab force was pointless and thereafter persuaded his followers to declare allegiance to the Umayyad governor 90 Divashtich r 706 722 the Sogdian ruler of Panjakent led his forces to the Zarafshan Range near modern Zarafshan Tajikistan whereas the Sogdians following Karzanj the ruler of Pai modern Kattakurgan Uzbekistan fled to the Principality of Farghana where their ruler at Tar or Alutar promised them safety and refuge from the Umayyads However at Tar secretly informed al Harashi of the Sogdians hiding in Khujand who were then slaughtered by al Harashi s forces after their arrival 91 A Tang Dynasty Chinese ceramic statuette of a Sogdian merchant riding on a Bactrian camel The Umayyads fell in 750 to the Abbasid Caliphate which quickly asserted itself in Central Asia after winning the Battle of Talas along the Talas River in modern Talas Oblast Kyrgyzstan in 751 against the Chinese Tang Dynasty This conflict incidentally introduced Chinese papermaking to the Islamic world 92 The cultural consequences and political ramifications of this battle meant the retreat of the Chinese empire from Central Asia It also allowed for the rise of the Samanid Empire 819 999 a Persian state centered at Bukhara in what is now modern Uzbekistan that nominally observed the Abbasids as their overlords yet retained a great deal of autonomy and upheld the mercantile legacy of the Sogdians 92 Yet the Sogdian language gradually declined in favor of the Persian language of the Samanids the ancestor to the modern Tajik language the spoken language of renowned poets and intellectuals of the age such as Ferdowsi 940 1020 92 So too did the original religions of the Sogdians decline Zoroastrianism Buddhism Manichaeism and Nestorian Christianity disappeared in the region by the end of the Samanid period 92 The Samanids were also responsible for converting the surrounding Turkic peoples to Islam which presaged the conquest of their empire in 999 by an Islamic Turkic power the Kara Khanid Khanate 840 1212 93 During the early 13th century Khwarezmia was invaded by the early Mongol Empire and its ruler Genghis Khan destroyed the once vibrant cities of Bukhara and Samarkand 94 However in 1370 Samarkand saw a revival as the capital of the Timurid Empire The Turko Mongol ruler Timur forcefully brought artisans and intellectuals from across Asia to Samarkand transforming it not only into a trade hub but also one of the most important cities of the Islamic world 95 Language and culture EditThe 6th century is thought to be the peak of Sogdian culture judging by its highly developed artistic tradition By this point the Sogdians were entrenched in their role as the central Asian traveling and trading merchants transferring goods culture and religion 96 During the Middle Ages the valley of the Zarafshan around Samarkand retained its Sogdian name Samarkand 7 According to the Encyclopaedia Britannica medieval Arab geographers considered it one of the four fairest regions of the world 7 Where the Sogdians moved in considerable numbers their language made a considerable impact For instance during China s Han dynasty the native name of the Tarim Basin city state of Loulan was Kroraina possibly from Greek due to nearby Hellenistic influence 97 However centuries later in 664 AD the Tang Chinese Buddhist monk Xuanzang labelled it as Nafupo 納縛溥 which according to Dr Hisao Matsuda is a transliteration of the Sogdian word Navapa meaning new water 98 Art Edit Main article Sogdian art The Afrasiab paintings of the 6th to 7th centuries in Samarkand Uzbekistan offer a rare surviving example of Sogdian art The paintings showing scenes of daily life and events such as the arrival of foreign ambassadors are located within the ruins of aristocratic homes It is unclear if any of these palatial residences served as the official palace of the rulers of Samarkand 99 The oldest surviving Sogdian monumental wall murals date to the 5th century and are located at Panjakent Tajikistan 100 In addition to revealing aspects of their social and political lives Sogdian art has also been instrumental in aiding historians understanding of their religious beliefs For instance it is clear that Buddhist Sogdians incorporated some of their own Iranian deities into their version of the Buddhist Pantheon At Zhetysu Sogdian gilded bronze plaques on a Buddhist temple show a pairing of a male and female deity with outstretched hands holding a miniature camel a common non Buddhist image similarly found in the paintings of Samarkand and Panjakent 101 Language Edit Left image The Bugut inscription of Mongolia written shortly after 581 AD in the Sogdian alphabet 102 and commissioned by the First Turkic Khaganate to relate the history of their ruling Gokturk khans Right image a contract written in Chinese from the Tang dynasty in Turpan that records the purchase of a 15 year old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins dated 661 AD The Sogdians spoke an Eastern Iranian language called Sogdian closely related to Bactrian Khwarazmian and the Khotanese language Saka widely spoken Eastern Iranian languages of Central Asia in ancient times 62 102 Sogdian was also prominent in the oasis city state of Turfan in the Tarim Basin region of Northwest China in modern Xinjiang 102 Judging by the Sogdian Bugut inscription of Mongolia written c 581 the Sogdian language was also an official language of the First Turkic Khaganate established by the Gokturks 65 102 Sogdian was written largely in three scripts the Sogdian alphabet the Syriac alphabet and the Manichaean alphabet each derived from the Aramaic alphabet 103 104 which had been widely used in both the Achaemenid and Parthian empires of ancient Iran 14 105 The Sogdian alphabet formed the basis of the Old Uyghur alphabet of the 8th century which in turn was used to create the Mongolian script of the early Mongol Empire during the 13th century 106 Later in 1599 the Jurchen leader Nurhaci decided to convert the Mongolian alphabet to make it suitable for the Manchu people The Yaghnobi people living in the Sughd province of Tajikistan still speak a dialect of the Sogdian language 63 107 Yaghnobi is largely a continuation of the medieval Sogdian dialect from the Osrushana region of the western Fergana Valley 108 The great majority of the Sogdian people assimilated with other local groups such as the Bactrians Chorasmians and in particular with Persians and came to speak Persian In 819 the Persians founded the Samanid Empire in the region They are among the ancestors of the modern Tajiks Numerous Sogdian cognates can be found in the modern Tajik language although the latter is a Western Iranian language Clothing Edit Left image a male mannequin showing the medieval era clothing for Sogdian men from Panjakent Tajikistan National Museum Dushanbe Right image a female mannequin showing the medieval era clothing for Sogdian women from Afrasiyab Samarkand Tajikistan National Museum Dushanbe Early medieval Sogdian costumes can be divided in two periods Hephtalitic 5th and 6th centuries and Turkic 7th and early 8th centuries The latter did not become common immediately after the political dominance of the Gokturks but only in c 620 when especially following Western Turkic Khagan Ton jazbgu s reforms Sogd was Turkized and the local nobility was officially included in the Khaganate s administration 109 For both sexes clothes were tight fitted and narrow waists and wrists were appreciated The silhouettes for grown men and young girls emphasized wide shoulders and narrowed to the waist the silhouettes for female aristocrats were more complicated The Sogdian clothing underwent a thorough process of Islamization in the ensuing centuries with few of the original elements remaining In their stead turbans kaftans and sleeved coats became more common 109 Religious beliefs Edit Further information Silk Road transmission of Buddhism History of Buddhism Iranian religions Persian mythology Mar Ammo and Religion in China Zoroastrianism Sogdians depicted on a Chinese Sogdian sarcophagus of the Northern Qi Dynasty 550 577 AD Left image An 8th century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man wearing a distinctive cap and face veil possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva Museum of Oriental Art Turin Italy 110 Right image Chinese Tang Dynasty era statues of Sogdian merchants Sogdians in a religious procession a 5th 6th century tomb mural discovered at Tung wan City The Sogdians practiced a variety of religious faiths However Zoroastrianism was most likely their main religion as demonstrated by material evidence such as the discovery in Samarkand Panjakent and Er Kurgan of murals depicting votaries making offerings before fire altars and ossuaries holding the bones of the dead in accordance with Zoroastrian ritual At Turfan Sogdian burials shared similar features with traditional Chinese practices yet they still retained essential Zoroastrian rituals such as allowing the bodies to be picked clean by scavengers before burying the bones in ossuaries 76 They also sacrificed animals to Zoroastrian deities including the supreme deity Ahura Mazda 76 Zoroastrianism remained the dominant religion among Sogdians until after the Islamic conquest when they gradually converted to Islam as is shown by Richard Bulliet s conversion curve 111 The Sogdian religious texts found in China and dating to the Northern Dynasties Sui and Tang are mostly Buddhist translated from Chinese sources Manichaean and Nestorian Christian with only a small minority of Zoroastrian texts 112 But tombs of Sogdian merchants in China dated to the last third of the 6th century show predominantly Zoroastrian motifs or Zoroastrian Manichaean syncretism while archaeological remains from Sogdiana appear fairly Iranian and conservatively Zoroastrian 112 However the Sogdians epitomized the religious plurality found along the trade routes The largest body of Sogdian texts are Buddhist and Sogdians were among the principal translators of Buddhist sutras into Chinese However Buddhism did not take root in Sogdiana itself 113 Additionally the Bulayiq monastery to the north of Turpan contained Sogdian Christian texts and there are numerous Manichaean texts in Sogdiana from nearby Qocho 114 The reconversion of Sogdians from Buddhism to Zoroastrianism coincided with the adoption of Zoroastrianism by the Sassanid Empire of Persia 64 From the 4th century onwards Sogdian Buddhist pilgrims left behind evidence of their travels along the steep cliffs of the Indus River and Hunza Valley It was here that they carved images of the Buddha and holy stupas in addition to their full names in hopes that the Buddha would grant them his protection 115 The Sogdians also practiced Manichaeism the faith of Mani which they spread among the Uyghurs The Uyghur Khaganate 744 840 AD developed close ties to Tang China once it had aided the Tang in suppressing the rebellion of An Lushan and his Gokturk successor Shi Siming establishing an annual trade relationship of one million bolts of Chinese silk for one hundred thousand horses 58 The Uyghurs relied on Sogdian merchants to sell much of this silk further west along the Silk Road a symbiotic relationship that led many Uyghurs to adopt Manichaeism from the Sogdians 58 However evidence of Manichaean liturgical and canonical texts of Sogdian origin remains fragmentary and sparse compared to their corpus of Buddhist writings 116 The Uyghurs were also followers of Buddhism For instance they can be seen wearing silk robes in the praṇidhi scenes of the Uyghur Bezeklik Buddhist murals of Xinjiang China particularly Scene 6 from Temple 9 showing Sogdian donors to the Buddha 75 117 In addition to Puranic cults there were five Hindu deities known to have been worshipped in Sogdiana 118 These were Brahma Indra Mahadeva Shiva Narayana and Vaishravana the gods Brahma Indra and Shiva were known by their Sogdian names Zravan Adbad and Veshparkar respectively 118 Durga a mother goddess in Shaktism may be represented in Sogdian art as a four armed goddess riding atop a lion 118 As seen in an 8th century mural from Panjakent portable fire altars can be associated with Mahadeva Veshparkar Brahma Zravan and Indra Abdab according to Braja Bihari Kumar 118 Among the Sogdian Christians known in China from inscriptions and texts were An Yena a Christian from An country Bukhara Mi Jifen a Christian from Mi country Maymurgh Kang Zhitong a Sogdian Christian cleric from Kang country Samarkand Mi Xuanqing a Sogdian Christian cleric from Mi country Maymurgh Mi Xuanying a Sogdian Christian cleric from Mi country Maymurgh An Qingsu a Sogdian Christian monk from An country Bukhara 119 120 121 When visiting Yuan era Zhenjiang Jiangsu China during the late 13th century the Venetian explorer and merchant Marco Polo noted that a large number of Christian churches had been built there His claim is confirmed by a Chinese text of the 14th century explaining how a Sogdian named Mar Sargis from Samarkand founded six Nestorian Christian churches there in addition to one in Hangzhou during the second half of the 13th century 122 Nestorian Christianity had existed in China earlier during the Tang Dynasty when a Persian monk named Alopen came to Chang an in 653 to proselytize as described in a dual Chinese and Syriac language inscription from Chang an modern Xi an dated to the year 781 123 Within the Syriac inscription is a list of priests and monks one of whom is named Gabriel the archdeacon of Xumdan and Sarag the Sogdian names for the Chinese capital cities Chang an and Luoyang respectively 124 In regards to textual material the earliest Christian gospel texts translated into Sogdian coincide with the reign of the Sasanian Persian monarch Yazdegerd II r 438 457 and were translated from the Peshitta the standard version of the Bible in Syriac Christianity 125 Commerce and slave trade EditFurther information History of slavery in China and Iranians in China A Sogdian gilded silver dish with the image of a tiger with clear influence from Persian Sasanian art and silverwares citation needed 7th to 8th centuries AD Silk road figure head probably Sogdian Chinese Sui Dynasty 581 618 Musee Cernuschi Paris Slavery existed in China since ancient times although during the Han dynasty the proportion of slaves to the overall population was roughly 1 126 far lower than the estimate for the contemporary Greco Roman world estimated at about 15 of the entire population 127 128 During the Tang period slaves were not allowed to marry a commoner s daughter were not allowed to have sexual relations with any female member of their master s family and although fornication with female slaves was forbidden in the Tang code of law it was widely practiced 129 Manumission was also permitted when a slave woman gave birth to her master s son which allowed for her elevation to the legal status of a commoner yet she could only live as a concubine and not as the wife of her former master 130 Sogdian and Chinese merchants regularly traded in slaves in and around Turpan during the Tang dynasty Turpan under Tang dynasty rule was a center of major commercial activity between Chinese and Sogdian merchants There were many inns in Turpan Some provided Sogdian sex workers with an opportunity to service the Silk Road merchants since the official histories report that there were markets in women at Kucha and Khotan 131 The Sogdian language contract buried at the Astana graveyard demonstrates that at least one Chinese man bought a Sogdian girl in 639 AD One of the archaeologists who excavated the Astana site Wu Zhen contends that although many households along the Silk Road bought individual slaves as we can see in the earlier documents from Niya the Turpan documents point to a massive escalation in the volume of the slave trade 132 In 639 a female Sogdian slave was sold to a Chinese man as recorded in an Astana cemetery legal document written in Sogdian 133 Khotan and Kucha were places where women were commonly sold with ample evidence of the slave trade in Turfan thanks to contemporary textual sources that have survived 134 135 In Tang poetry Sogdian girls also frequently appear as serving maids in the taverns and inns of the capital Chang an 136 Sogdian slave girls and their Chinese male owners made up the majority of Sogdian female Chinese male pairings while free Sogdian women were the most common spouse of Sogdian men A smaller number of Chinese women were paired with elite Sogdian men Sogdian man and woman pairings made up eighteen out of twenty one marriages according to existing documents 135 137 A document dated 731 AD reveals that precisely forty bolts of silk were paid to a certain Mi Lushan a slave dealing Sogdian by a Chinese man named Tang Rong 唐榮 of Chang an for the purchase of an eleven year old girl A person from Xizhou a Tokharistani i e Bactrian and three Sogdians verified the sale of the girl 135 138 Modern historiography EditFurther information German Turfan expeditions and Albert von Le Coq In 1916 the French Sinologist and historian Paul Pelliot used Tang Chinese manuscripts excavated from Dunhuang Gansu to identify an ancient Sogdian colony south of Lop Nur in Xinjiang Northwest China which he argued was the base for the spread of Buddhism and Nestorian Christianity in China 139 In 1926 Japanese scholar Kuwabara compiled evidence for Sogdians in Chinese historical sources and by 1933 Chinese historian Xiang Da published his Tang Chang an and Central Asian Culture detailing the Sogdian influence on Chinese social religious life in the Tang era Chinese capital city 139 The Canadian Sinologist Edwin G Pulleyblank published an article in 1952 demonstrating the presence of a Sogdian colony founded in Six Hu Prefectures of the Ordos Loop during the Chinese Tang period composed of Sogdians and Turkic peoples who migrated from the Mongolian steppe 139 The Japanese historian Ikeda on wrote an article in 1965 outlining the history of the Sogdians inhabiting Dunhuang from the beginning of the 7th century analyzing lists of their Sinicized names and the role of Zoroastrianism and Buddhism in their religious life 140 Yoshida Yutaka and Kageyama Etsuko Japanese ethnographers and linguists of the Sogdian language were able to reconstruct Sogdian names from forty five different Chinese transliterations noting that these were common in Turfan whereas Sogdians living closer to the center of Chinese civilization for generations adopted traditional Chinese names 76 Notable people Edit A minted coin of Khunak king of Bukhara early 8th century showing the crowned king on the obverse and a Zoroastrian fire altar on the reverse Roxana wife of Alexander the Great and mother of Alexander IV Pranidhi scene temple 9 Cave 20 of the Bezeklik Thousand Buddha Caves Turfan Xinjiang China 9th century AD with kneeling figures praying in front of the Buddha who Albert von Le Coq assumed were Persian people German Perser noting their Caucasian features and green eyes and comparing the hat of the man on the left in the green coat to headgear worn by Sasanian Persian princes 141 However modern scholarship has identified praṇidhi scenes of the same temple No 9 as depicting Sogdians 75 who inhabited Turfan as an ethnic minority during the phases of Tang Chinese 7th 8th century and Uyghur rule 9th 13th century 76 Amoghavajra prolific translator and one of the most politically powerful Buddhist monks of Chinese history of Sogdian descent through his mother 142 143 An Lushan 安祿山 77 a military leader of Sogdian from his father s side and Tujue origin during the Tang dynasty in China he rose to prominence by fighting and losing frontier wars between 741 and 755 Later he precipitated the catastrophic An Lushan Rebellion which lasted from 755 to 763 and led to the decline of the Tang dynasty An Qingxu 安慶緒 son of An Lushan An Chonghui 安重誨 a minister of China s Later Tang An Congjin 安從進 a general of Later Tang and China s Later Jin Five Dynasties An Chongrong 安重榮 a general of the China s Later Jin Five Dynasties Apama 33 daughter of Spitamenes see below and wife of Seleucus I Nicator founder of the Seleucid Empire Azanes 6 son of Artaios who led a contingent of Sogdian troops in the Persian army of Xerxes I during the Second Persian invasion of Greece in 480 BC Divashtich 144 8th century ruler of Panjakent Fazang 145 Buddhist monk and influent philosopher of the 7th century considered the founder of the Huayan school Gurak 90 8th century ruler of Samarkand Kang Senghui 康僧會 146 Buddhist monk of the 3rd century who lived in Jiaozhi modern day Vietnam during the Three Kingdoms period Kang Jing 康景 a possible Sogdian who worked at the Ming dynasty Mansion of the Prince of Qin 明朝藩王列表 秦王系 as a servant 147 148 Khaydhar ibn Kawus al Afshin 149 a general of the Abbasid caliphate and a vassal of the Abbasids as the prince of Osrushana during the 9th century Kaydar Nasr ibn Abdallah 150 Abbasid governor of Egypt during the 9th century Li Baoyu 李抱玉 77 formerly known as An Chongzhang 安重璋 and ennobled as Duke Zhaowu of Liang 涼昭武公 a general of the Chinese Tang Dynasty who fought against the rebellion of An Lushan and the Tibetan Empire Mi Fu 米芾 151 painter poet and calligrapher of the Song dynasty Malik ibn Kaydar 152 a 9th century general of the Abbasid caliphate Muzaffar ibn Kaydar son of Kaydar Nasr ibn Abdallah see above and yet another Abbasid governor of Egypt during the 9th century Oxyartes 25 26 27 Sogdian warlord from Bactria follower of Bessus and father of Roxana the wife of Alexander the Great Roxana 25 26 27 153 the primary wife of Alexander the Great during the 4th century BC Shi Jingtang 石敬瑭 154 Emperor of China temple name Gaozu 高祖 Spitamenes 30 a Sogdian warlord who led an uprising against Alexander the Great in the late 4th century BC Tarkhun 90 8th century ruler of Samarkand Abu l Saj Devdad emir and official of the Abbasid caliphate and ancestor of the Sajid dynasty 155 Diaspora areas EditA community of merchant Sogdians resided in Northern Qi era Ye 156 A community of Sogdians existed in Jicheng Beijing since at least the time of the Tang Dynasty They were targeted for slaughter by the Tang government during the An Lushan rebellion 157 158 Turkic Khaganate era Inner Mongolia 159 See also EditAncient Iranian peoples Buddhism in Afghanistan Buddhism in Khotan Etienne de la Vaissiere History of Central Asia Huteng Iranian languages Margiana List of ancient Iranian peoples Philip satrap Poykent Sogdian Daenas Sughd Province Kangju Tocharians Tomb of Wirkak Tomb of Yu Hong Yaghnobi people Yagnob Valley Yazid ibn al MuhallabReferences EditCitations Edit Jacques Gernet 31 May 1996 A History of Chinese Civilization Cambridge University Press pp 286 ISBN 978 0 521 49781 7 Soghdian Kai Yuans lectured at the Dutch 1994 ONS meeting T D Yih and J de Kreek hosted on the Chinese Coinage Website 1994 Retrieved 8 June 2018 Samarqand s Cast Coinage of the Early 7th Mid 8th Centuries AD Assessment based on Chinese sources and numismatic evidence Andrew Reinhard Pocket Change The blog of the American Numismatic Society 12 August 2016 Retrieved 9 June 2018 Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 2 3 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Avesta Vendidad English Fargard 1 Avesta org Archived from the original on 4 October 2016 Retrieved 4 January 2016 a b c d Mark J Dresden 2003 Sogdian Language and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 1216 ISBN 0 521 24699 7 a b c Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Sogdiana Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Szemerenyi 1980 pp 45 46 Szemerenyi 1980 pp 26 36 Szemerenyi 1980 p 39 a b c Antoine Simonin 8 January 2012 Sogdiana World History Encyclopedia Retrieved 31 August 2016 de La Vaissiere E 2011 SOGDIANA iii HISTORY AND ARCHEOLOGY In Yarshater Ehsan ed Encyclopaedia Iranica Online Edition New York Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation Retrieved 31 August 2016 Kirill Nourzhanov Christian Bleuer 2013 Tajikistan a Political and Social History Canberra Australian National University Press p 12 ISBN 978 1 925021 15 8 a b Christoph Baumer 2012 The History of Central Asia the Age of the Steppe Warriors London New York I B Tauris p 202 203 ISBN 978 1 78076 060 5 a b Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 3 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Pierre Briant 2002 From Cyrus to Alexander a History of the Persian Empire trans Peter T Daniels Winona Lake Eisenbrauns p 746 ISBN 1 57506 120 1 a b Christoph Baumer 2012 The History of Central Asia the Age of the Steppe Warriors London New York I B Tauris p 207 ISBN 978 1 78076 060 5 Hansen Valerie 2012 The Silk Road A New History Oxford University Press p 72 ISBN 978 0 19 993921 3 a b c Liu Xinru 2010 The Silk Road in World History Oxford and New York Oxford University Press p 67 Christopoulos Lucas August 2012 Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China 240 BC 1398 AD in Victor H Mair ed Sino Platonic Papers No 230 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations pp 15 16 ISSN 2157 9687 The province of Sogdia was to Asia what Macedonia was to Greece a buffer between a brittle civilization and the restless barbarians beyond whether the Scyths of Alexander s day and later or the White Huns Turks and Mongols who eventually poured south to wreck the thin veneer of Iranian society Robin Lane Fox Alexander the Great 1973 1986 301 John Prevas 2004 Envy of the Gods Alexander the Great s Ill Fated Journey across Asia Da Capo Press pp 60 69 Independent Sogdiana Lane Fox 1973 1986 533 notes Quintus Curtius vi 3 9 with no satrap to rule them they were under the command of Bessus at Gaugamela according to Arrian iii 8 3 Horn LT Bernd Spencer Emily eds 2012 No Easy Task Fighting in Afghanistan Dundurn Press Ltd p 40 ISBN 978 1 4597 0164 9 a b c d Ahmed S Z 2004 Chaghatai the Fabulous Cities and People of the Silk Road West Conshokoken Infinity Publishing p 61 a b c Livius org Roxane Articles on Ancient History Page last modified 17 August 2015 Retrieved 29 August 2016 a b c Strachan Edward and Roy Bolton 2008 Russia and Europe in the Nineteenth Century London Sphinx Fine Art p 87 ISBN 978 1 907200 02 1 For another publication calling her Sogdian see Christopoulos Lucas August 2012 Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China 240 BC 1398 AD in Victor H Mair ed Sino Platonic Papers No 230 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations p 4 ISSN 2157 9687 William Smith eds et al 1873 A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Volume 1 London John Murray p 122 a b Holt Frank L 1989 Alexander the Great and Bactria the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia Leiden New York Copenhagen Cologne E J Brill pp 64 65 see also footnote 62 for mention of Sogdian troops ISBN 90 04 08612 9 Holt Frank L 1989 Alexander the Great and Bactria the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia Leiden New York Copenhagen Cologne E J Brill p 65 see footnote 63 ISBN 90 04 08612 9 Holt Frank L 1989 Alexander the Great and Bactria the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia Leiden New York Copenhagen Cologne E J Brill pp 67 8 ISBN 90 04 08612 9 a b c Magill Frank N et al 1998 The Ancient World Dictionary of World Biography Volume 1 Pasadena Chicago London Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers Salem Press p 1010 ISBN 0 89356 313 7 Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Apamea Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Christopoulos Lucas August 2012 Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China 240 BC 1398 AD in Victor H Mair ed Sino Platonic Papers No 230 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations pp 8 9 ISSN 2157 9687 Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 3 5 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Jeffrey D Lerner 1999 The Impact of Seleucid Decline on the Eastern Iranian Plateau the Foundations of Arsacid Parthia and Graeco Bactria Stuttgart Steiner pp 82 84 ISBN 3 515 07417 1 Michon Daniel 2015 Archaeology and Religion in Early Northwest India History Theory Practice London New York New Delhi Routledge pp 112 123 ISBN 978 1 138 82249 8 R Ernest Dupuy and Trevor N Dupuy The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History from 3500 B C to the Present Fourth Edition New York HarperCollins Publishers 1993 133 apparently relying on Homer H Dubs A Roman City in Ancient China in Greece and Rome Second Series Vol 4 No 2 Oct 1957 pp 139 148 Schuyler V Cammann review of Homer H Dubs A Roman City in Ancient China in The Journal of Asian Studies Vol 21 No 3 May 1962 pp 380 382 See also reply by Dubs in The Journal of Asian Studies Vol 22 No 1 November 1962 pp 135 136 a b c Wood Francis 2002 The Silk Road Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia Berkeley CA University of California Press pp 65 68 ISBN 978 0 520 24340 8 Gorshenina Svetlana Rapin Claude 2001 Chapitre 5 Des Kouchans a l Islam Les Sogdiens sur la route de la soie De Kaboul a Samarcande Les archeologues en Asie centrale Collection Decouvertes Gallimard in French 411 Paris Editions Gallimard p 104 ISBN 978 2 070 76166 1 Watson Burton 1993 Records of the Great Historian Han Dynasty II Columbia University Press p 234 ISBN 0 231 08167 7 see also Loewe Michael 2000 A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin Former Han and Xin Periods 221 BC AD 24 Leiden Boston Koln Koninklijke Brill NV p 278 ISBN 90 04 10364 3 Silk Road North China Northern Silk Road North Silk Road Ancient Trackway The Megalithic Portal and Megalith Map Megalithic co uk Retrieved 25 July 2017 Shiji trans Burton Watson a b c d Howard Michael C Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel McFarland amp Company 2012 p 133 Hanks Reuel R 2010 Global Security Watch Central Asia Santa Barbara Denver Oxford Praeger p 3 Mark J Dresden 2003 Sogdian Language and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 1219 ISBN 0 521 24699 7 Ahmed S Z 2004 Chaghatai the Fabulous Cities and People of the Silk Road West Conshohocken Infinity Publishing pp 61 65 a b c d e Howard Michael C Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel McFarland amp Company 2012 p 134 a b Howard Michael C Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel McFarland amp Company 2012 pp 133 34 J Rose The Sogdians Prime Movers between Boundaries Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East vol 30 no 3 2010 p 412 Gregoire Frumkin 1970 Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia Leiden Koln E J Brill pp 35 37 Wink Andre Al Hind The Making of the Indo Islamic World Brill Academic Publishers 2002 ISBN 0 391 04173 8 a b de la Vaissiere Etienne 2004 Sogdian Trade In Yarshater Ehsan ed Encyclopaedia Iranica Online Edition New York Encyclopaedia Iranica Foundation Retrieved 4 November 2011 Stark Soren Die Altturkenzeit in Mittel und Zentralasien Archaologische und historische Studien Nomaden und Sesshafte vol 6 Reichert 2008 ISBN 3 89500 532 0 Skaff Jonathan Karam 2012 Sui Tang China and Its Turko Mongol Neighbors Culture Power and Connections 580 800 Oxford Studies in Early Empires Oxford University Press p 245 ISBN 978 0 19 987590 0 a b c Liu Xinru The Silk Road Overland Trade and Cultural Interactions in Eurasia in Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History ed Michael Adas American Historical Association Philadelphia Temple University Press 2001 p 169 Peter B Golden 2011 Central Asia in World History Oxford New York Oxford University Press p 47 ISBN 978 0 19 515947 9 J Rose The Sogdians Prime Movers between Boundaries Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East vol 30 no 3 2010 p 416 Wood 2002 66 a b c d Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 5 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 a b c d e Mark J Dresden 2003 Sogdian Language and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 1217 ISBN 0 521 24699 7 a b c Liu Xinru The Silk Road Overland Trade and Cultural Interactions in Eurasia in Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History ed Michael Adas American Historical Association Philadelphia Temple University Press 2001 p 168 a b Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 9 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 de Crespigny Rafe 2007 A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23 220 AD Leiden Koninklijke Brill p 600 ISBN 978 90 04 15605 0 Brosius Maria 2006 The Persians An Introduction London amp New York Routledge pp 122 123 ISBN 0 415 32089 5 An Jiayao 2002 When Glass Was Treasured in China in Juliano Annette L and Judith A Lerner Silk Road Studies Nomads Traders and Holy Men Along China s Silk Road 7 Turnhout Brepols Publishers pp 79 94 ISBN 2 503 52178 9 a b c Hansen Valerie 2012 The Silk Road A New History Oxford Oxford University Press p 97 ISBN 978 0 19 993921 3 Warwick Ball 2016 Rome in the East Transformation of an Empire 2nd edition London amp New York Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 72078 6 p 154 Hansen Valerie 2012 The Silk Road A New History Oxford Oxford University Press pp 97 98 ISBN 978 0 19 993921 3 Rong Xinjiang The Sogdian Caravan as Depicted in the Relieves of the Stone Sarcophagus from Shi s Tomb of the Northern Zhou in Chinese Archaeology Volume 6 Issue 1 pp 181 185 ISSN Online 2160 5068 ISSN Print 5004 4295 DOI 10 1515 CHAR 2006 6 1 181 January 2006 Howard Michael C Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel McFarland amp Company 2012 pp 134 35 von Le Coq Albert 1913 Chotscho Facsimile Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Koniglich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan in Ost Turkistan Berlin Dietrich Reimer Ernst Vohsen im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Koniglichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler Institutes Tafel 19 Accessed 3 September 2016 a b c Gasparini Mariachiara A Mathematic Expression of Art Sino Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin in Rudolf G Wagner and Monica Juneja eds Transcultural Studies Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg No 1 2014 pp 134 163 a b c d e f g h i Hansen Valerie 2012 The Silk Road A New History Oxford University Press p 98 ISBN 978 0 19 993921 3 a b c d e f Howard Michael C Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel McFarland amp Company 2012 p 135 The Goguryeo general Gao Juren ordered a mass slaughter of West Asians Hu identifying them through their big noses and lances were used to impale tossed children when he stormed Beijing from An Lushan s rebels For further information on that see Hansen Valerie 2003 New Work on the Sogdians the Most Important Traders on the Silk Road A D 500 1000 T oung Pao Brill 89 1 3 158 doi 10 1163 156853203322691347 JSTOR 4528925 Hansen Valerie 2015 CHAPTER 5 The Cosmopolitan Terminus of the Silk Road The Silk Road A New History illustrated reprint ed Oxford University Press pp 157 158 ISBN 978 0 19 021842 3 J Rose The Sogdians Prime Movers between Boundaries Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East vol 30 no 3 2010 p 417 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston pp 870 71 Taenzer Gertraud 2016 Changing Relations between Administration Clergy and Lay People in Eastern Central Asia a Case Study According to the Dunhuang Manuscripts Referring to the Transition from Tibetan to Local Rule in Dunhuang 8th 11th Centuries in Carmen Meinert Transfer of Buddhism Across Central Asian Networks 7th to 13th Centuries Leiden Boston Brill pp 35 37 Zizhi Tongjian vol 249 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston p 871 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston pp 871 72 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston p 872 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston pp 870 873 Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston pp 872 73 Litvinski B A A H Jalilov A I Kolesnikov 1999 The Arab Conquest in History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume III the Crossroads of Civilizations A D 250 750 eds B A Litvinski Zhang Guangda and R Shabani Samghabadi Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited pp 457 58 a b c d Litvinski B A A H Jalilov A I Kolesnikov 1999 The Arab Conquest in History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume III the Crossroads of Civilizations A D 250 750 eds B A Litvinski Zhang Guangda and R Shabani Samghabadi Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited p 459 Litvinski B A A H Jalilov A I Kolesnikov 1999 The Arab Conquest in History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume III the Crossroads of Civilizations A D 250 750 eds B A Litvinski Zhang Guangda and R Shabani Samghabadi Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited pp 459 60 a b c d Hanks Reuel R 2010 Global Security Watch Central Asia Santa Barbara Denver Oxford Praeger p 4 Hanks Reuel R 2010 Global Security Watch Central Asia Santa Barbara Denver Oxford Praeger pp 4 5 Sophie Ibbotson and Max Lovell Hoare 2016 Uzbekistan 2nd edition Bradt Travel Guides Ltd pp 12 13 ISBN 978 1 78477 017 4 Sophie Ibbotson and Max Lovell Hoare 2016 Uzbekistan 2nd edition Bradt Travel Guides Ltd pp 14 15 ISBN 978 1 78477 017 4 Luce Boulnois 2005 Silk Road Monks Warriors amp Merchants Odyssey Books pp 239 241 ISBN 962 217 721 2 Kazuo Enoki 1998 Yu ni ch eng and the Site of Lou Lan and The Location of the Capital of Lou Lan and the Date of the Kharoshthi Inscriptions in Rokuro Kono ed Studia Asiatica The Collected Papers in Western Languages of the Late Dr Kazuo Enoki Tokyo Kyu Shoin pp 200 211 57 Christopoulos Lucas August 2012 Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China 240 BC 1398 AD in Victor H Mair ed Sino Platonic Papers No 230 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations pp 20 21 footnote 38 ISSN 2157 9687 A M Belenitskii and B I Marshak 1981 Part One the Paintings of Sogdiana in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 47 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 A M Belenitskii and B I Marshak 1981 Part One the Paintings of Sogdiana in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 13 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 A M Belenitskii and B I Marshak 1981 Part One the Paintings of Sogdiana in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 34 35 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 a b c d Tafazzoli A 2003 Iranian Languages in C E Bosworth and M S Asimov History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The Age of Achievement A D 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited p 323 Tafazzoli A 2003 Iranian Languages in C E Bosworth and M S Asimov History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The Age of Achievement A D 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited pp 325 26 Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 5 6 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Boyce Mary 1983 Parthian Writings and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater Cambridge History of Iran 3 2 London amp New York Cambridge University Press pp 1151 1152 ISBN 0 521 20092 X Tafazzoli A 2003 Iranian Languages in C E Bosworth and M S Asimov History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The Age of Achievement A D 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited p 325 Paul Bergne 15 June 2007 The Birth of Tajikistan National Identity and the Origins of the Republic I B Tauris pp 6 ISBN 978 1 84511 283 7 Mark J Dresden 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 2 amp 5 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 a b Yatsenko Sergey A 2003 The Late Sogdian Costume the 5th 8th centuries Transoxiana Webfestschrift Marshak Lee Lawrence 3 September 2011 A Mysterious Stranger in China The Wall Street Journal Retrieved 31 August 2016 Tobin 113 115 a b Grenet Frantz 2007 Religious Diversity among Sogdian Merchants in Sixth Century China Zoroastrianism Buddhism Manichaeism and Hinduism Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East Duke University Press 27 2 463 478 doi 10 1215 1089201x 2007 017 A M Belenitskii and B I Marshak 1981 Part One the Paintings of Sogdiana in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press p 35 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 J Rose The Sogdians Prime Movers between Boundaries Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East vol 30 no 3 2010 pp 416 7 Liu Xinru 2010 The Silk Road in World History Oxford and New York Oxford University Press p 67 8 Dresden Mark J 2003 Sogdian Language and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press p 1224 ISBN 0 521 24699 7 A Mathematic Expression of Art Sino Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin Heiup uni heidelberg de 3 January 2014 Retrieved 25 July 2017 a b c d Braja Bihari Kumar 2007 India and Central Asia Links and Interactions in J N Roy and B B Kumar eds India and Central Asia Classical to Contemporary Periods 3 33 New Delhi Published for Astha Bharati Concept Publishing Company ISBN 81 8069 457 7 p 8 Nicolini Zani Mattco 2013 Tang Li Winkler Dietmar W eds From the Oxus River to the Chinese Shores Studies on East Syriac Christianity in China and Central Asia illustrated ed LIT Verlag Munster ISBN 978 3 643 90329 7 S V D Research Institute Monumenta Serica Institute 2009 Monumenta Serica Journal of Oriental Studies Volume 57 H Vetch p 120 The first one is the funerary inscription of another Bukharan Christian who died during the Jinglong JptH era 707 710 in Guilin southern China and whose name was An Yena Wffi see Jiang Boqin 1994 The second is the epitaph of the Sogdian gentleman Mi Jifen Iffi 714 805 from Maymurgh in his study Ge Chengyong has discovered that Mi s son was a Christian monk and that his family was therefore most probably Christian too see Ge Chengyong 2001 Generally Nicolini Zani Matteo 2006 La via radiosa per l Oriente i testi e la storia del primo incontro del cristianesimo con il mondo culturale e religioso cinese secoli VII IX Spiritualita orientale Edizioni Qiqajon Comunita di Bose p 121 ISBN 8882272125 di almeno un testo cristiano in cinese il rotolo P 3847 contenente la traduzione cinese dell inno siriaco Gloria in excelsis Deo di cui fu redatta anche una traduzione sogdiana giunta a noi in frammenti a Bulayiq Turfan L unico elemento che ci conferma infine una assai probabile presenza cristiana in quest epoca nel sud della Cina legata ai commerci marittimi e il ritrovamento presso Guilin odierno Guangxi dell epitaffio funebre del cristiano An Yena morto tra il 707 e il 709 Emmerick R E 2003 Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 275 Emmerick R E 2003 Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 274 Emmerick R E 2003 Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 274 5 Dresden Mark J 2003 Sogdian Language and Literature in Ehsan Yarshater The Cambridge History of Iran Vol III The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 1225 1226 ISBN 0 521 24699 7 Hulsewe A F P 1986 Ch in and Han law in The Cambridge History of China Volume I the Ch in and Han Empires 221 B C A D 220 520 544 Edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 524 525 ISBN 0 521 24327 0 Hucker Charles O 1975 China s Imperial Past An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture Stanford Stanford University Press p 177 ISBN 0 8047 0887 8 For specific figures in regards to percentage of the population being enslaved see Frier Bruce W 2000 Demography in Alan K Bowman Peter Garnsey and Dominic Rathbone eds The Cambridge Ancient History XI The High Empire A D 70 192 Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 827 54 Anders Hansson 1996 Chinese Outcasts Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China Leiden New York Koln E J Brill pp 38 39 ISBN 90 04 10596 4 Anders Hansson 1996 Chinese Outcasts Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China Leiden New York Koln E J Brill p 39 ISBN 90 04 10596 4 Xin Tangshu 221a 6230 In addition Susan Whitfield offers a fictionalized account of a Kuchean courtesan s experiences in the 9th century without providing any sources although she has clearly drawn on the description of the prostitutes quarter in Chang an in Beilizhi Whitfield 1999 pp 138 154 Wu Zhen 2000 p 154 is a Chinese language rendering based on Yoshida s Japanese translation of the Sogdian contract of 639 Jonathan Karam Skaff 23 August 2012 Sui Tang China and Its Turko Mongol Neighbors Culture Power and Connections 580 800 OUP USA pp 70 ISBN 978 0 19 973413 9 Eric Trombert Etienne de La Vaissiere 2005 Les sogdiens en Chine Ecole francaise d Extreme Orient p 299 ISBN 978 2 85539 653 8 a b c Hansen Valerie Les Sogdiens en Chine The Impact of the Silk Road Trade on a Local Community The Turfan Oasis 500 800 PDF History yale edu Retrieved 25 July 2017 Rong Xinjiang New light on Sogdian Colonies along the Silk Road Recent Archaeological Finds in Northern China Lecture at the BBAW on 20 September 2001 in Berichte und Abhandlungen 17 December 2009 10 S p 150 Eric Trombert Etienne de La Vaissiere 2005 Les sogdiens en Chine Ecole francaise d Extreme Orient pp 300 301 ISBN 978 2 85539 653 8 Eric Trombert Etienne de La Vaissiere 2005 Les sogdiens en Chine Ecole francaise d Extreme Orient p 300 ISBN 978 2 85539 653 8 a b c Rong Xinjiang New light on Sogdian Colonies along the Silk Road Recent Archaeological Finds in Northern China Lecture at the BBAW on 20 September 2001 in Berichte und Abhandlungen 17 December 2009 10 S p 148 Rong Xinjiang New light on Sogdian Colonies along the Silk Road Recent Archaeological Finds in Northern China Lecture at the BBAW on 20 September 2001 in Berichte und Abhandlungen 17 December 2009 10 S pp 148 9 von Le Coq Albert 1913 Chotscho Facsimile Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Koniglich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan in Ost Turkistan Berlin Dietrich Reimer Ernst Vohsen im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Koniglichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler Institutes p 28 Tafel 20 Accessed 3 September 2016 Lehnert Martin 2010 Esoteric Buddhism and the Tantras in East Asia Brill p 351 ISBN 9789004204010 Yang Zeng 2010 A Biographical Study on Bukong 不空 aka Amoghavajra 705 774 Networks Institutions and Identities University of British Columbia p 23 doi 10 14288 1 0363332 VOHIDOV RAHIM ESHONQULOV HUSNIDDIN 2006 III BOB X X II ASRLAR O ZBEK ADABIYOTI 3 1 X X II asrlardagi madaniy hayot O ZBEK MUMTOZ ADABIYOTI TARIXI Eng qadimgi davrlardan XVI asr oxirigacha PDF O ZBEKISTON RESPUBLIKASI OLIY VA O RTA MAXSUS TA LIM VAZIRLIGI p 52 Jacques Gernet 31 May 1996 A History of Chinese Civilization Cambridge University Press pp 278 ISBN 978 0 521 49781 7 Tai Thu Nguyen 2008 The History of Buddhism in Vietnam CRVP pp 36 ISBN 978 1 56518 098 7 Chen 陈 Boyi 博翼 2011 10 跋 明秦府承奉正康公墓志铭 A Sogdian Descendant Study of the Epitaph of Kang Jing The Man Who Served at Ming Prince Qin s Mansion Collected Studies on Ming History 明史研究论丛 9 China Academic Journal Electronic Publishing House pp 283 297 中國文物硏究所 1994 新中國出土墓誌 陜西 no 1 2 文物出版社 ISBN 9787501006625 Donne Raffat Buzurg ʻAlavi 1985 The Prison Papers of Bozorg Alavi A Literary Odyssey Syracuse University Press pp 85 ISBN 978 0 8156 0195 1 Ibn Taghribirdi Jamal al Din Abu al Mahasin Yusuf 1930 Nujum al zahira fi muluk Misr wa l Qahira Volume II Cairo Dar al Kutub al Misriyya p 218 Kaikodo Gallery New York N Y Sarah Handler 1999 懐古堂 LIT p 74 ISBN 9789627956204 Mi Fu 1052 1107 a Northerner by birth and of Sogdian heritage developed a passionate attachment to CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Gordon Matthew S 2001 The Breaking of a Thousand Swords A History of the Turkish Military of Samarra A H 200 275 815 889 C E Albany NY State University of New York Press p 77 ISBN 0 7914 4795 2 Carlos Ramirez Faria 2007 Concise Encyclopedia of World History New Delhi Atlantic Publishers amp Distributors p 450 ISBN 81 269 0775 4 Barenghi Maddalena 2014 Historiography and Narratives of the Later Tang 923 936 and Later Jin 936 947 Dynasties in Tenth to Eleventh century Sources PhD p 3 4 Clifford Edmund Bosworth The New Islamic Dynasties A Chronological and Genealogical Manual Columbia University 1996 pg 147 The Sajids were a line of caliphal governors in north western Persia the family of a commander in the Abbasid service of Soghdian descent which became culturally Arabised Jacques Gernet 31 May 1996 A History of Chinese Civilization Cambridge University Press pp 193 ISBN 978 0 521 49781 7 Hansen Valerie 2003 New Work on the Sogdians the Most Important Traders on the Silk Road A D 500 1000 T oung Pao 89 1 3 158 doi 10 1163 156853203322691347 JSTOR 4528925 Hansen Valerie 2015 CHAPTER 5 The Cosmopolitan Terminus of the Silk Road The Silk Road A New History illustrated reprint ed Oxford University Press pp 157 158 ISBN 978 0190218423 Pulleyblank Edwin G 1952 A Sogdian Colony in Inner Mongolia T oung Pao Second Series 41 4 5 317 56 doi 10 1163 156853252X00094 JSTOR 4527336 Notes Edit Sources Edit This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Sogdiana Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Archaeological Researches in Uzbekistan 2001 Tashkent The edition is based on results of German French Uzbek co expeditions in 2001 in Uzbekistan Ahmed S Z 2004 Chaghatai the Fabulous Cities and People of the Silk Road West Conshohocken Infinity Publishing Baumer Christoph 2012 The History of Central Asia the Age of the Steppe Warriors London New York I B Tauris ISBN 978 1 78076 060 5 Belenitskii A M and B I Marshak 1981 Part One the Paintings of Sogdiana in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 11 78 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Boulnois Luce 2005 Silk Road Monks Warriors amp Merchants Odyssey Books ISBN 962 217 721 2 Boyce Mary 1983 Parthian Writings and Literature In Yarshater Ehsan ed The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3 2 The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 1151 1165 ISBN 0 521 24693 8 Briant Pierre 2002 From Cyrus to Alexander a History of the Persian Empire trans Peter T Daniels Winona Lake Eisenbrauns ISBN 1 57506 120 1 Christopoulos Lucas August 2012 Hellenes and Romans in Ancient China 240 BC 1398 AD in Victor H Mair ed Sino Platonic Papers No 230 Chinese Academy of Social Sciences University of Pennsylvania Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations ISSN 2157 9687 de Crespigny Rafe 2007 A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms 23 220 AD Leiden Koninklijke Brill ISBN 978 90 04 15605 0 de la Vaissiere Etienne 2005 Sogdian Traders A History Leiden Brill ISBN 90 04 14252 5 Dresden Mark J 1981 Introductory Note in Guitty Azarpay Sogdian Painting the Pictorial Epic in Oriental Art Berkeley Los Angeles London University of California Press pp 1 10 ISBN 0 520 03765 0 Dresden Mark J 1983 Sogdian Language and Literature In Yarshater Ehsan ed The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3 2 The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 1216 1229 ISBN 0 521 24693 8 Emmerick R E 1983 Iranian Settlement East of the Pamirs In Yarshater Ehsan ed The Cambridge History of Iran Volume 3 1 The Seleucid Parthian and Sasanian Periods Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 263 275 ISBN 0 521 20092 X Enoki Kazuo 1998 Yu ni ch eng and the Site of Lou Lan and The Location of the Capital of Lou Lan and the Date of the Kharoshthi Inscriptions in Rokuro Kono ed Studia Asiatica The Collected Papers in Western Languages of the Late Dr Kazuo Enoki Tokyo Kyu Shoin Frumkin Gregoire 1970 Archaeology in Soviet Central Asia Leiden Koln E J Brill Galambos Imre 2015 She Association Circulars from Dunhuang in ed Antje Richter A History of Chinese Letters and Epistolary Culture Brill Leiden Boston pp 853 77 Gasparini Mariachiara A Mathematic Expression of Art Sino Iranian and Uighur Textile Interactions and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin in Rudolf G Wagner and Monica Juneja eds Transcultural Studies Ruprecht Karls Universitat Heidelberg No 1 2014 pp 134 163 ISSN 2191 6411 A Mathematic Expression of Art Sino Iranian and Uighur Textile Interaction and the Turfan Textile Collection in Berlin Transcultural Studies Heiup uni heidelberg de 3 January 2014 Retrieved 25 July 2017 Ghafurov Babadjan Tajiks published in USSR Russia Tajikistan Peter B Golden 2011 Central Asia in World History Oxford New York Oxford University Press p 47 ISBN 978 0 19 515947 9 Hanks Reuel R 2010 Global Security Watch Central Asia Santa Barbara Denver Oxford Praeger Hansen Valerie 2012 The Silk Road A New History Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 978 0 19 993921 3 Hansson Anders 1996 Chinese Outcasts Discrimination and Emancipation in Late Imperial China Leiden New York Koln E J Brill ISBN 90 04 10596 4 Holt Frank L 1989 Alexander the Great and Bactria the Formation of a Greek Frontier in Central Asia Leiden New York Copenhagen Cologne E J Brill ISBN 90 04 08612 9 Howard Michael C 2012 Transnationalism in Ancient and Medieval Societies the Role of Cross Border Trade and Travel Jefferson McFarland amp Company Hucker Charles O 1975 China s Imperial Past An Introduction to Chinese History and Culture Stanford Stanford University Press ISBN 0 8047 0887 8 Hulsewe A F P 1986 Ch in and Han law in Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe eds The Cambridge History of China Volume I the Ch in and Han Empires 221 B C A D 220 pp 520 544 Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 0 521 24327 0 Ibbotson Sophie and Max Lovell Hoare 2016 Uzbekistan 2nd edition Bradt Travel Guides Ltd ISBN 978 1 78477 017 4 Braja Bihari Kumar 2007 India and Central Asia Links and Interactions in J N Roy and B B Kumar eds India and Central Asia Classical to Contemporary Periods 3 33 New Delhi Published for Astha Bharati Concept Publishing Company ISBN 81 8069 457 7 Litvinski B A A H Jalilov A I Kolesnikov 1999 The Arab Conquest in History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume III the Crossroads of Civilizations A D 250 750 B A Litvinski Zhang Guangda and R Shabani Samghabadi eds Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited pp 449 472 Liu Xinru The Silk Road Overland Trade and Cultural Interactions in Eurasia in Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History ed Michael Adas American Historical Association Philadelphia Temple University Press 2001 Magill Frank N et al eds 1998 The Ancient World Dictionary of World Biography Volume 1 Pasadena Chicago London Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers Salem Press ISBN 0 89356 313 7 Michon Daniel 2015 Archaeology and Religion in Early Northwest India History Theory Practice London New York New Delhi Routledge ISBN 978 1 138 82249 8 Nguyen Tai Thu 2008 The History of Buddhism in Vietnam CRVP pp 36 ISBN 978 1 56518 098 7 Archived from the original on 31 January 2015 Nourzhanov Kirill Christian Bleuer 2013 Tajikistan a Political and Social History Canberra Australian National University Press ISBN 978 1 925021 15 8 Prevas John 2004 Envy of the Gods Alexander the Great s Ill Fated Journey across Asia Da Capo Press Ramirez Faria Carlos 2007 Concise Encyclopedia of World History New Delhi Atlantic Publishers amp Distributors ISBN 81 269 0775 4 Rong Xinjiang The Sogdian Caravan as Depicted in the Relieves of the Stone Sarcophagus from Shi s Tomb of the Northern Zhou in Chinese Archaeology Volume 6 Issue 1 pp 181 185 ISSN Online 2160 5068 ISSN Print 5004 4295 DOI 10 1515 CHAR 2006 6 1 181 January 2006 Rong Xinjiang New light on Sogdian Colonies along the Silk Road Recent Archaeological Finds in Northern China Lecture at the BBAW on 20 September 2001 in Berichte und Abhandlungen 17 December 2009 10 S 147 160 urn nbn de kobv b4 opus 11068 Rose J The Sogdians Prime Movers between Boundaries Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East vol 30 no 3 2010 p 412 Smith William eds et al 1873 A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology Volume 1 London John Murray Stark Soren Die Altturkenzeit in Mittel und Zentralasien Archaologische und historische Studien Nomaden und Sesshafte vol 6 Reichert 2008 ISBN 3 89500 532 0 Strachan Edward and Roy Bolton 2008 Russia and Europe in the Nineteenth Century London Sphinx Fine Art ISBN 978 1 907200 02 1 Szemerenyi Oswald 1980 Four old Iranian ethnic names Scythian Skudra Sogdian Saka PDF Veroffentlichungen der iranischen Kommission Band 9 Wien Verlag der Osterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften azargoshnap net Taenzer Gertraud 2016 Changing Relations between Administration Clergy and Lay People in Eastern Central Asia a Case Study According to the Dunhuang Manuscripts Referring to the Transition from Tibetan to Local Rule in Dunhuang 8th 11th Centuries in Carmen Meinert Transfer of Buddhism Across Central Asian Networks 7th to 13th Centuries Leiden Boston Brill pp 106 179 ISBN 978 90 04 30741 4 Tafazzoli A 2003 Iranian Languages in C E Bosworth and M S Asimov History of Civilizations of Central Asia Volume IV The Age of Achievement A D 750 to the End of the Fifteenth Century Delhi Motilal Banarsidass Publishers Private Limited pp 323 30 von Le Coq Albert 1913 Chotscho Facsimile Wiedergaben der Wichtigeren Funde der Ersten Koniglich Preussischen Expedition nach Turfan in Ost Turkistan Berlin Dietrich Reimer Ernst Vohsen im Auftrage der Gernalverwaltung der Koniglichen Museen aus Mitteln des Baessler Institutes Tafel 19 Accessed 3 September 2016 Watson Burton 1993 Records of the Great Historian Han Dynasty II Columbia University Press ISBN 0 231 08167 7 Wood Francis 2002 The Silk Road Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia Berkeley CA University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 24340 8 Further reading Edit The Sogdian Descendants in Mongol and post Mongol Central Asia The Tajiks and Sarts PDF Joo Yup Lee ACTA VIA SERICA Vol 5 No 1 June 2020 187 198doi 10 22679 avs 2020 5 1 007 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sogdia Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sogdia Sogdian on Interlinguae Xerxes II and Sogdianus The Sogdians Influencers on the Silk Roads Online exhibition Coordinates 40 24 N 69 24 E 40 4 N 69 4 E 40 4 69 4 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sogdia amp oldid 1051872554, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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