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Wikipedia

Sol LeWitt

Solomon "Sol" LeWitt (September 9, 1928 – April 8, 2007) was an American artist linked to various movements, including conceptual art and minimalism.

Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt, c.1965
Born
Solomon LeWitt

(1928-09-09)September 9, 1928
Hartford, Connecticut
DiedApril 8, 2007(2007-04-08) (aged 78)
New York City
NationalityAmerican
EducationSyracuse University, School of Visual Arts
Known forPainting, Drawing, Sculpture
MovementConceptual Art, Minimalism

LeWitt came to fame in the late 1960s with his wall drawings and "structures" (a term he preferred instead of "sculptures") but was prolific in a wide range of media including drawing, printmaking, photography, painting, installation, and artist's books. He has been the subject of hundreds of solo exhibitions in museums and galleries around the world since 1965. The first biography of the artist, Sol LeWitt: A Life of Ideas, by Lary Bloom, was published by Wesleyan University Press in the spring of 2019.

Contents

Sol LeWitt, Untitled lithograph 1992

LeWitt was born in Hartford, Connecticut, to a family of Jewish immigrants from Russia. His mother took him to art classes at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford. After receiving a BFA from Syracuse University in 1949, LeWitt traveled to Europe where he was exposed to Old Master paintings. Shortly thereafter, he served in the Korean War, first in California, then Japan, and finally Korea. LeWitt moved to New York City in 1953 and set up a studio on the Lower East Side, in the old Ashkenazi Jewish settlement on Hester Street. During this time he studied at the School of Visual Arts while also pursuing his interest in design at Seventeen magazine, where he did paste-ups, mechanicals, and photostats. In 1955, he was a graphic designer in the office of architect I.M. Pei for a year. Around that time, LeWitt also discovered the work of the late 19th-century photographer Eadweard Muybridge, whose studies in sequence and locomotion were an early influence. These experiences, combined with an entry-level job as a night receptionist and clerk he took in 1960 at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in New York, would influence LeWitt's later work.

At MoMA, LeWitt's co-workers included fellow artists Robert Ryman, Dan Flavin, Gene Beery, and Robert Mangold, and the future art critic and writer, Lucy Lippard who worked as a page in the library. Curator Dorothy Canning Miller's now famous 1960 "Sixteen Americans" exhibition with work by Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, and Frank Stella created a swell of excitement and discussion among the community of artists with whom LeWitt associated. LeWitt also became friends with Hanne Darboven, Eva Hesse, and Robert Smithson.

LeWitt taught at several New York schools, including New York University and the School of Visual Arts, during the late 1960s. In 1980, LeWitt left New York for Spoleto, Italy. After returning to the United States in the late 1980s, LeWitt made Chester, Connecticut, his primary residence. He died at age 78 in New York from cancer complications.

LeWitt is regarded as a founder of both Minimal and Conceptual art. His prolific two and three-dimensional work ranges from wall drawings (over 1200 of which have been executed) to hundreds of works on paper extending to structures in the form of towers, pyramids, geometric forms, and progressions. These works range in size from books and gallery-sized installations to monumental outdoor pieces. LeWitt's first serial sculptures were created in the 1960s using the modular form of the square in arrangements of varying visual complexity. In 1979, LeWitt participated in the design for the Lucinda Childs Dance Company's piece Dance.

Sculpture

A representative example of LeWitt's "Modular Cube" structures. The large voids between the beams are in an 8.5:1 ratio with the width of the material.

In the early 1960s, LeWitt first began to create his "structures," a term he used to describe his three-dimensional work. His frequent use of open, modular structures originates from the cube, a form that influenced the artist's thinking from the time that he first became an artist. After creating an early body of work made up of closed form wooden objects, heavily-lacquered by hand, in the mid-1960s he "decided to remove the skin altogether and reveal the structure." This skeletal form, the radically simplified open cube, became a basic building block of the artist's three-dimensional work. In the mid-1960s, LeWitt began to work with the open cube: twelve equal linear elements connected at eight corners to form a skeletal structure. From 1969, he would conceive many of his modular structures on a large scale, to be constructed in aluminum or steel by industrial fabricators. Several of LeWit's cube structures stood at approximate eye level. At this scale, the artist introduced bodily proportion to his fundamental sculptural unit.

Following early experimentation LeWitt settled on a standard version for his modular cubes, circa 1965: the negative space between the beams would stand to the positive space of the sculptural material itself in a ratio of 8.5:1, or 17 2 {\displaystyle {\frac {17}{2}}} . The material would also be painted white instead of black, to avoid the "expressiveness" of the black color of earlier, similar pieces. Both the ratio and the color were arbitrary aesthetic choices, but once taken they were used consistently in several pieces which typify LeWitt's "modular cube" works. Museums holding specimens of LeWitt's modular cube works have published lesson suggestions for elementary education, meant to encourage children to investigate the mathematical properties of the artworks.

Beginning in the mid-1980s, LeWitt composed some of his sculptures from stacked cinder blocks, still generating variations within self-imposed restrictions. At this time, he began to work with concrete blocks. In 1985, the first cement Cube was built in a park in Basel. From 1990 onwards, LeWitt conceived multiple variations on a tower to be constructed using concrete blocks. In a shift away from his well-known geometric vocabulary of forms, the works LeWitt realized in the late 1990s indicate vividly the artist's growing interest in somewhat random curvilinear shapes and highly saturated colors.

In 2007, LeWitt conceived 9 Towers, a cube made from more than 1,000 light-coloured bricks that measures five-meters on each side. It was installed at the Kivik Art Centre in Lilla Stenshuvud, Sweden, in 2014.

Wall drawings

Sol LeWitt, wall drawing, in May 2012 during the Wall Drawings from 1968 to 2007 Sol LeWitt retrospective exhibition at the Centre Pompidou-Metz, Metz, France.

In 1968, LeWitt began to conceive sets of guidelines or simple diagrams for his two-dimensional works drawn directly on the wall, executed first in graphite, then in crayon, later in colored pencil and finally in chromatically rich washes of India ink, bright acrylic paint, and other materials. Since he created a work of art for Paula Cooper Gallery's inaugural show in 1968, an exhibition to benefit the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam, thousands of LeWitt's drawings have been installed directly on the surfaces of walls. Between 1969 and 1970 he created four "Drawings Series", which presented different combinations of the basic element that governed many of his early wall drawings. In each series he applied a different system of change to each of twenty-four possible combinations of a square divided into four equal parts, each containing one of the four basic types of lines LeWitt used (vertical, horizontal, diagonal left, and diagonal right). The result is four possible permutations for each of the twenty-four original units. The system used in Drawings Series I is what LeWitt termed 'Rotation,' Drawings Series II uses a system termed 'Mirror,' Drawings Series III uses 'Cross & Reverse Mirror,' and Drawings Series IV uses 'Cross Reverse'.

In Wall Drawing #122, first installed in 1972 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, the work contains "all combinations of two lines crossing, placed at random, using arcs from corners and sides, straight, not straight and broken lines" resulting in 150 unique pairings that unfold on the gallery walls. LeWitt further expanded on this theme, creating variations such as Wall Drawing #260 at the Museum of Modern Art, New York, which systematically runs through all possible two-part combinations of arcs and lines. Conceived in 1995, Wall Drawing #792: Black rectangles and squares underscores LeWitt's early interest in the intersections between art and architecture. Spanning the two floors of the Barbara Gladstone Gallery, Brussels, this work consists of varying combinations of black rectangles, creating an irregular grid-like pattern.

LeWitt, who had moved to Spoleto, Italy, in the late 1970s credited his transition from graphite pencil or crayon to vivid ink washes, to his encounter with the frescoes of Giotto, Masaccio, and other early Florentine painters. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, he created highly saturated colorful acrylic wall drawings. While their forms are curvilinear, playful and seem almost random, they are also drawn according to an exacting set of guidelines. The bands are a standard width, for example, and no colored section may touch another section of the same color.

In 2005 LeWitt began a series of 'scribble' wall drawings, so termed because they required the draftsmen to fill in areas of the wall by scribbling with graphite. The scribbling occurs at six different densities, which are indicated on the artist's diagrams and then mapped out in string on the surface of the wall. The gradations of scribble density produce a continuum of tone that implies three dimensions. The largest scribble wall drawing, Wall Drawing #1268, is on view at the Albright-Knox Art Gallery.

According to the principle of his work, LeWitt's wall drawings are usually executed by people other than the artist himself. Even after his death, people are still making these drawings. He would therefore eventually use teams of assistants to create such works. Writing about making wall drawings, LeWitt himself observed in 1971 that "each person draws a line differently and each person understands words differently". Between 1968 and his death in 2007, LeWitt created more than 1,270 wall drawings. The wall drawings, executed on-site, generally exist for the duration of an exhibition; they are then destroyed, giving the work in its physical form an ephemeral quality. They can be installed, removed, and then reinstalled in another location, as many times as required for exhibition purposes. When transferred to another location, the number of walls can change only by ensuring that the proportions of the original diagram are retained.

Permanent murals by LeWitt can be found at, among others, the AXA Center, New York (1984–85); The Swiss Re headquarters Americas in Armonk, New York, the Atlanta City Hall, Atlanta (Wall Drawing #581, 1989/90); the Walter E. Washington Convention Center, Washington, DC (Wall Drawing #1103, 2003); the Conrad Hotel, New York (Loopy Doopy (Blue and Purple), 1999); the Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo (Wall Drawing #1268: Scribbles: Staircase (AKAG), 2006/2010); Akron Art Museum, Akron (2007); the Columbus Circle Subway Station, New York; The Jewish Museum (New York), New York; the Green Center for Physics at MIT, Cambridge (Bars of Colors Within Squares (MIT), 2007); the Embassy of the United States in Berlin; the Wadsworth Atheneum; and John Pearson's House, Oberlin, Ohio. The artist's last public wall drawing, Wall Drawing #1259: Loopy Doopy (Springfield) (2008), is at the United States Courthouse in Springfield, Massachusetts (designed by architect Moshe Safdie). Wall Drawing #599: Circles 18 (1989) — a bull's eye of concentric circles in alternating bands of yellow, blue, red and white — was installed at the lobby of the Jewish Community Center, New York, in 2013.

Gouaches

In the 1980s, in particular after a trip to Italy, LeWitt started using gouache, an opaque water-based paint, to produce free-flowing abstract works in contrasting colors. These represented a significant departure from the rest of his practice, as he created these works with his own hands. LeWitt's gouaches are often created in series based on a specific motif. Past series have included Irregular Forms, Parallel Curves, Squiggly Brushstrokes and Web-like Grids.

Although this loosely rendered composition may have been a departure from his earlier, more geometrically structured works visually, it nevertheless remained in alignment with his original artistic intent. LeWitt painstakingly made his own prints from his gouache compositions. In 2012, art advisor Heidi Lee Komaromi curated, "Sol LeWitt: Works on Paper 1983-2003", an exhibition revealing the variety of techniques LeWitt employed on paper during the final decades of his life.

Artist's books

From 1966, LeWitt's interest in seriality led to his production of more than 50 artist's books throughout his career; he later donated many examples to the Wadsworth Athenaeum's library. In 1976 LeWitt helped found Printed Matter, Inc, a for-profit art space in the Tribeca neighborhood of New York City with fellow artists and critics Lucy Lippard, Carol Androcchio, Amy Baker (Sandback), Edit DeAk, Mike Glier, Nancy Linn, Walter Robinson, Ingrid Sischy, Pat Steir, Mimi Wheeler, Robin White and Irena von Zahn. LeWitt was a signal innovator of the genre of the "artist's book," a term that was coined for a 1973 exhibition curated by Dianne Perry Vanderlip at Moore College of Art and Design, Philadelphia.

Printed Matter was one of the first organizations dedicated to creating and distributing artists' books, incorporating self-publishing, small-press publishing, and artist networks and collectives. For LeWitt and others, Printed Matter also served as a support system for avant-garde artists, balancing its role as publisher, exhibition space, retail space, and community center for the downtown arts scene, in that sense emulating the network of aspiring artists LeWitt knew and enjoyed as a staff member at the Museum of Modern Art.

Architecture and landscaping

LeWitt collaborated with architect Stephen Lloyd to design a synagogue for his congregation Beth Shalom Rodfe Zedek; he conceptualized the "airy" synagogue building, with its shallow dome supported by "exuberant wooden roof beams", an homage to the wooden synagogues of eastern Europe.

In 1981, LeWitt was invited by the Fairmount Park Art Association (currently known as the Association for Public Art) to propose a public artwork for a site in Fairmount Park. He selected the long, rectangular plot of land known as the Reilly Memorial and submitted a drawing with instructions. Installed in 2011, Lines in Four Directions in Flowers is made up of more than 7,000 plantings arranged in strategically configured rows. In his original proposal, the artist planned an installation of flower plantings of four different colors (white, yellow, red & blue) in four equal rectangular areas, in rows of four directions (vertical, horizontal, diagonal right & left) framed by evergreen hedges of about 2' height, with each color block comprising four to five species that bloom sequentially.

In 2004, Six Curved Walls sculpture was installed on the hillside slope of Crouse College on Syracuse University campus. The concrete block sculpture consists of six undulating walls, each 12 feet high, and spans 140 feet. The sculpture was designed and constructed to mark the inauguration of Nancy Cantor as the 11th Chancellor of Syracuse University.

Since the early 1960s he and his wife, Carol Androccio, gathered nearly 9,000 works of art through purchases, in trades with other artists and dealers, or as gifts. In this way he acquired works by approximately 750 artists, including Flavin, Ryman, Hanne Darboven, Eva Hesse, Donald Judd, On Kawara, Carl Andre, Dan Graham, Hans Haacke, Gerhard Richter, and others. In 2007, the exhibition "Selections from The LeWitt Collection" at the Weatherspoon Art Museum assembled approximately 100 paintings, sculptures, drawings, prints, and photographs, among them works by Andre, Alice Aycock, Bernd and Hilla Becher, Jan Dibbets, Jackie Ferrara, Gilbert and George, Alex Katz, Robert Mangold, Brice Marden, Mario Merz, Shirin Neshat, Pat Steir, and many other artists.

Sol LeWitt, Tower, Figge Art Museum, Davenport, Iowa, USA, 1984.

LeWitt's work was first publicly exhibited in 1964 in a group show curated by Dan Flavin at the Kaymar Gallery, New York.Dan Graham's John Daniels Gallery later gave him his first solo show in 1965. In 1966, he participated in the "Primary Structures" exhibit at the Jewish Museum in New York (a seminal show which helped define the minimalist movement), submitting an untitled, open modular cube of 9 units. The same year he was included in the "10" exhibit at Dwan Gallery, New York. He was later invited by Harald Szeemann to participate in "When Attitude Becomes Form," at the Kunsthalle Bern, Switzerland, in 1969. Interviewed in 1993 about those years LeWitt remarked, "I decided I would make color or form recede and proceed in a three-dimensional way."

The Gemeentemuseum in The Hague presented his first retrospective exhibition in 1970, and his work was later shown in a major mid-career retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art, New York in 1978. In 1972/1973, LeWitt's first museum shows in Europe were mounted at the Kunsthalle Bern and the Museum of Modern Art, Oxford. In 1975, Lewitt created "The Location of a Rectangle for the Hartford Atheneum" for the third MATRIX exhibition at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. Later that year, he participated in the Wadsworth Atheneum's sixth MATRIX exhibition, providing instructions for a second wall drawing. MoMA gave LeWitt his first retrospective in 1978-79. The exhibition traveled to various American venues. For the 1987 Skulptur Projekte Münster, Germany, he realized Black Form: Memorial to the Missing Jews, a rectangular wall of black concrete blocks for the center of a plaza in front of an elegant, white Neoclassical government building; it is now installed at Altona Town Hall, Hamburg. Other major exhibitions since include Sol LeWitt Drawings 1958-1992, which was organized by the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague, the Netherlands in 1992 which traveled over the next three years to museums in the United Kingdom, Germany, Switzerland, France, Spain, and the United States; and in 1996, the Museum of Modern Art, New York mounted a traveling survey exhibition: "Sol LeWitt Prints: 1970-1995". A major LeWitt retrospective was organized by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2000. The exhibition traveled to the Museum of Contemporary Art, Chicago, and Whitney Museum of American Art, New York.

In 2006, LeWitt's Drawing Series… was displayed at Dia:Beacon and was devoted to the 1970s drawings by the conceptual artist. Drafters and assistants drew directly on the walls using graphite, colored pencil, crayon, and chalk. The works were based on LeWitt's complex principles, which eliminated the limitations of the canvas for more extensive constructions.

"Sol LeWitt: A Wall Drawing Retrospective", a collaboration between the Yale University Art Gallery (YUAG), MASS MoCA (Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art), and the Williams College Museum of Art (WCMA) opened to the public in 2008 at MASS MoCA in North Adams, Massachusetts. The exhibition will be on view for 25 years and is housed in a three-story 27,000-square-foot (2,500 m2) historic mill building in the heart of MASS MoCA's campus fully restored by Bruner/Cott and Associates architects (and outfitted with a sequence of new interior walls constructed to LeWitt's specifications.) The exhibition consists of 105 drawings — comprising nearly one acre of wall surface — that LeWitt created over 40 years from 1968 to 2007 and includes[citation needed] several drawings never before seen, some of which LeWitt created for the project shortly before his death.

Furthermore, the artist was the subject of exhibitions at P.S. 1 Contemporary Center, Long Island City (Concrete Blocks); the Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover (Twenty-Five Years of Wall Drawings, 1968-1993); and Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford (Incomplete Cubes), which traveled to three art museums in the United States. At the time of his death, LeWitt had just organized a retrospective of his work at the Allen Memorial Art Museum in Oberlin, Ohio. At Naples Sol LeWitt. L'artista e i suoi artisti opened at the Museo Madre on December 15, 2012, running until April 1, 2013.

LeWitt's works are found in the most important museum collections including: Tate Modern, London, the Van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven, National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, Hallen für Neue Kunst Schaffhausen, Switzerland, Australian National Gallery, Canberra, Australia, Guggenheim Museum, the Museum of Modern Art, New York, Dia:Beacon, The Jewish Museum in Manhattan, MASS MoCA, North Adams, National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C., and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden. The erection of Double Negative Pyramid by Sol LeWitt at Europos Parkas in Vilnius, Lithuania was a significant event in the history of art in post Berlin Wall era.

Black Form Dedicated to the Missing Jews, Altona City Hall, Altona, Hamburg, Germany, 1987.

Sol LeWitt was one of the main figures of his time; he transformed the process of art-making by questioning the fundamental relationship between an idea, the subjectivity of the artist, and the artwork a given idea might produce. While many artists were challenging modern conceptions of originality, authorship, and artistic genius in the 1960s, LeWitt denied that approaches such as Minimalism, Conceptualism, and Process Art were merely technical or illustrative of philosophy. In his Paragraphs on Conceptual Art, LeWitt asserted that Conceptual art was neither mathematical nor intellectual but intuitive, given that the complexity inherent to transforming an idea into a work of art was fraught with contingencies. LeWitt's art is not about the singular hand of the artist; it is the idea behind each work that surpasses the work itself. In the early 21st century, LeWitt's work, especially the wall drawings, has been critically acclaimed for its economic perspicacity. Though modest—most exist as simple instructions on a sheet of paper—the drawings can be made again and again and again, anywhere in the world, without the artist needing to be involved in their production.

His auction record of $749,000 was set in 2014 for his gouache on paperboard piece Wavy Brushstroke (1995) at Sotheby's, New York.

  • Bloom, Lary. Sol LeWitt: A Life of Ideas, Wesleyan University Press, 2019. (ISBN 978-0-8195-7868-6)
  • LeWitt, Sol. Arcs, from Corners & Sides, Circles, & Grids and All Their Combinations. Bern, Switzerland: Kunsthalle Bern & Paul Biancini, 1972.
  • LeWitt, Sol. The Location of Eight Points. Washington, DC: Max Protetch Gallery, 1974.
  • LeWitt, Sol. Photogrids. New York: P. David Press, 1977/1978. ISBN 0-8478-0166-7
  • Legg, Alicia (ed.). Sol LeWitt: the Museum of Modern Art, New York. New York: The Museum, 1978. ISBN 0-87070-427-3
  • LeWitt, Sol. Geometric Figures & Color. New York: H.N. Abrams, 1979. ISBN 0-8109-0953-7
  • LeWitt, Sol. Autobiography. New York and Boston: Multiple and Lois and Michael K. Torf, 1980. ISBN 0-9605580-0-4
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings, 1968-1984. [Amsterdam, Endhoven, and Hartford, CT: Stedelijk Museum, Van Abbemuseum, and Wadsworth Atheneum, 1984.] ISBN 90-70149-09-5
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt Prints, 1970-86. London: Tate Gallery, 1986. ISBN 0-946590-51-6
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt Drawings, 1958-1992. The Hague: Haags Gemeentemuseum, 1992. ISBN 90-6730-092-6
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt, Twenty-Five Years of Wall Drawings, 1968-1993. Andover, MA, and Seattle: Addison Gallery of American Art and University of Washington Press, 1993. ISBN 1-879886-34-0
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt - Structures, 1962-1993. Oxford: Museum of Modern Art, 1993. ISBN 0-905836-78-2
  • LeWitt, Sol, Cristina Bechtler, and Charlotte von Koerber. 100 Cubes. Ostfildern: Cantz, 1996. ISBN 3-89322-753-9
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt, Bands of Color. Chicago: Museum of Contemporary Art, 1999. ISBN 0-933856-58-X
  • Garrels, Gary, and Sol LeWitt. Sol LeWitt: a Retrospective. San Francisco and New Haven: San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and Yale University Press, 2000. ISBN 0-300-08358-0
  • Gale, Peggy (ed.). Artists Talk: 1969–1977. Halifax, NS: Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 2001. ISBN 0-919616-40-2
  • LeWitt, Sol, Nicholas Baume, Jonathan Flatley, and Pamela M. Lee. Sol LeWitt: Incomplete Open Cubes. Hartford, CT, and Cambridge, MA: Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art and MIT Press, 2001. ISBN 0-262-52311-6
  • LeWitt, Sol, Dean Swanson, and Martin L. Friedman. LeWitt x 2: Sol LeWitt: Structure and Line: Selections from the LeWitt Collection. Madison, WI: Madison Museum of Contemporary Art, 2006. ISBN 0-913883-33-6
  • LeWitt, Sol. Sol LeWitt: Wall Drawings. Bologna, Italy: Damiani, 2006. ISBN 88-89431-59-8
  • Cross, Susan, and Denise Markonish (eds.). Sol LeWitt: 100 Views. North Adams, MA, and New Haven, CT: Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art and Yale University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-300-15282-1
  • Maffei, Giorgio, and Emanuele De Donno. Sol LeWitt: Artist's Books. Sant'Eraclio di Foligno, Italy: Viaindustriae, 2009. ISBN 978-88-903459-2-0
  • LINES & FORMES (sic), Livre d'artiste (album de douze planches en noir et blanc), édité par YVON LAMBERT, Paris 1989, ISBN 978-2-900982-06-8.
  • Roberts, Veronica (ed.), Lucy R. Lippard, and Kirsten Swenson. "Converging Lines: Eva Hesse and Sol LeWitt." Austin: Blanton Museum of Art. Distributed by Yale University Press, 2014. ISBN 0-300-20482-5
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  53. http://radicalart.info/concept/LeWitt/paragraphs.html
  54. Adam D. Weinberg (August 21, 2007). "Backstage Stars". CULTURE+TRAVEL. RetrievedApril 29, 2008.Cite journal requires |journal= ()
  55. http://newsgrist.typepad.com/underbelly/2008/04/modest-proposal.html
  56. Sol LeWitt, Wvy Brushstroke, Sale 226 Sotheby's, CONTEMPORARY ART DAY AUCTION, November 12, 2014, New York.
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Sol LeWitt
Sol LeWitt Article Talk Language Watch Edit Solomon Sol LeWitt September 9 1928 April 8 2007 was an American artist linked to various movements including conceptual art and minimalism 1 Sol LeWittSol LeWitt c 1965BornSolomon LeWitt 1928 09 09 September 9 1928 Hartford ConnecticutDiedApril 8 2007 2007 04 08 aged 78 New York CityNationalityAmericanEducationSyracuse University School of Visual ArtsKnown forPainting Drawing SculptureMovementConceptual Art Minimalism LeWitt came to fame in the late 1960s with his wall drawings and structures a term he preferred instead of sculptures but was prolific in a wide range of media including drawing printmaking photography painting installation and artist s books He has been the subject of hundreds of solo exhibitions in museums and galleries around the world since 1965 The first biography of the artist Sol LeWitt A Life of Ideas by Lary Bloom was published by Wesleyan University Press in the spring of 2019 2 Contents 1 Life 2 Work 2 1 Sculpture 2 2 Wall drawings 2 3 Gouaches 2 4 Artist s books 2 5 Architecture and landscaping 3 Collection 4 Exhibitions 5 Museum collections 6 Influence 7 Art world 8 Selected books 9 References 10 External linksLife Edit Sol LeWitt Untitled lithograph 1992 LeWitt was born in Hartford Connecticut to a family of Jewish immigrants from Russia His mother took him to art classes at the Wadsworth Atheneum in Hartford 3 After receiving a BFA from Syracuse University in 1949 LeWitt traveled to Europe where he was exposed to Old Master paintings Shortly thereafter he served in the Korean War first in California then Japan and finally Korea LeWitt moved to New York City in 1953 and set up a studio on the Lower East Side in the old Ashkenazi Jewish settlement on Hester Street During this time he studied at the School of Visual Arts while also pursuing his interest in design at Seventeen magazine where he did paste ups mechanicals and photostats 4 In 1955 he was a graphic designer in the office of architect I M Pei for a year Around that time LeWitt also discovered the work of the late 19th century photographer Eadweard Muybridge whose studies in sequence and locomotion were an early influence These experiences combined with an entry level job as a night receptionist and clerk he took in 1960 at the Museum of Modern Art MoMA in New York would influence LeWitt s later work At MoMA LeWitt s co workers included fellow artists Robert Ryman Dan Flavin Gene Beery and Robert Mangold and the future art critic and writer Lucy Lippard who worked as a page in the library Curator Dorothy Canning Miller s now famous 1960 Sixteen Americans exhibition with work by Jasper Johns Robert Rauschenberg and Frank Stella created a swell of excitement and discussion among the community of artists with whom LeWitt associated LeWitt also became friends with Hanne Darboven Eva Hesse and Robert Smithson LeWitt taught at several New York schools including New York University and the School of Visual Arts during the late 1960s In 1980 LeWitt left New York for Spoleto Italy After returning to the United States in the late 1980s LeWitt made Chester Connecticut his primary residence 4 He died at age 78 in New York from cancer complications 5 Work EditLeWitt is regarded as a founder of both Minimal and Conceptual art 4 His prolific two and three dimensional work ranges from wall drawings over 1200 of which have been executed to hundreds of works on paper extending to structures in the form of towers pyramids geometric forms and progressions These works range in size from books and gallery sized installations to monumental outdoor pieces LeWitt s first serial sculptures were created in the 1960s using the modular form of the square in arrangements of varying visual complexity In 1979 LeWitt participated in the design for the Lucinda Childs Dance Company s piece Dance 6 Sculpture Edit A representative example of LeWitt s Modular Cube structures The large voids between the beams are in an 8 5 1 ratio with the width of the material In the early 1960s LeWitt first began to create his structures a term he used to describe his three dimensional work 7 His frequent use of open modular structures originates from the cube a form that influenced the artist s thinking from the time that he first became an artist After creating an early body of work made up of closed form wooden objects heavily lacquered by hand in the mid 1960s he decided to remove the skin altogether and reveal the structure This skeletal form the radically simplified open cube became a basic building block of the artist s three dimensional work In the mid 1960s LeWitt began to work with the open cube twelve equal linear elements connected at eight corners to form a skeletal structure From 1969 he would conceive many of his modular structures on a large scale to be constructed in aluminum or steel by industrial fabricators Several of LeWit s cube structures stood at approximate eye level At this scale the artist introduced bodily proportion to his fundamental sculptural unit 8 Following early experimentation LeWitt settled on a standard version for his modular cubes circa 1965 the negative space between the beams would stand to the positive space of the sculptural material itself in a ratio of 8 5 1 or 17 2 displaystyle frac 17 2 9 10 The material would also be painted white instead of black to avoid the expressiveness of the black color of earlier similar pieces Both the ratio and the color were arbitrary aesthetic choices but once taken they were used consistently in several pieces which typify LeWitt s modular cube works 11 Museums holding specimens of LeWitt s modular cube works have published lesson suggestions for elementary education meant to encourage children to investigate the mathematical properties of the artworks 12 13 Beginning in the mid 1980s LeWitt composed some of his sculptures from stacked cinder blocks still generating variations within self imposed restrictions At this time he began to work with concrete blocks In 1985 the first cement Cube was built in a park in Basel 14 From 1990 onwards LeWitt conceived multiple variations on a tower to be constructed using concrete blocks 8 In a shift away from his well known geometric vocabulary of forms the works LeWitt realized in the late 1990s indicate vividly the artist s growing interest in somewhat random curvilinear shapes and highly saturated colors 15 In 2007 LeWitt conceived 9 Towers a cube made from more than 1 000 light coloured bricks that measures five meters on each side It was installed at the Kivik Art Centre in Lilla Stenshuvud Sweden in 2014 16 Wall drawings Edit Sol LeWitt wall drawing in May 2012 during the Wall Drawings from 1968 to 2007 Sol LeWitt retrospective exhibition at the Centre Pompidou Metz Metz France In 1968 LeWitt began to conceive sets of guidelines or simple diagrams for his two dimensional works drawn directly on the wall executed first in graphite then in crayon later in colored pencil and finally in chromatically rich washes of India ink bright acrylic paint and other materials 17 Since he created a work of art for Paula Cooper Gallery s inaugural show in 1968 18 an exhibition to benefit the Student Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam thousands of LeWitt s drawings have been installed directly on the surfaces of walls 19 Between 1969 and 1970 he created four Drawings Series which presented different combinations of the basic element that governed many of his early wall drawings In each series he applied a different system of change to each of twenty four possible combinations of a square divided into four equal parts each containing one of the four basic types of lines LeWitt used vertical horizontal diagonal left and diagonal right The result is four possible permutations for each of the twenty four original units The system used in Drawings Series I is what LeWitt termed Rotation Drawings Series II uses a system termed Mirror Drawings Series III uses Cross amp Reverse Mirror and Drawings Series IV uses Cross Reverse 20 In Wall Drawing 122 first installed in 1972 at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge the work contains all combinations of two lines crossing placed at random using arcs from corners and sides straight not straight and broken lines resulting in 150 unique pairings that unfold on the gallery walls LeWitt further expanded on this theme creating variations such as Wall Drawing 260 at the Museum of Modern Art New York which systematically runs through all possible two part combinations of arcs and lines 21 Conceived in 1995 Wall Drawing 792 Black rectangles and squares underscores LeWitt s early interest in the intersections between art and architecture Spanning the two floors of the Barbara Gladstone Gallery Brussels this work consists of varying combinations of black rectangles creating an irregular grid like pattern 22 LeWitt who had moved to Spoleto Italy in the late 1970s credited his transition from graphite pencil or crayon to vivid ink washes to his encounter with the frescoes of Giotto Masaccio and other early Florentine painters 18 In the late 1990s and early 2000s he created highly saturated colorful acrylic wall drawings While their forms are curvilinear playful and seem almost random they are also drawn according to an exacting set of guidelines The bands are a standard width for example and no colored section may touch another section of the same color 23 In 2005 LeWitt began a series of scribble wall drawings so termed because they required the draftsmen to fill in areas of the wall by scribbling with graphite The scribbling occurs at six different densities which are indicated on the artist s diagrams and then mapped out in string on the surface of the wall The gradations of scribble density produce a continuum of tone that implies three dimensions 24 The largest scribble wall drawing Wall Drawing 1268 is on view at the Albright Knox Art Gallery According to the principle of his work LeWitt s wall drawings are usually executed by people other than the artist himself Even after his death people are still making these drawings 25 He would therefore eventually use teams of assistants to create such works Writing about making wall drawings LeWitt himself observed in 1971 that each person draws a line differently and each person understands words differently 26 Between 1968 and his death in 2007 LeWitt created more than 1 270 wall drawings 27 The wall drawings executed on site generally exist for the duration of an exhibition they are then destroyed giving the work in its physical form an ephemeral quality 28 They can be installed removed and then reinstalled in another location as many times as required for exhibition purposes When transferred to another location the number of walls can change only by ensuring that the proportions of the original diagram are retained 29 Permanent murals by LeWitt can be found at among others the AXA Center New York 1984 85 30 The Swiss Re headquarters Americas in Armonk New York the Atlanta City Hall Atlanta Wall Drawing 581 1989 90 the Walter E Washington Convention Center Washington DC Wall Drawing 1103 2003 the Conrad Hotel New York Loopy Doopy Blue and Purple 1999 30 the Albright Knox Art Gallery Buffalo Wall Drawing 1268 Scribbles Staircase AKAG 2006 2010 31 Akron Art Museum Akron 2007 the Columbus Circle Subway Station New York The Jewish Museum New York New York the Green Center for Physics at MIT Cambridge Bars of Colors Within Squares MIT 2007 the Embassy of the United States in Berlin the Wadsworth Atheneum and John Pearson s House Oberlin Ohio The artist s last public wall drawing Wall Drawing 1259 Loopy Doopy Springfield 2008 is at the United States Courthouse in Springfield Massachusetts designed by architect Moshe Safdie Wall Drawing 599 Circles 18 1989 a bull s eye of concentric circles in alternating bands of yellow blue red and white was installed at the lobby of the Jewish Community Center New York in 2013 30 Gouaches Edit In the 1980s in particular after a trip to Italy LeWitt started using gouache an opaque water based paint to produce free flowing abstract works in contrasting colors These represented a significant departure from the rest of his practice as he created these works with his own hands 7 LeWitt s gouaches are often created in series based on a specific motif Past series have included Irregular Forms Parallel Curves Squiggly Brushstrokes and Web like Grids 32 Although this loosely rendered composition may have been a departure from his earlier more geometrically structured works visually it nevertheless remained in alignment with his original artistic intent LeWitt painstakingly made his own prints from his gouache compositions In 2012 art advisor Heidi Lee Komaromi curated Sol LeWitt Works on Paper 1983 2003 an exhibition revealing the variety of techniques LeWitt employed on paper during the final decades of his life Artist s books Edit From 1966 LeWitt s interest in seriality led to his production of more than 50 artist s books throughout his career he later donated many examples to the Wadsworth Athenaeum s library In 1976 LeWitt helped found Printed Matter Inc a for profit art space in the Tribeca neighborhood of New York City with fellow artists and critics Lucy Lippard Carol Androcchio Amy Baker Sandback Edit DeAk Mike Glier Nancy Linn Walter Robinson Ingrid Sischy Pat Steir Mimi Wheeler Robin White and Irena von Zahn LeWitt was a signal innovator of the genre of the artist s book a term that was coined for a 1973 exhibition curated by Dianne Perry Vanderlip at Moore College of Art and Design Philadelphia 33 Printed Matter was one of the first organizations dedicated to creating and distributing artists books incorporating self publishing small press publishing and artist networks and collectives 34 For LeWitt and others Printed Matter also served as a support system for avant garde artists balancing its role as publisher exhibition space retail space and community center for the downtown arts scene 35 in that sense emulating the network of aspiring artists LeWitt knew and enjoyed as a staff member at the Museum of Modern Art Architecture and landscaping Edit LeWitt collaborated with architect Stephen Lloyd to design a synagogue for his congregation Beth Shalom Rodfe Zedek he conceptualized the airy synagogue building with its shallow dome supported by exuberant wooden roof beams an homage to the wooden synagogues of eastern Europe 36 37 In 1981 LeWitt was invited by the Fairmount Park Art Association currently known as the Association for Public Art to propose a public artwork for a site in Fairmount Park He selected the long rectangular plot of land known as the Reilly Memorial and submitted a drawing with instructions Installed in 2011 Lines in Four Directions in Flowers is made up of more than 7 000 plantings arranged in strategically configured rows In his original proposal the artist planned an installation of flower plantings of four different colors white yellow red amp blue in four equal rectangular areas in rows of four directions vertical horizontal diagonal right amp left framed by evergreen hedges of about 2 height with each color block comprising four to five species that bloom sequentially 38 39 In 2004 Six Curved Walls sculpture was installed on the hillside slope of Crouse College on Syracuse University campus The concrete block sculpture consists of six undulating walls each 12 feet high and spans 140 feet The sculpture was designed and constructed to mark the inauguration of Nancy Cantor as the 11th Chancellor of Syracuse University 40 41 42 Collection EditSince the early 1960s he and his wife Carol Androccio gathered nearly 9 000 works of art through purchases in trades with other artists and dealers or as gifts 43 In this way he acquired works by approximately 750 artists including Flavin Ryman Hanne Darboven Eva Hesse Donald Judd On Kawara Carl Andre Dan Graham Hans Haacke Gerhard Richter and others In 2007 the exhibition Selections from The LeWitt Collection at the Weatherspoon Art Museum assembled approximately 100 paintings sculptures drawings prints and photographs among them works by Andre Alice Aycock Bernd and Hilla Becher Jan Dibbets Jackie Ferrara Gilbert and George Alex Katz Robert Mangold Brice Marden Mario Merz Shirin Neshat Pat Steir and many other artists 44 Exhibitions Edit Sol LeWitt Tower Figge Art Museum Davenport Iowa USA 1984 LeWitt s work was first publicly exhibited in 1964 in a group show curated by Dan Flavin at the Kaymar Gallery New York 45 Dan Graham s John Daniels Gallery later gave him his first solo show in 1965 46 In 1966 he participated in the Primary Structures exhibit at the Jewish Museum in New York a seminal show which helped define the minimalist movement submitting an untitled open modular cube of 9 units The same year he was included in the 10 exhibit at Dwan Gallery New York He was later invited by Harald Szeemann to participate in When Attitude Becomes Form at the Kunsthalle Bern Switzerland in 1969 Interviewed in 1993 about those years LeWitt remarked I decided I would make color or form recede and proceed in a three dimensional way The Gemeentemuseum in The Hague presented his first retrospective exhibition in 1970 and his work was later shown in a major mid career retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art New York in 1978 47 In 1972 1973 LeWitt s first museum shows in Europe were mounted at the Kunsthalle Bern and the Museum of Modern Art Oxford 48 In 1975 Lewitt created The Location of a Rectangle for the Hartford Atheneum for the third MATRIX exhibition at the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art Later that year he participated in the Wadsworth Atheneum s sixth MATRIX exhibition providing instructions for a second wall drawing MoMA gave LeWitt his first retrospective in 1978 79 The exhibition traveled to various American venues For the 1987 Skulptur Projekte Munster Germany he realized Black Form Memorial to the Missing Jews a rectangular wall of black concrete blocks for the center of a plaza in front of an elegant white Neoclassical government building it is now installed at Altona Town Hall Hamburg Other major exhibitions since include Sol LeWitt Drawings 1958 1992 which was organized by the Gemeentemuseum in The Hague the Netherlands in 1992 which traveled over the next three years to museums in the United Kingdom Germany Switzerland France Spain and the United States and in 1996 the Museum of Modern Art New York mounted a traveling survey exhibition Sol LeWitt Prints 1970 1995 A major LeWitt retrospective was organized by the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art in 2000 The exhibition traveled to the Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago and Whitney Museum of American Art New York In 2006 LeWitt s Drawing Series was displayed at Dia Beacon and was devoted to the 1970s drawings by the conceptual artist Drafters and assistants 49 drew directly on the walls using graphite colored pencil crayon and chalk The works were based on LeWitt s complex principles which eliminated the limitations of the canvas for more extensive constructions Sol LeWitt A Wall Drawing Retrospective a collaboration between the Yale University Art Gallery YUAG MASS MoCA Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art and the Williams College Museum of Art WCMA opened to the public in 2008 at MASS MoCA in North Adams Massachusetts 50 The exhibition will be on view for 25 years and is housed in a three story 27 000 square foot 2 500 m2 historic mill building in the heart of MASS MoCA s campus fully restored by Bruner Cott and Associates architects and outfitted with a sequence of new interior walls constructed to LeWitt s specifications The exhibition consists of 105 drawings comprising nearly one acre of wall surface that LeWitt created over 40 years from 1968 to 2007 and includes citation needed several drawings never before seen some of which LeWitt created for the project shortly before his death Furthermore the artist was the subject of exhibitions at P S 1 Contemporary Center Long Island City Concrete Blocks 51 the Addison Gallery of American Art Andover Twenty Five Years of Wall Drawings 1968 1993 and Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art Hartford Incomplete Cubes which traveled to three art museums in the United States At the time of his death LeWitt had just organized a retrospective of his work at the Allen Memorial Art Museum in Oberlin Ohio At Naples Sol LeWitt L artista e i suoi artisti opened at the Museo Madre on December 15 2012 running until April 1 2013 Museum collections EditLeWitt s works are found in the most important museum collections including Tate Modern London the Van Abbemuseum Eindhoven National Museum of Serbia in Belgrade Centre Georges Pompidou Paris Hallen fur Neue Kunst Schaffhausen Switzerland Australian National Gallery Canberra Australia Guggenheim Museum the Museum of Modern Art New York Dia Beacon The Jewish Museum in Manhattan MASS MoCA North Adams National Gallery of Art Washington D C and the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden 52 The erection of Double Negative Pyramid by Sol LeWitt at Europos Parkas in Vilnius Lithuania was a significant event in the history of art in post Berlin Wall era Influence Edit Black Form Dedicated to the Missing Jews Altona City Hall Altona Hamburg Germany 1987 Sol LeWitt was one of the main figures of his time he transformed the process of art making by questioning the fundamental relationship between an idea the subjectivity of the artist and the artwork a given idea might produce While many artists were challenging modern conceptions of originality authorship and artistic genius in the 1960s LeWitt denied that approaches such as Minimalism Conceptualism and Process Art were merely technical or illustrative of philosophy In his Paragraphs on Conceptual Art LeWitt asserted that Conceptual art was neither mathematical nor intellectual but intuitive given that the complexity inherent to transforming an idea into a work of art was fraught with contingencies 53 LeWitt s art is not about the singular hand of the artist it is the idea behind each work that surpasses the work itself 54 In the early 21st century LeWitt s work especially the wall drawings has been critically acclaimed for its economic perspicacity Though modest most exist as simple instructions on a sheet of paper the drawings can be made again and again and again anywhere in the world without the artist needing to be involved in their production 55 Art world EditHis auction record of 749 000 was set in 2014 for his gouache on paperboard piece Wavy Brushstroke 1995 at Sotheby s New York 56 Selected books EditBloom Lary Sol LeWitt A Life of Ideas Wesleyan University Press 2019 ISBN 978 0 8195 7868 6 LeWitt Sol Arcs from Corners amp Sides Circles amp Grids and All Their Combinations Bern Switzerland Kunsthalle Bern amp Paul Biancini 1972 LeWitt Sol The Location of Eight Points Washington DC Max Protetch Gallery 1974 LeWitt Sol Photogrids New York P David Press 1977 1978 ISBN 0 8478 0166 7 Legg Alicia ed Sol LeWitt the Museum of Modern Art New York New York The Museum 1978 ISBN 0 87070 427 3 LeWitt Sol Geometric Figures amp Color New York H N Abrams 1979 ISBN 0 8109 0953 7 LeWitt Sol Autobiography New York and Boston Multiple and Lois and Michael K Torf 1980 ISBN 0 9605580 0 4 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings 1968 1984 Amsterdam Endhoven and Hartford CT Stedelijk Museum Van Abbemuseum and Wadsworth Atheneum 1984 ISBN 90 70149 09 5 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Prints 1970 86 London Tate Gallery 1986 ISBN 0 946590 51 6 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Drawings 1958 1992 The Hague Haags Gemeentemuseum 1992 ISBN 90 6730 092 6 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Twenty Five Years of Wall Drawings 1968 1993 Andover MA and Seattle Addison Gallery of American Art and University of Washington Press 1993 ISBN 1 879886 34 0 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Structures 1962 1993 Oxford Museum of Modern Art 1993 ISBN 0 905836 78 2 LeWitt Sol Cristina Bechtler and Charlotte von Koerber 100 Cubes Ostfildern Cantz 1996 ISBN 3 89322 753 9 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Bands of Color Chicago Museum of Contemporary Art 1999 ISBN 0 933856 58 X Garrels Gary and Sol LeWitt Sol LeWitt a Retrospective San Francisco and New Haven San Francisco Museum of Modern Art and Yale University Press 2000 ISBN 0 300 08358 0 Gale Peggy ed Artists Talk 1969 1977 Halifax NS Nova Scotia College of Art and Design 2001 ISBN 0 919616 40 2 LeWitt Sol Nicholas Baume Jonathan Flatley and Pamela M Lee Sol LeWitt Incomplete Open Cubes Hartford CT and Cambridge MA Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art and MIT Press 2001 ISBN 0 262 52311 6 LeWitt Sol Dean Swanson and Martin L Friedman LeWitt x 2 Sol LeWitt Structure and Line Selections from the LeWitt Collection Madison WI Madison Museum of Contemporary Art 2006 ISBN 0 913883 33 6 LeWitt Sol Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings Bologna Italy Damiani 2006 ISBN 88 89431 59 8 Cross Susan and Denise Markonish eds Sol LeWitt 100 Views North Adams MA and New Haven CT Massachusetts Museum of Contemporary Art and Yale University Press 2009 ISBN 978 0 300 15282 1 Maffei Giorgio and Emanuele De Donno Sol LeWitt Artist s Books Sant Eraclio di Foligno Italy Viaindustriae 2009 ISBN 978 88 903459 2 0 LINES amp FORMES sic Livre d artiste album de douze planches en noir et blanc edite par YVON LAMBERT Paris 1989 ISBN 978 2 900982 06 8 Roberts Veronica ed Lucy R Lippard and Kirsten Swenson Converging Lines Eva Hesse and Sol LeWitt Austin Blanton Museum of Art Distributed by Yale University Press 2014 ISBN 0 300 20482 5References Edit McNay Michael Obituary Sol LeWitt American artist whose treatment of forms and colours defied critical analysis The Guardian April 11 2007 Accessed April 17 2011 Bloom Lary April 16 2019 Sol LeWitt A Life of Ideas Wesleyan University Press ISBN 9780819578709 Michael Kimmelman April 9 2007 Sol LeWitt Master of Conceptualism Dies at 78 New York Times a b c Solomon R Guggenheim Museum Collection online Sol LeWitt Accessed April 17 2011 Ulaby Neda Sol LeWitt conceptual art pioneer dies at 78 All Things Considered NPR April 9 2007 Accessed April 17 2011 1 a b Sol LeWitt Structures and Drawings April 28 June 30 2011 Archived May 19 2011 at the Wayback Machine Barbara Mathes Gallery New York a b Sol LeWitt Structures 1965 2006 May 24 December 2 2011 Public Art Fund New York SFMoMA Acquires Important Early Structure Work by Sol LeWitt San Francisco Museum of Modern Art July 18 2011 Sol LeWitt Five Towers 1986 Whitney Museum of American Art Legg Alicia ed 1978 Sol LeWitt PDF The Museum of Modern Art pp 59 71 27 Sol LeWitt s Concepts and Structures National Gallery of Art Lesson Concept Sol LeWitt 1 2 3 4 5 6 Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Sol LeWitt Concrete Block December 17 1999 February 27 2000 MoMA P S 1 Contemporary Art Center New York Accessed April 17 2011 Sol LeWitt on the Roof Splotches Whirls and Twirls April 26 2005 October 30 2005 Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Gareth Harris and Hanne Cecilie Gulstad January 1 2014 Europe is set for a summer of big sculpture Archived January 6 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Art Newspaper Christopher Knight April 10 2007 Sol LeWitt 78 sculptor and muralist changed art Los Angeles Times a b Sol LeWitt September 3 October 10 2013 Paula Cooper Gallery New York Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1268 Scribbles Staircase AKAG 2006 Albright Knox Art Gallery Buffalo Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1211 2006 MASS MoCA North Adams MA Sol LeWitt Arcs and Lines May 7 August 26 2011 Paula Cooper Gallery New York Sol LeWitt September 11 October 30 2010 permanent dead link Barbara Gladstone Gallery Brussels Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1152 Whirls and twirls Met 2005 MASS MoCA North Adams MA Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1247 Scribbles 7 PW 2007 MASS MoCA North Adams MA Sol LeWitt Archived October 8 2011 at the Wayback Machine National Gallery Washington D C Adrian Searle December 7 2006 Second thoughts The Guardian Jock Reynolds June 13 2009 The Logical and the Lyrical The stunning beauty of Sol Lewitt s Wall Drawing 146A Wall Street Journal Sol LeWitt Wall Drawings from 1968 to 2007 Centre Pompidou Metz Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1136 2004 Tate London a b c Carol Vogel July 4 2013 LeWitt s Reach Extends To Another Lobby New York Times Sol LeWitt Wall Drawing 1268 Scribbles Staircase AKAG 2006 2010 Albright Knox Art Gallery Buffalo Sol LeWitt Gouaches September 6 October 15 2005 Paula Cooper Gallery New York Accessed April 17 2011 Ault Julie December 2006 Interview with Lucy R Lippard on Printed Matter Printed Matter Inc Retrieved July 28 2015 Gessert George January 1 1988 An Introduction to Artist s Books Northwest Review Eugene Oregon University of Oregon 26 1 53 69 ISSN 0029 3423 ProQuest 1299906511 Smith Dinitia January 29 1990 After Andy Ingrid Sischy Queen of the Downtown Art Scene Takes over at Interview New York p 48 Retrieved July 25 2015 Ivry Benjamin May 8 2009 Sol LeWitt A Jewish Artist s Leap Into the Unknown Forward Zimmer William December 9 2001 Art Takes a Prominent Spot In Chester s New Synagogue New York Times Sol LeWitt Lines in Four Directions in Flowers Philadelphia Museum of Art Chelsea Allison June 5 2012 The Supernaturalists Fresh Ellsworth Kelly and Sol LeWitt Exhibitions Bloom on the East Coast Archived March 31 2014 at the Wayback Machine Vogue Gruber Samuel D December 10 2011 At Syracuse University Undulating Walls Commemorate Vanishing Barriers The Forward Retrieved March 22 2021 Light Work Collection Artwork Six Curved Walls Syracuse 2487 Light Work Retrieved March 22 2021 Buckley Madeleine April 24 2016 Explore the SU campus through these 6 historic statues The Daily Orange Retrieved March 22 2021 Genocchio Benjamin LeWitt the collector filling up a warehouse New York Times January 1 2004 Accessed April 17 2011 LeWitt x 2 September 9 December 9 2007 Weatherspoon Art Museum Greensboro NC Roberts Veronica ed Converging Lines Eva Hesse and Sol LeWitt Austin Blanton Museum of Art Distributed by Yale University Press 2014 Kennedy Randy June 26 2009 A Round Peg The New York Times Retrieved June 7 2009 Sol LeWitt Works on Paper May 8 June 19 2009 Paula Cooper Gallery New York Accessed April 17 2011 Sol LeWitt September 15 October 23 2004 Lisson Gallery London Sol LeWittDrawing Series PDF Dia Art Foundation 2006 Holland Cotter Now in Residence Walls of Luscious Austerity New York Times December 4 2008 MoMA PS1 Exhibition Page Sol LeWitt Lisson Gallery London http radicalart info concept LeWitt paragraphs html Adam D Weinberg August 21 2007 Backstage Stars CULTURE TRAVEL Retrieved April 29 2008 Cite journal requires journal help http newsgrist typepad com underbelly 2008 04 modest proposal html Sol LeWitt Wvy Brushstroke Sale 226 Sotheby s CONTEMPORARY ART DAY AUCTION November 12 2014 New York External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sol LeWitt Wikiquote has quotations related to Sol LeWittSol LeWitt exhibition at Paula Cooper Gallery NYC 2013 Sol LeWitt artwork at Brooke Alexander Gallery Sol LeWitt at the Museum of Modern Art Oral history interview with Sol LeWitt 1974 July 15 Archives of American Art Smithsonian Institution In vast LeWitt show absurdity and beauty Boston Globe Boston MA Cotter Holland Now in Residence Walls of Luscious Austerity New York Times December 4 2008 Lacayo Richard Sol LeWitt s Dazzling Line Drawings Time magazine November 17 2008 Exhibition at the Cincinnati Art Museum in 2008 Thomas Dreher Sol LeWitt The two Series Forms derived from a Cube and Pyramids PDF file 8 p ca 10 MB Dreher Thomas Sol LeWitt Structures 1962 1993 German illustrated review of an exhibition in 1993 at the Villa Stuck in Munich Dreher Thomas Sol LeWitt Pyramids for Joseph Beuys Munich 1986 German illustrations of a room in the Lenbachhaus in Munich with four wall drawings realized by LeWitt s crew in 1986 Crown Point Press LeWitt s prints Sol LeWitt at NMAC Foundation Vogel Carol Subway Riders Are Greeted by a Blast of Sol LeWitt Color New York Times September 13 2009 Kimmelman Michael Sol LeWitt Master of Conceptualism Dies at 78 New York Times April 9 2007 Obituary in the Connecticut Post Associated Press Sol LeWitt influential American artist at 78 April 9 2007 Gray Sadie Conceptualist pioneer Sol LeWitt dies aged 78 Independent UK April 10 2007 Sol LeWitt on ArtNet Sol LeWitt Interviews Conceptual Paradise Leuphana University Lueneburg Sol LeWitt s exhibition at Fundacio Antoni Tapies Sol LeWitt at The Jewish Museum Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sol LeWitt amp oldid 1055905362, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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