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Solenogastres

The Solenogastres (less often referred to as Neomeniomorpha), common name the solenogasters, are one class of small, worm-like, shell-less molluscs (Aplacophora), the other class being the Caudofoveata (Chaetodermomorpha).

Solenogastres
A preserved specimen of Epimenia verrucosa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Solenogastres
Orders

Some recent literature, and recent molecular evidence, indicates that the Aplacophora may be polyphyletic, and therefore these taxonomists divide Solenogastres and Caudofoveata into separate classes.

Contents

In contrast to all other molluscan classes, the Aplacophora have no shell, and are instead covered by aragonitic sclerites (calcareous spicules), which can be solid or hollow. These spicules can be arranged perpendicular to one another within the cuticle to form a skeleton, or can stick up to form a palisade, or can lie flat against the cuticle.

80% of solenogaster species have a radula, while in others it is secondarily lost. The radula may bear one or more teeth per row; where there is more than one tooth, there is no central radular tooth. The radula grows by dividing existing teeth in two, or by adding a new tooth at the centre of the radular row. The salivary glands are very elaborate, and are an important character for taxonomy. Next to the mouth they have a unique sense organ, the vestibulum.

The solenogastres do not have true ctenidia, although their gill-like structures resemble them.

During development many Solenogastres are covered by a spiny scleritome comprising spines or scale-like plates; this has been likened to the halwaxiid scleritome.

Sclerites of Epimenia start out solid before developing a hollow stem that subsequently solidifies.

Diet

Solenogasters feed on cnidaria and ctenophores, either sucking their bodily fluids or eating their tissue. They do not use their radulae to rasp prey, as other molluscs do.

There is some uncertainty regarding the phylogenetic position of the solenogasters. Traditionally considered to be the most basal molluscan group and the sister group to the Caudofoveata, alternatives to both of these statements have been proposed on various lines of evidence. Indeed, some molecular datasets plot Solenogastres as an outgroup to Mollusca.


Unassigned in Solenogastres
Synonyms
  • Superorder Aplotegmentaria (not monophyletic)
    • Myzomeniidae Thiele, 1894: synonym of Dondersiidae Simroth, 1893
  • Superorder Pachytegmentaria (not monophyletic)
    • Parameniidae Simroth, 1893: synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath, 1911 (invalid: type genus a junior homonym)
    • Pararrhopaliidae Salvini-Plawen, 1972: synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath, 1911
    • Perimeniidae Nierstrasz, 1908: synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath, 1911
    • Proneomenidae Mitchell, 1892: synonym of Proneomeniidae Mitchell, 1892
    • Pruvotiniidae Heath, 1911: synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath, 1911 (incorrect original spelling)
    • Solenopodidae Koren & Danielssen, 1877: synonym of Neomeniidae Ihering, 1876
    • Wireniidae Salvini-Plawen, 1978: synonym of Gymnomeniidae Odhner, 1920
  1. MolluscaBase eds. (2021). MolluscaBase. Solenogastres. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=2094 on 2021-04-14
  2. e.g. Todt, C.; Okusu, A.; Schander, C. & Schwabe, E. (2008). "Solenogastres, Caudofoveata and Polyplacophora.". In Ponder, W. & Lindberg D. (eds.). Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-25092-5.
  3. Scheltema, A. H. (1999). "Two solenogaster molluscs, Ocheyoherpia trachia n.sp. From Macquarie Island and Tegulaherpia tasmanica Salvini-Plawen from Bass Strait (Aplacophora: Neomeniomorpha)". Records of the Australian Museum. 51: 23–31. doi:10.3853/j.0067-1975.51.1999.1266.
  4. Wilbur, Karl M.; Trueman, E.R.; Clarke, M.R., eds. (1985), "2. Early evolution and the Primitive Groups", The Mollusca, 10. Evolution, New York: Academic Press, ISBN 0-12-728702-7
  5. Todt, C.; Wanninger, A. (2010). "Of tests, trochs, shells, and spicules: Development of the basal mollusk Wirenia argentea (Solenogastres) and its bearing on the evolution of trochozoan larval key features". Frontiers in Zoology. 7 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1742-9994-7-6. PMC2828982. PMID 20181015.
  6. Okusu, A. (2002). "Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai (Mollusca: Neomeniomorpha)". The Biological Bulletin. 203 (1): 87–103. doi:10.2307/1543461. JSTOR 1543461. PMID 12200259.
  7. Guralnick, R.; Smith, K. (1999). "Historical and biomechanical analysis of integration and dissociation in molluscan feeding, with special emphasis on the true limpets (Patellogastropoda: Gastropoda)". Journal of Morphology. 241 (2): 175–195. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-4687(199908)241:2<175::AID-JMOR7>3.0.CO;2-0. PMID 10420163.
  8. Scheltema, A. H.; Jebb, M. (1994). "Natural history of a solenogaster mollusc from Papua New Guinea,Epimenia australis(Thiele) (Aplacophora: Neomeniomorpha)". Journal of Natural History. 28 (6): 1297. doi:10.1080/00222939400770661.
  9. Wilson, N.; Rouse, G.; Giribet, G. (2010). "Assessing the molluscan hypothesis Serialia (Monoplacophora+Polyplacophora) using novel molecular data". Molecular Phylogenetics & Evolution. 54 (1): 187–193. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2009.07.028. PMID 19647088.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSolenogastres.

Solenogastres
Solenogastres Language Watch Edit The Solenogastres less often referred to as Neomeniomorpha common name the solenogasters are one class of small worm like shell less molluscs Aplacophora the other class being the Caudofoveata Chaetodermomorpha 1 SolenogastresA preserved specimen of Epimenia verrucosaScientific classificationKingdom AnimaliaPhylum MolluscaClass SolenogastresOrdersNeomeniamorpha Pholidoskepia Sterrofustia Some recent literature and recent molecular evidence indicates that the Aplacophora may be polyphyletic and therefore these taxonomists divide Solenogastres and Caudofoveata into separate classes 2 Contents 1 Morphology 2 Development 3 Ecology 3 1 Diet 4 Phylogeny 5 Families 6 References 7 Further readingMorphology EditIn contrast to all other molluscan classes the Aplacophora have no shell and are instead covered by aragonitic sclerites calcareous spicules which can be solid or hollow These spicules can be arranged perpendicular to one another within the cuticle to form a skeleton or can stick up to form a palisade or can lie flat against the cuticle 3 80 of solenogaster species have a radula while in others it is secondarily lost The radula may bear one or more teeth per row where there is more than one tooth there is no central radular tooth 3 The radula grows by dividing existing teeth in two or by adding a new tooth at the centre of the radular row 3 The salivary glands are very elaborate and are an important character for taxonomy Next to the mouth they have a unique sense organ the vestibulum The solenogastres do not have true ctenidia although their gill like structures resemble them 4 Development EditDuring development many Solenogastres are covered by a spiny scleritome comprising spines or scale like plates this has been likened to the halwaxiid scleritome 5 Sclerites of Epimenia start out solid before developing a hollow stem that subsequently solidifies 6 Ecology EditDiet Edit Solenogasters feed on cnidaria and ctenophores either sucking their bodily fluids or eating their tissue 7 They do not use their radulae to rasp prey as other molluscs do 8 Phylogeny EditThere is some uncertainty regarding the phylogenetic position of the solenogasters Traditionally considered to be the most basal molluscan group and the sister group to the Caudofoveata alternatives to both of these statements have been proposed on various lines of evidence 5 Indeed some molecular datasets plot Solenogastres as an outgroup to Mollusca 9 Families EditAcanthomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Amphimeniidae Salvini Plawen 1972 Apodomeniidae Kocot Todt N T Mikkelsen amp Halanych 2019 Dondersiidae Simroth 1893 Drepanomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Epimeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Gymnomeniidae Odhner 1920 Hemimeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Heteroherpiidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Imeroherpiidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Lepidomeniidae Pruvot 1902 Macellomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Meiomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1985 Neomeniidae Ihering 1876 Notomeniidae Salvini Plawen 2004 Phyllomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Proneomeniidae Mitchell 1892 Pruvotinidae Heath 1911 Rhipidoherpiidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Rhopalomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Sandalomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Simrothiellidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Strophomeniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 Syngenoherpiidae Salvini Plawen 1978Unassigned in SolenogastresPholidoherpia Salvini Plawen 1978 Rhabdoherpia Salvini Plawen 1978SynonymsSuperorder Aplotegmentaria not monophyletic Myzomeniidae Thiele 1894 synonym of Dondersiidae Simroth 1893 Superorder Pachytegmentaria not monophyletic Parameniidae Simroth 1893 synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath 1911 invalid type genus a junior homonym Pararrhopaliidae Salvini Plawen 1972 synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath 1911 Perimeniidae Nierstrasz 1908 synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath 1911 Proneomenidae Mitchell 1892 synonym of Proneomeniidae Mitchell 1892 Pruvotiniidae Heath 1911 synonym of Pruvotinidae Heath 1911 incorrect original spelling Solenopodidae Koren amp Danielssen 1877 synonym of Neomeniidae Ihering 1876 Wireniidae Salvini Plawen 1978 synonym of Gymnomeniidae Odhner 1920References Edit MolluscaBase eds 2021 MolluscaBase Solenogastres Accessed through World Register of Marine Species at http www marinespecies org aphia php p taxdetails amp id 2094 on 2021 04 14 e g Todt C Okusu A Schander C amp Schwabe E 2008 Solenogastres Caudofoveata and Polyplacophora In Ponder W amp Lindberg D eds Phylogeny and Evolution of the Mollusca University of California Press ISBN 978 0 520 25092 5 a b c Scheltema A H 1999 Two solenogaster molluscs Ocheyoherpia trachia n sp From Macquarie Island and Tegulaherpia tasmanica Salvini Plawen from Bass Strait Aplacophora Neomeniomorpha Records of the Australian Museum 51 23 31 doi 10 3853 j 0067 1975 51 1999 1266 Wilbur Karl M Trueman E R Clarke M R eds 1985 2 Early evolution and the Primitive Groups The Mollusca 10 Evolution New York Academic Press ISBN 0 12 728702 7 a b Todt C Wanninger A 2010 Of tests trochs shells and spicules Development of the basal mollusk Wirenia argentea Solenogastres and its bearing on the evolution of trochozoan larval key features Frontiers in Zoology 7 1 6 doi 10 1186 1742 9994 7 6 PMC 2828982 PMID 20181015 Okusu A 2002 Embryogenesis and development of Epimenia babai Mollusca Neomeniomorpha The Biological Bulletin 203 1 87 103 doi 10 2307 1543461 JSTOR 1543461 PMID 12200259 Guralnick R Smith K 1999 Historical and biomechanical analysis of integration and dissociation in molluscan feeding with special emphasis on the true limpets Patellogastropoda Gastropoda Journal of Morphology 241 2 175 195 doi 10 1002 SICI 1097 4687 199908 241 2 lt 175 AID JMOR7 gt 3 0 CO 2 0 PMID 10420163 Scheltema A H Jebb M 1994 Natural history of a solenogaster mollusc from Papua New Guinea Epimenia australis Thiele Aplacophora Neomeniomorpha Journal of Natural History 28 6 1297 doi 10 1080 00222939400770661 Wilson N Rouse G Giribet G 2010 Assessing the molluscan hypothesis Serialia Monoplacophora Polyplacophora using novel molecular data Molecular Phylogenetics amp Evolution 54 1 187 193 doi 10 1016 j ympev 2009 07 028 PMID 19647088 Further reading EditMeyer Achim Todt Christiane Mikkelsen Nina T Lieb Bernhard 2010 Fast evolving 18S rRNA sequences from Solenogastres Mollusca resist standard PCR amplification and give new insights into mollusk substitution rate heterogeneity BMC Evolutionary Biology 10 70 doi 10 1186 1471 2148 10 70 PMC 2841657 PMID 20214780 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Solenogastres Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Solenogastres amp oldid 1018155134, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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