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Wikipedia

Solomon Islands

For the group of islands rather than the state, see Solomon Islands (archipelago).
Not to be confused with Salomon Islands.

Coordinates:8°S159°E /8°S 159°E /-8; 159

Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania, to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu. It has a land area of 28,400 square kilometres (11,000 sq mi), and a population of 652,858. Its capital, Honiara, is located on the largest island, Guadalcanal. The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago, which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands (a part of Papua New Guinea), but excludes outlying islands, such as the Santa Cruz Islands and Rennell and Bellona.

Solomon Islands
Motto: "To Lead is to Serve"
Anthem: "God Save Our Solomon Islands"
Capital
and largest city
Honiara
9°25′55″S159°57′20″E /9.43194°S 159.95556°E /-9.43194; 159.95556
Official languagesEnglish
Ethnic groups
(2009 census)
Religion
(2016)
Demonym(s)Solomon Islander
GovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Elizabeth II
David Vunagi
Manasseh Sogavare
LegislatureNational Parliament
Independence
• from the United Kingdom
7 July 1978
Area
• Total
28,400 km2 (11,000 sq mi) (139th)
• Water (%)
3.2%
Population
• 2018 estimate
652,857 (167th)
• Density
18.1/km2 (46.9/sq mi) (200th)
GDP(PPP)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.479 billion
• Per capita
$2,307
GDP (nominal)2019 estimate
• Total
$1.511 billion
• Per capita
$2,357
Gini (2013) 37.1
medium
HDI (2019) 0.567
medium · 151st
CurrencySolomon Islands dollar (SBD)
Time zoneUTC+11
Driving sideleft
Calling code+677
ISO 3166 codeSB
Internet TLD.sb

The islands have been settled since at least some time between 30,000 and 28,800 BC, with later waves of migrants, notably the Lapita people, mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population. In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit them, naming them the Islas Salomón. Mendaña returned decades later, in 1595, and another Spanish expedition, led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, visited the Solomons in 1606. Britain defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893, when Captain Gibson R.N., of HMS Curacoa, declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate. During World War II, the Solomon Islands campaign (1942–1945) saw fierce fighting between the United States, Commonwealth forces and the Empire of Japan, including the Battle of Guadalcanal.

The official name of the then-British administration was changed from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate to the Solomon Islands in 1975, and self-government was achieved the following year. Independence was obtained, and the name changed to just "Solomon Islands" (without the definite article), in 1978. At independence, Solomon Islands became a constitutional monarchy. The Queen of Solomon Islands is Elizabeth II, represented by the Governor-General.

Contents

In 1568, the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña was the first European to visit the Solomon Islands archipelago, naming it Islas Salomón ("Solomon Islands") after the wealthy biblical King Solomon. It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption that they contained great riches, and he believed them to be the Bible-mentioned city of Ophir. During most of the colonial period, the territory's official name was "British Solomon Islands Protectorate" until 1975, when it was changed to "Solomon Islands". The definite article, "the", is not part of the country's official name but is sometimes used, both within and outside the country. Colloquially the islands are referred to simply as "the Solomons".

Prehistory

The Solomons were first colonised by people coming from the Bismarck Islands and New Guinea during the Pleistocene era c. 30,000-28,000 BCE, based on archaeological evidence found at Kilu Cave on Buka Island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, Papua New Guinea. At this point sea levels were lower and Buka and Bougainville were physically joined to the southern Solomons in one landmass ('Greater Bougainville'), though it is unclear precisely how far south these early settlers spread as no other archaeological sites from this period have been found. As sea levels rose as the Ice Age ended c. 4000-3500 BCE, the Greater Bougainville landmass split into the numerous islands that exist today. Evidence of later human settlements dating to c. 4500-2500 BCE have been found at Poha Cave and Vatuluma Posovi Cave on Guadalcanal. The ethnic identity of these early peoples is unclear, though it is thought that the speakers of the Central Solomon languages (a self-contained language family unrelated to other languages spoken in the Solomons) likely represent the descendants of these earlier settlers.

From c. 1200-800 BCE Austronesian Lapita people began arriving from the Bismarcks with their characteristic ceramics. Evidence for their presence has been across the Solomon archipelago, as well at the Santa Cruz Islands in the south-east, with different islands being settled at different times. Linguistic and genetic evidence suggests that the Lapita people "leap-frogged" the already inhabited main Solomon Islands and settled first on the Santa Cruz group, with later back-migrations bringing their culture to the main group. These peoples mixed with the native Solomon Islanders and over time their languages became dominant, with most of the 60-70 languages spoken there belonging to the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family. Then as now communities tended to exist in small villages practising subsistence agriculture, though extensive inter-island trade networks existed. Numerous ancient burial sites and other evidence of permanent settlements have been found from the period 1000-1500 CE throughout the islands, one of the most prominent examples being the Roviana cultural complex centred on the islands off the southern coast of New Georgia, where a large number of megalithic shrines and other structures were constructed in the 13th century.

Arrival of Europeans (1568–1886)

Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira (1542–1595), the first European to sight the Solomons

The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Mendaña de Neira, sailing from Peru in 1568. Landing on Santa Isabel on 7 February, Mendaña explored several of the other islands including Makira, Guadalcanal and Malaita. Relations with the native Solomon Islanders were initially cordial, though often soured as time went by. As a result, Mendaña returned to Peru in August 1568. He returned to the Solomons with a larger crew on a second voyage in 1595, aiming to colonise the islands. They landed on Nendö in the Santa Cruz Islands and established a small settlement at Gracioso Bay. However the settlement failed due to poor relations with the native peoples and epidemics of disease amongst the Spanish which caused numerous deaths, with Mendaña himself dying in October. The new commander Pedro Fernandes de Queirós thus decided to abandon the settlement and they sailed north to the Spanish territory of the Philippines. Queirós later returned to the area in 1606, where he sighted Tikopia and Taumako, though this voyage was primarily to Vanuatu in the search of Terra Australis.

Save for Abel Tasman's sighting of the remote Ontong Java Atoll in 1648, no European sailed to the Solomons again until 1767, when the British explorer Philip Carteret sailed by the Santa Cruz Islands, Malaita and, continuing further north, Bougainville and the Bismarck Islands. French explorers also reached the Solomons, with Louis Antoine de Bougainville naming Choiseul in 1768 and Jean-François de Surville exploring the islands in 1769. In 1788 John Shortland, captaining a supply ship for Britain's new Australian colony at Botany Bay, sighted the Treasury and Shortland Islands. That same year the French explorer Jean-François de La Pérouse was wrecked on Vanikoro; a rescue expedition led by Bruni d'Entrecasteaux sailed to Vanikoro but found no trace of La Pérouse. The fate of La Pérouse was not confirmed until 1826, when the English merchant Peter Dillon visited Tikopia and discovered items belonging to La Pérouse in the possession of the local people, confirmed by the subsequent voyage of Jules Dumont d'Urville in 1828.

Some of the earliest regular foreign visitors to the islands were whaling vessels from Britain, the United States and Australia. They came for food, wood and water from late in the 18th century, establishing a trading relationship with the Solomon Islanders and later taking aboard islanders to serve as crewmen on their ships. Relations between the islanders and visiting seamen was not always good and sometimes there was bloodshed. A knock-on effect of the greater European contact was the spread of diseases to which local peoples had no immunity, as well a shift in the balance of power between coastal groups, who had access to European weapons and technology, and inland groups who did not. In the second half of the 1800s more traders arrived seeking turtleshells, sea cucumbers, copra and sandalwood, occasionally establishing semi-permanent trading stations. However initial attempts at more long-term settlement, such as Benjamin Boyd's colony on Guadalcanal in 1851, were unsuccessful.

Solomon Island warriors, armed with spears, on board an ornamented war canoe (1895)

Beginning in the 1840s, and accelerating in the 1860s, islanders began to be recruited (or often kidnapped) as labourers for the colonies in Australia, Fiji and Samoa in a process known as "blackbirding". Conditions for workers were often poor and exploitative, and local islanders often violently attacked any Europeans who appeared on their island. The blackbird trade was chronicled by prominent Western writers, such as Joe Melvin and Jack London. Christian missionaries also began visiting the Solomons from the 1840s, beginning with an attempt by French Catholics under Jean-Baptiste Epalle to establish a mission on Santa Isabel, which was abandoned after Epalle was killed by islanders in 1845. Anglican missionaries began arriving from the 1850s, followed by other denominations, over time gaining a large number of converts.

Colonial period (1886–1978)

Establishment of colonial rule

In 1884 Germany annexed north-east New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago, and in 1886 they extended their rule over the North Solomon Islands, covering Bougainville, Buka, Choiseul, Santa Isabel, the Shortlands and Ontong Java atoll. In 1886 Germany and Britain confirmed this arrangement, with Britain gaining a "sphere of influence" over the southern Solomons. Germany paid little attention to the islands, with German authorities based in New Guinea not even visiting the area until 1888. The German presence, along with pressure from the missionaries to rein in the excesses of the blackbirding system, prompted the British to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in March 1893, initially encompassing New Georgia, Malaita, Guadalcanal, Makira, Mono Island and the central Nggela Islands. In April 1896 Charles Morris Woodford was appointed as the British Acting Deputy Commissioner and confirmed in post the following year. Woodford set up an administrative headquarters on the small island of Tulagi, and in 1898 and 1899 the Rennell and Bellona Islands, Sikaiana, the Santa Cruz Islands and outlying islands such as Anuta, Fataka, Temotu and Tikopia were added to the protectorate. In 1900, under the terms of the Tripartite Convention of 1899, Germany ceded the Northern Solomon to Britain, minus Buka and Bougainville, the latter becoming part of German New Guinea despite geographically belonging to the Solomons archipelago.

Woodford's underfunded administration struggled to maintain law and order on the remote colony. In the 1890s/early 1900s there were numerous cases of European settlers being killed by islanders, with the British often retaliating via collective punishment of guilty villages, often by indiscriminately shelling coastal areas from gunboats. The British attempted to encourage plantation settlements, however by 1902 there were only about 80 European settlers in the islands. Attempts at economic development met with mixed results, though Levers Pacific Plantations Ltd., a subsidiary of Lever Brothers, managed to establish a profitable copra plantation industry which employed many islanders. Small scale mining and logging industries were also developed. However the colony remained something of backwater, with education, medical and other social services being the preserve of the missionaries. Violence also continued, most notably with the murder of colonial administrator William R. Bell by Basiana of the Kwaio people on Malaita in 1927, as Bell attempted to enforce an unpopular head tax. Several Kwaio were killed in a retaliatory raid, and Basiana and his accomplices executed.

World War II

From 1942 until the end of 1943, the Solomon Islands were the scene of several major land, sea and air battles between the Allies and the Japanese Empire's armed forces. Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 war was declared between Japan and the Allied Powers, and the Japanese, seeking to protect their southern flank, invaded South-East Asia and New Guinea. In May 1942 the Japanese launched Operation Mo, occupying Tulagi and most of the western Solomon Islands, including Guadalcanal where they began work on an airstrip. The British administration had already relocated to Auki, Malaita and most of the European population had been evacuated to Australia. The Allies counter-invaded Guadalcanal in August 1942, followed by the New Georgia campaign in 1943, both of which were turning points in the Pacific War, stopping and then countering the Japanese advance. The conflict resulted in thousands of Allied, Japanese and civilian deaths, as well an immense destruction across the islands.

Coastwatchers from the Solomon Islands played a major role in providing intelligence and rescuing other Allied servicemen. U.S. Admiral William Halsey, the commander of Allied forces during the Battle for Guadalcanal, recognised the coastwatchers' contributions by stating "The coastwatchers saved Guadalcanal and Guadalcanal saved the South Pacific." In addition around 3,200 men served in the Solomon Islands Labour Corps and some 6,000 enlisted in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force, with their exposure to the Americans leading to several social and political transformations. For example, the Americans had extensively developed Honiara, with the capital shifting there from Tulagi in 1952, and the Pijin language was heavily influenced by the communication between Americans and the Islands inhabitants. The relatively easy-going, friendly attitude of the Americans also contrasted sharply with the subservience expected by the British colonial rulers, and profoundly changed Solomons Islanders' attitude to the colonial regime.

Post-war period and the lead-up to independence

In 1943-4 the Malaita-based chief Aliki Nono'ohimae had founded the Maasina Rule movement (aka the Native Council Movement, literally 'Brotherhood Rule'), and was later joined by another chief, Hoasihau. Their aims were to improve the economic well-being of native Solomon Islanders, gain greater autonomy and to act as a liaison between Islanders and the colonial administration. The movement was especially popular with ex-Labour Corp members and after the war its numbers swelled, with the movement spreading to other islands. Alarmed at the growth of the movement, the British launched "Operation De-Louse" in 1947-8 and arrested most of the Maasina leaders. Malaitans then organised a campaign of civil disobedience, prompting mass arrests. In 1950 a new Resident Commissioner, Henry Gregory-Smith, arrived and released the leaders of the movement, though the disobedience campaign continued. In 1952 new High Commissioner (later Governor) Robert Stanley met with leaders of the movement and agreed to the creation of an island council. In late 1952 Stanley formally moved the capital of the territory to Honiara. In the early 1950s the possibility of transferring sovereignty of the islands to Australia was discussed by the British and Australian governments, however the Australians were reluctant to accept the financial burden of administering the territory and the idea was shelved.

With decolonisation sweeping the colonial world, and Britain no longer willing (or able) to bear the financial burdens of the Empire, the colonial authorities sought to prepare the Solomons for self-governance. Appointed Executive and Legislative Councils were established in 1960, with a degree of elected Solomon Islander representation introduced in 1964 and then extended in 1967. A new constitution was drawn up in 1970 which merged the two Councils into one Governing Council, though the British Governor still retained extensive powers. Discontent with this prompted the creation of a new constitution in 1974 which reduced much of the Governor's remaining powers and created the post of Chief Minister, first held by Solomon Mamaloni. Full self-government for the territory was achieved in 1976, a year after the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia. Meanwhile, discontent grew in the Western islands, with many fearing marginalisation in future a Honiara- or Malaita-dominated state, prompting the formation of the Western Breakaway Movement. A conference held in London in 1977 agreed that the Solomons would gain full independence the following year. Under the terms of the Solomon Islands Act 1978 the country was annexed to Her Majesty's dominions and granted independence on 7 July 1978. The first Prime Minister was Sir Peter Kenilorea of the Solomon Islands United Party (SIUP), with Queen Elizabeth II becoming Queen of Solomon Islands, represented locally by a Governor General.

  • The Solomon Islands Independence Ceremony on 7 July 1978

  • The Five Dollar Proof Coin

  • The Five Dollar Proof Coin of the Solomon Islands 24 October 1977

Independence era (1978-present)

Early post-independence years

Peter Kenilorea went on to win the 1980 Solomon Islands general election, serving as PM until 1981, when he was replaced by Solomon Mamaloni of the People's Alliance Party (PAP) after a no confidence vote. Mamaloni created the Central Bank and national airline, and pushed for greater autonomy for individual islands of the country. Kenilorea returned to power after winning the 1984 election, though his second term lasted only two years before he was replaced by Ezekiel Alebua following allegations of misuse of French aid money. In 1986 the Solomons helped found the Melanesian Spearhead Group, aimed at fostering cooperation and trade in the region. After winning the 1989 election Mamaloni and the PAP returned to power, with Mamaloni dominating Solomon Islands politics from the early to mid 1990s (save for the one year Premiership of Francis Billy Hilly). Mamaloni made efforts to make the Solomons a republic, however these were unsuccessful. He also had to deal with the effects of the conflict in neighbouring Bougainville which broke out in 1988, causing many refugees to flee to the Solomons. Tensions arose with Papua New Guinea as PNG forces frequently entered Solomons territory in the pursuit of rebels. The situation calmed down and relations improved following the end of the conflict in 1998. Meanwhile, the country's financial situation continued to deteriorate, with much of the budget coming from the logging industry, often conducted at an unsustainable rate, not helped by Mamaloni's creation of a 'discretionary fund' for use by politicians, which fostered fraud and corruption. Discontent with his rule led to a split in the PAP, and Mamaloni lost the 1993 election to Billy Hilly, though Hilly was later sacked by the Governor-General after a number of defections caused him to lose his majority, allowing Mamloni to return to power in 1994, where he remained until 1997. Excessive logging, government corruption and unsustainable levels of public spending continued to grow, and public discontent caused Mamaloni to lose the 1997 election. The new Prime Minister, Bartholomew Ulufa'alu of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party, attempted to enact economic reforms, however his Premiership soon became engulfed in a serious ethnic conflict known as 'The Tensions'.

Ethnic violence (1998-2003)

Australian troops, as part of the RAMSI peacekeeping mission, burn weapons confiscated from or surrendered by militias in 2003

Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension, the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement (IFM, also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army and the Isatabu Freedom Fighters) and the Malaita Eagle Force (as well as the Marau Eagle Force). For many years people from the island of Malaita had been migrating to Honiara and Guadalcanal, attracted primarily by the greater economic opportunities available there. The large influx caused tensions with native Guadalcanal islanders (known as Guales), and in late 1998 the IFM was formed and began a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers. Thousands of Malaitans subsequently fled back to Malaita or to Honiara, and in mid-1999 the Malaita Eagle Force (MEF) was established to protect Malaitans on Guadalcanal. In late 1999, after several failed attempts at brokering a peace deal, Prime Minister Bartholomew Ulufa'alu declared a four-month state of emergency, and also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand, but his appeal was rejected. Meanwhile, law and order on Guadalcanal collapsed, with an ethnically divided police unable to assert authority and many of their weapons depots being raided by the militias; by this point the MEF controlled Honiara with the IFM controlling the rest of Guadalacanal.

On 5 June 2000 Ulufa'alu was kidnapped by the MEF who felt that, although he was a Malaitan, he was not doing enough to protect their interests. Ulufa'alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release. Manasseh Sogavare, who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa'alu's government but had subsequently joined the opposition, was elected as Prime Minister by 23–21 over the Rev. Leslie Boseto. However, Sogavare's election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs (thought to be supporters of Boseto) were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote. On 15 October 2000 the Townsville Peace Agreement was signed by the MEF, elements of the IFM, and the Solomon Islands Government. This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in February 2001, signed by the Marau Eagle Force, the IFM, the Guadalcanal Provincial Government, and the Solomon Islands Government. However, a key Guale militant leader, Harold Keke, refused to sign the agreement, causing a split with the Guale groups. Subsequently, Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew Te'e joined with the Malaitan-dominated police to form the 'Joint Operations Force'. During the next two years the conflict moved to the remote Weathercoast region of southern Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group.

Solomon Islanders at a peace protest in 2003

By early 2001 the economy had collapsed and the government was bankrupt. New elections in December 2001 brought Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister's chair, with the support of his People's Alliance Party and the Association of Independent Members. Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted: there was continuing violence on the Weathercoast, whilst militants in Honiara increasingly turned their attention to crime, extortion and banditry. The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive. In December 2002, Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants.[citation needed] Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers.[citation needed] Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA) were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented. The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness, widespread extortion, and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands Government for outside help, a request was unanimously supported in Parliament.

In July 2003, Australian and Pacific Islands police and troops arrived in Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Australian-led Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). A sizeable international security contingent of 2,200 police and troops, led by Australia and New Zealand, and with representatives from about 15 other Pacific nations, began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren. The situation improved dramatically, with violence ending and Harold Keke surrendering to the force. Some 200 people had been killed in the conflict. Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state, with the nation having failed to build an inclusive national identity capable of overriding local island and ethnic loyalties. However, other academics argue that rather than being a 'failed state', it is an unformed state: a state that never consolidated even after decades of independence. Furthermore, some scholars, such Kabutaulaka (2001) and Dinnen (2002) argue that the 'ethnic conflict' label is an oversimplification.

Post-conflict era

Kemakeza remained in office until April 2006, when he lost the 2006 Solomon Islands general election and Snyder Rini became PM. However allegations that Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital Honiara, concentrated on the city's Chinatown area. A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed. Tensions were also increased by the belief that large sums of money were being exported to China. China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots.[citation needed] Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale.[citation needed] Additional Australian, New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest. Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no-confidence in Parliament, and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister.

Sogavare struggled to assert his authority and was also hostile to the Australian presence in the country; after one failed attempt, he was removed in no confidence vote in 2007 and replaced by Derek Sikua of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party. In 2008 a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to examine and help heal the wounds of the 'tension' years. Sikua lost the 2010 Solomon Islands general election to Danny Philip, though after a vote of no confidence in him following allegations of corruption, Philip was ousted and replaced by Gordon Darcy Lilo. Sogavare returned to power after the 2014 election, and oversaw the withdrawal of RAMSI forces from the country in 2017. Sogavare was ousted in a no confidence vote in 2017, which saw Rick Houenipwela come to power, however Sogavare returned to the Prime Ministership after winning the 2019 election, sparking rioting in Honiara. In 2019 Sogavare announced that the Solomons would be switching recognition from Taiwan to China.

In November 2021 there was mass rioting and unrest.

Solomon Islands' National Parliament building was a gift from the United States.
Ministry of the Interior

Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government. As Queen of Solomon Islands, Elizabeth II is head of state; she is represented by the Governor-General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five-year term. There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members, elected for four-year terms. However, Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term.

Parliamentary representation is based on single-member constituencies. Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 21. The head of government is the Prime Minister, who is elected by Parliament and chooses the cabinet. Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member, who is assisted by a permanent secretary, a career public servant who directs the staff of the ministry.

Solomon Islands governments are characterised by weak political parties (see List of political parties in Solomon Islands) and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions. They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence, leading to frequent changes in government leadership and cabinet appointments.

Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders. The law provides that resident expatriates, such as the Chinese and Kiribati, may obtain citizenship through naturalisation. Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother or father according to local custom. The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings, and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership.

No military forces are maintained by Solomon Islands although a police force of nearly 500 includes a border protection unit. The police also are responsible for fire service, disaster relief, and maritime surveillance. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor-general and responsible to the prime minister. On 27 December 2006, the Solomon Islands government took steps to prevent the country's Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation. On 12 January 2007, Australia replaced its top diplomat expelled from Solomon Islands for political interference in a conciliatory move aimed at easing a four-month dispute between the two countries.

On 13 December 2007, Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by a vote of no confidence in Parliament, following the defection of five ministers to the opposition. It was the first time a prime minister had lost office in this way in Solomon Islands. On 20 December, the parliament elected the opposition's candidate (and former Minister for Education) Derek Sikua as Prime Minister, in a vote of 32 to 15.

Judiciary

The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition. The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a judicial commission. The current Chief Justice is Sir Albert Palmer.

Since March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough has served as the President of the Court of Appeal for Solomon Islands. Justice Goldsbrough has previously served a five-year term as a Judge of the High Court of Solomon Islands (2006–2011). Justice Edwin Goldsbrough then served as the Chief Justice of the Turks and Caicos Islands.

Foreign relations

Solomon Islands Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare meets with the President of Taiwan Tsai Ing-wen July 2016.

Solomon Islands is a member of the United Nations, Interpol, British Commonwealth, Pacific Islands Forum, Pacific Community, International Monetary Fund, and the African, Caribbean, and Pacific (ACP) countries (ACP) (Lomé Convention).

Until September 2019, it was one of the few countries to recognise the Republic of China (Taiwan) and maintain formal diplomatic relations with the latter. Relations with Papua New Guinea, which had become strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of Solomon Islands by elements pursuing Bougainvillean rebels, have been repaired. A 1998 peace accord on Bougainville removed the armed threat, and the two nations regularised border operations in a 2004 agreement.

In March 2017, at the 34th regular session of the UN Human Rights Council, Vanuatu made a joint statement on behalf of Solomon Islands and some other Pacific nations raising human rights violations in the Western New Guinea, which claimed by International Parliamentarians for West Papua (IPWP) that West Papua has been occupied by Indonesia since 1963, and requested that the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights produce a report. Indonesia rejected Vanuatu's allegations, and giving answer that Vanuatu not presenting the people of Papua and stop fantasizing about being one More than 100,000 Papuans have died during a 50-year Papua conflict. In September 2017, at the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly, the Prime Ministers of the Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu once again raised human rights abuses in Indonesian-occupied West Papua.

Military

Although the locally recruited British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force was part of Allied Forces taking part in fighting in the Solomons during the Second World War, the country has not had any regular military forces since independence. The various paramilitary elements of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force (RSIPF) were disbanded and disarmed in 2003 following the intervention of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands (RAMSI). RAMSI has a small military detachment headed by an Australian commander with responsibilities for assisting the police element of RAMSI in internal and external security. The RSIPF still operates two Pacific class patrol boats (RSIPV Auki and RSIPV Lata), which constitute the de facto navy of Solomon Islands.

In the long term, it is anticipated that the RSIPF will resume the defence role of the country. The police force is headed by a commissioner, appointed by the governor general and responsible to the Minister of Police, National Security & Correctional Services.

The police budget of Solomon Islands has been strained due to a four-year civil war. Following Cyclone Zoe's strike on the islands of Tikopia and Anuta in December 2002, Australia had to provide the Solomon Islands government with 200,000 Solomon dollars ($50,000 Australian) for fuel and supplies for the patrol boat Lata to sail with relief supplies. (Part of the work of RAMSI includes assisting the Solomon Islands government to stabilise its budget.)

Administrative divisions

For local government, the country is divided into ten administrative areas, of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies and the tenth is the capital Honiara, administered by the Honiara Town Council.

Rank Province/Territory Capital Premier Area
(km2)
Population
census 1999
Population
per km2 (2009)
Population
census 2009
1 Central Province Tulagi Patrick Vasuni 615 21,577 42.4 26,051
2 Choiseul Province Taro Island Jackson Kiloe 3,837 20,008 6.9 26,371
3 Guadalcanal Province[1] Honiara Anthony Veke 5,336 60,275 17.5 93,613
4 Isabel Province Buala James Habu 4,136 20,421 6.3 26,158
5 Makira-Ulawa Province Kirakira Stanley Siapu 3,188 31,006 12.7 40,419
6 Malaita Province Auki Peter Ramohia 4,225 122,620 32.6 137,596
7 Rennell and Bellona Province Tigoa George Tuhaika 671 2,377 4.5 3,041
8 Temotu Province Lata Fr. Charles Brown Beu 895 18,912 23.9 21,362
9 Western Province Gizo David Gina 5,475 62,739 14.0 76,649
10 Capital Territory Honiara Mua (Mayor) 22 49,107 2,936.8 64,609
Solomon Islands Honiara 28,400 409,042 14.7 515,870

[1] excluding the Capital Territory of Honiara

Human rights

There are human rights concerns and issues in regards to education, water, sanitation, gender equality, and domestic violence.

Homosexuality is illegal in Solomon Islands.

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Aerial view of Solomon Islands.
Malaita island

Solomon Islands is an island nation that lies east of Papua New Guinea and consists of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands. The major part of the nation is the mountainous High islands of the Solomon Islands archipelago, which includes Choiseul, the Shortland Islands, the New Georgia Islands, Santa Isabel, the Russell Islands, the Florida Islands, Tulagi, Malaita, Maramasike, Ulawa, Owaraha (Santa Ana), Makira (San Cristobal), and the main island of Guadalcanal. Bougainville Island is the largest in the archipelago, while it is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago, it is politically an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea. The Solomon Islands also includes isolated low-lying coral atolls and high islands including Sikaiana, Rennell Island, Bellona Island, the Santa Cruz Islands and the remote, tiny outliers, Tikopia, Anuta, and Fatutaka.

The country's islands lie between latitudes and 13°S, and longitudes 155° and 169°E. The distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about 1,500 kilometres (930 mi). The Santa Cruz Islands (of which Tikopia is part) are situated north of Vanuatu and are especially isolated at more than 200 kilometres (120 mi) from the other islands. Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago but politically part of Papua New Guinea.

Climate

The islands' ocean-equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout the year, with a mean temperature of 26.5 °C (79.7 °F) and few extremes of temperature or weather. June through August is the cooler period. Though seasons are not pronounced, the northwesterly winds of November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional squalls or cyclones. The annual rainfall is about 3,050 millimetres (120 in).

Ecology

The Solomon Islands archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial ecoregions. Most of the islands are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion, which also includes the islands of Bougainville and Buka; these forests have come under pressure from forestry activities. The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion, together with the neighbouring archipelago of Vanuatu. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7.19/10, ranking it 48th globally out of 172 countries. Soil quality ranges from extremely rich volcanic (there are volcanoes with varying degrees of activity on some of the larger islands) to relatively infertile limestone. More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape. Mammals are scarce on the islands, with the only terrestrial mammals being bats and small rodents. Birds and reptiles, however, are abundant.[citation needed]

The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes. The Tinakula and Kavachi volcanoes are the most active.

On the southern side of Vangunu Island, the forests around the tiny community of Zaira are unique, providing habitat for at least three vulnerable species of animals. The 200 human inhabitants of the area have been trying to get the forests declared a protected area, so that logging and mining cannot disturb and pollute the pristine forests and coastline.

The baseline survey of marine biodiversity in the Solomon Islands that was carried out in 2004, found 474 species of corals in the Solomons as well as nine species which could be new to science. This is the second highest diversity of corals in the World, second only to the Raja Ampat Islands in eastern Indonesia.

Water and sanitation

Scarcity of fresh water sources and lack of sanitation has been a constant challenge facing Solomon Islands. Reducing the number of those living without access to fresh water and sanitation by half was one of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) implemented by the United Nations through Goal 7, to ensure environmental sustainability. Though the islands generally have access to fresh water sources, it is typically only available in the state's capital of Honiara, and it is not guaranteed all year long. According to a UNICEF report, even the capital's poorest communities do not have access to adequate places to relieve their waste, and an estimated 70% Solomon Island schools have no access to safe and clean water for drinking, washing and relieving of waste. Lack of safe drinking water in school-age children results in high risks of contracting fatal diseases such as cholera and typhoid. The number of Solomon Islanders living with piped drinking water has been decreasing since 2011, while those living with non-piped water increased between 2000 and 2010. Nevertheless, one improvement is that those living with non-piped water has been decreasing consistently since 2011.

In addition, the Solomon Islands Second Rural Development Program, enacted in 2014 and active until 2020, has been working to deliver competent infrastructure and other vital services to rural areas and villages of the Solomon Islands, which suffer the most from lack of safe drinking water and proper sanitation. Through improved infrastructure, services and resources, the program has also encouraged farmers and other agricultural sectors, through community-driven efforts, to connect them to the market, thus promoting economic growth. Rural villages such as Bolava, found in the Western Province of Solomon Islands, have benefited greatly from the program, with the implementation of water tanks and rain catchment and water storage systems. Not only has the improved infrastructure increased the quality of life in Solomon Islands, the services are also operated and developed by the community, thus creating a sense of communal pride and achievement among those previously living in hazardous conditions. The program is funded by various international development actors such as the World Bank, European Union, International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD), and the Australian and Solomon Islands governments.

Earthquakes

On 2 April 2007 at 07:39:56 local time (UTC+11) an earthquake with magnitude 8.1 on the Mw scale occurred at hypocentre S8.453 E156.957, 349 kilometres (217 mi) northwest of the island's capital, Honiara and south-east of the capital of Western Province, Gizo, at a depth of 10 km (6.2 miles). More than 44 aftershocks with magnitude 5.0 or greater occurred up until 22:00:00 UTC, Wednesday, 4 April 2007. A tsunami followed killing at least 52 people, destroying more than 900 homes and leaving thousands of people homeless. Land upthrust extended the shoreline of one island, Ranongga, by up to 70 metres (230 ft) exposing many once pristine coral reefs.

On 6 February 2013, an earthquake with magnitude of 8.0 occurred at epicentre S10.80 E165.11 in the Santa Cruz Islands followed by a tsunami up to 1.5 metres. At least nine people were killed and many houses demolished. The main quake was preceded by a sequence of earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 6.0.

A proportional representation of Solomon Islands exports, 2019
Plantation of oil palms near Tetere on Guadalcanal
Subsistence agriculture near Honiara
One of the most important roads on the North coast of Guadalcanal in Tamboko

Solomon Islands' per-capita GDP of $600 ranks it as a lesser developed nation, and more than 75% of its labour force is engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing. Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported. Only 3.9% of the area of the islands are used for agriculture, and 78.1% are covered by forests making the Solomon Islands the 103rd ranked country covered by forests worldwide.[clarification needed]

Export

Until 1998, when world prices for tropical timber fell steeply, timber was Solomon Islands' main export product, and, in recent years, Solomon Islands forests were dangerously overexploited. In the wake of the ethnic violence in June 2000, exports of palm oil and gold ceased while exports of timber fell. Recently,[when?] Solomon Islands courts have re-approved the export of live dolphins for profit, most recently to Dubai, United Arab Emirates. This practice was originally stopped by the government in 2004 after international uproar over a shipment of 28 live dolphins to Mexico. The move resulted in criticism from both Australia and New Zealand as well as several conservation organisations. As of 2019, rough wood still makes up two-thirds of export.

Agriculture

Other important cash crops and exports include copra, cacao and palm oil. In 2017 317,682 tons of coconuts were harvested making the country the 18th ranked producer of coconuts worldwide, and 24% of the exports corresponded to copra. Cocoa beans are mainly grown on the islands Guadalcanal, Makira and Malaita. In 2017 4,940 tons of cocoa beans were harvested making the Solomon Islands the 27th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide. Growth of production and export of copra and cacao, however, is hampered by old age of most coconut and cacao trees. In 2017 285,721 tons of palm oil were produced, making Solomon Islands the 24th ranked producer of palm oil worldwide. The agriculture on the Solomon Islands is hampered by a very severe lack of agricultural machines. For the local market but not for export many families grow taro (2017: 45,901 tons), rice (2017: 2,789 tons), yams (2017: 44,940 tons) and bananas (2017: 313 tons). Tobacco (2017: 118 tons) and spices (2017: 217 tons). are grown for the local market as well.

Mining

In 1998 gold mining began at Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal. Minerals exploration in other areas continued. The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead, zinc, nickel, and gold. Negotiations are underway that may lead to the eventual reopening of the Gold Ridge mine which was closed after the riots in 2006.

Fisheries

Solomon Islands' fisheries also offer prospects for export and domestic economic expansion. A Japanese joint venture, Solomon Taiyo Ltd., which operated the only fish cannery in the country, closed in mid-2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances. Though the plant has reopened under local management, the export of tuna has not resumed.

Tourism

Tourism, particularly diving, could become an important service industry for Solomon Islands. Tourism growth, however, is hampered by lack of infrastructure and transportation limitations. In 2017 the Solomon Islands were visited by 26,000 tourists making the country one of the least frequently-visited countries of the world. The Government hopes to increase the number of tourists up to 30,000 by the end of 2019 and up to 60,000 tourists per year by the end of 2025.

Currency

The Solomon Islands dollar (ISO 4217 code: SBD) was introduced in 1977, replacing the Australian dollar at par. Its symbol is "SI$", but the "SI" prefix may be omitted if there is no confusion with other currencies also using the dollar sign "$". It is subdivided into 100 cents. Local shell money is still important for traditional and ceremonial purposes in certain provinces and, in some remote parts of the country, for trade. Shell money was a widely used traditional currency in the Pacific Islands, in Solomon Islands, it is mostly manufactured in Malaita and Guadalcanal but can be bought elsewhere, such as the Honiara Central Market. The barter system often replaces money of any kind in remote areas. The Solomon Islands Government was insolvent by 2002. Since the RAMSI intervention in 2003, the government has recast its budget. It has consolidated and renegotiated its domestic debt and with Australian backing, is now seeking to renegotiate its foreign obligations. Principal aid donors are Australia, New Zealand, the European Union, Japan and Taiwan.

Energy

A team of renewable energy developers working for the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and funded by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), have developed a scheme that allows local communities to access renewable energy, such as solar, water and wind power, without the need to raise substantial sums of cash. Under the scheme, islanders who are unable to pay for solar lanterns in cash may pay instead in kind with crops.

Flight connections

Solomon Airlines connects Honiara to Nadi in Fiji, Port Vila in Vanuatu and Brisbane in Australia as well as to more than 20 domestic airports in each province of the country. To promote tourism Solomon Airlines introduced a weekly direct flight connection between Brisbane and Munda in 2019. Virgin Australia connects Honiara to Brisbane twice a week. Most of the domestic airports are accessible to small planes only as they have short, grass runways.

Roads

The road system in Solomon Islands is insufficient and there are no railways. The most important roads connect Honiara to Lambi (58 km; 36 miles) in the western part of Guadalcanal and to Aola (75 km; 47 miles) in the eastern part. There are few buses and these do not circulate according to a fixed timetable. In Honiara there is no bus terminus. The most important bus stop is in front of the Central Market.

Ferries

Most of the islands can be reached by ferry from Honiara. There is a daily connection from Honiara to Auki via Tulagi by a high speed catamaran.

Population
Year Million
1950 0.09
2000 0.4
2018 0.7

As of 2018[update], there were 652,857 people in Solomon Islands.

Ethnic groups

Ethnic Groups in The Solomon Islands
Ethnic Groups percent
Melanesian
95.3%
Polynesian
3.1%
Micronesian
1.2%
Chinese
0.1%
European
0.1%
Other
0.1%
Solomon Islander boys from Honiara. People with brown or blond hair are quite common among Solomon Islanders without any European admixture, especially among children.

The majority of Solomon Islanders are ethnically Melanesian (95.3%). Polynesian (3.1%) and Micronesian (1.2%) are the two other significant groups. There are a few thousand ethnic Chinese.

Languages

Further information: Languages of Solomon Islands

While English is the official language, only 1–2% of the population are able to communicate fluently in English. However, an English creole, Solomons Pijin, is a de facto lingua franca of the country spoken by the majority of the population, along with local indigenous languages. Pijin is closely related to Tok Pisin spoken in Papua New Guinea.

The number of local languages listed for Solomon Islands is 74, of which 70 are living languages and 4 are extinct, according to Ethnologue, Languages of the World. Western Oceanic languages (predominantly of the Southeast Solomonic group) are spoken on the central islands. Polynesian languages are spoken on Rennell and Bellona to the south, Tikopia, Anuta and Fatutaka to the far east, Sikaiana to the north east, and Luaniua to the north (Ontong Java Atoll, also known as Lord Howe Atoll). The immigrant population from Kiribati (the i-Kiribati) speak Gilbertese.

Religion

Catholic Church in Tanagai on Guadalcanal

The religion of Solomon Islands is mainly Christian (comprising about 92% of the population). The main Christian denominations are: the Anglican Church of Melanesia (35%), Catholic Church (19%), South Seas Evangelical Church (17%), United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands (11%) and Seventh-day Adventist (10%). Other Christian denominations are Jehovah's Witnesses, New Apostolic Church (80 churches) and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).

Another 5% adhere to aboriginal beliefs. The remaining adhere to Islam or the Baháʼí Faith. According to the most recent reports, Islam in Solomon Islands is made up of approximately 350 Muslims, including members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community.

Health

Female life expectancy at birth was at 66.7 years and male life expectancy at birth at 64.9 in 2007. 1990–1995 fertility rate was at 5.5 births per woman. Government expenditure on health per capita was at US$99 (PPP). Healthy life expectancy at birth is at 60 years.

Blond hair occurs in 10% of the population in the islands. After years of questions, studies have resulted in the better understanding of the blond gene. The findings show that the blond hair trait is due to an amino acid change of protein TYRP1. This accounts for the highest occurrence of blond hair outside of European influence in the world. While 10% of Solomon Islanders display the blond phenotype, about 26% of the population carry the recessive trait for it as well.

Communicable diseases

About 35% deaths occurred in 2008 due to communicable diseases and maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions. Solomon Islands had 13 cumulative HIV cases from 1994 to 2009 and between 2000 and 2011 confirmed malaria cases decreased steadily. In 2017 lower respiratory infections accounted for 11.18%, neonatal disorders for 3.59%, STI (excluding HIV) for 2.9% of total deaths.

Noncommunicable diseases

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are prime causes of deaths in pacific islands, responsible for 60% deaths in Solomon Islands. Premature mortality from NCDs was 1900 in 2016. Ischemic heart disease, stroke and diabetes were the main causes of mortality due to NCDs in 2017.

Sustainable development goals and Solomon Islands

Over last two decades Solomon Islands has achieved many goals in health outcomes and moving towards fulfilling universal health coverage. Identifying and treating NCDs, addressing manpower shortage in health sector, improving the availability of treatment facilities in all health care centers are the new priorities of Solomon Islands.

Education

Children at the school in Tuo village, Fenualoa
Kindergarten in Honiara
School in Tanagai on Guadalcanal

Education in Solomon Islands is not compulsory, and only 60 percent of school-age children have access to primary education. There are kindergartens in various places, e.g. in the capital, but they are not free.

Campus of the University of the South Pacific in Honiara

From 1990 to 1994, the gross primary school enrolment rose from 84.5 percent to 96.6 percent. Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Solomon Islands as of 2001. While enrolment rates indicate a level of commitment to education, they do not always reflect children's participation in school. The Department of Education and Human Resource Development efforts and plans to expand educational facilities and increase enrolment. However, these actions have been hindered by a lack of government funding, misguided teacher training programs, poor co-ordination of programs, and a failure of the government to pay teachers. The percentage of the government's budget allocated to education was 9.7 percent in 1998, down from 13.2 percent in 1990. Male educational attainment tends to be higher than female educational attainment. The University of the South Pacific has a Campus at Guadalcanal as a foothold in the country while this University has established by Papua New Guinea. The literacy rate of the adult population amounted to 84.1% in 2015 (men 88.9%, women 79.23%).

Traditional painting and wood carving in the National Museum in Honiara

The culture of Solomon Islands reflects the extent of the differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Solomon Islands archipelago, which lies within Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean, with the peoples distinguished by island, language, topography, and geography. The cultural area includes the nation state of Solomon Islands and the Bougainville Island, which is a part of Papua New Guinea. Solomon Islands includes some culturally Polynesian societies which lie outside the main region of Polynesian influence, known as the Polynesian Triangle. There are seven Polynesian outliers within the Solomon Islands: Anuta, Bellona, Ontong Java, Rennell, Sikaiana, Tikopia, and Vaeakau-Taumako. Solomon Islands arts and crafts cover a wide range of woven objects, carved wood, stone and shell artefacts in styles specific to different provinces. :

  • Laundry basket

  • Carved fish

  • Bukhaware trays

  • Carved dish inlaid with mother-of-pearl

  • Carved longboat

  • Gnusu gnusu heads

  • Salad bowl and serving spoon and fork

  • Wooden religious objects in front of All Saints' Church, Honiara

Malaitan shell-money, manufactured in the Langa Langa Lagoon, is the traditional currency used in Malaita and throughout the Solomon Islands. The money consists of small polished shell disks which are drilled and placed on strings. In the Solomons Tectus niloticus is harvested, which was traditionally made into items such as pearl buttons and jewellery.

Gender inequality and domestic violence

Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence (FSV) in the world, with 64% of women aged 15–49 having reported physical and/or sexual abuse by a partner. As per a World Health Organization (WHO) report issued in 2011, "the causes of Gender Based Violence (GBV) are multiple, but it primarily stems from gender inequality and its manifestations." The report stated:

"In Solomon Islands, GBV has been largely normalized: 73% of men and 73% of women believe violence against women is justifiable, especially for infidelity and 'disobedience,' as when women do 'not live up to the gender roles that society imposes.' For example, women who believed they could occasionally refuse sex were four times more likely to experience GBV from an intimate partner. Men cited acceptability of violence and gender inequality as two main reasons for GBV, and almost all of them reported hitting their female partners as a 'form of discipline,' suggesting that women could improve the situation by '[learning] to obey [them].'"

Another manifestation and driver of gender inequality in Solomon Islands is the traditional practice of bride price. Although specific customs vary between communities, paying a bride price is considered similar to a property title, giving men ownership over women. Gender norms of masculinity tend to encourage men to "control" their wives, often through violence, while women felt that bride prices prevented them from leaving men. Another report issued by the WHO in 2013 painted a similarly grim picture.

In 2014, Solomon Islands officially launched the Family Protection Act 2014, which was aimed at curbing domestic violence in the country. While numerous other interventions are being developed and implemented in the healthcare system as well as the criminal justice system, these interventions are still in their infancy and have largely stemmed from Western protocols. Therefore, for these models to be effective, time and commitment is needed to change the cultural perception of domestic violence in Solomon Islands.

Literature

Further information: Solomon Islands literature

Writers from Solomon Islands include the novelists Rexford Orotaloa and John Saunana and the poet Jully Makini.

Media

Newspapers

There is one daily newspaper, the Solomon Star, one daily online news website, Solomon Times Online (www.solomontimes.com), two weekly papers, Solomons Voice and Solomon Times, and two monthly papers, Agrikalsa Nius and the Citizen's Press.

Radio

Radio is the most influential type of media in Solomon Islands due to language differences, illiteracy, and the difficulty of receiving television signals in some parts of the country. The Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation (SIBC) operates public radio services, including the national stations Radio Happy Isles 1037 on the dial and Wantok FM 96.3, and the provincial stations Radio Happy Lagoon and, formerly, Radio Temotu. There are two commercial FM stations, Z FM at 99.5 in Honiara but receivable over a large majority of island out from Honiara, and, PAOA FM at 97.7 in Honiara (also broadcasting on 107.5 in Auki), and, one community FM radio station, Gold Ridge FM on 88.7.

Television

There are no TV services that cover the entire Solomon Islands but are available in six main centres in four of the nine Provinces. Satellite TV stations can be received. In Honiara, there is a free-to-air HD digital, analogue TV and online service called Telekom Television Limited, operated by Solomon Telekom Co. Ltd.. and rebroadcast a number of regional and international TV services including ABC Australia and BBC World News. Residents can also subscribe to SATSOL, a digital pay TV service, re-transmitting satellite television.

Music

Further information: Music of Solomon Islands
A pan flute, nineteenth century, MHNT

Traditional Melanesian music in Solomon Islands includes both group and solo vocals, slit-drum and panpipe ensembles. Bamboo music gained a following in the 1920s. In the 1950s Edwin Nanau Sitori composed the song "Walkabout long Chinatown", which has been referred to by the government as the unofficial "national song" of the Solomon Islands. Modern Solomon Islander popular music includes various kinds of rock and reggae as well as island music.

Sport

Rugby union: The Solomon Islands national rugby union team has played internationals since 1969. It took part in the Oceania qualifying tournament for the 2003 and 2007 Rugby World Cups, but did not qualify on either occasion.

Association football: The Solomon Islands national football team has proved among the most successful in Oceania and is part of the OFC confederation in FIFA. They are currently ranked 141st out of 210 teams in the FIFA World Rankings. The team became the first team to beat New Zealand in qualifying for a play-off spot against Australia for qualification to the World Cup 2006. They were defeated 7–0 in Australia and 2–1 at home.

Futsal: Closely related to Association Football. On 14 June 2008, the Solomon Islands national futsal team, the Kurukuru, won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji to qualify them for the 2008 FIFA Futsal World Cup, which was held in Brazil from 30 September to 19 October 2008. Solomon Islands is the futsal defending champions in the Oceania region. In 2008 and 2009 the Kurukuru won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji. In 2009 they defeated the host nation Fiji 8–0 to claim the title. The Kurukuru currently hold the world record for the fastest ever goal scored in an official futsal match. It was set by Kurukuru captain Elliot Ragomo, who scored against New Caledonia three seconds into the game in July 2009. They also, however, hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in the history of the Futsal World Cup,[clarification needed] when in 2008 they were beaten by Russia with two goals to thirty-one.

Beach soccer: The Solomon Islands national beach soccer team, the Bilikiki Boys, are statistically the most successful team in Oceania. They have won all three regional championships to date, thereby qualifying on each occasion for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup. The Bilikiki Boys are ranked fourteenth in the world as of 2010[update], higher than any other team from Oceania.

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Solomon Islands
Solomon Islands Article Talk Language Watch Edit For the group of islands rather than the state see Solomon Islands archipelago Not to be confused with Salomon Islands Coordinates 8 S 159 E 8 S 159 E 8 159 Solomon Islands is a sovereign country 8 9 consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu It has a land area of 28 400 square kilometres 11 000 sq mi and a population of 652 858 10 Its capital Honiara is located on the largest island Guadalcanal The country takes its name from the Solomon Islands archipelago which is a collection of Melanesian islands that also includes the North Solomon Islands a part of Papua New Guinea but excludes outlying islands such as the Santa Cruz Islands and Rennell and Bellona Solomon IslandsFlag Coat of armsMotto To Lead is to Serve Anthem God Save Our Solomon Islands 1 Capitaland largest cityHoniara 9 25 55 S 159 57 20 E 9 43194 S 159 95556 E 9 43194 159 95556Official languagesEnglishEthnic groups 2009 census 95 3 Melanesian3 1 Polynesian1 2 Micronesian0 4 OthersReligion 2016 2 97 4 Christianity 76 6 Protestantism 19 0 Catholicism 1 8 Other Christian1 2 Folk religions1 4 Others NoneDemonym s Solomon IslanderGovernmentUnitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy MonarchElizabeth II Governor GeneralDavid Vunagi Prime MinisterManasseh SogavareLegislatureNational ParliamentIndependence from the United Kingdom7 July 1978Area Total28 400 km2 11 000 sq mi 139th Water 3 2 Population 2018 estimate652 857 3 4 167th Density18 1 km2 46 9 sq mi 200th GDP PPP 2019 estimate Total 1 479 billion 5 Per capita 2 307 5 GDP nominal 2019 estimate Total 1 511 billion 5 Per capita 2 357 5 Gini 2013 37 1 6 mediumHDI 2019 0 567 7 medium 151stCurrencySolomon Islands dollar SBD Time zoneUTC 11Driving sideleftCalling code 677ISO 3166 codeSBInternet TLD sb The islands have been settled since at least some time between 30 000 and 28 800 BC with later waves of migrants notably the Lapita people mixing and producing the modern indigenous Solomon Islanders population In 1568 the Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendana was the first European to visit them naming them the Islas Salomon 11 Mendana returned decades later in 1595 and another Spanish expedition led by Portuguese navigator Pedro Fernandes de Queiros visited the Solomons in 1606 Britain defined its area of interest in the Solomon Islands archipelago in June 1893 when Captain Gibson R N of HMS Curacoa declared the southern Solomon Islands a British protectorate 12 13 During World War II the Solomon Islands campaign 1942 1945 saw fierce fighting between the United States Commonwealth forces and the Empire of Japan including the Battle of Guadalcanal The official name of the then British administration was changed from the British Solomon Islands Protectorate to the Solomon Islands in 1975 and self government was achieved the following year Independence was obtained and the name changed to just Solomon Islands without the definite article in 1978 At independence Solomon Islands became a constitutional monarchy The Queen of Solomon Islands is Elizabeth II represented by the Governor General Contents 1 Name 2 History 2 1 Prehistory 2 2 Arrival of Europeans 1568 1886 2 3 Colonial period 1886 1978 2 3 1 Establishment of colonial rule 2 3 2 World War II 2 3 3 Post war period and the lead up to independence 2 4 Independence era 1978 present 2 4 1 Early post independence years 2 4 2 Ethnic violence 1998 2003 2 4 3 Post conflict era 3 Politics 3 1 Judiciary 3 2 Foreign relations 3 3 Military 3 4 Administrative divisions 3 5 Human rights 4 Geography 4 1 Climate 4 2 Ecology 4 3 Water and sanitation 4 4 Earthquakes 5 Economy 5 1 Energy 6 Infrastructure 6 1 Flight connections 6 2 Roads 6 3 Ferries 7 Demographics 7 1 Ethnic groups 7 2 Languages 7 3 Religion 7 4 Health 7 4 1 Communicable diseases 7 4 2 Noncommunicable diseases 7 4 2 1 Sustainable development goals and Solomon Islands 7 5 Education 8 Culture 8 1 Gender inequality and domestic violence 8 2 Literature 8 3 Media 8 4 Music 8 5 Sport 9 See also 10 References 11 External linksName EditIn 1568 the Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendana was the first European to visit the Solomon Islands archipelago naming it Islas Salomon Solomon Islands after the wealthy biblical King Solomon 11 It is said that they were given this name in the mistaken assumption that they contained great riches 14 and he believed them to be the Bible mentioned city of Ophir 15 During most of the colonial period the territory s official name was British Solomon Islands Protectorate until 1975 when it was changed to Solomon Islands 16 17 The definite article the is not part of the country s official name but is sometimes used both within and outside the country Colloquially the islands are referred to simply as the Solomons 18 History EditMain article History of Solomon Islands Prehistory Edit The Solomons were first colonised by people coming from the Bismarck Islands and New Guinea during the Pleistocene era c 30 000 28 000 BCE based on archaeological evidence found at Kilu Cave on Buka Island in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville Papua New Guinea 19 20 At this point sea levels were lower and Buka and Bougainville were physically joined to the southern Solomons in one landmass Greater Bougainville though it is unclear precisely how far south these early settlers spread as no other archaeological sites from this period have been found 19 As sea levels rose as the Ice Age ended c 4000 3500 BCE the Greater Bougainville landmass split into the numerous islands that exist today 19 21 Evidence of later human settlements dating to c 4500 2500 BCE have been found at Poha Cave and Vatuluma Posovi Cave on Guadalcanal 19 The ethnic identity of these early peoples is unclear though it is thought that the speakers of the Central Solomon languages a self contained language family unrelated to other languages spoken in the Solomons likely represent the descendants of these earlier settlers From c 1200 800 BCE Austronesian Lapita people began arriving from the Bismarcks with their characteristic ceramics 19 22 Evidence for their presence has been across the Solomon archipelago as well at the Santa Cruz Islands in the south east with different islands being settled at different times 19 Linguistic and genetic evidence suggests that the Lapita people leap frogged the already inhabited main Solomon Islands and settled first on the Santa Cruz group with later back migrations bringing their culture to the main group 23 24 These peoples mixed with the native Solomon Islanders and over time their languages became dominant with most of the 60 70 languages spoken there belonging to the Oceanic branch of the Austronesian language family 25 Then as now communities tended to exist in small villages practising subsistence agriculture though extensive inter island trade networks existed 19 Numerous ancient burial sites and other evidence of permanent settlements have been found from the period 1000 1500 CE throughout the islands one of the most prominent examples being the Roviana cultural complex centred on the islands off the southern coast of New Georgia where a large number of megalithic shrines and other structures were constructed in the 13th century 26 Arrival of Europeans 1568 1886 Edit Alvaro de Mendana de Neira 1542 1595 the first European to sight the Solomons The first European to visit the islands was the Spanish navigator Alvaro de Mendana de Neira sailing from Peru in 1568 27 Landing on Santa Isabel on 7 February Mendana explored several of the other islands including Makira Guadalcanal and Malaita 27 28 29 Relations with the native Solomon Islanders were initially cordial though often soured as time went by 27 As a result Mendana returned to Peru in August 1568 27 He returned to the Solomons with a larger crew on a second voyage in 1595 aiming to colonise the islands 27 They landed on Nendo in the Santa Cruz Islands and established a small settlement at Gracioso Bay 27 However the settlement failed due to poor relations with the native peoples and epidemics of disease amongst the Spanish which caused numerous deaths with Mendana himself dying in October 27 29 The new commander Pedro Fernandes de Queiros thus decided to abandon the settlement and they sailed north to the Spanish territory of the Philippines 27 Queiros later returned to the area in 1606 where he sighted Tikopia and Taumako though this voyage was primarily to Vanuatu in the search of Terra Australis 29 30 Save for Abel Tasman s sighting of the remote Ontong Java Atoll in 1648 no European sailed to the Solomons again until 1767 when the British explorer Philip Carteret sailed by the Santa Cruz Islands Malaita and continuing further north Bougainville and the Bismarck Islands 21 29 French explorers also reached the Solomons with Louis Antoine de Bougainville naming Choiseul in 1768 and Jean Francois de Surville exploring the islands in 1769 21 In 1788 John Shortland captaining a supply ship for Britain s new Australian colony at Botany Bay sighted the Treasury and Shortland Islands 21 29 That same year the French explorer Jean Francois de La Perouse was wrecked on Vanikoro a rescue expedition led by Bruni d Entrecasteaux sailed to Vanikoro but found no trace of La Perouse 21 31 32 The fate of La Perouse was not confirmed until 1826 when the English merchant Peter Dillon visited Tikopia and discovered items belonging to La Perouse in the possession of the local people confirmed by the subsequent voyage of Jules Dumont d Urville in 1828 29 33 Some of the earliest regular foreign visitors to the islands were whaling vessels from Britain the United States and Australia 29 34 They came for food wood and water from late in the 18th century establishing a trading relationship with the Solomon Islanders and later taking aboard islanders to serve as crewmen on their ships 35 Relations between the islanders and visiting seamen was not always good and sometimes there was bloodshed 29 36 A knock on effect of the greater European contact was the spread of diseases to which local peoples had no immunity as well a shift in the balance of power between coastal groups who had access to European weapons and technology and inland groups who did not 29 In the second half of the 1800s more traders arrived seeking turtleshells sea cucumbers copra and sandalwood occasionally establishing semi permanent trading stations 29 However initial attempts at more long term settlement such as Benjamin Boyd s colony on Guadalcanal in 1851 were unsuccessful 29 37 Solomon Island warriors armed with spears on board an ornamented war canoe 1895 Beginning in the 1840s and accelerating in the 1860s islanders began to be recruited or often kidnapped as labourers for the colonies in Australia Fiji and Samoa in a process known as blackbirding 29 38 Conditions for workers were often poor and exploitative and local islanders often violently attacked any Europeans who appeared on their island 29 The blackbird trade was chronicled by prominent Western writers such as Joe Melvin and Jack London 39 40 Christian missionaries also began visiting the Solomons from the 1840s beginning with an attempt by French Catholics under Jean Baptiste Epalle to establish a mission on Santa Isabel which was abandoned after Epalle was killed by islanders in 1845 21 38 Anglican missionaries began arriving from the 1850s followed by other denominations over time gaining a large number of converts 41 Colonial period 1886 1978 Edit Main articles British Solomon Islands British Western Pacific Territories and German New Guinea Establishment of colonial rule Edit In 1884 Germany annexed north east New Guinea and the Bismarck Archipelago and in 1886 they extended their rule over the North Solomon Islands covering Bougainville Buka Choiseul Santa Isabel the Shortlands and Ontong Java atoll 42 In 1886 Germany and Britain confirmed this arrangement with Britain gaining a sphere of influence over the southern Solomons 43 Germany paid little attention to the islands with German authorities based in New Guinea not even visiting the area until 1888 43 The German presence along with pressure from the missionaries to rein in the excesses of the blackbirding system prompted the British to declare a protectorate over the southern Solomons in March 1893 initially encompassing New Georgia Malaita Guadalcanal Makira Mono Island and the central Nggela Islands 12 44 In April 1896 Charles Morris Woodford was appointed as the British Acting Deputy Commissioner and confirmed in post the following year 12 44 Woodford set up an administrative headquarters on the small island of Tulagi and in 1898 and 1899 the Rennell and Bellona Islands Sikaiana the Santa Cruz Islands and outlying islands such as Anuta Fataka Temotu and Tikopia were added to the protectorate 44 45 In 1900 under the terms of the Tripartite Convention of 1899 Germany ceded the Northern Solomon to Britain minus Buka and Bougainville the latter becoming part of German New Guinea despite geographically belonging to the Solomons archipelago 38 Woodford s underfunded administration struggled to maintain law and order on the remote colony 12 In the 1890s early 1900s there were numerous cases of European settlers being killed by islanders with the British often retaliating via collective punishment of guilty villages often by indiscriminately shelling coastal areas from gunboats 12 The British attempted to encourage plantation settlements however by 1902 there were only about 80 European settlers in the islands 46 Attempts at economic development met with mixed results though Levers Pacific Plantations Ltd a subsidiary of Lever Brothers managed to establish a profitable copra plantation industry which employed many islanders 46 Small scale mining and logging industries were also developed 47 48 However the colony remained something of backwater with education medical and other social services being the preserve of the missionaries 38 Violence also continued most notably with the murder of colonial administrator William R Bell by Basiana of the Kwaio people on Malaita in 1927 as Bell attempted to enforce an unpopular head tax Several Kwaio were killed in a retaliatory raid and Basiana and his accomplices executed 49 World War II Edit Main articles Solomon Islands campaign and Japanese occupation of the Solomon Islands From 1942 until the end of 1943 the Solomon Islands were the scene of several major land sea and air battles between the Allies and the Japanese Empire s armed forces 50 Following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941 war was declared between Japan and the Allied Powers and the Japanese seeking to protect their southern flank invaded South East Asia and New Guinea In May 1942 the Japanese launched Operation Mo occupying Tulagi and most of the western Solomon Islands including Guadalcanal where they began work on an airstrip 51 The British administration had already relocated to Auki Malaita and most of the European population had been evacuated to Australia 51 The Allies counter invaded Guadalcanal in August 1942 followed by the New Georgia campaign in 1943 both of which were turning points in the Pacific War stopping and then countering the Japanese advance 50 The conflict resulted in thousands of Allied Japanese and civilian deaths as well an immense destruction across the islands 50 Coastwatchers from the Solomon Islands played a major role in providing intelligence and rescuing other Allied servicemen 51 U S Admiral William Halsey the commander of Allied forces during the Battle for Guadalcanal recognised the coastwatchers contributions by stating The coastwatchers saved Guadalcanal and Guadalcanal saved the South Pacific 52 In addition around 3 200 men served in the Solomon Islands Labour Corps and some 6 000 enlisted in the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force with their exposure to the Americans leading to several social and political transformations 53 For example the Americans had extensively developed Honiara with the capital shifting there from Tulagi in 1952 and the Pijin language was heavily influenced by the communication between Americans and the Islands inhabitants 54 The relatively easy going friendly attitude of the Americans also contrasted sharply with the subservience expected by the British colonial rulers and profoundly changed Solomons Islanders attitude to the colonial regime 55 The aircraft carrier USS Enterprise CV 6 under aerial attack during the Battle of the Eastern Solomons American Marines rest during the 1942 Guadalcanal Campaign American forces landing at Rendova Island The Cactus Air Force at Henderson Field Guadalcanal in October 1942 The coastwatcher Jacob C Vouza on Guadalcanal Members of the British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force in 1943 Post war period and the lead up to independence Edit In 1943 4 the Malaita based chief Aliki Nono ohimae had founded the Maasina Rule movement aka the Native Council Movement literally Brotherhood Rule and was later joined by another chief Hoasihau 56 Their aims were to improve the economic well being of native Solomon Islanders gain greater autonomy and to act as a liaison between Islanders and the colonial administration 38 55 The movement was especially popular with ex Labour Corp members and after the war its numbers swelled with the movement spreading to other islands 55 Alarmed at the growth of the movement the British launched Operation De Louse in 1947 8 and arrested most of the Maasina leaders 55 56 Malaitans then organised a campaign of civil disobedience prompting mass arrests 56 In 1950 a new Resident Commissioner Henry Gregory Smith arrived and released the leaders of the movement though the disobedience campaign continued 56 In 1952 new High Commissioner later Governor Robert Stanley met with leaders of the movement and agreed to the creation of an island council 56 57 In late 1952 Stanley formally moved the capital of the territory to Honiara 58 In the early 1950s the possibility of transferring sovereignty of the islands to Australia was discussed by the British and Australian governments however the Australians were reluctant to accept the financial burden of administering the territory and the idea was shelved 59 60 With decolonisation sweeping the colonial world and Britain no longer willing or able to bear the financial burdens of the Empire the colonial authorities sought to prepare the Solomons for self governance Appointed Executive and Legislative Councils were established in 1960 with a degree of elected Solomon Islander representation introduced in 1964 and then extended in 1967 38 61 62 A new constitution was drawn up in 1970 which merged the two Councils into one Governing Council though the British Governor still retained extensive powers 38 63 Discontent with this prompted the creation of a new constitution in 1974 which reduced much of the Governor s remaining powers and created the post of Chief Minister first held by Solomon Mamaloni 38 64 Full self government for the territory was achieved in 1976 a year after the independence of neighbouring Papua New Guinea from Australia 38 Meanwhile discontent grew in the Western islands with many fearing marginalisation in future a Honiara or Malaita dominated state prompting the formation of the Western Breakaway Movement 64 A conference held in London in 1977 agreed that the Solomons would gain full independence the following year 64 Under the terms of the Solomon Islands Act 1978 the country was annexed to Her Majesty s dominions and granted independence on 7 July 1978 The first Prime Minister was Sir Peter Kenilorea of the Solomon Islands United Party SIUP with Queen Elizabeth II becoming Queen of Solomon Islands represented locally by a Governor General The Solomon Islands Independence Ceremony on 7 July 1978 The Five Dollar Proof Coin The Five Dollar Proof Coin of the Solomon Islands 24 October 1977Independence era 1978 present Edit Early post independence years Edit Peter Kenilorea went on to win the 1980 Solomon Islands general election serving as PM until 1981 when he was replaced by Solomon Mamaloni of the People s Alliance Party PAP after a no confidence vote 65 Mamaloni created the Central Bank and national airline and pushed for greater autonomy for individual islands of the country 66 Kenilorea returned to power after winning the 1984 election though his second term lasted only two years before he was replaced by Ezekiel Alebua following allegations of misuse of French aid money 67 68 In 1986 the Solomons helped found the Melanesian Spearhead Group aimed at fostering cooperation and trade in the region 69 After winning the 1989 election Mamaloni and the PAP returned to power with Mamaloni dominating Solomon Islands politics from the early to mid 1990s save for the one year Premiership of Francis Billy Hilly Mamaloni made efforts to make the Solomons a republic however these were unsuccessful 66 He also had to deal with the effects of the conflict in neighbouring Bougainville which broke out in 1988 causing many refugees to flee to the Solomons 70 Tensions arose with Papua New Guinea as PNG forces frequently entered Solomons territory in the pursuit of rebels 70 The situation calmed down and relations improved following the end of the conflict in 1998 Meanwhile the country s financial situation continued to deteriorate with much of the budget coming from the logging industry often conducted at an unsustainable rate not helped by Mamaloni s creation of a discretionary fund for use by politicians which fostered fraud and corruption 66 Discontent with his rule led to a split in the PAP and Mamaloni lost the 1993 election to Billy Hilly though Hilly was later sacked by the Governor General after a number of defections caused him to lose his majority allowing Mamloni to return to power in 1994 where he remained until 1997 66 Excessive logging government corruption and unsustainable levels of public spending continued to grow and public discontent caused Mamaloni to lose the 1997 election 66 71 The new Prime Minister Bartholomew Ulufa alu of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party attempted to enact economic reforms however his Premiership soon became engulfed in a serious ethnic conflict known as The Tensions 72 Ethnic violence 1998 2003 Edit Australian troops as part of the RAMSI peacekeeping mission burn weapons confiscated from or surrendered by militias in 2003 Commonly referred to as the tensions or the ethnic tension the initial civil unrest was mainly characterised by fighting between the Isatabu Freedom Movement IFM also known as the Guadalcanal Revolutionary Army and the Isatabu Freedom Fighters and the Malaita Eagle Force as well as the Marau Eagle Force 73 For many years people from the island of Malaita had been migrating to Honiara and Guadalcanal attracted primarily by the greater economic opportunities available there 74 The large influx caused tensions with native Guadalcanal islanders known as Guales and in late 1998 the IFM was formed and began a campaign of intimidation and violence towards Malaitan settlers 73 71 Thousands of Malaitans subsequently fled back to Malaita or to Honiara and in mid 1999 the Malaita Eagle Force MEF was established to protect Malaitans on Guadalcanal 71 73 In late 1999 after several failed attempts at brokering a peace deal Prime Minister Bartholomew Ulufa alu declared a four month state of emergency and also requested assistance from Australia and New Zealand but his appeal was rejected 73 71 Meanwhile law and order on Guadalcanal collapsed with an ethnically divided police unable to assert authority and many of their weapons depots being raided by the militias by this point the MEF controlled Honiara with the IFM controlling the rest of Guadalacanal 74 71 On 5 June 2000 Ulufa alu was kidnapped by the MEF who felt that although he was a Malaitan he was not doing enough to protect their interests 71 Ulufa alu subsequently resigned in exchange for his release 73 Manasseh Sogavare who had earlier been Finance Minister in Ulufa alu s government but had subsequently joined the opposition was elected as Prime Minister by 23 21 over the Rev Leslie Boseto However Sogavare s election was immediately shrouded in controversy because six MPs thought to be supporters of Boseto were unable to attend parliament for the crucial vote 75 On 15 October 2000 the Townsville Peace Agreement was signed by the MEF elements of the IFM and the Solomon Islands Government 76 73 This was closely followed by the Marau Peace agreement in February 2001 signed by the Marau Eagle Force the IFM the Guadalcanal Provincial Government and the Solomon Islands Government 73 However a key Guale militant leader Harold Keke refused to sign the agreement causing a split with the Guale groups 74 Subsequently Guale signatories to the agreement led by Andrew Te e joined with the Malaitan dominated police to form the Joint Operations Force 74 During the next two years the conflict moved to the remote Weathercoast region of southern Guadalcanal as the Joint Operations unsuccessfully attempted to capture Keke and his group 73 Solomon Islanders at a peace protest in 2003 By early 2001 the economy had collapsed and the government was bankrupt 71 New elections in December 2001 brought Allan Kemakeza into the Prime Minister s chair with the support of his People s Alliance Party and the Association of Independent Members Law and order deteriorated as the nature of the conflict shifted there was continuing violence on the Weathercoast whilst militants in Honiara increasingly turned their attention to crime extortion and banditry 74 The Department of Finance would often be surrounded by armed men when funding was due to arrive In December 2002 Finance Minister Laurie Chan resigned after being forced at gunpoint to sign a cheque made out to some of the militants citation needed Conflict also broke out in Western Province between locals and Malaitan settlers citation needed Renegade members of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army BRA were invited in as a protection force but ended up causing as much trouble as they prevented 74 The prevailing atmosphere of lawlessness widespread extortion and ineffective police prompted a formal request by the Solomon Islands Government for outside help a request was unanimously supported in Parliament 74 In July 2003 Australian and Pacific Islands police and troops arrived in Solomon Islands under the auspices of the Australian led Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands RAMSI 73 A sizeable international security contingent of 2 200 police and troops led by Australia and New Zealand and with representatives from about 15 other Pacific nations began arriving the next month under Operation Helpem Fren 74 The situation improved dramatically with violence ending and Harold Keke surrendering to the force 77 Some 200 people had been killed in the conflict 74 Since this time some commentators have considered the country a failed state with the nation having failed to build an inclusive national identity capable of overriding local island and ethnic loyalties 71 78 However other academics argue that rather than being a failed state it is an unformed state a state that never consolidated even after decades of independence 79 Furthermore some scholars such Kabutaulaka 2001 and Dinnen 2002 argue that the ethnic conflict label is an oversimplification 80 Post conflict era Edit Kemakeza remained in office until April 2006 when he lost the 2006 Solomon Islands general election and Snyder Rini became PM However allegations that Rini had used bribes from Chinese businessmen to buy the votes of members of Parliament led to mass rioting in the capital Honiara concentrated on the city s Chinatown area A deep underlying resentment against the minority Chinese business community led to much of Chinatown in the city being destroyed 81 Tensions were also increased by the belief that large sums of money were being exported to China China sent chartered aircraft to evacuate hundreds of Chinese who fled to avoid the riots citation needed Evacuation of Australian and British citizens was on a much smaller scale citation needed Additional Australian New Zealand and Fijian police and troops were dispatched to try to quell the unrest Rini eventually resigned before facing a motion of no confidence in Parliament and Parliament elected Manasseh Sogavare as Prime Minister 82 83 Sogavare struggled to assert his authority and was also hostile to the Australian presence in the country after one failed attempt he was removed in no confidence vote in 2007 and replaced by Derek Sikua of the Solomon Islands Liberal Party 84 In 2008 a Truth and Reconciliation Commission was established to examine and help heal the wounds of the tension years 85 86 Sikua lost the 2010 Solomon Islands general election to Danny Philip though after a vote of no confidence in him following allegations of corruption Philip was ousted and replaced by Gordon Darcy Lilo 87 88 Sogavare returned to power after the 2014 election and oversaw the withdrawal of RAMSI forces from the country in 2017 74 Sogavare was ousted in a no confidence vote in 2017 which saw Rick Houenipwela come to power however Sogavare returned to the Prime Ministership after winning the 2019 election sparking rioting in Honiara 89 90 In 2019 Sogavare announced that the Solomons would be switching recognition from Taiwan to China 91 92 In November 2021 there was mass rioting and unrest 93 Politics EditMain article Politics of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands National Parliament building was a gift from the United States Ministry of the Interior Solomon Islands is a constitutional monarchy and has a parliamentary system of government As Queen of Solomon Islands Elizabeth II is head of state she is represented by the Governor General who is chosen by the Parliament for a five year term There is a unicameral parliament of 50 members elected for four year terms However Parliament may be dissolved by majority vote of its members before the completion of its term Parliamentary representation is based on single member constituencies Suffrage is universal for citizens over age 21 94 The head of government is the Prime Minister who is elected by Parliament and chooses the cabinet Each ministry is headed by a cabinet member who is assisted by a permanent secretary a career public servant who directs the staff of the ministry Solomon Islands governments are characterised by weak political parties see List of political parties in Solomon Islands and highly unstable parliamentary coalitions They are subject to frequent votes of no confidence leading to frequent changes in government leadership and cabinet appointments Land ownership is reserved for Solomon Islanders The law provides that resident expatriates such as the Chinese and Kiribati may obtain citizenship through naturalisation Land generally is still held on a family or village basis and may be handed down from mother or father according to local custom The islanders are reluctant to provide land for nontraditional economic undertakings and this has resulted in continual disputes over land ownership No military forces are maintained by Solomon Islands although a police force of nearly 500 includes a border protection unit The police also are responsible for fire service disaster relief and maritime surveillance The police force is headed by a commissioner appointed by the governor general and responsible to the prime minister On 27 December 2006 the Solomon Islands government took steps to prevent the country s Australian police chief from returning to the Pacific nation On 12 January 2007 Australia replaced its top diplomat expelled from Solomon Islands for political interference in a conciliatory move aimed at easing a four month dispute between the two countries On 13 December 2007 Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare was toppled by a vote of no confidence in Parliament 95 following the defection of five ministers to the opposition It was the first time a prime minister had lost office in this way in Solomon Islands On 20 December the parliament elected the opposition s candidate and former Minister for Education Derek Sikua as Prime Minister in a vote of 32 to 15 96 97 Judiciary Edit Main article Judiciary of Solomon Islands The Governor General appoints the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition The Governor General appoints the other justices with the advice of a judicial commission The current Chief Justice is Sir Albert Palmer Since March 2014 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough has served as the President of the Court of Appeal for Solomon Islands Justice Goldsbrough has previously served a five year term as a Judge of the High Court of Solomon Islands 2006 2011 Justice Edwin Goldsbrough then served as the Chief Justice of the Turks and Caicos Islands 98 Foreign relations Edit Main article Foreign relations of Solomon Islands Solomon Islands Prime Minister Manasseh Sogavare meets with the President of Taiwan Tsai Ing wen July 2016 Solomon Islands is a member of the United Nations Interpol British Commonwealth Pacific Islands Forum Pacific Community International Monetary Fund and the African Caribbean and Pacific ACP countries ACP Lome Convention Until September 2019 it was one of the few countries to recognise the Republic of China Taiwan and maintain formal diplomatic relations with the latter 99 Relations with Papua New Guinea which had become strained because of an influx of refugees from the Bougainville rebellion and attacks on the northern islands of Solomon Islands by elements pursuing Bougainvillean rebels have been repaired A 1998 peace accord on Bougainville removed the armed threat and the two nations regularised border operations in a 2004 agreement 100 In March 2017 at the 34th regular session of the UN Human Rights Council Vanuatu made a joint statement on behalf of Solomon Islands and some other Pacific nations raising human rights violations in the Western New Guinea which claimed by International Parliamentarians for West Papua IPWP that West Papua has been occupied by Indonesia since 1963 101 and requested that the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights produce a report 102 103 Indonesia rejected Vanuatu s allegations and giving answer that Vanuatu not presenting the people of Papua and stop fantasizing about being one 104 103 More than 100 000 Papuans have died during a 50 year Papua conflict 105 In September 2017 at the 72nd Session of the UN General Assembly the Prime Ministers of the Solomon Islands Tuvalu and Vanuatu once again raised human rights abuses in Indonesian occupied West Papua 106 Military Edit Although the locally recruited British Solomon Islands Protectorate Defence Force was part of Allied Forces taking part in fighting in the Solomons during the Second World War the country has not had any regular military forces since independence The various paramilitary elements of the Royal Solomon Islands Police Force RSIPF were disbanded and disarmed in 2003 following the intervention of the Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands RAMSI RAMSI has a small military detachment headed by an Australian commander with responsibilities for assisting the police element of RAMSI in internal and external security The RSIPF still operates two Pacific class patrol boats RSIPV Auki and RSIPV Lata which constitute the de facto navy of Solomon Islands In the long term it is anticipated that the RSIPF will resume the defence role of the country The police force is headed by a commissioner appointed by the governor general and responsible to the Minister of Police National Security amp Correctional Services The police budget of Solomon Islands has been strained due to a four year civil war Following Cyclone Zoe s strike on the islands of Tikopia and Anuta in December 2002 Australia had to provide the Solomon Islands government with 200 000 Solomon dollars 50 000 Australian for fuel and supplies for the patrol boat Lata to sail with relief supplies Part of the work of RAMSI includes assisting the Solomon Islands government to stabilise its budget Administrative divisions Edit Main article Provinces of Solomon Islands For local government the country is divided into ten administrative areas of which nine are provinces administered by elected provincial assemblies and the tenth is the capital Honiara administered by the Honiara Town Council Rank Province Territory Capital Premier Area km2 Population census 1999 Population per km2 2009 Population census 20091 Central Province Tulagi Patrick Vasuni 615 21 577 42 4 26 0512 Choiseul Province Taro Island Jackson Kiloe 3 837 20 008 6 9 26 3713 Guadalcanal Province 1 Honiara Anthony Veke 5 336 60 275 17 5 93 6134 Isabel Province Buala James Habu 4 136 20 421 6 3 26 1585 Makira Ulawa Province Kirakira Stanley Siapu 3 188 31 006 12 7 40 4196 Malaita Province Auki Peter Ramohia 4 225 122 620 32 6 137 5967 Rennell and Bellona Province Tigoa George Tuhaika 671 2 377 4 5 3 0418 Temotu Province Lata Fr Charles Brown Beu 895 18 912 23 9 21 3629 Western Province Gizo David Gina 5 475 62 739 14 0 76 64910 Capital Territory Honiara Mua Mayor 22 49 107 2 936 8 64 609 Solomon Islands Honiara 28 400 409 042 14 7 515 870 1 excluding the Capital Territory of Honiara Human rights Edit See also Human rights in Solomon Islands There are human rights concerns and issues in regards to education water sanitation gender equality and domestic violence Homosexuality is illegal in Solomon Islands 107 Geography EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed July 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Geography of Solomon Islands Aerial view of Solomon Islands Malaita island Solomon Islands is an island nation that lies east of Papua New Guinea and consists of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands The major part of the nation is the mountainous High islands of the Solomon Islands archipelago which includes Choiseul the Shortland Islands the New Georgia Islands Santa Isabel the Russell Islands the Florida Islands Tulagi Malaita Maramasike Ulawa Owaraha Santa Ana Makira San Cristobal and the main island of Guadalcanal Bougainville Island is the largest in the archipelago while it is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago it is politically an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea The Solomon Islands also includes isolated low lying coral atolls and high islands including Sikaiana Rennell Island Bellona Island the Santa Cruz Islands and the remote tiny outliers Tikopia Anuta and Fatutaka The country s islands lie between latitudes 5 and 13 S and longitudes 155 and 169 E The distance between the westernmost and easternmost islands is about 1 500 kilometres 930 mi The Santa Cruz Islands of which Tikopia is part are situated north of Vanuatu and are especially isolated at more than 200 kilometres 120 mi from the other islands Bougainville is geographically part of the Solomon Islands archipelago but politically part of Papua New Guinea Climate Edit The islands ocean equatorial climate is extremely humid throughout the year with a mean temperature of 26 5 C 79 7 F and few extremes of temperature or weather June through August is the cooler period Though seasons are not pronounced the northwesterly winds of November through April bring more frequent rainfall and occasional squalls or cyclones The annual rainfall is about 3 050 millimetres 120 in Ecology Edit See also Coral reefs of the Solomon Islands and List of corals of the Solomon Islands The Solomon Islands archipelago is part of two distinct terrestrial ecoregions Most of the islands are part of the Solomon Islands rain forests ecoregion which also includes the islands of Bougainville and Buka these forests have come under pressure from forestry activities The Santa Cruz Islands are part of the Vanuatu rain forests ecoregion together with the neighbouring archipelago of Vanuatu 108 The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 7 19 10 ranking it 48th globally out of 172 countries 109 Soil quality ranges from extremely rich volcanic there are volcanoes with varying degrees of activity on some of the larger islands to relatively infertile limestone More than 230 varieties of orchids and other tropical flowers brighten the landscape Mammals are scarce on the islands with the only terrestrial mammals being bats and small rodents Birds and reptiles however are abundant citation needed The islands contain several active and dormant volcanoes The Tinakula and Kavachi volcanoes are the most active On the southern side of Vangunu Island the forests around the tiny community of Zaira are unique providing habitat for at least three vulnerable species of animals The 200 human inhabitants of the area have been trying to get the forests declared a protected area so that logging and mining cannot disturb and pollute the pristine forests and coastline 110 The baseline survey of marine biodiversity in the Solomon Islands that was carried out in 2004 111 found 474 species of corals in the Solomons as well as nine species which could be new to science This is the second highest diversity of corals in the World second only to the Raja Ampat Islands in eastern Indonesia 112 Water and sanitation Edit See also Human rights in Solomon Islands Scarcity of fresh water sources and lack of sanitation has been a constant challenge facing Solomon Islands Reducing the number of those living without access to fresh water and sanitation by half was one of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals MDGs implemented by the United Nations through Goal 7 to ensure environmental sustainability 113 Though the islands generally have access to fresh water sources it is typically only available in the state s capital of Honiara 113 and it is not guaranteed all year long According to a UNICEF report even the capital s poorest communities do not have access to adequate places to relieve their waste and an estimated 70 Solomon Island schools have no access to safe and clean water for drinking washing and relieving of waste 113 Lack of safe drinking water in school age children results in high risks of contracting fatal diseases such as cholera and typhoid 114 The number of Solomon Islanders living with piped drinking water has been decreasing since 2011 while those living with non piped water increased between 2000 and 2010 Nevertheless one improvement is that those living with non piped water has been decreasing consistently since 2011 115 In addition the Solomon Islands Second Rural Development Program enacted in 2014 and active until 2020 has been working to deliver competent infrastructure and other vital services to rural areas and villages of the Solomon Islands 116 which suffer the most from lack of safe drinking water and proper sanitation Through improved infrastructure services and resources the program has also encouraged farmers and other agricultural sectors through community driven efforts to connect them to the market thus promoting economic growth 114 Rural villages such as Bolava found in the Western Province of Solomon Islands have benefited greatly from the program with the implementation of water tanks and rain catchment and water storage systems 114 Not only has the improved infrastructure increased the quality of life in Solomon Islands the services are also operated and developed by the community thus creating a sense of communal pride and achievement among those previously living in hazardous conditions The program is funded by various international development actors such as the World Bank European Union International Fund for Agricultural Development IFAD and the Australian and Solomon Islands governments 114 Earthquakes Edit Main articles 2007 Solomon Islands earthquake and 2013 Solomon Islands earthquake On 2 April 2007 at 07 39 56 local time UTC 11 an earthquake with magnitude 8 1 on the Mw scale occurred at hypocentre S8 453 E156 957 349 kilometres 217 mi northwest of the island s capital Honiara and south east of the capital of Western Province Gizo at a depth of 10 km 6 2 miles 117 More than 44 aftershocks with magnitude 5 0 or greater occurred up until 22 00 00 UTC Wednesday 4 April 2007 A tsunami followed killing at least 52 people destroying more than 900 homes and leaving thousands of people homeless 118 Land upthrust extended the shoreline of one island Ranongga by up to 70 metres 230 ft exposing many once pristine coral reefs 119 On 6 February 2013 an earthquake with magnitude of 8 0 occurred at epicentre S10 80 E165 11 in the Santa Cruz Islands followed by a tsunami up to 1 5 metres At least nine people were killed and many houses demolished The main quake was preceded by a sequence of earthquakes with a magnitude of up to 6 0 Economy EditMain article Economy of Solomon Islands A proportional representation of Solomon Islands exports 2019 Plantation of oil palms near Tetere on Guadalcanal Subsistence agriculture near Honiara One of the most important roads on the North coast of Guadalcanal in Tamboko Solomon Islands per capita GDP of 600 ranks it as a lesser developed nation and more than 75 of its labour force is engaged in subsistence agriculture and fishing Most manufactured goods and petroleum products must be imported Only 3 9 of the area of the islands are used for agriculture and 78 1 are covered by forests making the Solomon Islands the 103rd ranked country covered by forests worldwide 120 clarification needed Export Until 1998 when world prices for tropical timber fell steeply timber was Solomon Islands main export product and in recent years Solomon Islands forests were dangerously overexploited In the wake of the ethnic violence in June 2000 exports of palm oil and gold ceased while exports of timber fell Recently when Solomon Islands courts have re approved the export of live dolphins for profit most recently to Dubai United Arab Emirates This practice was originally stopped by the government in 2004 after international uproar over a shipment of 28 live dolphins to Mexico The move resulted in criticism from both Australia and New Zealand as well as several conservation organisations As of 2019 rough wood still makes up two thirds of export Agriculture Other important cash crops and exports include copra cacao and palm oil In 2017 317 682 tons of coconuts were harvested making the country the 18th ranked producer of coconuts worldwide and 24 of the exports corresponded to copra 121 Cocoa beans are mainly grown on the islands Guadalcanal Makira and Malaita In 2017 4 940 tons of cocoa beans were harvested making the Solomon Islands the 27th ranked producer of cocoa worldwide 122 Growth of production and export of copra and cacao however is hampered by old age of most coconut and cacao trees In 2017 285 721 tons of palm oil were produced making Solomon Islands the 24th ranked producer of palm oil worldwide 123 The agriculture on the Solomon Islands is hampered by a very severe lack of agricultural machines For the local market but not for export many families grow taro 2017 45 901 tons 124 rice 2017 2 789 tons 125 yams 2017 44 940 tons 126 and bananas 2017 313 tons 127 Tobacco 2017 118 tons 128 and spices 2017 217 tons 129 are grown for the local market as well Mining In 1998 gold mining began at Gold Ridge on Guadalcanal Minerals exploration in other areas continued The islands are rich in undeveloped mineral resources such as lead zinc nickel and gold Negotiations are underway that may lead to the eventual reopening of the Gold Ridge mine which was closed after the riots in 2006 Fisheries Solomon Islands fisheries also offer prospects for export and domestic economic expansion A Japanese joint venture Solomon Taiyo Ltd which operated the only fish cannery in the country closed in mid 2000 as a result of the ethnic disturbances Though the plant has reopened under local management the export of tuna has not resumed Tourism Tourism particularly diving could become an important service industry for Solomon Islands Tourism growth however is hampered by lack of infrastructure and transportation limitations In 2017 the Solomon Islands were visited by 26 000 tourists making the country one of the least frequently visited countries of the world 130 The Government hopes to increase the number of tourists up to 30 000 by the end of 2019 and up to 60 000 tourists per year by the end of 2025 131 Currency The Solomon Islands dollar ISO 4217 code SBD was introduced in 1977 replacing the Australian dollar at par Its symbol is SI but the SI prefix may be omitted if there is no confusion with other currencies also using the dollar sign It is subdivided into 100 cents Local shell money is still important for traditional and ceremonial purposes in certain provinces and in some remote parts of the country for trade Shell money was a widely used traditional currency in the Pacific Islands in Solomon Islands it is mostly manufactured in Malaita and Guadalcanal but can be bought elsewhere such as the Honiara Central Market 132 The barter system often replaces money of any kind in remote areas The Solomon Islands Government was insolvent by 2002 Since the RAMSI intervention in 2003 the government has recast its budget It has consolidated and renegotiated its domestic debt and with Australian backing is now seeking to renegotiate its foreign obligations Principal aid donors are Australia New Zealand the European Union Japan and Taiwan Energy Edit A team of renewable energy developers working for the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission SOPAC and funded by the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership REEEP have developed a scheme that allows local communities to access renewable energy such as solar water and wind power without the need to raise substantial sums of cash Under the scheme islanders who are unable to pay for solar lanterns in cash may pay instead in kind with crops 133 Infrastructure EditFlight connections Edit Solomon Airlines connects Honiara to Nadi in Fiji Port Vila in Vanuatu and Brisbane in Australia as well as to more than 20 domestic airports in each province of the country To promote tourism Solomon Airlines introduced a weekly direct flight connection between Brisbane and Munda in 2019 134 Virgin Australia connects Honiara to Brisbane twice a week Most of the domestic airports are accessible to small planes only as they have short grass runways Roads Edit The road system in Solomon Islands is insufficient and there are no railways The most important roads connect Honiara to Lambi 58 km 36 miles in the western part of Guadalcanal and to Aola 75 km 47 miles in the eastern part 135 There are few buses and these do not circulate according to a fixed timetable In Honiara there is no bus terminus The most important bus stop is in front of the Central Market Ferries Edit Most of the islands can be reached by ferry from Honiara There is a daily connection from Honiara to Auki via Tulagi by a high speed catamaran Demographics EditMain article Demographics of Solomon Islands Population 3 4 Year Million1950 0 092000 0 42018 0 7 As of 2018 update there were 652 857 people in Solomon Islands 3 4 Ethnic groups Edit Ethnic Groups in The Solomon IslandsEthnic Groups percentMelanesian 95 3 Polynesian 3 1 Micronesian 1 2 Chinese 0 1 European 0 1 Other 0 1 Solomon Islander boys from Honiara People with brown or blond hair are quite common among Solomon Islanders without any European admixture especially among children The majority of Solomon Islanders are ethnically Melanesian 95 3 Polynesian 3 1 and Micronesian 1 2 are the two other significant groups 136 There are a few thousand ethnic Chinese 81 Languages Edit Further information Languages of Solomon Islands While English is the official language only 1 2 of the population are able to communicate fluently in English However an English creole Solomons Pijin is a de facto lingua franca of the country spoken by the majority of the population along with local indigenous languages Pijin is closely related to Tok Pisin spoken in Papua New Guinea The number of local languages listed for Solomon Islands is 74 of which 70 are living languages and 4 are extinct according to Ethnologue Languages of the World 137 Western Oceanic languages predominantly of the Southeast Solomonic group are spoken on the central islands Polynesian languages are spoken on Rennell and Bellona to the south Tikopia Anuta and Fatutaka to the far east Sikaiana to the north east and Luaniua to the north Ontong Java Atoll also known as Lord Howe Atoll The immigrant population from Kiribati the i Kiribati speak Gilbertese Religion Edit Main article Religion in Solomon Islands Catholic Church in Tanagai on Guadalcanal The religion of Solomon Islands is mainly Christian comprising about 92 of the population The main Christian denominations are the Anglican Church of Melanesia 35 Catholic Church 19 South Seas Evangelical Church 17 United Church in Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands 11 and Seventh day Adventist 10 Other Christian denominations are Jehovah s Witnesses New Apostolic Church 80 churches and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints LDS Church Another 5 adhere to aboriginal beliefs The remaining adhere to Islam or the Bahaʼi Faith According to the most recent reports Islam in Solomon Islands is made up of approximately 350 Muslims 138 including members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community 139 Health Edit Female life expectancy at birth was at 66 7 years and male life expectancy at birth at 64 9 in 2007 140 1990 1995 fertility rate was at 5 5 births per woman 140 Government expenditure on health per capita was at US 99 PPP 140 Healthy life expectancy at birth is at 60 years 140 Blond hair occurs in 10 of the population in the islands 141 After years of questions studies have resulted in the better understanding of the blond gene The findings show that the blond hair trait is due to an amino acid change of protein TYRP1 142 This accounts for the highest occurrence of blond hair outside of European influence in the world 143 While 10 of Solomon Islanders display the blond phenotype about 26 of the population carry the recessive trait for it as well 144 Communicable diseases Edit About 35 deaths occurred in 2008 due to communicable diseases and maternal perinatal and nutritional conditions 145 Solomon Islands had 13 cumulative HIV cases from 1994 to 2009 and between 2000 and 2011 confirmed malaria cases decreased steadily 145 In 2017 lower respiratory infections accounted for 11 18 neonatal disorders for 3 59 STI excluding HIV for 2 9 of total deaths 146 Noncommunicable diseases Edit Noncommunicable diseases NCDs are prime causes of deaths in pacific islands responsible for 60 deaths in Solomon Islands 147 Premature mortality from NCDs was 1900 in 2016 148 Ischemic heart disease stroke and diabetes were the main causes of mortality due to NCDs in 2017 146 Sustainable development goals and Solomon Islands Edit Over last two decades Solomon Islands has achieved many goals in health outcomes and moving towards fulfilling universal health coverage 149 Identifying and treating NCDs addressing manpower shortage in health sector improving the availability of treatment facilities in all health care centers are the new priorities of Solomon Islands 149 Education Edit Children at the school in Tuo village Fenualoa Kindergarten in Honiara School in Tanagai on Guadalcanal Education in Solomon Islands is not compulsory and only 60 percent of school age children have access to primary education 150 151 There are kindergartens in various places e g in the capital but they are not free Campus of the University of the South Pacific in Honiara From 1990 to 1994 the gross primary school enrolment rose from 84 5 percent to 96 6 percent 150 Primary school attendance rates were unavailable for Solomon Islands as of 2001 150 While enrolment rates indicate a level of commitment to education they do not always reflect children s participation in school 150 The Department of Education and Human Resource Development efforts and plans to expand educational facilities and increase enrolment However these actions have been hindered by a lack of government funding misguided teacher training programs poor co ordination of programs and a failure of the government to pay teachers 150 The percentage of the government s budget allocated to education was 9 7 percent in 1998 down from 13 2 percent in 1990 150 Male educational attainment tends to be higher than female educational attainment 151 The University of the South Pacific has a Campus at Guadalcanal as a foothold in the country while this University has established by Papua New Guinea 152 The literacy rate of the adult population amounted to 84 1 in 2015 men 88 9 women 79 23 153 Culture EditMain article Culture of Solomon Islands Traditional painting and wood carving in the National Museum in Honiara The culture of Solomon Islands reflects the extent of the differentiation and diversity among the groups living within the Solomon Islands archipelago which lies within Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean with the peoples distinguished by island language topography and geography The cultural area includes the nation state of Solomon Islands and the Bougainville Island which is a part of Papua New Guinea 154 Solomon Islands includes some culturally Polynesian societies which lie outside the main region of Polynesian influence known as the Polynesian Triangle There are seven Polynesian outliers within the Solomon Islands Anuta Bellona Ontong Java Rennell Sikaiana Tikopia and Vaeakau Taumako Solomon Islands arts and crafts cover a wide range of woven objects carved wood stone and shell artefacts in styles specific to different provinces Laundry basket Carved fish Bukhaware trays Carved dish inlaid with mother of pearl Carved longboat Gnusu gnusu heads Salad bowl and serving spoon and fork Wooden religious objects in front of All Saints Church Honiara Malaitan shell money manufactured in the Langa Langa Lagoon is the traditional currency used in Malaita and throughout the Solomon Islands The money consists of small polished shell disks which are drilled and placed on strings 155 In the Solomons Tectus niloticus is harvested which was traditionally made into items such as pearl buttons and jewellery 156 157 Gender inequality and domestic violence Edit Solomon Islands has one of the highest rates of family and sexual violence FSV in the world with 64 of women aged 15 49 having reported physical and or sexual abuse by a partner 158 As per a World Health Organization WHO report issued in 2011 the causes of Gender Based Violence GBV are multiple but it primarily stems from gender inequality and its manifestations 159 The report stated In Solomon Islands GBV has been largely normalized 73 of men and 73 of women believe violence against women is justifiable especially for infidelity and disobedience as when women do not live up to the gender roles that society imposes For example women who believed they could occasionally refuse sex were four times more likely to experience GBV from an intimate partner Men cited acceptability of violence and gender inequality as two main reasons for GBV and almost all of them reported hitting their female partners as a form of discipline suggesting that women could improve the situation by learning to obey them Another manifestation and driver of gender inequality in Solomon Islands is the traditional practice of bride price Although specific customs vary between communities paying a bride price is considered similar to a property title giving men ownership over women Gender norms of masculinity tend to encourage men to control their wives often through violence while women felt that bride prices prevented them from leaving men Another report issued by the WHO in 2013 painted a similarly grim picture 160 In 2014 Solomon Islands officially launched the Family Protection Act 2014 which was aimed at curbing domestic violence in the country 161 While numerous other interventions are being developed and implemented in the healthcare system as well as the criminal justice system these interventions are still in their infancy and have largely stemmed from Western protocols Therefore for these models to be effective time and commitment is needed to change the cultural perception of domestic violence in Solomon Islands 158 Literature Edit Further information Solomon Islands literature Writers from Solomon Islands include the novelists Rexford Orotaloa and John Saunana and the poet Jully Makini Media Edit Newspapers There is one daily newspaper the Solomon Star one daily online news website Solomon Times Online www solomontimes com two weekly papers Solomons Voice and Solomon Times and two monthly papers Agrikalsa Nius and the Citizen s Press Radio Radio is the most influential type of media in Solomon Islands due to language differences illiteracy 162 and the difficulty of receiving television signals in some parts of the country The Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation SIBC operates public radio services including the national stations Radio Happy Isles 1037 on the dial and Wantok FM 96 3 and the provincial stations Radio Happy Lagoon and formerly Radio Temotu There are two commercial FM stations Z FM at 99 5 in Honiara but receivable over a large majority of island out from Honiara and PAOA FM at 97 7 in Honiara also broadcasting on 107 5 in Auki and one community FM radio station Gold Ridge FM on 88 7 Television There are no TV services that cover the entire Solomon Islands but are available in six main centres in four of the nine Provinces Satellite TV stations can be received In Honiara there is a free to air HD digital analogue TV and online service called Telekom Television Limited operated by Solomon Telekom Co Ltd and rebroadcast a number of regional and international TV services including ABC Australia and BBC World News Residents can also subscribe to SATSOL a digital pay TV service re transmitting satellite television Music Edit Further information Music of Solomon Islands A pan flute nineteenth century MHNT Traditional Melanesian music in Solomon Islands includes both group and solo vocals slit drum and panpipe ensembles Bamboo music gained a following in the 1920s In the 1950s Edwin Nanau Sitori composed the song Walkabout long Chinatown which has been referred to by the government as the unofficial national song of the Solomon Islands 163 Modern Solomon Islander popular music includes various kinds of rock and reggae as well as island music Sport Edit Main article Sport in Solomon Islands Rugby union The Solomon Islands national rugby union team has played internationals since 1969 It took part in the Oceania qualifying tournament for the 2003 and 2007 Rugby World Cups but did not qualify on either occasion Association football The Solomon Islands national football team has proved among the most successful in Oceania and is part of the OFC confederation in FIFA They are currently ranked 141st out of 210 teams in the FIFA World Rankings The team became the first team to beat New Zealand in qualifying for a play off spot against Australia for qualification to the World Cup 2006 They were defeated 7 0 in Australia and 2 1 at home Futsal Closely related to Association Football On 14 June 2008 the Solomon Islands national futsal team the Kurukuru won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji to qualify them for the 2008 FIFA Futsal World Cup which was held in Brazil from 30 September to 19 October 2008 Solomon Islands is the futsal defending champions in the Oceania region In 2008 and 2009 the Kurukuru won the Oceania Futsal Championship in Fiji In 2009 they defeated the host nation Fiji 8 0 to claim the title The Kurukuru currently hold the world record for the fastest ever goal scored in an official futsal match It was set by Kurukuru captain Elliot Ragomo who scored against New Caledonia three seconds into the game in July 2009 164 They also however hold the less enviable record for the worst defeat in the history of the Futsal World Cup clarification needed when in 2008 they were beaten by Russia with two goals to thirty one 165 Beach soccer The Solomon Islands national beach soccer team the Bilikiki Boys are statistically the most successful team in Oceania They have won all three regional championships to date thereby qualifying on each occasion for the FIFA Beach Soccer World Cup The Bilikiki Boys are ranked fourteenth in the world as of 2010 update higher than any other team from Oceania 166 See also Edit Oceania portal Outline of Solomon IslandsReferences Edit National Parliament of Solomon Islands Daily Hansard First Meeting Eighth Session Tuesday 9th May 2006 PDF www parliament gov sb 2006 p 12 Retrieved 3 January 2019 Religions in Solomon Islands PEW GRF a b c World Population prospects Population division population un org United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 a b c Overall total population World Population Prospects The 2019 Revision xslx population un org custom data acquired via website United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 a b c d Solomon Islands International Monetary Fund Retrieved 12 April 2019 Gini Index coefficient CIA World Factbook Retrieved 16 July 2021 Human Development Report 2020 The Next Frontier Human Development and the Anthropocene PDF United Nations Development Programme 15 December 2020 pp 343 346 ISBN 978 92 1 126442 5 Retrieved 16 December 2020 Solomon Islands Encyclopedia Britannica Retrieved 12 January 2021 Definition of Solomon Islands Dictionary com 20 June 2019 Retrieved 12 January 2021 Population total Solomon Islands Data data worldbank org Retrieved 1 May 2020 a b Alvaro de Mendana de Neira 1542 1595 Princeton University Library Retrieved 8 February 2013 a b c d e Lawrence David Russell October 2014 Chapter 6 The British Solomon Islands Protectorate Colonialism without capital PDF The Naturalist and his Beautiful Islands Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific ANU Press ISBN 9781925022032 Commonwealth and Colonial Law by Kenneth Roberts Wray London Stevens 1966 P 897 Lord GORONWY ROBERTS speaking in the House of Lords HL Deb 27 April 1978 vol 390 cc2003 19 Retrieved 19 November 2014 HOGBIN H In Experiments in Civilization The Effects of European Culture on a Native Community of the Solomon Islands New York Schocken Books 1970 International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law Instalment 37 edited by K Zweigert S 65 The British Solomon Islands Protectorate Name of Territory Order 1975 John Prados Islands of Destiny Dutton Caliber 2012 p 20 and passim a b c d e f g Walter Richard Sheppard Peter February 2009 A review of Solomon Island archaeology Research Gate Retrieved 31 August 2020 Sheppard Peter J Lapita Colonization Across the Near Remote Boundary Current Anthropology Vol 53 No 6 Dec 2011 p 800 a b c d e f Exploration Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 1 September 2020 Kirch Patrick Vinton 2002 On the Road of the Winds An Archaeological History of the Pacific Islands Berkeley California University of California Press ISBN 0 520 23461 8 Walter Richard Sheppard Peter 2001 A Revised Model of Solomon Islands Culture History Journal of Field Archaeology 27 295 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 580 3329 Ancient Solomon Islands mtDNA assessing Holocene settlement and the impact of European contact PDF Genomicus Journal of Archaeological Science Ples Blong Iumi Solomon Islands the Past Four Thousand Years Hugh Laracy ed University of the South Pacific 1989 ISBN 982 02 0027 X Peter J Shepherd Richard Walter Takuya Nagaoka The Archaeology of Head Hunting in Roviana Lagoon New Georgia The Journal of the Polynesian Society a b c d e f g h Alvaro de Mendana de Neira 1542 1595 Princeton University Library Retrieved 8 February 2013 Sharp Andrew The discovery of the Pacific Islands Clarendon Press Oxford 1960 p 45 a b c d e f g h i j k l m Lawrence David Russell 2014 3 Commerce trade and labour The Naturalist and His beautiful Islands Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific ANU Press pp 35 62 ISBN 9781925022032 JSTOR j ctt13wwvg4 8 Kelly Celsus O F M La Austrialia del Espiritu Santo The Journal of Fray Martin de Munilla O F M and other documents relating to the Voyage of Pedro Fernandez de Quiros to the South Sea 1605 1606 and 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Boyd Benjamin 1801 1851 Australian Dictionary of Biography Melbourne University Press ISSN 1833 7538 Retrieved 7 April 2019 via National Centre of Biography Australian National University a b c d e f g h i Issue on the Solomon Islands PDF UN Department of Political Affairs Retrieved 3 September 2020 Corris Peter Melvin Joseph Dalgarno 1852 1909 Australian Dictionary of Biography Australian National University Retrieved 11 January 2018 London Jack 1911 The Cruise of the Snark The Macmillan company Retrieved 16 January 2008 Religion Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 1 September 2020 German New Guinea Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 2 September 2020 a b Sack Peter 2005 German Colonial Rule in the Northern Solomons In Regan Anthony Griffin Helga Maria eds Bougainville Before the Conflict Stranger Journalism pp 77 107 ISBN 9781921934230 JSTOR j ctt1bgzbgg 14 a b c British Solomon Islands Protectorate Proclamation of Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 2 September 2020 Lawrence David Russell October 2014 Chapter 7 Expansion of the Protectorate 1898 1900 PDF The Naturalist and his Beautiful Islands Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific ANU Press pp 198 206 ISBN 9781925022032 a b Lawrence David Russell October 2014 Chapter 9 The plantation economy PDF The Naturalist and his Beautiful Islands Charles Morris Woodford in the Western Pacific ANU Press pp 245 249 ISBN 9781925022032 Forestry Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 2 September 2020 Mining Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 2 September 2020 Bell William Robert 1876 1927 Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893 1978 Retrieved 24 March 2014 a b c The Solomon Islands Campaign Guadalcanal National World War II Museum Retrieved 3 September 2020 a b c Solomon Islanders in World War II Australian National University Operation Watchtower Assault on the Solomons War in the Pacific The First Year U S National Park Service 2004 Pacific Memories Island Encounters of World War II Retrieved 12 June 2007 Solomon Islands Pijin History Archived from the original on 13 May 2007 Retrieved 12 June 2007 a b c d Solomon Islanders in World War II 4 Impacts of the War Australian National University a b c d e Maasina Rule Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 3 September 2020 The Commonwealth Solomon Islands History https thecommonwealth org our member countries solomon islands history Stanley Robert Christopher Stafford Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893 1978 c Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893 1978 2013 Retrieved 31 August 2015 Thompson Roger 1995 Conflict or co operation Britain and Australia in the South Pacific 1950 60 The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 23 2 301 316 doi 10 1080 03086539508582954 Goldsworthy David 1995 British Territories and Australian Mini Imperialism in the 1950s Australian Journal of Politics and History 41 3 356 372 doi 10 1111 j 1467 8497 1995 tb01266 x Self rule starting in Solomon Islands Virgin Islands Daily News 29 November 1960 Retrieved 31 August 2015 Busy end of year for Islands legislature Pacific Islands Monthly January 1967 p7 Islanders feel their way in the new Solomons council Pacific Islands Monthly September 1970 p19 a b c Independence Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 3 September 2020 Kenilorea Peter Kau ona Keninaraiso ona 1943 Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 4 September 2020 a b c d e Mamaloni Solomon Suna one 1943 Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 4 September 2020 Eight ministers out in Solomons poll Pacific Islands Monthly December 1984 p7 Kenilorea is Solomons P M Pacific Islands Monthly January 1985 p7 Melanesian Spearhead Group Secretariat Retrieved 19 July 2015 a b May RJ The Situation on Bougainville Implications for Papua New Guinea Australia and the Region Parliament of Australia Retrieved 4 September 2020 a b c d e f g h Kabutaulaka Tarcisius Tara A Weak State and the Solomon Islands Peace Process PDF University of Hawaii Retrieved 5 September 2020 Ulufa alu Bartholomew 1939 2007 Solomon Encyclopedia Retrieved 4 September 2020 a b c d e f g h i The Tensions RAMSI Retrieved 5 September 2020 a b c d e f g h i j O Malley Nick As RAMSI ends Solomon Islanders look to the future Sydney Morning Herald Retrieved 6 September 2020 Moore C 2004 appy Isles in Crisis the historical causes for a failing state in Solomon Islands 1998 2004 Canberra Asia Pacific Press p 174 THE TOWNSVILLE PEACE AGREEMENT Commerce gov sb 15 October 2000 Archived from the original on 10 February 2011 Retrieved 9 December 2016 Solomons warlord surrenders BBC News 13 August 2003 Retrieved 7 July 2007 Pacific Islands PINA and Pacific 10 November 2003 Archived from the original on 10 November 2003 Pillars and Shadows Statebuilding as Peacebuilding in Solomon Islands J Braithwaite S Dinnen M Allen V Braithwaite amp H Charlesworth Canberra ANU E Press 2010 Cap Anu Rspas anu edu au 14 December 2012 Retrieved 3 May 2014 a b Spiller Penny Riots highlight Chinese tensions BBC News Friday 21 April 2006 18 57 GMT Rini resigns as Solomons PM The New Zealand Herald Reuters Newstalk ZB 26 April 2006 Retrieved 12 November 2011 Embattled Solomons PM steps down BBC News 26 April 2006 Retrieved 12 November 2011 Tom Allard Solomon Islands Prime Minister ousted The Sydney Morning Herald 14 December 2007 PM Sikua Announces TRC Team Solomon Times 27 April 2009 Retrieved 29 April 2009 Solomons Commission claims broad support Radio New Zealand International 30 April 2009 Retrieved 30 April 2009 Solomons Islands get new PM weeks after election BBC August 25 2010 Osifelo Eddie 24 November 2011 Former PM now a backbencher Solomon Star Archived from the original on 10 April 2012 Retrieved 4 December 2011 Ex PM wins Solomons run off sparking riots Japan Times Retrieved 25 July 2019 Pacific News Minute Protests Riots Follow Election Of New Prime Minister In Solomon Islands Hawai i Public Radio Retrieved 25 July 2019 https www rnz co nz international pacific news 399722 sacked solomons minister says pm lied china switch pre determined Lyons Kate China extends influence in Pacific as Solomon Islands break with Taiwan The Guardian Retrieved 17 September 2019 Honiara Georgina Kekea in 24 November 2021 Parliament building and police station burned down during protests in Solomon Islands the Guardian Retrieved 25 November 2021 CIA The World Factbook Solomon Islands Retrieved 19 November 2014 Sireheti Joanna amp Joy Basi Solomon Islands PM Defeated in No Confidence Motion Solomon Times 13 December 2007 Tuhaika Nina New Prime Minister for Solomon Islands Solomon Times 20 December 2007 Solomon Islands parliament elects new PM ABC Radio Australia 20 December 2007 Boyce Hayden 20 September 2014 Turks amp Caicos Islands Chief Justice Edwin Goldsbrough Resigns Turks amp Caicos Sun Retrieved 15 November 2013 Lyons Kate 16 September 2019 China extends influence in Pacific as Solomon Islands break with Taiwan theguardian com Retrieved 17 September 2019 Basic Agreement between the Government of Solomon Islands and the Government of Papua New Guinea on Border Arrangements UNEP Law and Environment Assistance Platform leap unep org 27 July 2004 Retrieved 25 November 2021 Freedom of the press in Indonesian occupied West Papua The Guardian 22 July 2019 Fox Liam 2 March 2017 Pacific nations call for UN investigations into alleged Indonesian rights abuses in West Papua ABC News a b Pacific nations want UN to investigate Indonesia on West Papua SBS News 7 March 2017 Indonesia Calls out Vanuatu over Papua remarks at UNGA The Jakarta Post 29 September 2020 Goodbye Indonesia Al Jazeera 31 January 2013 Fiery debate over West Papua at UN General Assembly Radio New Zealand 2017 27 September 2017 Retrieved 7 October 2017 Homosexuality to remain illegal in Samoa Solomon Islands and PNG Radio Australia 21 October 2011 Dinerstein Eric et al 2017 An Ecoregion Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm BioScience 67 6 534 545 doi 10 1093 biosci bix014 ISSN 0006 3568 PMC 5451287 PMID 28608869 Grantham H S et al 2020 Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40 of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity Supplementary Material Nature Communications 11 1 5978 doi 10 1038 s41467 020 19493 3 ISSN 2041 1723 PMC 7723057 PMID 33293507 Fox Liam 2 December 2020 Villagers fight to preserve a rare piece of untouched forest in Solomon Islands ABC News ABC Australian Broadcasting Corporation Retrieved 24 December 2020 Turak E with Green A P Lokani W Atu P Ramohia P Thomas and J Almany eds 2006 Solomon Islands Marine Assessment Technical report of survey conducted May 13 to June 17 2004 TNC Pacific Island Countries Report No 1 06 PDF Report DC World Resources Institute pp 65 109 Retrieved 31 March 2021 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Doubilet David 2007 Ultra Marine In far eastern Indonesia the Raja Ampat islands embrace a phenomenal coral wilderness National Geographic September 2007 Originally retrieved from http ngm nationalgeographic com 2007 09 indonesia doubilet text Archived on 2008 04 09 at https web archive org web 20080409084522 http ngm nationalgeographic com 2007 09 indonesia doubilet text a b c Sectors Commonwealth of Nations Retrieved 4 December 2018 a b c d Solomon Island Communities Build Potable Water Systems to Improve Livelihoods Solomon Islands ReliefWeb Retrieved 4 December 2018 JMP washdata org Retrieved 18 October 2018 Projects Solomon Islands Rural Development Program II The World Bank www projects worldbank org Retrieved 4 December 2018 Solomon Islands earthquake and tsunami Breaking Legal News International 4 March 2007 Aid reaches tsunami hit Solomons BBC News 3 April 2007 Quake lifts Solomons island metres from the sea Archived from the original on 17 April 2007 Forest area of land area for all countries www factfish com quantity Coconuts production quantity tons for all countries Check url value help www factfish com quantity Solomon Islands Cocoa beans production quantity tons Check url value help www factfish com palm 20 fruit 2C 20production 20 quantity Solomon Islands Oil palm fruit production quantity tons Check url value help www factfish com quantity Solomon Islands Taro production quantity tons Check url value help www factfish com quantity Solomon Islands Rice paddy production quantity tons Check url value help www factfish com Solomon Islands Yams production quantity tons www factfish com Solomon Islands Bananas production quantity tons www factfish com Solomon Islands Tobacco production quantity tons www factfish com Spices others production quantity tons for all countries www factfish com Keine Lust auf Massentourismus Studie Die Lander mit den wenigsten Urlaubern der Welt TRAVELBOOK in German 10 September 2018 Paradise Volume 4 July August 2019 p 128 Port Moresby 2019 Currency as Cultural Craft Shell Money The Official Globe Trekker Website The Official Globe Trekker Website Retrieved 28 September 2017 Solomon Islands Solar A New Microfinance Concept Takes Root Renewable Energy World Retrieved 24 September 2010 Samisoni Pareti Solomons issue 80 S 10 Honiara 2019 Sudsee p 41 Nelles Verlag Munchen 2011 CIA World Factbook Country profile Solomon Islands Retrieved 21 October 2006 Ethnologue report for Solomon Islands Ethnologue com Retrieved 24 September 2010 International Religious Freedom Report 2007 State gov 14 September 2007 Retrieved 18 June 2012 Ahmadiyya Solomon Islands Ahmadiyya org au Archived from the original on 22 March 2012 Retrieved 7 July 2011 a b c d Human Development Report 2009 Solomon Islands Archived 15 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine Hdrstats undp org Retrieved 24 September 2010 Loury Ellen 7 May 2012 Blond Afro Gene Study Suggests Hair Color Trait Evolved at Least Twice Huffington Post Retrieved 3 December 2014 Kenny EE et al 4 May 2012 Melanesian Blond Hair is Caused by an Amino Acid Change in TYRP1 Science 336 6081 554 Bibcode 2012Sci 336 554K doi 10 1126 science 1217849 PMC 3481182 PMID 22556244 Norton HL et al June 2006 Skin and Hair Pigmentation Variation in Island Melanesia American Journal of Physical Anthropology 130 2 254 268 doi 10 1002 ajpa 20343 PMID 16374866 Loury Erin 3 May 2012 The Origin of Blond Afro in Melanesia AAAS Retrieved 4 December 2014 a b Communicable diseases in Solomon Islands Retrieved 29 September 2020 a b GBD Compare IHME Viz Hub vizhub healthdata org Retrieved 29 September 2020 Health and non communicable disease PDF World Health Organization NCD country profiles 2018 PDF a b Solomon Islands Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform sustainabledevelopment un org Retrieved 30 September 2020 a b c d e f Solomon Islands Archived 30 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine 2001 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor Bureau of International Labor Affairs United States Department of Labor 2002 This article incorporates text from this source which is in the public domain a b Solomon Islands Population Characteristics PDF Spc int Retrieved 7 July 2011 Home University of the South Pacific 9 November 2005 Archived from the original on 9 November 2005 The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Retrieved 2 March 2018 Solomon Islands country profile BBC News 31 July 2017 Retrieved 28 September 2017 Pei yi Guo 1 January 2006 Making Money Objects Productions and Performances of Shell Money Manufacture in Langalanga Solomon Island The Frontiers of Southeast Asia and Pacific Studies Retrieved 15 April 2021 Sulu Reuben amp C Hay amp Ramohia P amp Lam M 2003 The status of Solomon Islands coral reefs Report Centre IRD de Noumea Retrieved 31 March 2021 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Kile N 2000 Solomon Islands marine resources overview PDF Pacific Economic Bulletin 15 1 1 61 doi 10 5479 si 00775630 589 1 a b Ming Mikaela A Stewart Molly G Tiller Rose E Rice Rebecca G Crowley Louise E Williams Nicola J 2016 Domestic violence in the Solomon Islands Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care 5 1 16 19 doi 10 4103 2249 4863 184617 ISSN 2249 4863 PMC 4943125 PMID 27453837 WHO 2011 report on gender based violence report in the Solomon Islands PDF WHO Solomon Islands GBV report 2013 PDF Solomon Islands launches new domestic violence law Radio New Zealand 8 April 2016 Retrieved 28 September 2017 Solomon Islands country profile BBC News Retrieved 9 December 2016 Wakabauti long Chinatown The song the composers the storyline Archived 18 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine Office of the Prime Minister of Solomon Islands RAGOMO BEATS WORLD RECORD to score the fastest futsal goal Solomon Star 15 July 2009 Russia Beats Kurukuru 31 2 Solomon Times 7 October 2008 Bilikiki ranked fourteenth in the world Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Solomon Star 29 January 2010External links EditSolomon Islandsat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Department of Prime Minister and Cabinet Solomon Islands The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Moore Clive Solomon Islands Historical Encyclopaedia 1893 1978 Latest Earthquakes United States Geological Survey Solomon Islands Act 1978 25th May 1978 to make provision for and in connection with the attainment by Solomon Islands of independence within the Commonwealth Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Solomon Islands amp oldid 1057223051, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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