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Solomon in Islam

This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them. Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources, with multiple points of view.(December 2012) ()

Sulaimān ibn Dāwūd (Arabic:سُلَيْمَان بْن دَاوُوْد‎, Solomon son of David) was, according to the Quran, a Malik (مَلِك, King) and Nabī (Prophet) of the Israelites. Islamic tradition generally holds that he was the third King of Jewish people, and wise ruler for the nation.

Prophet
Sulaimān (سُلَيْمَان)
Solomon
Sulaimān's name in Islamic calligraphy
Born
Died
Jerusalem, the Levant
Resting placeAl-Ḥaram Ash-Sharīf ("The Noble Sanctuary"), Jerusalem
Other namesShlomoh (Hebrew:שְׁלֹמֹה‎)
Shlemun (Syriac:ܫܠܝܡܘܢ‎)
Solomon (Greek:Σολομών)
Greek:Salomon
Known forBeing a Prophet and King of Israel
TitleKing of Israel
PredecessorDawud (David)
Parent(s)
  • Dawud (father)

Islam views Solomon as one of the elect of God, who was bestowed upon with many God-given gifts, including the ability to speak to animals and jinn. Muslims further maintain that he remained faithful to a one and only God throughout his life; and reigned justly over the whole of the Israelites; was blessed with a level of Kingship which was given to none after him and before him; and fulfilled all of his commandments, being promised nearness to God in Paradise at the end of his life. Arab historians regarded Solomon as one of the greatest rulers around the world.

Contents

Judgment on the field

In the earliest narrative involving Solomon, the Qur'an (21:78) briefly alludes to a story that Solomon was in the company of his father, when two men came to ask David to judge between them regarding a ḥarth (حَرْث, field). Later Muslim commentators expanded on the allusion, including Al-Tabari, Baidawi, and Ibn Kathir. They said that the first of the two men said that he owned a vineyard of which he took great care the whole year through. But one day, when he was absent, the other man's sheep had strayed into the vineyard and devoured the grapes. He asked to be compensated for this damage.: 62 Upon hearing the man's complaint, Solomon suggested that the owner of the sheep take the other man's vineyard to repair and cultivate until the vines returned to their former state, whereupon he should return it to its owner. At the same time, the owner of the vineyard would care for the sheep and benefit from their wool and milk until his land was returned to him, at which point he would return the sheep to their owner. Solomon's level of judgment, which the Quran says, would characterize Solomon throughout his life. Ḥikmah (Wisdom), according to Muslim tradition, would always be associated with Solomon, who would later even be referred to as Sulaimān al-Ḥakīm (سُلَيْمَان ٱلْحَكِيْم, "Solomon the Wise"). This story is adapted in the Kebra Nagast, but as a dispute adjudicated by a son of Solomon's.

Reign

The Queen of Sheba

When David died, Solomon inherited his position as the Prophetic King of the Israelites. He prayed to God to grant him a Kingdom which would be unlike any after him. God accepted Solomon's prayer and gave him what he pleased. It was at this stage that Solomon began to acquire the many gifts that God would bestow upon him throughout his life. The Qur'an narrates that the wind was made subservient to Solomon, and he could control it at his own will, and that the jinn also came under Solomon's control. The jinn helped strengthen Solomon's reign, and the unbelievers among them, along with the Shaitan (Devil), were forced building for him monuments. God also caused a miraculous ʿayn (عَيْن, 'fount' or 'spring') of molten qiṭr (قِطْر, 'brass' or 'copper') to flow for Solomon, to be used by the jinn in their construction.

Solomon was even taught the languages of various animals, such as ants. The Quran recounts that, one day, Solomon and his army entered a wādin-naml (وَادِ ٱلْنَّمْل, valley of the ant). On seeing Solomon and his army, a namlah (نَمْلَة, female ant) warned all the others to "... get into your habitations, lest Solomon and his hosts crush you (under foot) without knowing it." Immediately understanding what the ant said, Solomon, as always, prayed to God, thanking Him for bestowing upon him such gifts and further avoided trampling over the ant colonies.: 63 Solomon's wisdom, however, was yet another of the gifts he received from God, and Muslims maintain that Solomon never forgot his daily prayer, which was more important to him than any of his gifts.

Conquest of Saba'

Ruins of the Barran Temple at Ma'rib, the former capital of Saba' in what is now Yemen

Another important aspect of Solomon's kingship was the size of his army, which consisted of both men and jinn. Solomon would frequently assess his troops and warriors as well as the jinn and all the animals who worked under him. One day, when inspecting his troops, Solomon found the Hud-hud (هُدْهُد, Hoopoe) missing from the assembly. Shortly later, however, the Hud-hud arrived to Solomon's court, saying "I have compassed (territory) which thou hast not compassed, and I have come to thee from Saba' with tidings true." The Hud-hud further told Solomon that the people of Sheba worshiped the Sun, but that the woman who ruled the Kingdom was highly intelligent and powerful. Solomon, who listened closely, chose to write a letter to the land of Sheba, through which he would try to convince the people of Sheba to cease in worshiping the Sun, and to come to the worship of God. Solomon ordered the Hud-hud to give the letter to the Queen of Sheba, and then to hide and observe her reaction.: 64 The Hud-hud accepted Solomon's orders, and flew to give the letter to her. The Queen then called her ministers in the court and announced the letter of Solomon stating to the people of Sheba: "In the name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful, Be you not exalted against me, but come to me as Muslimīn (مُسْلِمِيْن)." She asked for suggestions from her minister and administration stating that "O my people, I know that you all are powerful and brave warriors, and no one on the face of the Earth can defeat our army, but still I want your opinion." The people of the court replied: "You have all the power, and whatever order you deliver, you will find us obedient." Eventually, however, the Queen came to Solomon, announcing her submission to God.

Death

Mausoleum of Sulaiman in the compound of Al-Aqsa Mosque, Old City of Jerusalem

The Qur'an relates that Solomon died while he was leaning on his staff. As he remained upright, propped on his staff, the jinn thought he was still alive and supervising them, so they continued to work. They realized the truth only when Allah sent a creature to crawl out of the ground and gnaw at Solomon's staff, until his body collapsed. The Qurʾan then comments that if they had known the unseen, they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment of being enslaved. According to the Qur'an, the death of Solomon was a lesson to be learned:

Then, when We decreed (Solomon's) death, nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth, which kept (slowly) gnawing away at his staff: so when he fell down, the Jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen, they would not have tarried in the humiliating Penalty (of their Task).

Qurʾan, Surah 34 (Sabaʾ), Ayah 14
Further information: Muhammad in the Bible and Semitic root

As inspired by verses of the Qur'an, some Muslims[which?] believed that Muhammad (Arabic:مُحَمَّد‎, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d) is mentioned in the Song of Songs (5:16) as 'Mahammaddim' (Hebrew:מַחֲמַדִּים‎, consonant letters: m-ħ-m-d-y-m), even though the latter word is translated as "desirable" or "lovely" by Jews.

General view of Persepolis, Iran (2) (cropped)

According to the Shāhnāma of the poet Firdausī, Jamshid was the fourth king of the world. He had command over all the angels and demons of the world, and was both king and high priest of Hormozd (middle Persian for Ahura Mazda). He was responsible for a great many inventions that made life more secure for his people: the manufacture of armor and weapons, the weaving and dyeing of clothes of linen, silk and wool, the building of houses of brick, the mining of jewels and precious metals, the making of perfumes and wine, the art of medicine, the navigation of the waters of the world in sailing ships. He Jamshid had now become the greatest monarch the world had ever known. He was endowed with the royal farr (Avestan: khvarena), a radiant splendor that burned about him by divine favor. Due to similarities said about Solomon, they have been conflated in later Islamic traditions. For example Solomon was associated with ruling over the southwestern Iran in the works of al-Balkhi. Persepolis was believed the be the seat of Solomon and described as "playground of Solomon" by scholars such as Mas'udi, Muqaddasi and Istakhri.

  1. Glasse, Cyril (1988). Concise Encyclopedia of Islam. p. 374.
  2. Quran 38:40
  3. Walker, J. and Fenton, P. (2012). "Sulaymān b. Dāwūd". In P. Bearman; Th. Bianquis; C.E. Bosworth; E. van Donzel; W.P. Heinrichs (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.). Brill. doi:10.1163/1573-3912_islam_SIM_7158.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  4. Quran 21:78
  5. Helewa, Sami (2017-11-01). Models of Leadership in the Adab Narratives of Joseph, David, and Solomon: Lament for the Sacred. Lexington Books. ISBN 978-1-4985-5267-7.
  6. Hubbard, David Allan (1956). The literary sources of the Kebra Nagast (Thesis thesis). University of St Andrews. hdl:10023/544.
  7. Wheeler, Brannon (2002-06-01). Prophets in the Quran: An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis. A&C Black. ISBN 978-1-4411-0405-2.
  8. Azzam, L. "David and Solomon". Lives of the Prophets. Suhail Academy. pp. 62–64.
  9. Quran 21:79
  10. Quran 38:35
  11. Quran 34:12
  12. Lebling, Robert (2010). Legends of the Fire Spirits: Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar. I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-0-857-73063-3.
  13. Quran 34:13
  14. Quran 27:18
  15. Quran 27:19
  16. Deen, Mawil Y. Izzi (1990). "Islamic Environmental Ethics, Law, and Society"(PDF). In Engel JR; JG Engel (eds.). Ethics of Environment and Development. Bellhaven Press, London. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2011-07-14.
  17. "Qur'an, 27: 15 – 19".
  18. Quran 27:22
  19. "Qur'an, 27: 15 – 44".
  20. Quran 34:14
  21. Richard S. Hess; Gordon J. Wenham (1998). "Teaching the Old Testament in the Context of Islam". Make the Old Testament Live: From Curriculum to Classroom. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-8028-4427-9. Retrieved4 April 2013.
  22. Eva Orthmann, Anna Kollatz The Ceremonial of Audience: Transcultural Approaches Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 11.11.2019 isbn 978-3-847-00887-3 p. 155
  23. M. Cook, N. Haider, I. Rabb, A. Sayeed Law and Tradition in Classical Islamic Thought: Studies in Honor of Professor Hossein Modarressi Springer, 06.01.2013 isbn 978-1-137-07895-7 p. 256

Solomon in Islam
Solomon in Islam Language Watch Edit This article uncritically uses texts from within a religion or faith system without referring to secondary sources that critically analyze them Please help improve this article by adding references to reliable secondary sources with multiple points of view December 2012 Learn how and when to remove this template message Sulaiman ibn Dawud Arabic س ل ي م ان ب ن د او و د Solomon son of David was according to the Quran a Malik م ل ك King and Nabi Prophet of the Israelites Islamic tradition generally holds that he was the third King of Jewish people and wise ruler for the nation 1 Prophet Sulaiman س ل ي م ان SolomonSulaiman s name in Islamic calligraphyBornJerusalem ShaamDiedJerusalem the LevantResting placeAl Ḥaram Ash Sharif The Noble Sanctuary JerusalemOther namesShlomoh Hebrew ש ל מ ה Shlemun Syriac ܫܠܝܡܘܢ Solomon Greek Solomwn Greek SalomonKnown forBeing a Prophet and King of IsraelTitleKing of IsraelPredecessorDawud David Parent s Dawud father Islam views Solomon as one of the elect of God who was bestowed upon with many God given gifts including the ability to speak to animals and jinn Muslims further maintain that he remained faithful to a one and only God throughout his life and reigned justly over the whole of the Israelites was blessed with a level of Kingship which was given to none after him and before him and fulfilled all of his commandments being promised nearness to God in Paradise at the end of his life 2 Arab historians regarded Solomon as one of the greatest rulers around the world 3 Contents 1 Narrative in the Quran 1 1 Judgment on the field 1 2 Reign 1 2 1 Conquest of Saba 1 3 Death 2 Mahammaddim in the Song of Solomon 3 Solomon and Jamshid 4 See also 5 References to Solomon in the Quran 6 ReferencesNarrative in the Quran EditJudgment on the field Edit In the earliest narrative involving Solomon the Qur an 21 78 briefly alludes to a story that Solomon was in the company of his father when two men came to ask David to judge between them regarding a ḥarth ح ر ث field 4 Later Muslim commentators expanded on the allusion including Al Tabari Baidawi and Ibn Kathir 5 6 7 They said that the first of the two men said that he owned a vineyard of which he took great care the whole year through But one day when he was absent the other man s sheep had strayed into the vineyard and devoured the grapes He asked to be compensated for this damage 8 62 Upon hearing the man s complaint Solomon suggested that the owner of the sheep take the other man s vineyard to repair and cultivate until the vines returned to their former state whereupon he should return it to its owner At the same time the owner of the vineyard would care for the sheep and benefit from their wool and milk until his land was returned to him at which point he would return the sheep to their owner Solomon s level of judgment which the Quran says 9 would characterize Solomon throughout his life Ḥikmah Wisdom according to Muslim tradition would always be associated with Solomon who would later even be referred to as Sulaiman al Ḥakim س ل ي م ان ٱل ح ك ي م Solomon the Wise This story is adapted in the Kebra Nagast but as a dispute adjudicated by a son of Solomon s 6 Reign Edit The Queen of Sheba When David died Solomon inherited his position as the Prophetic King of the Israelites He prayed to God to grant him a Kingdom which would be unlike any after him 10 God accepted Solomon s prayer and gave him what he pleased It was at this stage that Solomon began to acquire the many gifts that God would bestow upon him throughout his life The Qur an narrates that the wind was made subservient to Solomon 11 and he could control it at his own will and that the jinn also came under Solomon s control The jinn helped strengthen Solomon s reign and the unbelievers among them along with the Shaitan Devil 12 were forced building for him monuments 13 God also caused a miraculous ʿayn ع ي ن fount or spring of molten qiṭr ق ط ر brass or copper to flow for Solomon to be used by the jinn in their construction 11 Solomon was even taught the languages of various animals such as ants The Quran recounts that one day Solomon and his army entered a wadin naml و اد ٱل ن م ل valley of the ant On seeing Solomon and his army a namlah ن م ل ة female ant warned all the others to get into your habitations lest Solomon and his hosts crush you under foot without knowing it 14 Immediately understanding what the ant said Solomon as always prayed to God thanking Him for bestowing upon him such gifts 15 and further avoided trampling over the ant colonies 8 63 16 Solomon s wisdom however was yet another of the gifts he received from God and Muslims maintain that Solomon never forgot his daily prayer which was more important to him than any of his gifts Conquest of Saba Edit Ruins of the Barran Temple at Ma rib the former capital of Saba in what is now Yemen Another important aspect of Solomon s kingship was the size of his army which consisted of both men and jinn Solomon would frequently assess his troops and warriors as well as the jinn and all the animals who worked under him One day when inspecting his troops Solomon found the Hud hud ه د ه د Hoopoe missing from the assembly 17 Shortly later however the Hud hud arrived to Solomon s court saying I have compassed territory which thou hast not compassed and I have come to thee from Saba with tidings true 18 The Hud hud further told Solomon that the people of Sheba worshiped the Sun but that the woman who ruled the Kingdom was highly intelligent and powerful Solomon who listened closely chose to write a letter to the land of Sheba through which he would try to convince the people of Sheba to cease in worshiping the Sun and to come to the worship of God Solomon ordered the Hud hud to give the letter to the Queen of Sheba and then to hide and observe her reaction 8 64 The Hud hud accepted Solomon s orders and flew to give the letter to her The Queen then called her ministers in the court and announced the letter of Solomon stating to the people of Sheba In the name of Allah the Compassionate the Merciful Be you not exalted against me but come to me as Muslimin م س ل م ي ن She asked for suggestions from her minister and administration stating that O my people I know that you all are powerful and brave warriors and no one on the face of the Earth can defeat our army but still I want your opinion The people of the court replied You have all the power and whatever order you deliver you will find us obedient Eventually however the Queen came to Solomon announcing her submission to God 19 Death Edit Mausoleum of Sulaiman in the compound of Al Aqsa Mosque Old City of Jerusalem The Qur an relates that Solomon died while he was leaning on his staff As he remained upright propped on his staff the jinn thought he was still alive and supervising them so they continued to work They realized the truth only when Allah sent a creature to crawl out of the ground and gnaw at Solomon s staff until his body collapsed The Qurʾan then comments that if they had known the unseen they would not have stayed in the humiliating torment of being enslaved According to the Qur an the death of Solomon was a lesson to be learned Then when We decreed Solomon s death nothing showed them his death except a little worm of the earth which kept slowly gnawing away at his staff so when he fell down the Jinn saw plainly that if they had known the unseen they would not have tarried in the humiliating Penalty of their Task Qurʾan Surah 34 Sabaʾ Ayah 14 20 Mahammaddim in the Song of Solomon EditFurther information Muhammad in the Bible and Semitic root As inspired by verses of the Qur an some Muslims which believed that Muhammad Arabic م ح م د consonant letters m ħ m d is mentioned in the Song of Songs 5 16 as Mahammaddim Hebrew מ ח מ ד ים consonant letters m ħ m d y m even though the latter word is translated as desirable or lovely by Jews 21 Solomon and Jamshid Edit General view of Persepolis Iran 2 cropped According to the Shahnama of the poet Firdausi Jamshid was the fourth king of the world He had command over all the angels and demons of the world and was both king and high priest of Hormozd middle Persian for Ahura Mazda He was responsible for a great many inventions that made life more secure for his people the manufacture of armor and weapons the weaving and dyeing of clothes of linen silk and wool the building of houses of brick the mining of jewels and precious metals the making of perfumes and wine the art of medicine the navigation of the waters of the world in sailing ships He Jamshid had now become the greatest monarch the world had ever known He was endowed with the royal farr Avestan khvarena a radiant splendor that burned about him by divine favor Due to similarities said about Solomon they have been conflated in later Islamic traditions For example Solomon was associated with ruling over the southwestern Iran in the works of al Balkhi Persepolis was believed the be the seat of Solomon and described as playground of Solomon by scholars such as Mas udi Muqaddasi and Istakhri 22 23 See also EditBiblical narratives and the Quran Harut and Marut Legends and the Quran Qiṣaṣ al Anbiyaʾ Stories of the Prophets Queen of Sheba Sulayman Surat an Naml Chapter of the Ant The Kingdom of SolomonReferences to Solomon in the Quran EditAppraisals for Solomon 2 102 6 84 21 81 82 27 15 16 27 18 23 27 36 39 27 44 34 12 13 38 30 31 38 35 40 Solomon s preaching 4 163 27 25 27 31 27 44 Solomon judged 21 78 79 Fitnah to Solomon 38 32 34 Solomon and the Queen of Sheba 27 28 31 27 34 44 The Kingdom of Sheba 27 23 34 15 34 18 Solomon s death 34 14References Edit Glasse Cyril 1988 Concise Encyclopedia of Islam p 374 Quran 38 40 Walker J and Fenton P 2012 Sulayman b Dawud In P Bearman Th Bianquis C E Bosworth E van Donzel W P Heinrichs eds Encyclopaedia of Islam 2nd ed Brill doi 10 1163 1573 3912 islam SIM 7158 CS1 maint uses authors parameter link Quran 21 78 Helewa Sami 2017 11 01 Models of Leadership in the Adab Narratives of Joseph David and Solomon Lament for the Sacred Lexington Books ISBN 978 1 4985 5267 7 a b Hubbard David Allan 1956 The literary sources of the Kebra Nagast Thesis thesis University of St Andrews hdl 10023 544 Wheeler Brannon 2002 06 01 Prophets in the Quran An Introduction to the Quran and Muslim Exegesis A amp C Black ISBN 978 1 4411 0405 2 a b c Azzam L David and Solomon Lives of the Prophets Suhail Academy pp 62 64 Quran 21 79 Quran 38 35 a b Quran 34 12 Lebling Robert 2010 Legends of the Fire Spirits Jinn and Genies from Arabia to Zanzibar I B Tauris ISBN 978 0 857 73063 3 Quran 34 13 Quran 27 18 Quran 27 19 Deen Mawil Y Izzi 1990 Islamic Environmental Ethics Law and Society PDF In Engel JR JG Engel eds Ethics of Environment and Development Bellhaven Press London Archived from the original PDF on 2011 07 14 Qur an 27 15 19 Quran 27 22 Qur an 27 15 44 Quran 34 14 Richard S Hess Gordon J Wenham 1998 Teaching the Old Testament in the Context of Islam Make the Old Testament Live From Curriculum to Classroom Wm B Eerdmans Publishing pp 138 139 ISBN 978 0 8028 4427 9 Retrieved 4 April 2013 Eva Orthmann Anna Kollatz The Ceremonial of Audience Transcultural Approaches Vandenhoeck amp Ruprecht 11 11 2019 isbn 978 3 847 00887 3 p 155 M Cook N Haider I Rabb A Sayeed Law and Tradition in Classical Islamic Thought Studies in Honor of Professor Hossein Modarressi Springer 06 01 2013 isbn 978 1 137 07895 7 p 256 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Solomon in Islam amp oldid 1051927867, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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