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Solutional cave

A solutional cave, solution cave, or karst cave is a cave usually formed in the soluble rock limestone. It is the most frequently occurring type of cave. It can also form in other rocks, including chalk, dolomite, marble, salt beds, and gypsum.

Bedrock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding-planes, faults, joints and so on. Over geological epochs these openings expand as the walls are dissolved to become caves or cave systems.

The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded.

Limestone cave Kolbinger Höhle

The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone. Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation. These include flowstones, stalactites, stalagmites, helictites, soda straws, calcite rafts and columns. These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems.

Carbonic acid dissolution

Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 (carbonic acid) and naturally occurring organic acids. The dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst, characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage. Solutional caves in this landform—topography are often called karst caves.

Sulfuric acid dissolution

Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave. They were formed by H2S (hydrogen sulfide) gas rising from below, where reservoirs of petroleum give off sulfurous fumes. This gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4 (sulfuric acid). The acid then dissolves the limestone from below, rather than from above, by acidic water percolating from the surface.

Australia

Taiwan

United States

Vietnam

  1. https://www.nps.gov/subjects/caves/solution-caves.htm
  2. John Burcham. "Learning about caves; how caves are formed". Journey into amazing caves. Project Underground. RetrievedSeptember 8, 2009.
  3. German Wikipedia: Kolbinger Höhle

Solutional cave
Solutional cave Language Watch Edit A solutional cave solution cave or karst cave is a cave usually formed in the soluble rock limestone It is the most frequently occurring type of cave It can also form in other rocks including chalk dolomite marble salt beds and gypsum 1 Gypsum stalactites in a cave formed via sulfuric acid dissolution Lechuguilla Cave New Mexico Contents 1 Process 2 Limestone caves 2 1 Carbonic acid dissolution 2 2 Sulfuric acid dissolution 3 Examples 3 1 Australia 3 2 Taiwan 3 3 United States 3 4 Vietnam 4 References 5 External linksProcess EditBedrock is dissolved by natural acid in groundwater that seeps through bedding planes faults joints and so on Over geological epochs these openings expand as the walls are dissolved to become caves or cave systems The portions of a solutional cave that are below the water table or the local level of the groundwater will be flooded 2 Limestone caves Edit Limestone cave Kolbinger Hohle 3 The largest and most abundant solutional caves are located in limestone Limestone caves are often adorned with calcium carbonate formations produced through slow precipitation These include flowstones stalactites stalagmites helictites soda straws calcite rafts and columns These secondary mineral deposits in caves are called speleothems Carbonic acid dissolution Edit Limestone dissolves under the action of rainwater and groundwater charged with H2CO3 carbonic acid and naturally occurring organic acids The dissolution process produces a distinctive landform known as karst characterized by sinkholes and underground drainage Solutional caves in this landform topography are often called karst caves Sulfuric acid dissolution Edit Lechuguilla Cave in New Mexico and nearby Carlsbad Cavern are now believed to be examples of another type of solutional cave They were formed by H2S hydrogen sulfide gas rising from below where reservoirs of petroleum give off sulfurous fumes This gas mixes with ground water and forms H2SO4 sulfuric acid The acid then dissolves the limestone from below rather than from above by acidic water percolating from the surface Examples EditAustralia Edit Jenolan Caves New South WalesTaiwan Edit Black Dwarf Cave Pingtung CountyUnited States Edit Jewel Cave National Monument South Dakota Mammoth Cave National Park Kentucky Russell Cave National Monument Alabama Wind Cave National Park South DakotaVietnam Edit Hang Sơn Đoong Quảng Binh ProvinceReferences Edit https www nps gov subjects caves solution caves htm John Burcham Learning about caves how caves are formed Journey into amazing caves Project Underground Retrieved September 8 2009 German Wikipedia Kolbinger Hohle Gunn John 2004 Encyclopedia of Caves and Karst Science 2nd ed Routledge pp 417 1421 Young Rob Norby Lisa 2009 Geological Monitoring Geological Society of America p 27 Goudie Andrew Panizza Mario 2014 Encyclopedia of Geomorphology Routledge p 124 External links Edit Media related to Karst caves at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Solutional cave amp oldid 1036583374, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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