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Solutrean

It is unclear whether radiocarbon dates in this article are calibrated or not. Please help improve this article by clarifying whether the given dates are calibrated (BC/BCE or cal BP) or uncalibrated (uncal BP or bp).(August 2018) ()

The Solutrean industry is a relatively advanced flint tool-making style of the Upper Paleolithic of the Final Gravettian, from around 22,000 to 17,000 BP. Solutrean sites have been found in modern-day France, Spain and Portugal.

Solutrean
Geographical rangeWestern Europe
PeriodUpper Paleolithic
Datesc. 22,000 – c. 17,000 BP
Type siteParc archéologique et botanique de Solutré
Preceded byGravettian
Followed byMagdalenian in France, and Iberia; in the latter after a transition through the Badegoulien [fr]
Map of Europe showing important sites of the Solutrean (clickable map).

Contents

The term Solutrean comes from the type-site of "Cros du Charnier", dating to around 21,000 years ago and located at Solutré, in east-central France near Mâcon. The Rock of Solutré site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot-Ferry. It is now preserved as the Parc archéologique et botanique de Solutré.

The industry was named by Gabriel de Mortillet to describe the second stage of his system of cave chronology, following the Mousterian, and he considered it synchronous with the third division of the Quaternary period. The era's finds include tools, ornamental beads, and bone pins as well as prehistoric art.

Solutrean tool-making employed techniques not seen before and not rediscovered for millennia. The Solutrean has relatively finely worked, bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and pressure flaking rather than flintknapping. Knapping was done using antler batons, hardwood batons and soft stone hammers. This method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads. Large thin spearheads; scrapers with edge not on the side but on the end; flint knives and saws, but all still chipped, not ground or polished; long spear-points, with tang and shoulder on one side only, are also characteristic implements of this industry. Bone and antler were used as well.

The Solutrean may be seen as a transitional stage between the flint implements of the Mousterian and the bone implements of the Magdalenian epochs. Faunal finds include horse, reindeer, mammoth, cave lion, rhinoceros, bear and aurochs. Solutrean finds have also been made in the caves of Les Eyzies and Laugerie Haute, and in the Lower Beds of Creswell Crags in Derbyshire, England (Proto-Solutrean). The industry first appeared in what is now Spain[citation needed], and disappears from the archaeological record around 17,000 BP.

Main article: Solutrean hypothesis

The Solutrean hypothesis argues that people from Europe may have been among the earliest settlers of the Americas. Its notable recent proponents include Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter. This hypothesis contrasts with the mainstream archaeological consensus that the North American continent was first populated by people from Asia, either by the Bering land bridge (i.e. Beringia) at least 13,500 years ago, or by maritime travel along the Pacific coast, or by both. The idea of a Clovis-Solutrean link remains controversial and does not enjoy wide acceptance. The hypothesis is challenged by large gaps in time between the Clovis culture and Solutrean eras, a lack of evidence of Solutrean seafaring, lack of specific Solutrean features and tools in Clovis technology, the difficulties of the route, and other issues.

In 2014, the autosomal DNA of a male infant (Anzick-1) from a 12,500-year-old deposit in Montana was sequenced. The skeleton was found in close association with several Clovis artifacts. Comparisons showed strong affinities with DNA from Siberian sites, and virtually ruled out any close affinity of Anzick-1 with European sources. The DNA of the Anzick-1 sample showed strong affinities with sampled Native American populations, which indicated that the samples derive from an ancient population that lived in or near Siberia, the Upper Paleolithic Mal'ta population.

Examination of physical remains from the Solutrean period has determined that they were of a slightly more gracile type than the preceding Gravettian culture. Males were rather tall, with some skeletons being up to 179 cm tall. Volume 4 of the Portuguese Magazine of Archaeology from 2001 examined a Solutrean female individual whose physical remains are described as "having postcranial elements that derive from a relatively small and gracile individual". The teeth of Solutrean individuals are described as being similar in appearance to those belonging to the people of the Gravettian.

Preceded by Solutrean
22,000–17,000 BP
Succeeded by
  1. One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Solutrian Epoch". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 377.
  2. Bradley, Bruce; Stanford, Dennis (2004). "The North Atlantic ice-edge corridor: a possible Paleolithic route to the New World"(PDF). World Archaeology. 36 (4): 459–478. CiteSeerX10.1.1.694.6801. doi:10.1080/0043824042000303656. S2CID 161534521. Retrieved2012-03-01.
  3. Carey, Bjorn (19 February 2006). "First Americans may have been European". Live Science. Retrieved2012-03-01.
  4. Vastag, Brian (March 1, 2012). "Theory jolts familiar view of first Americans". The Washington Post. pp. A1, A9. Retrieved2012-03-01.
  5. Mann, Charles C. (Nov 2013), "The Clovis Point and the Discovery of America's First Culture," Smithsonian Magazine, [1]
  6. Straus, L.G. (April 2000). "Solutrean settlement of North America? A review of reality". American Antiquity. 65 (2): 219–226. doi:10.2307/2694056. JSTOR 2694056. S2CID 162349551.
  7. Westley, Kieran and Justin Dix (2008). "The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis: A View from the Ocean". Journal of the North Atlantic. 1: 85–98. doi:10.3721/J080527. S2CID 130294767.
  8. Rasmussen M, Anzick SL, et al. (2014). "The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana". Nature. 506 (7487): 225–229. doi:10.1038/nature13025. PMC4878442. PMID 24522598.
  9. "Ancient American's genome mapped". BBC News. 2014-02-14.
  10. White, Randall (January 2008). "The Archaeology of Solvieux: An Upper Palaeolithic Open Air Site in France". American Anthropologist. 103: 228. doi:10.1525/aa.2001.103.1.228 – via researchgate.
  11. Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin, eds. (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 4: Europe. Springer US. ISBN 978-0-306-46258-0.
  12. Straus, L.; Morales, M. R. (2009). "A preliminary description of Solutrean occupations in El Mirón cave (Ramales de la Victoria, Cantabria)". undefined. S2CID 210020037. Retrieved2021-01-23.
  13. Trinkaus, Erik (July 2001). "Upper Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta do Caldeirão, Tomar, Portugal"(PDF). Portuguese Magazine of Archaeology. 4: 1 – via bristol.ac.uk.
  14. Heinrich, Hartmut (1988-03-01). "Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130,000 years". Quaternary Research. 29 (2): 142–152. doi:10.1016/0033-5894(88)90057-9. ISSN 0033-5894.
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSolutrean.

Solutrean
Solutrean Article Talk Language Watch Edit It is unclear whether radiocarbon dates in this article are calibrated or not Please help improve this article by clarifying whether the given dates are calibrated BC BCE or cal BP or uncalibrated uncal BP or bp August 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message The Solutrean s e ˈ lj uː t r i e n industry is a relatively advanced flint tool making style of the Upper Paleolithic of the Final Gravettian from around 22 000 to 17 000 BP Solutrean sites have been found in modern day France Spain and Portugal SolutreanGeographical rangeWestern EuropePeriodUpper PaleolithicDatesc 22 000 c 17 000 BPType siteParc archeologique et botanique de SolutrePreceded byGravettianFollowed byMagdalenian in France and Iberia in the latter after a transition through the Badegoulien fr SersSolutreMap of Europe showing important sites of the Solutrean clickable map Contents 1 Details 2 Solutrean hypothesis in North American archaeology 3 Physical characteristics 4 Gallery 5 See also 6 References 7 External linksDetails EditThe term Solutrean comes from the type site of Cros du Charnier dating to around 21 000 years ago and located at Solutre in east central France near Macon The Rock of Solutre site was discovered in 1866 by the French geologist and paleontologist Henry Testot Ferry It is now preserved as the Parc archeologique et botanique de Solutre The industry was named by Gabriel de Mortillet to describe the second stage of his system of cave chronology following the Mousterian and he considered it synchronous with the third division of the Quaternary period 1 The era s finds include tools ornamental beads and bone pins as well as prehistoric art Solutrean tool making employed techniques not seen before and not rediscovered for millennia The Solutrean has relatively finely worked bifacial points made with lithic reduction percussion and pressure flaking rather than flintknapping Knapping was done using antler batons hardwood batons and soft stone hammers This method permitted the working of delicate slivers of flint to make light projectiles and even elaborate barbed and tanged arrowheads Large thin spearheads scrapers with edge not on the side but on the end flint knives and saws but all still chipped not ground or polished long spear points with tang and shoulder on one side only are also characteristic implements of this industry Bone and antler were used as well 1 The Solutrean may be seen as a transitional stage between the flint implements of the Mousterian and the bone implements of the Magdalenian epochs Faunal finds include horse reindeer mammoth cave lion rhinoceros bear and aurochs Solutrean finds have also been made in the caves of Les Eyzies and Laugerie Haute and in the Lower Beds of Creswell Crags in Derbyshire England 1 Proto Solutrean The industry first appeared in what is now Spain citation needed and disappears from the archaeological record around 17 000 BP Solutrean hypothesis in North American archaeology EditMain article Solutrean hypothesis The Solutrean hypothesis argues that people from Europe may have been among the earliest settlers of the Americas 2 3 Its notable recent proponents include Dennis Stanford of the Smithsonian Institution and Bruce Bradley of the University of Exeter 4 This hypothesis contrasts with the mainstream archaeological consensus that the North American continent was first populated by people from Asia either by the Bering land bridge i e Beringia at least 13 500 years ago 5 or by maritime travel along the Pacific coast or by both The idea of a Clovis Solutrean link remains controversial and does not enjoy wide acceptance The hypothesis is challenged by large gaps in time between the Clovis culture and Solutrean eras a lack of evidence of Solutrean seafaring lack of specific Solutrean features and tools in Clovis technology the difficulties of the route and other issues 6 7 In 2014 the autosomal DNA of a male infant Anzick 1 from a 12 500 year old deposit in Montana was sequenced 8 The skeleton was found in close association with several Clovis artifacts Comparisons showed strong affinities with DNA from Siberian sites and virtually ruled out any close affinity of Anzick 1 with European sources The DNA of the Anzick 1 sample showed strong affinities with sampled Native American populations which indicated that the samples derive from an ancient population that lived in or near Siberia the Upper Paleolithic Mal ta population 9 Physical characteristics EditExamination of physical remains from the Solutrean period has determined that they were of a slightly more gracile type than the preceding Gravettian culture Males were rather tall with some skeletons being up to 179 cm tall 10 11 12 Volume 4 of the Portuguese Magazine of Archaeology from 2001 examined a Solutrean female individual whose physical remains are described as having postcranial elements that derive from a relatively small and gracile individual 13 The teeth of Solutrean individuals are described as being similar in appearance to those belonging to the people of the Gravettian 14 Gallery Edit Solutrean tools 22 000 17 000 BP Crot du Charnier Solutre Pouilly Saone et Loire France Flint point from Volgu in the National Archeological Museum in FranceSee also EditPreceded byGravettian Solutrean 22 000 17 000 BP Succeeded byMagdalenianFranco Cantabrian region Gravettian Last Glacial MaximumReferences Edit a b c One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Solutrian Epoch Encyclopaedia Britannica 25 11th ed Cambridge University Press p 377 Bradley Bruce Stanford Dennis 2004 The North Atlantic ice edge corridor a possible Paleolithic route to the New World PDF World Archaeology 36 4 459 478 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 694 6801 doi 10 1080 0043824042000303656 S2CID 161534521 Retrieved 2012 03 01 Carey Bjorn 19 February 2006 First Americans may have been European Live Science Retrieved 2012 03 01 Vastag Brian March 1 2012 Theory jolts familiar view of first Americans The Washington Post pp A1 A9 Retrieved 2012 03 01 Mann Charles C Nov 2013 The Clovis Point and the Discovery of America s First Culture Smithsonian Magazine 1 Straus L G April 2000 Solutrean settlement of North America A review of reality American Antiquity 65 2 219 226 doi 10 2307 2694056 JSTOR 2694056 S2CID 162349551 Westley Kieran and Justin Dix 2008 The Solutrean Atlantic Hypothesis A View from the Ocean Journal of the North Atlantic 1 85 98 doi 10 3721 J080527 S2CID 130294767 Rasmussen M Anzick SL et al 2014 The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana Nature 506 7487 225 229 doi 10 1038 nature13025 PMC 4878442 PMID 24522598 Ancient American s genome mapped BBC News 2014 02 14 White Randall January 2008 The Archaeology of Solvieux An Upper Palaeolithic Open Air Site in France American Anthropologist 103 228 doi 10 1525 aa 2001 103 1 228 via researchgate Peregrine Peter N Ember Melvin eds 2001 Encyclopedia of Prehistory Volume 4 Europe Springer US ISBN 978 0 306 46258 0 Straus L Morales M R 2009 A preliminary description of Solutrean occupations in El Miron cave Ramales de la Victoria Cantabria undefined S2CID 210020037 Retrieved 2021 01 23 Trinkaus Erik July 2001 Upper Paleolithic human remains from the Gruta do Caldeirao Tomar Portugal PDF Portuguese Magazine of Archaeology 4 1 via bristol ac uk Heinrich Hartmut 1988 03 01 Origin and consequences of cyclic ice rafting in the Northeast Atlantic Ocean during the past 130 000 years Quaternary Research 29 2 142 152 doi 10 1016 0033 5894 88 90057 9 ISSN 0033 5894 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Solutrean Clovis and Solutrean Is There a Common Thread by James M Chandler Stone Age Columbus BBC TV programme summary America s Stone Age Explorers transcript of 2004 NOVA program on PBS Images of Solutrean artifacts Radical theory of first Americans places Stone Age Europeans in Delmarva 20 000 years ago Washington Post article from 28 February 2012 Picture gallery of the Paleolithic reconstructional palaeoethnology Libor Balak at the Czech Academy of Sciences the Institute of Archaeology in Brno The Center for Paleolithic and Paleoethnological Research Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Solutrean amp oldid 1046541314, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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