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Soma (drink)

This article is about the Vedic drink and plant. For the moon and post-Vedic deity, see Soma (deity). For other uses, see Soma (disambiguation).

In the Vedic tradition, soma (Sanskrit:सोम) is a ritual drink of importance among the early Vedic Indo-Aryans. The Rigveda mentions it, particularly in the Soma Mandala. Gita mentions the drink in Chapter 9. It is equivalent to the Iranian haoma.

The texts describe the preparation of soma by means of extracting the juice from a plant, the identity of which is now unknown and debated among scholars. Both in the ancient religions of Historical Vedic religion and Zoroastrianism, the name of the drink and the plant are not exactly the same.

There has been much speculation about the most likely identity of the original plant. Traditional Indian accounts, such as those from practitioners of Ayurveda, Siddha medicine, and Somayajna called Somayajis, identify the plant as "Somalata" (Sarcostemma acidum). Non-Indian researchers have proposed candidates including the fly agaric, Amanita muscaria; Psilocybin mushrooms, Psilocybe cubensis; wild or Syrian rue, Peganum harmala; and ma huang, Ephedra sinica.

Contents

Soma is a Vedic Sanskrit word that literally means "distill, extract, sprinkle", often connected in the context of rituals.

Soma's avestan cognate is the haoma. According to Geldner (1951), the word is derived from Indo-Iranian roots *sav- (Sanskrit sav-/su) "to press", i.e. *sau-ma- is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant, but the word and the related practices were borrowed by the Indo-Aryans from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC). Although the word is only attested in Indo-Iranian traditions, Manfred Mayrhofer has proposed a Proto-Indo-European origin from the root

  • sew(h)-.

The Vedic religion was the religion of some of the Vedic Indo-Aryan tribes, the aryas, who migrated into the Indus River valley region of the Indian subcontinent. The Indo-Aryans were speakers of a branch of the Indo-European language family, which originated in the Sintashta culture and further developed into the Andronovo culture, which in turn developed out of the Kurgan culture of the Central Asian steppes. The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, and show relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture, from which the Indo-Aryan people descended. According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran. It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements" which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" from the Bactria–Margiana Culture (BMAC). This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non-Indo-European words that were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma. According to Anthony,

Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rig Veda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers.

Further information: Somayajna and Mandala 9

In the Vedas, the same word (soma) is used for the drink, the plant, and its deity. Drinking soma produces immortality (Amrita, Rigveda 8.48.3). Indra and Agni are portrayed as consuming soma in copious quantities. In the vedic ideology, Indra drank large amounts of soma while fighting the serpent demon Vritra. The consumption of soma by human beings is well attested in Vedic ritual. The Soma Mandala of the Rigveda is completely dedicated to Soma Pavamana, and is focused on a moment in the ritual when the soma is pressed, strained, mixed with water and milk, and poured into containers. These actions are described as a representation of a variety of things, including a king conquering territory, the Sun's journey through the cosmos, or a bull running to mate with cows (represented by the milk). The most important myth about Soma is about his theft. In it, Soma was originally held captive in a citadel in heaven by the archer Kṛśānu. A falcon stole Soma, successfully escaping Kṛśānu, and delivered Soma to Manu, the first sacrificer. Additionally, Soma is associated with the moon in the late Rigveda and Middle Vedic period. Sūryā, the daughter of the Sun, is sometimes stated to be the wife of Soma.

The Rigveda (8.48.3) says:

ápāma sómam amŕ̥tā abhūma
áganma jyótir ávidāma devā́n
kíṃ nūnám asmā́n kr̥ṇavad árātiḥ
kím u dhūrtír amr̥ta mártiyasya

Stephanie W. Jamison and Joel P. Brereton translates this as:

We have drunk the soma; we have become immortal; we have gone to the light; we have found the gods.
What can hostility do to us now, and what the malice of a mortal, o immortal one?

Swami Dayanand Saraswati explains this as:

Good fruit containing food not any intoxicating drink, we drink you
You are elixir of life, achieve physical strength or light of god,
achieve control over senses;
In this situation, what our enemy can do to me?
God, what even violent people can do to me?

Also, consider Rigveda (8.79.2-6) regarding the power of Soma: "...He covers the naked and heals all who are sick. The blind man sees; the lame man steps forth....Let those who seek find what they seek: let them receive the treasure....Let him find what was lost before; let him push forward the man of truth...." Such is indicative of an experience with an entheogen of some source...(Michael Wood (historian)).(The Story of India)

Main article: Haoma

The finishing of haoma in Zoroastrianism may be glimpsed from the Avesta (particularly in the Hōm Yast, Yasna 9), and Avestan language *hauma also survived as Middle Persian hōm. The plant haoma yielded the essential ingredient for the ritual drink, parahaoma.

In Yasna 9.22, haoma grants "speed and strength to warriors, excellent and righteous sons to those giving birth, spiritual power and knowledge to those who apply themselves to the study of the nasks". As the religion's chief cult divinity he came to be perceived as its divine priest. In Yasna 9.26, Ahura Mazda is said to have invested him with the sacred girdle, and in Yasna 10.89, to have installed haoma as the "swiftly sacrificing zaotar" (Sanskrit hotar) for himself and the Amesha Spenta.

See also: Chandra

Soma has been mentioned in Chapter 9, verse 20 of Bhagavad Gita:

Those who perform actions (as described in the three Vedas), desiring fruit from these actions, and those who drink the juice of the pure Soma plant, are cleansed and purified of their past sins.
Those who desire heaven, (the Abode of the Lord known as Indralok) attain heaven and enjoy its divine pleasures by worshipping me through the offering of sacrifices.
Thus, by performing good action (Karma, as outlined by the three Vedas, one will always undoubtedly receive a place in heaven where they will enjoy all of the divine pleasure that are enjoyed by the Deities.[citation needed]

The Maharishi Mahesh Yogi's Transcendental Meditation-Sidhi Program involves a notion of "soma", said to be based on the Rigveda.

There has been much speculation as to the original Sauma plant. Candidates that have been suggested include honey, mushrooms, psychoactive and other herbal plants.

When the ritual of somayajna is held today in South India by the traditional Srautas called Somayajis, the plant used is the somalatha (Sanskrit: soma creeper, Sarcostemma acidum) which is procured as a leafless vine.

Since the late 18th century, when Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron and others made portions of the Avesta available to western scholars, several scholars have sought a representative botanical equivalent of the haoma as described in the texts and as used in living Zoroastrian practice. In the late 19th century, the highly conservative Zoroastrians of Yazd (Iran) were found to use ephedra, which was locally known as hum or homa and which they exported to the Indian Zoroastrians.

During the colonial British era scholarship, cannabis was proposed as the soma candidate by Jogesh Chandra Ray, The Soma Plant (1939) and by B. L. Mukherjee (1921).

In the late 1960s, several studies attempted to establish soma as a psychoactive substance. A number of proposals were made, including one in 1968 by the American banker R. Gordon Wasson, an amateur ethnomycologist, who asserted that soma was an inebriant but not cannabis, and suggested fly-agaric mushroom, Amanita muscaria, as the likely candidate. Since its introduction in 1968, this theory has gained both detractors and followers in the anthropological literature. Wasson and his co-author, Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty, drew parallels between Vedic descriptions and reports of Siberian uses of the fly-agaric in shamanic ritual.

In 1989 Harry Falk noted that, in the texts, both haoma and soma were said to enhance alertness and awareness, did not coincide with the consciousness altering effects of an entheogen, and that "there is nothing shamanistic or visionary either in early Vedic or in Old Iranian texts", (Falk, 1989) Falk also asserted that the three varieties of ephedra that yield ephedrine (Ephedra gerardiana, E. major procera and E. intermedia) also have the properties attributed to haoma by the texts of the Avesta. (Falk, 1989) At the conclusion of the 1999 Haoma-Soma workshop in Leiden, Jan E. M. Houben writes: "despite strong attempts to do away with ephedra by those who are eager to see sauma as a hallucinogen, its status as a serious candidate for the Rigvedic Soma and Avestan Haoma still stands" (Houben, 2003).

The Soviet archeologist Viktor Sarianidi wrote that he had discovered vessels and mortars used to prepare soma in Zoroastrian temples in the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex. He said that the vessels have revealed residues and seed impressions left behind during the preparation of soma. This has not been sustained by subsequent investigations. Alternatively Mark Merlin, who revisited the subject of the identity of soma more than thirty years after originally writing about it stated that there is a need of further study on links between soma and Papaver somniferum. (Merlin, 2008).

In his book Food of the Gods, ethnobotanist Terence McKenna postulates that the most likely candidate for soma is the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis, a hallucinogenic mushroom that grows in cow dung in certain climates. McKenna cites both Wasson's and his own unsuccessful attempts using Amanita muscaria to reach a psychedelic state as evidence that it could not have inspired the worship and praise of soma. McKenna further points out that the 9th mandala of the Rig Veda makes extensive references to the cow as the embodiment of soma.[citation needed]

According to Michael Wood, the references to immortality and light are characteristics of an entheogenic experience.

  1. See Kuzʹmina (2007), The Origin of the Indo-Iranians, p. 339, for an overview of publications up to 1997 on this subject.
  2. trai-vidyā māṁ soma-pāḥ pūta-pāpā
    yajñair iṣhṭvā svar-gatiṁ prārthayante
    te puṇyam āsādya surendra-lokam
    aśhnanti divyān divi deva-bhogān
  1. soma. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  2. Flood (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, p.43
  3. Bhagavad Gita: The Song of God. www.holy-bhagavad-gita.org. Translated by Mukundananda. Jagadguru Kripaluji Yog. Chapter 9, Verse 20. ISBN 978-0-9833967-2-7. Wikidata Q108659922.
  4. Toorn, Karel van der; Becking, Bob; Horst, Pieter Willem van der (1999). Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. p. 384. ISBN 978-0-8028-2491-2. Retrieved24 January 2021.
  5. Guénon, René (2004). Symbols of Sacred Science. Sophia Perennis. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-900588-77-8. Retrieved24 January 2021.
  6. Victor Sarianidi, Viktor Sarianidi in The PBS Documentary The Story of India
  7. Singh, N. P. (1988). Flora of Eastern Karnataka, Volume 1. Mittal Publications. p. 416. ISBN 9788170990673.
  8. Monier Monier-Williams (1872). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press (Reprint: 2001). pp. 1136–1137.
  9. K.F.Geldner, Der Rig-Veda. Cambridge MA, 1951, Vol. III: 1-9
  10. Beckwith 2011, p. 32. sfn error: no target: CITEREFBeckwith2011 (help)
  11. Anthony 2007, pp. 454–455.
  12. M. Mayrhofer, Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Altindoarischen, Heidelberg 1986–2000, vol II: 748
  13. Kuz'mina 2007, p. 319.
  14. Singh 2008, p. 185.
  15. Heesterman 2005, pp. 9552–9553.
  16. Anthony 2007.
  17. Roger D. Woodard (18 August 2006). Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-252-09295-4.
  18. Kus'mina 2007, p. 319. sfn error: no target: CITEREFKus'mina2007 (help)
  19. Anthony 2007, p. 462.
  20. Anthony 2007, p. 454.
  21. Stephanie Jamison (2015). The Rigveda –– Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. pp. 42–43. ISBN 978-0190633394.
  22. "UT College of Liberal Arts: UT College of Liberal Arts". Liberalarts.utexas.edu. Retrieved2018-10-04.
  23. Stephanie Jamison (2015). The Rigveda –– Earliest Religious Poetry of India. Oxford University Press. p. 1129. ISBN 978-0190633394.
  24. O'Flaherty, Wendy Doniger (Translator). The Rig Veda. Penguin Books, London 1981, page 121.
  25. Bhagavad Gita on Indra Ch 10 verse 22
  26. Williamson, Lola (January 2010). Transcendent in America. ISBN 9780814794708. Retrieved23 February 2015.
  27. Hendel v World Plan Executive Council, 124 WLR 957 (January 2, 1996); affd 705 A.2d 656, 667 (DC, 1997)
  28. Oldenberg, Hermann (1988). The Religion of the Veda. ISBN 978-81-208-0392-3.
  29. Aitchison, 1888
  30. Ray, Jogesh, Chandra, Soma Plant, Indian Historical Quarterly, vol. 15, no. 2, June, 1939, Calcutta
  31. Mukherjee, B. L., The Soma Plant, JRAS, (1921), Idem, The Soma Plant, Calcutta, (1922), The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1921)
  32. Furst, Peter T. (1976). Hallucinogens and Culture. Chandler & Sharp. pp. 96–108. ISBN 0-88316-517-1.
  33. John Brough (1971). "Soma and "Amanita muscaria"". Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies. 34 (2): 331–362. doi:10.1017/S0041977X0012957X. JSTOR 612695.
  34. Feeney, Kevin (2020). "Fly Agaric: A Compendium of History, Pharmacology, Mythology, & Exploration". ResearchGate. Retrieved2020-12-27.
  35. (Wasson, Robert Gordon (1968). "Soma: Divine Mushroom of Immortality". Ethno-Mycological Studies. New York. 1. ISBN 0-15-683800-1.)
  36. C.C. Bakels (2003). "Report concerning the contents of a ceramic vessel found in the "white room" of the Gonur Temenos, Merv Oasis, Turkmenistan". EJVS. 9.
  37. Merlin, Mark, Man and Marijuana, (Barnes and Co, 1972)
  38. Merlin, M., Archaeological Record for Ancient Old World Use of Psychoactive Plants, Economic Botany, 57(3): (2008)
  39. Michael Wood, The Story of India.

Soma (drink)
Soma drink Article Talk Language Watch Edit This article is about the Vedic drink and plant For the moon and post Vedic deity see Soma deity For other uses see Soma disambiguation In the Vedic tradition soma Sanskrit स म is a ritual drink 1 of importance among the early Vedic Indo Aryans 2 The Rigveda mentions it particularly in the Soma Mandala Gita mentions the drink in Chapter 9 3 It is equivalent to the Iranian haoma 4 5 The texts describe the preparation of soma by means of extracting the juice from a plant the identity of which is now unknown and debated among scholars Both in the ancient religions of Historical Vedic religion and Zoroastrianism the name of the drink and the plant are not exactly the same 6 There has been much speculation about the most likely identity of the original plant Traditional Indian accounts such as those from practitioners of Ayurveda Siddha medicine and Somayajna called Somayajis identify the plant as Somalata Sarcostemma acidum 7 Non Indian researchers have proposed candidates including the fly agaric Amanita muscaria Psilocybin mushrooms Psilocybe cubensis wild or Syrian rue Peganum harmala and ma huang Ephedra sinica Contents 1 Etymology 2 Origins 3 Vedic soma 4 Avestan haoma 5 Post Vedic mentions 6 Candidates for the plant 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 SourcesEtymology EditSoma is a Vedic Sanskrit word that literally means distill extract sprinkle often connected in the context of rituals 8 Soma s avestan cognate is the haoma According to Geldner 1951 the word is derived from Indo Iranian roots sav Sanskrit sav su to press i e sau ma is the drink prepared by pressing the stalks of a plant 9 but the word and the related practices were borrowed by the Indo Aryans from the Bactria Margiana Culture BMAC 10 11 Although the word is only attested in Indo Iranian traditions Manfred Mayrhofer has proposed a Proto Indo European origin from the root sew h 12 Origins EditSee also Indo Aryan migrations The Vedic religion was the religion of some of the Vedic Indo Aryan tribes the aryas 13 14 who migrated into the Indus River valley region of the Indian subcontinent 15 The Indo Aryans were speakers of a branch of the Indo European language family which originated in the Sintashta culture and further developed into the Andronovo culture which in turn developed out of the Kurgan culture of the Central Asian steppes 16 The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto Indo European religion 17 note 1 and show relations with rituals from the Andronovo culture from which the Indo Aryan people descended 18 According to Anthony the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River present day Uzbekistan and present day Iran 19 It was a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo European elements 19 which borrowed distinctive religious beliefs and practices 10 from the Bactria Margiana Culture BMAC 10 This syncretic influence is supported by at least 383 non Indo European words that were borrowed from this culture including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma 11 According to Anthony Many of the qualities of Indo Iranian god of might victory Verethraghna were transferred to the adopted god Indra who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture Indra was the subject of 250 hymns a quarter of the Rig Veda He was associated more than any other deity with Soma a stimulant drug perhaps derived from Ephedra probably borrowed from the BMAC religion His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers 20 Vedic soma EditFurther information Somayajna and Mandala 9 In the Vedas the same word soma is used for the drink the plant and its deity Drinking soma produces immortality Amrita Rigveda 8 48 3 Indra and Agni are portrayed as consuming soma in copious quantities In the vedic ideology Indra drank large amounts of soma while fighting the serpent demon Vritra The consumption of soma by human beings is well attested in Vedic ritual The Soma Mandala of the Rigveda is completely dedicated to Soma Pavamana and is focused on a moment in the ritual when the soma is pressed strained mixed with water and milk and poured into containers These actions are described as a representation of a variety of things including a king conquering territory the Sun s journey through the cosmos or a bull running to mate with cows represented by the milk The most important myth about Soma is about his theft In it Soma was originally held captive in a citadel in heaven by the archer Kṛsanu A falcon stole Soma successfully escaping Kṛsanu and delivered Soma to Manu the first sacrificer Additionally Soma is associated with the moon in the late Rigveda and Middle Vedic period Surya the daughter of the Sun is sometimes stated to be the wife of Soma 21 The Rigveda 8 48 3 says apama somam amŕ ta abhuma aganma jyotir avidama deva n kiṃ nunam asma n kr ṇavad aratiḥ kim u dhurtir amr ta martiyasya 22 Stephanie W Jamison and Joel P Brereton translates this as We have drunk the soma we have become immortal we have gone to the light we have found the gods What can hostility do to us now and what the malice of a mortal o immortal one 23 Swami Dayanand Saraswati explains this as Good fruit containing food not any intoxicating drink we drink you You are elixir of life achieve physical strength or light of god achieve control over senses In this situation what our enemy can do to me God what even violent people can do to me Also consider Rigveda 8 79 2 6 24 regarding the power of Soma He covers the naked and heals all who are sick The blind man sees the lame man steps forth Let those who seek find what they seek let them receive the treasure Let him find what was lost before let him push forward the man of truth Such is indicative of an experience with an entheogen of some source Michael Wood historian The Story of India Avestan haoma EditMain article Haoma The finishing of haoma in Zoroastrianism may be glimpsed from the Avesta particularly in the Hōm Yast Yasna 9 and Avestan language hauma also survived as Middle Persian hōm The plant haoma yielded the essential ingredient for the ritual drink parahaoma In Yasna 9 22 haoma grants speed and strength to warriors excellent and righteous sons to those giving birth spiritual power and knowledge to those who apply themselves to the study of the nasks As the religion s chief cult divinity he came to be perceived as its divine priest In Yasna 9 26 Ahura Mazda is said to have invested him with the sacred girdle and in Yasna 10 89 to have installed haoma as the swiftly sacrificing zaotar Sanskrit hotar for himself and the Amesha Spenta Post Vedic mentions EditSee also Chandra Soma has been mentioned in Chapter 9 verse 20 of Bhagavad Gita Those who perform actions as described in the three Vedas desiring fruit from these actions and those who drink the juice of the pure Soma plant are cleansed and purified of their past sins Those who desire heaven the Abode of the Lord known as Indralok 25 attain heaven and enjoy its divine pleasures by worshipping me through the offering of sacrifices Thus by performing good action Karma as outlined by the three Vedas one will always undoubtedly receive a place in heaven where they will enjoy all of the divine pleasure that are enjoyed by the Deities citation needed note 2 The Maharishi Mahesh Yogi s Transcendental Meditation Sidhi Program involves a notion of soma said to be based on the Rigveda 26 27 Candidates for the plant EditMain article Botanical identity of soma haoma There has been much speculation as to the original Sauma plant Candidates that have been suggested include honey mushrooms psychoactive and other herbal plants 28 When the ritual of somayajna is held today in South India by the traditional Srautas called Somayajis the plant used is the somalatha Sanskrit soma creeper Sarcostemma acidum 7 which is procured as a leafless vine Since the late 18th century when Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil Duperron and others made portions of the Avesta available to western scholars several scholars have sought a representative botanical equivalent of the haoma as described in the texts and as used in living Zoroastrian practice In the late 19th century the highly conservative Zoroastrians of Yazd Iran were found to use ephedra which was locally known as hum or homa and which they exported to the Indian Zoroastrians 29 During the colonial British era scholarship cannabis was proposed as the soma candidate by Jogesh Chandra Ray The Soma Plant 1939 30 and by B L Mukherjee 1921 31 In the late 1960s several studies attempted to establish soma as a psychoactive substance A number of proposals were made including one in 1968 by the American banker R Gordon Wasson an amateur ethnomycologist who asserted that soma was an inebriant but not cannabis and suggested fly agaric mushroom Amanita muscaria as the likely candidate Since its introduction in 1968 this theory has gained both detractors and followers in the anthropological literature 32 33 34 Wasson and his co author Wendy Doniger O Flaherty drew parallels between Vedic descriptions and reports of Siberian uses of the fly agaric in shamanic ritual 35 In 1989 Harry Falk noted that in the texts both haoma and soma were said to enhance alertness and awareness did not coincide with the consciousness altering effects of an entheogen and that there is nothing shamanistic or visionary either in early Vedic or in Old Iranian texts Falk 1989 Falk also asserted that the three varieties of ephedra that yield ephedrine Ephedra gerardiana E major procera and E intermedia also have the properties attributed to haoma by the texts of the Avesta Falk 1989 At the conclusion of the 1999 Haoma Soma workshop in Leiden Jan E M Houben writes despite strong attempts to do away with ephedra by those who are eager to see sauma as a hallucinogen its status as a serious candidate for the Rigvedic Soma and Avestan Haoma still stands Houben 2003 The Soviet archeologist Viktor Sarianidi wrote that he had discovered vessels and mortars used to prepare soma in Zoroastrian temples in the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex He said that the vessels have revealed residues and seed impressions left behind during the preparation of soma This has not been sustained by subsequent investigations 36 Alternatively Mark Merlin who revisited the subject of the identity of soma more than thirty years after originally writing about it 37 stated that there is a need of further study on links between soma and Papaver somniferum Merlin 2008 38 In his book Food of the Gods ethnobotanist Terence McKenna postulates that the most likely candidate for soma is the mushroom Psilocybe cubensis a hallucinogenic mushroom that grows in cow dung in certain climates McKenna cites both Wasson s and his own unsuccessful attempts using Amanita muscaria to reach a psychedelic state as evidence that it could not have inspired the worship and praise of soma McKenna further points out that the 9th mandala of the Rig Veda makes extensive references to the cow as the embodiment of soma citation needed According to Michael Wood the references to immortality and light are characteristics of an entheogenic experience 39 See also EditHaoma an equivalent divine plant in Zoroastrianism Mead Sima mead Soma drug carisoprodolNotes Edit See Kuzʹmina 2007 The Origin of the Indo Iranians p 339 for an overview of publications up to 1997 on this subject trai vidya maṁ soma paḥ puta papa yajnair iṣhṭva svar gatiṁ prarthayante te puṇyam asadya surendra lokam ashnanti divyan divi deva bhoganReferences Edit soma CollinsDictionary com Collins English Dictionary Complete amp Unabridged 11th Edition Retrieved 2 December 2012 Flood 1996 An Introduction to Hinduism p 43 Bhagavad Gita The Song of God www holy bhagavad gita org Translated by Mukundananda Jagadguru Kripaluji Yog Chapter 9 Verse 20 ISBN 978 0 9833967 2 7 Wikidata Q108659922 Toorn Karel van der Becking Bob Horst Pieter Willem van der 1999 Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible Wm B Eerdmans Publishing p 384 ISBN 978 0 8028 2491 2 Retrieved 24 January 2021 Guenon Rene 2004 Symbols of Sacred Science Sophia Perennis p 320 ISBN 978 0 900588 77 8 Retrieved 24 January 2021 Victor Sarianidi Viktor Sarianidi in The PBS Documentary The Story of India a b Singh N P 1988 Flora of Eastern Karnataka Volume 1 Mittal Publications p 416 ISBN 9788170990673 Monier Monier Williams 1872 A Sanskrit English Dictionary Oxford University Press Reprint 2001 pp 1136 1137 K F Geldner Der Rig Veda Cambridge MA 1951 Vol III 1 9 a b c Beckwith 2011 p 32 sfn error no target CITEREFBeckwith2011 help a b Anthony 2007 pp 454 455 M Mayrhofer Etymologisches Worterbuch des Altindoarischen Heidelberg 1986 2000 vol II 748 Kuz mina 2007 p 319 Singh 2008 p 185 Heesterman 2005 pp 9552 9553 Anthony 2007 Roger D Woodard 18 August 2006 Indo European Sacred Space Vedic and Roman Cult University of Illinois Press pp 242 ISBN 978 0 252 09295 4 Kus mina 2007 p 319 sfn error no target CITEREFKus mina2007 help a b Anthony 2007 p 462 Anthony 2007 p 454 Stephanie Jamison 2015 The Rigveda Earliest Religious Poetry of India Oxford University Press pp 42 43 ISBN 978 0190633394 UT College of Liberal Arts UT College of Liberal Arts Liberalarts utexas edu Retrieved 2018 10 04 Stephanie Jamison 2015 The Rigveda Earliest Religious Poetry of India Oxford University Press p 1129 ISBN 978 0190633394 O Flaherty Wendy Doniger Translator The Rig Veda Penguin Books London 1981 page 121 Bhagavad Gita on Indra Ch 10 verse 22 Williamson Lola January 2010 Transcendent in America ISBN 9780814794708 Retrieved 23 February 2015 Hendel v World Plan Executive Council 124 WLR 957 January 2 1996 affd 705 A 2d 656 667 DC 1997 Oldenberg Hermann 1988 The Religion of the Veda ISBN 978 81 208 0392 3 Aitchison 1888 Ray Jogesh Chandra Soma Plant Indian Historical Quarterly vol 15 no 2 June 1939 Calcutta Mukherjee B L The Soma Plant JRAS 1921 Idem The Soma Plant Calcutta 1922 The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain amp Ireland Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 1921 Furst Peter T 1976 Hallucinogens and Culture Chandler amp Sharp pp 96 108 ISBN 0 88316 517 1 John Brough 1971 Soma and Amanita muscaria Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 34 2 331 362 doi 10 1017 S0041977X0012957X JSTOR 612695 Feeney Kevin 2020 Fly Agaric A Compendium of History Pharmacology Mythology amp Exploration ResearchGate Retrieved 2020 12 27 Wasson Robert Gordon 1968 Soma Divine Mushroom of Immortality Ethno Mycological Studies New York 1 ISBN 0 15 683800 1 C C Bakels 2003 Report concerning the contents of a ceramic vessel found in the white room of the Gonur Temenos Merv Oasis Turkmenistan EJVS 9 Merlin Mark Man and Marijuana Barnes and Co 1972 Merlin M Archaeological Record for Ancient Old World Use of Psychoactive Plants Economic Botany 57 3 2008 Michael Wood The Story of India Sources EditAnthony David W 2007 The Horse The Wheel And Language How Bronze Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World Princeton University Press Bakels C C 2003 The contents of ceramic vessels in the Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex Turkmenistan in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies Vol 9 Issue 1c May 2003 Beckwith Christopher I 2009 Empires of the Silk Road Princeton University Press Heesterman Jan 2005 Vedism and Brahmanism In Jones Lindsay ed The Encyclopedia of Religion 14 2nd ed Macmillan Reference pp 9552 9553 ISBN 0 02 865733 0 Jay Mike Blue Tide The Search for Soma Autonomedia 1999 Kuz mina Elena Efimovna 2007 J P Mallory ed The Origin of the Indo Iranians Brill ISBN 978 9004160545 Lamborn Wilson Peter Ploughing the clouds The search for Irish Soma City Lights 1999 Singh Upinder 2008 A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India From the Stone Age to the 12th century Pearson Education India ISBN 978 81 317 1120 0 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Soma drink amp oldid 1060538512, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

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