fbpx
Wikipedia

Somali Civil War

This article needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(June 2020)

The Somali Civil War (Somali: Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya; Arabic:الحرب الأهلية الصومالية‎) is an ongoing civil war which is taking place in Somalia. It grew out of resistance to the military junta which was led by Siad Barre during the 1980s. From 1988 to 1990, the Somali Armed Forces began engaging in combat against various armed rebel groups, including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast, the Somali National Movement in the northwest, and the United Somali Congress in the south. The clan-based armed opposition groups overthrew the Barre government in 1991.

Somali Civil War
Part of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa and the War on terror

Map of the current phase of the Somali Civil War
Date1991 (disputed) – present
Location
Result

Ongoing conflict

Territorial
changes
Somaliland declares independence; Somalia loses 27.6% of its territory
Belligerents

1986–91:
Somali Democratic Republic (until 1991)

Allied rebel groups:

  • SNF (after 1991)

1986–91:
Armed rebel groups:

1992–95:
United Nations

1992–93:

2006

Supported by:
USA

2006

Islamic Courts Union

2006–09:
Transitional Federal Government
Ethiopia
AMISOM
Allied armed groups:

2006–09:
Al-Shabaab
Oromo Liberation Front
Ras Kamboni Brigades (from 2007)
Jabhatul Islamiya (from 2007)

Muaskar Anole (from 2007)
2009–present:
Federal Government of Somalia
AMISOM
Supported by:
Turkey
Italy
United States (limited support)
United Kingdom

Note: Al Shabaab opposes Islamic State in Somalia

2009–present:
Al-Qaeda


ISIL (from 2015)

Casualties and losses
Casualties:
300,000 (SFG)–500,000+ (AFP)
Displaced:
1.1 million+

Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed, particularly in the south. In 1990–92, customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting. This precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I UN military observers in July 1992, followed by larger peacekeeping forces. Factional fighting continued in the south. In the absence of a central government, Somalia became a "failed state". The UN withdrew in 1995, having incurred large casualties and the UN-created police force collapsed. After the central government's collapse, there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions. In 1991 and 1998, two autonomous regional governments were also established in the northern part of the country. This led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting, with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for 1997 and 1998.

In 2000, the Transitional National Government was established, followed by the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) in 2004. The trend toward reduced conflict halted in 2005, and sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005–07, but the battle was of a much lower scale and intensity than in the early 1990s. In 2006, Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union (ICU). The ICU then splintered into more radical groups, notably al-Shabaab, which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU-mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country. Somalia topped the annual Fragile States Index for six years from 2008 up to and including 2013.

In October 2011, following preparatory meetings, Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia ("Operation Linda Nchi") to fight al-Shabaab and establish a buffer zone inside Somalia. Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012. The Federal Government of Somalia was established in August 2012, constituting the country's first permanent central government since the start of the civil war. International stakeholders and analysts subsequently began to describe Somalia as a "fragile state" that is making some progress toward stability.

Contents

After Somalia lost the Ogaden War in March 1978, the president's popularity with Somalis plummeted and widespread discontent among his generals led to an attempted coup d'état on the 10th of April 1978.

Most of the coup's ringleaders were rounded up and executed but some escaped and formed the Somali Salvation Democratic Front, starting the rebellion that eventually toppled Siad Barre from power 13 years later.

In May 1986, Mohamed Siad Barre suffered serious injuries in a car crash near Mogadishu, when the car transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm. He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries, broken ribs and shock for a month. Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar, then Vice President, served as de facto head of state for the next several months. Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself for reelection to a seven-year term on December 23, 1986, his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him. Possible contenders included his son-in-law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille, then the Minister of the Interior, in addition to Samatar.

In an effort to hold on to power, Barre's ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) became increasingly totalitarian and arbitrary. This caused opposition to his government to grow. Barre tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism, relying more and more on his own inner circle, and exploiting historical clan animosities. By the mid-1980s, more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia's communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country. Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as supporting the guerrillas, especially in the north. The clampdown included the bombing of cities, with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa, a Somali National Movement (SNM) stronghold, among the targeted areas in 1988.

In December 1981, unrest was triggered in Northern Somalia by the arrest of 30 Isaaq professionals in Hargeisa who created a self-help group to improve local facilities. This was followed by the systematic efforts to remove all Isaaqs from positions of power including the military, judiciary and security services, as well as harsh policies enacted against the Isaaq, including a declaration of economic warfare on the Isaaq. The transfer of power to non-Isaaq pro-government individuals further pushed Isaaq communities to rebel against Barre's regime and was one of the main causes of the breakout of the Somaliland War of Independence.

A destroyed M47 Patton in Somaliland, left behind wrecked from the Somaliland War of Independence.

In 1988, Siad Barre and Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam agreed to a secret deal whereby each would cease hosting insurgencies of one another. As a result, prompting the Somali National Movement (SNM) to launch an offensive on Northern Somalia from its bases on the Ethiopian border. Barre's regime responded with “systematic” human rights abuses and the genocide of thousands of Isaaq tribesmen resulting in up to 200,000 civilians slaughtered and 500,000 more people seeking refuge in neighbouring Ethiopia.

In response to these humanitarian abuses, Western aid donors cut funding to the Somali regime which, at the time, was heavily reliant on foreign aid. This resulted in a rapid "retreat of the state", accompanied by a severe drop in value for the Somali Shilling and mass military desertion by Somali army units.

In 1990, as fighting intensified, Somalia's first President, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation. A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested. Barre's heavy-handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements, although these groups' only common goal was the overthrow of his government. It also played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia.

In the north, fighting continued between SNM rebels and heavily armed pro-government militia in places like Awdal. In January 1991, in one of the final episodes of the civil war in the north, SNM militia gave chase to retreating government forces (26th Division) to the town of Dilla, where a battle took place and the town was destroyed. SNM militia then continued into Borama, the capital and largest town of Awdal, but the SNM leadership withdrew units within 24 hours to allow discussions to take place without the threat of occupation. By February 4, SNM's control extended to the entire north of Somalia, and all prisoners and pro-government ex-soldiers were released and ordered to return to their regions of origin (mainly Ethiopia), except for Hawiye ex-soldiers and ex-civil servants, who were permitted to remain in Burco since their lives would have been at risk if they had traveled through hostile pro-Barre country on their return to Mogadishu Somalia.

Three knocked-out Somali National Army (SNA) M47 Patton medium tanks left abandoned near a warehouse, photographed by U.S. forces in December 1993.

By mid-1990, United Somali Congress (USC) rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu, which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title 'Mayor of Mogadishu.' In December the USC entered Mogadishu. Four weeks of battle between Barre's remaining troops and the USC ensued, during which the USC brought more forces into the city. By January 1991, USC rebels defeated the Red Berets, Barre's special forces, toppling Barre's hold on the government. The remainder of the government's forces then finally collapsed. Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias. After the USC's victory over Barre's troops, the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it, as each instead drew primary support from its own constituency. Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement (SPM) and Somali Democratic Alliance (SDA), a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia. For its part, the SNM initially refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisional government that the USC had established, but in March 1991 the SNM's former leader Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo proposed a power-sharing framework between the SNM and USC under a new transitional government.

Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ousting of Barre's government. In the south, armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed, in particular, clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital.

In the northwest, at the Burao conference of April–May 1991, the SNM declared an independent Republic of Somaliland in the region that had constituted the British Somaliland before independence and unification with the former colony of Italian Somaliland in 1960 electing Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as president.

In 1992, after four months of heavy fighting for control of Mogadishu, a ceasefire was agreed between Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Mohamed Farah Aideed. Neither had seized control of the capital, and as a result, a 'greenline' was established between east and westthat divided their areas of control.

Main articles: UNITAF and UNOSOM II

UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I (UNOSOM I), to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government.

An American soldier at the main entrance to the Port of Mogadishu points to identify a sniper's possible firing position (January 1994).

United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on December 3, 1992, which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States. Forming the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN. Landing in 1993, the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two-year United Nations Operation in Somalia II (UNOSOM II) primarily in the south. UNITAF's original mandate was to use "all necessary means" to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter.

During negotiations from 1993 to 1995, Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities. Among these initiatives was the Mudug peace agreement of June 1993 between Aidid's forces and the SSDF, which established a ceasefire between the Haber Gedir and the Majeerteen clans, opened the trade routes, and formalized the withdrawal of militants from Galkayo; the UNOSOM-mediated Hirab reconciliation of January 1994 in Mogadishu between elders of the rival Abgal and Haber Gedir clans, which was backed by politicians from these constituencies and concluded with a pact to end hostilities, dismantle the green line partitioning the city, and remove road blocks; the UNOSOM-mediated Kismayo initiative of 1994 between the SNA, SPM, SSDF, and representatives of nineteen clans from the southern Lower Juba and Middle Juba regions; the 1994 Bardhere conference between the Marehan and Rahanweyn (Digil and Mirifle), which resolved conflicts over local resources; and the short-lived Digil-Mirifle Governing Council for the southern Bay and Bakool regions, which was established in March 1995.

Some of the militias that were then competing for power saw UNOSOM's presence as a threat to their hegemony. Consequently, gun battles took place in Mogadishu between local gunmen and peacekeepers. Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu in October 1993, an unsuccessful attempt by U.S. troops to apprehend faction leader Aidid. UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on March 3, 1995, having incurred more significant casualties.

After UNOSOM II's departure in March 1995, military clashes between local factions became shorter, generally less intense, and more localized. This was in part due to the large-scale UN military intervention that had helped to curb the intense fighting between the major factions, who then began to focus on consolidating gains that they had made. The local peace and reconciliation initiatives that had been undertaken in the south-central part of the country between 1993 and 1995 also generally had a positive impact.

Aidid subsequently declared himself President of Somalia on June 15, 1995. However, his declaration received no recognition, as his rival Ali Mahdi Muhammad had already been elected interim President at a conference in Djibouti and recognized as such by the international community.

Consequently, Aidid's faction continued its quest for hegemony in the south. In September 1995, militia forces loyal to him attacked and occupied the city of Baidoa. Aidid's forces remained in control of Baidoa from September 1995 to at least January 1996, while the local Rahanweyn Resistance Army militia continued to engage his forces in the town's environs.

Fighting continued in the later half of 1995 in southern Kismayo and the Juba Valley, as well as southwestern and central Somalia. However, despite these pockets of conflict, the Gedo and Middle Shabelle regions, and northwestern parts of the country remained relatively peaceful. A number of the regional and district administrations that had been locally established in the preceding few years continued to operate in these areas. In 1994-95, factions contending for power in the newly-declared-independent Somaliland region included the United Somalia Front, the Somalia Democratic Front, the Somali National Movement, and the United Somali Party.

In March 1996, Ali Mahdi was elected chairman of the United Somali Congress/Somali Salvation Alliance (USC/SSA), based in northern Mogadishu. In the southern part of city, Aidid's forces battled those of Osman Atto for control of the port of Merca as well as strategic areas in Mogadishu. Fighting in Merca eventually ended after elders intervened, but continued in Mogadishu. In August 1996, Aidid died from wounds incurred during combat in the Medina area.

In 1998, a homegrown constitutional conference was held in the northeastern town of Garowe over a period of three months. It was attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives. The Puntland State of Somalia was subsequently established.

In 1999, Eritrea was alleged to be supporting Somali National Alliance forces led by the late Aidid's son Hussein Farrah Aidid. Aidid Jr. denied the claims, saying that the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi had requested that he mediate between Ethiopia and Eritrea in their separate conflict. However the International Institute for Strategic Studies separately reported that Hussein Aideed himself had acknowledged support from both Eritrea and Uganda. Aideed's forces occupied Baidoa in May 1999. However they were driven out by the Rahanweyn Resistance Army in June 1999, backed by an Ethiopian force of up to 3,000 using tanks and artillery. The attack was part of a strategy to prevent Eritrea opening up a new front. By the end of the year, the Rahanweyn Resistance Army had taken control of the southern Bay and Bakool provinces. The RRA's leader Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud subsequently established the Southwestern State of Somalia regional administration.

In 2000, Ali Mahdi participated in another conference in Djibouti. He lost a re-election bid there to Barre's former Interior Minister Abdiqasim Salad Hassan.

Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government, established in 2004

In 2000, the Transitional National Government (TNG) was established. The Transitional Federal Government (TFG) was formed in Nairobi in 2004. Selection of members of parliament was underway by June, over two hundred members of parliament (MPs) took the oath of office in August, and Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected president by the parliament in October 2004. However, in March 2005 the TFG split after a brawl in parliament over deployment of peacekeepers and relocation to an interim capital. The parliamentary speaker led some members to Mogadishu while the president and others remained in Nairobi. In June 2005, under pressure from Kenya, the remainder of the TFG left Nairobi for Jowhar. In February 2006, the TFG parliament met in Baidoa for the first time since March 2005. (Interpeace, 104)

A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT, a coalition of U.S.-backed militia leaders, confronted the ascendant Islamic Courts Union (ICU). However, the ICU won a decisive victory in June of that year. It then rapidly expanded and consolidated its power throughout southern Somalia. By August 2006, the TFG was confined to Baidoa under Ethiopian protection. (Interpeace, 104)

In December 2006, Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union, initially winning the Battle of Baidoa. With their support, Somali government forces recaptured the capital from the ICU. The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule. On January 8, 2007, as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged, TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office. But as Meckhaus writes, the TFG was seen "by most of the Mogadishu population as a puppet of Ethiopia, and uncontrolled TFG security forces became the principal sources of insecurity for the local population, engaging in kidnapping, assaults, and worse." Within weeks, an armed insurgency subsequently arose in the capital against the TFG and its Ethiopian allies. The government then relocated to the capital from its interim location in Baidoa.

The arms embargo on Somalia was amended in February 2007 to allow states to supply weapons to the TFG's security forces, provided that they received prior approval from the UN's Somalia Sanctions Committee. After long discussions, the African Union approved the initial deployment of the African Union Mission to Somalia (AMISOM) in March 2007. It established a "small triangle of protection" around Mogadishu's airport, seaport, and the Villa Somalia, and began to adopt a low-key negotiating profile with key actors. In November 2008, following repeated violations of the weapons blockade, the Security Council decided that an arms embargo could be imposed on entities involved in such breaches. After a two-year consultation process, the TFG was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD). The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions (TFIs), and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as president. The TFG thereafter became Somalia's internationally recognized government.

Political situation in Somalia following the Ethiopian military withdrawal, February 3, 2009

Following their defeat, the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions. Some of the more radical elements, including Al-Shabaab, regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military's presence in Somalia. Throughout 2007 and 2008, Al-Shabaab scored military victories, seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia. At the end of 2008, the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu. On May 1, 2008, the U.S. made an airstrike on Dhusamareb, and followed on 3 May with another airstrike on the border town of Dobley. According to the International Crisis Group, Ethiopia's leaders were surprised by the insurgency's persistence and strength and frustrated at the TFG's chronic internal problems. By January 2009, Al-Shabaab and other militias had forced the Ethiopian troops to retreat, leaving behind an understaffed African Union peacekeeping force.

Due to a lack of funding and human resources, an arms embargo that made it difficult to re-establish a national security force, and general indifference on the part of the international community,[citation needed] President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country. Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region's government. This left little revenue for Puntland's own security forces and civil service employees, leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks.

On December 29, 2008, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia. In his speech, which was broadcast on national radio, Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country's seventeen-year conflict as his government had mandated to do. He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government, and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government.

The battle flag of Al-Shabaab, an Islamist group waging war against the federal government

Between May 31 and June 9, 2008, representatives of Somalia's federal government and the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS) participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia, Ahmedou Ould-Abdallah. The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation. Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members, which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, the former ARS chairman, to office. President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, as the nation's new Prime Minister.

With the help of AMISOM, the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country. To solidify its rule, the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union, other members of the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia, and Ahlu Sunna Waljama'a, a moderate Sufi militia. Furthermore, Al-Shabaab and Hizbul Islam, the two main Islamist groups in opposition, began to fight amongst themselves in mid-2009.

As a truce, in March 2009, Somalia's coalition government announced that it would re-implement shari'a as the nation's official judicial system. However, conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country. Within months, the coalition government had gone from holding about 70% of south-central Somalia's conflict zones, territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration, to losing control of over 80% of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents.

In November 2010, a new technocratic government was elected to office, which enacted numerous reforms. Among these, in its first 50 days in office, the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers. This government subsequently began to push back Al-Shabaab over the following years.

On August 6, 2011, Al-Shabaab was forced to withdraw from most of Mogadishu. Al-Shabaab did still retain a foothold in the northern outskirts of the capital, but by January 2012, the combined efforts of Somali government and AMISOM forces had expelled them from the city completely. An ideological rift within Al-Shabaab's leadership also emerged after the 2011 drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization. With the majority of Mogadishu secure, the Somali Armed Forces and Kenya Defence Forces next launched Operation Linda Nchi, a joint advance against Al-Shabaab, in October 2011. This operation had reportedly been planned for nearly two years, during which time Kenyan officials sought U.S. support for the mission. After the successful conclusion of Operation Linda Nchi in May 2012, Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM in June. After Operation Linda Nchi, the port city of Kismayo was the last major stronghold that remained in Al-Shabaab's control. A Kenyan-led AMISOM force, backed by the Raskamboni movement, then launched an offensive against Kismayo on September 28, 2012. After a three-day battle, Somali government forces were able to gain control of the city. The month of September 2012 also saw the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia.

In January 2013, AMISOM's mandate was extended for another year following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093. The Security Council also unanimously voted to suspend Somalia's arms embargo on light weapons for one year and welcomed the Federal Government's development of a new national security strategy, urging the central authorities to accelerate the plan's implementation, further define the Somali national security forces' composition, and identify capability gaps to assist their international partners in better addressing them. While many urban areas had been seized, Al-Shabaab still controlled many rural areas, where a number of their operatives disappeared into local communities in order to more effectively exploit any mistakes by the central authorities.

In October 2013, the U.S. Africa Command began establishing the Mogadishu Coordinating Cell, which became fully operational in late December. The unit was formed at the request of the Somali government and AMISOM, who had approached U.S. Department of Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in September about the possibility. It consists of a team of fewer than five advisers, including planners and communicators between the Somali authorities and AMISOM. The cell is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces to enhance their capacity and promote peace and security throughout the country and region. In November 2013, a senior Ethiopian government official announced that Ethiopia's troops deployed in Somalia would soon join AMISOM, having already forwarded a request to do so. At the time, an estimated 8,000 Ethiopian soldiers were stationed in the country. The Somali Foreign Ministry welcomed the decision, asserting that the move would galvanize AMISOM's campaign against Al-Shabaab.

Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2124, which authorized the deployment of 4,000 additional troops to augment AMISOM's 22,126 strong force, Ethiopian troops formally joined the mission in January 2014. They are mandated to work alongside the Somali National Army, with responsibility for the allied forces' operations in the southern Gedo, Bakool and Bay regions. The Ethiopian troops represent AMISOM's sixth contingent after the Djibouti, Burundi, Sierra Leone, Kenya and Uganda units.

In January 2014, at an African Union Summit in Addis Ababa, President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud requested an extension of the UN Security Council's weapons purchasing mandate for Somalia after its March expiration, saying that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants. The following month, the UN Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group reported that systematic abuses by Somali government officials had allowed weapons to be diverted away from Somalia's security forces into the hands of faction leaders and Al-Shabaab militants. The panel had observed various problems with the management of weapons and ammunition stockpiles, including difficulties by monitors in accessing local weapons stockpiles and obtaining information about the arms. The monitors also suggested that one key adviser to the president was involved in planning arms deliveries to Al-Shabaab and that shipments of weapons from Djibouti and Uganda could not be accounted for. Somali Chief of Army Dahir Adan Elmi made a pro forma denial of the allegations. He also said that a UN monitoring team had twice visited the government's weapons and ammunition storage facilities in Mogadishu, where it was shown the arms stockpiles for inspection and had expressed satisfaction. Elmi said that the government had twice purchased weapons since the arms embargo on Somalia was partially lifted. He also asserted that Al-Shabaab already had an adequate supply of weapons and mainly utilized explosive devices and sophisticated bombs.

Political situation in Somalia in July 2017

In February 2014, a delegation led by Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed met in Addis Ababa with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn to discuss strengthening relations between the countries. Ahmed commended Ethiopia's role in the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia as well as its opposition to Al-Shabaab, and welcomed the Ethiopian military's decision to join AMISOM. Desalegn in turn pledged his administration's continued support for Somalia's peace and stabilization efforts, as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up Somali security forces through experience-sharing and training. The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation, including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force.

On 5 March 2014, the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend the partial easing of the arms embargo on Somalia to 25 October. The resolution permitted the Somali government to purchase light weapons, with the stipulation that all member states must take steps to prevent the direct or indirect supply, transfer or sale of arms and military equipment to individuals or entities outside of the Somali security forces. The Somali government was also required to routinely report on the structural status of the military, as well as provide information on the extant infrastructure and protocols designed to ensure the military equipment's safe delivery, storage and maintenance.

In early March 2014, AMISOM, supported by Somali militias, launched another operation to remove Al-Shabaab from its remaining areas of control in southern Somalia. According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed, the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas, which included Rab Dhuure, Hudur, Wajid and Burdhubo. The Ministry of Defense provided ongoing reassurance and security to local residents, and supplied logistical and security support. Additionally, the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security. A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government's stabilization initiatives. By March 26, the allied forces had liberated ten towns, including Qoryoley and El Buur. UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007.

In August 2014, the Somali government-led Operation Indian Ocean was launched, aiming to reduce insurgent-held areas along the coastline. On 1 September 2014, a U.S. drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al-Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr. U.S. authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al-Shabaab, and the Somali government offered a 45-day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group.

On 15 December 2018 there were demonstrations in the city of Baidoa by supporters of Mukhtar Rowbow, a presidential candidate who had been arrested two days earlier by government forces and transferred to Mogadishu. Rowbow was a senior member of al-Shabaab. AMISOM announced that its forces did not assist in Rowbow's arrest and his transfer to Mogadishu.

From the beginning of 2020, humanitarian researchers and local medical personnel became increasingly concerned that the COVID-19 pandemic could be catastrophic for Somalis, because of the damage the civil war has wrought on Somalia's health care, and weak provision since the 1980s. On 25 November 2020, it was reported that a CIA officer had been killed in Somalia. The death came as the US administration under Donald Trump was making plans to withdraw more than 600 troops from Somalia.

President Donald Trump ordered the Department of Defense to remove the majority of the 700 U.S. troops in Somalia (many from Special Operations Command Africa) in December 2020. He changed the mission of American troops to assist the Somali Armed Forces in its fight against al-Shabab.

When President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed's term expired in February 2021, dates had not been set for the election of a successor, and fighting subsequently broke out in Mogadishu. This fighting continued until May 2021, when the government and opposition agreed to hold elections within 60 days; after further negotiation, the presidential election was scheduled for October 10.

According to Necrometrics, around 500,000 people are estimated to have been killed in Somalia since the start of the civil war in 1991. The Armed Conflict Location & Event Dataset estimates that 3,300 people were killed during the conflict in 2012, with the number of fatalities dropping slightly in 2013 to 3,150.

  1. Various start dates have been offered for when the civil war in Somalia began. The Central Bank of Somalia, the United Nations, the US Office of the Secretary of Defense, and Necrometrics all assert that the conflict started in 1991, after the ouster of the Siad Barre administration. Political scientist James Fearon argues that the start of the conflict could be dated to 1981, when armed Isaaq clan militias began to launch small-scale attacks against the Barre regime and its Isaaq members, to the razing of the Isaaq majority town of Hargeisa in 1988 by state forces, or to 1991, following the collapse of the Barre administration and the commencement of interclan warfare. For analytical purposes, he settles on 1991 for the start date of a new civil war, on the grounds that the fighting had begun previously, but that a major party to the conflict was defeated. Robinson writes that the "civil war had effectively begun by 1987", referring to Compagnon.
  1. Kenya: Seven Oromo Liberation Front Fighters Held in Garissa Allafrica.com (Daily Nation), January 6, 2007
  2. Liddon, Paul (July 13, 2019). "The significance of Turkey's overseas military bases". AhvalNews. RetrievedApril 17, 2021.
  3. "US special forces base, Italian army convoy attacked in Somalia". Al Jazeera. September 30, 2019.
  4. "Al-Shabaab leader's fate unclear after suspected U.S. drone strike". CNN. Archived from the original on June 30, 2015. RetrievedSeptember 2, 2014.
  5. "U.S. drone strike in Somalia targets al-Shabab leader". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 19, 2017. RetrievedSeptember 12, 2017.
  6. "First British troops arrive in Somalia as part of UN mission". The Guardian. May 2, 2016. Archived from the original on May 2, 2016. RetrievedMay 2, 2016.
  7. "Exclusive: Eritrea reduces support for al Shabaab – U.N. report". Reuters. July 16, 2012.
  8. "How does 'poor' Eritrea afford to fund Al-Shabaab?". Africa Review. November 8, 2011. Archived from the original on October 12, 2017. RetrievedJuly 5, 2017.
  9. "ISIL's First East African Affiliate Conducts Attacks in Somalia, Kenya". DefenseNews. December 29, 2015.
  10. "Somalia: Pro-ISIL militants, Al Shabaab clash in deadly Puntland infighting". Garowe Online. December 24, 2015. Archived from the original on January 26, 2016. RetrievedJanuary 28, 2016.
  11. "Board of Directors". Central Bank of Somalia. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. RetrievedMay 3, 2015.
  12. "UN senior official calls for widespread support for Somali Government reform efforts"(PDF). United Nations. Archived(PDF) from the original on October 4, 2015. RetrievedMay 3, 2015.
  13. "Somalia - UNOSOM II: Background". United Nations. Archived from the original on January 15, 2017. RetrievedMay 3, 2015.
  14. "Richard B. Cheney - George H.W. Bush Administration". US Office of the Secretary of Defense. Archived from the original on May 18, 2015. RetrievedMay 3, 2015.
  15. "Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides". Users.erols.com. Archived from the original on April 26, 2011. RetrievedApril 20, 2011.
  16. Fearon, James D. (2004). "Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others?". Journal of Peace Research. 41 (3): 275–301. CiteSeerX10.1.1.19.3818. doi:10.1177/0022343304043770. S2CID 7158376.
  17. Robinson, Colin (2016). "Revisiting the rise and fall of the Somali Armed Forces, 1960–2012". Defense & Security Analysis. 32 (3): 237–252. doi:10.1080/14751798.2016.1199122. S2CID 156874430.
  18. c.f. UCDP datasets Archived June 28, 2013, at the Wayback Machine for SNA, SRRC, USC, SNM, ARS/UIC and Al-Shabaab tolls.
  19. UCDP non-state conflict Archived March 4, 2016, at the Wayback Machine tolls
  20. "UNHCR report: More displaced now than after WWII". Archived from the original on January 20, 2018. RetrievedJanuary 24, 2018.
  21. Ken Menkhaus, 'Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa,' in Andersen/Moller/Stepputat (eds.) , Fragile States and Insecure People,' Palgrave, 2007, 73. Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  22. Legum, Colin (1989). Africa Contemporary Record: Annual Survey and Documents, Volume 20. Africa Research Limited. p. B-394. Archived from the original on January 25, 2015. RetrievedNovember 12, 2016.
  23. Bongartz, Maria (1991). The civil war in Somalia: its genesis and dynamics. Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. p. 24. Archived from the original on January 25, 2015. RetrievedNovember 12, 2016.
  24. Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. RetrievedOctober 5, 2011.
  25. Central Intelligence Agency (2011). "Somalia - Government - Judicial branch". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on May 19, 2015. RetrievedMay 2, 2015.
  26. Ken Menkhaus, "Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa," Fragile States and Insecure People, 2007, 73.
  27. Jamal, Ahmad Rashid. "Identifying Causes of State failure: The Case of Somalia". Universität Konstanz Politik- und Verwaltungswissenschaften. Archived from the original on May 22, 2015. RetrievedMay 22, 2015.; Fergusson, James (January 13, 2013). "Somalia: A failed state is back from the dead". The Independent. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.; Anderson, Jon Lee (December 14, 2009). "The Most Failed State". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on March 28, 2015. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  28. Central Intelligence Agency (2003). "Somalia - Government - Judicial branch". The World Factbook. Langley, Virginia: Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  29. In 2007, Menkhaus wrote that 'armed conflict in Somalia has generally subsided since the early 1990s. Armed clashes continue to break out, but are nowhere near the scale and intensity of the fighting that destroyed Hargeisa in 1988–89 or Mogadishu in 1991–92.' Menkhaus, FSIP, 2007, 75.
  30. Menkhaus 2007, op. cit., 76.
  31. Messner, J.J. (June 24, 2014). "Failed States Index 2014: Somalia Displaced as Most-Fragile State". The Fund for Peace. Archived from the original on May 4, 2015. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  32. "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". Reuters. October 16, 2011. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. RetrievedMay 2, 2015.
  33. United Nations Security Council, Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2002 (2011), S/2012/544, p.226
  34. "Kenya – KDF". AMIS. Archived from the original on April 2, 2013. RetrievedMay 5, 2015.
  35. "Communiqué on Secretary-General's Mini-Summit on Somalia". United Nations. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. RetrievedMay 18, 2015.
  36. Balthasar, Dominik (November 19, 2014). "New Approaches Are Needed for State-Building in Somalia". Fair Observer. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. RetrievedJune 26, 2015.
  37. Messner, J. J. (June 24, 2013). "Failed States Index 2013: What Were You Expecting?". The Fund for Peace. Archived from the original on June 26, 2015. RetrievedJune 26, 2015.
  38. "The European Union announces more than €124 million to increase security in Somalia". European Commissioner. Archived from the original on May 24, 2015. RetrievedMay 22, 2015.
  39. Kay, Nicholas. "Somalia's Year of Delivery". Goobjoog. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. RetrievedMay 22, 2015.
  40. World of Information (Firm), Africa Review, (World of Information: 1987), p.213.
  41. Arthur S. Banks, Thomas C. Muller, William Overstreet, Political Handbook of the World 2008, (CQ Press: 2008), p.1198.
  42. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.). Committee on Human Rights, Institute of Medicine (U.S.). Committee on Health and Human Rights, Scientists and human rights in Somalia: report of a delegation, (National Academies: 1988), p.9.
  43. "Somalia — Government". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on July 4, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2014.
  44. Nannini, Vance J. Decisions in Operations Other Than War: The United States Intervention in Somalia.
  45. Kapteijns, Lidwien (December 18, 2012). Clan Cleansing in Somalia: The Ruinous Legacy of 1991. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-0758-3.
  46. Balthasar, Dominik (July 26, 2017). "State-making at Gunpoint: The Role of Violent Conflict in Somaliland's March to Statehood". Civil Wars. 19: 65–86. doi:10.1080/13698249.2017.1343411. ISSN 1369-8249. S2CID 149160219.
  47. Somalia : a country study. Metz, Helen Chapin, 1928-, Library of Congress. Federal Research Division., Thomas Leiper Kane Collection (Library of Congress. Hebraic Section) (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. 1993. ISBN 0-8444-0775-5. OCLC 27642849.CS1 maint: others (link)
  48. Menkhaus, Ken (April 2011). "Somalia and the Horn of Africa". World Bank.
  49. Bloomfield, Steve (June 11, 2007). "Aden Abdulle Osman — First President of Somalia". The Independent. Archived from the original on December 21, 2013. RetrievedDecember 21, 2013.
  50. Horn of Africa Bulletin, Volumes 3–4. Life & Peace Institute. 1991. p. 14. Archived from the original on May 19, 2014. RetrievedNovember 12, 2016.
  51. Renders, Marleen (January 20, 2012). Consider Somaliland: State-Building with Traditional Leaders and Institutions. BRILL. ISBN 978-90-04-21848-2.
  52. Walls, Michael (2011). State formation in Somaliland: Bringing deliberation to institutionalism. University College London.
  53. Walls, Michael (July 1, 2009). "The Emergence of a Somali State: Building Peace from Civil War in Somaliland". African Affairs. 108 (432): 371–389. doi:10.1093/afraf/adp019. ISSN 0001-9909.
  54. Drysdale, John Gordon Stewart (1991). Somaliland 1991: Report and Reference. Global-Stats.
  55. Adam, Hussein (1998). Somalia: Personal Rule, Military Rule and Militarism (in) Hutchful and Bathily, The Military and Militarism in Africa. Dakar: Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa (CODESRIA). p. 389. ISBN 978-2-86978-069-9.
  56. Nina J. Fitzgerald, Somalia: issues, history, and bibliography, (Nova Publishers: 2002), p.19.
  57. Ciisa-Salwe, Cabdisalaam M. (1996). The collapse of the Somali state: the impact of the colonial legacy. HAAN Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 978-1874209911. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. RetrievedNovember 12, 2016.
  58. Silanyo, Ahmed M. "A Proposal to the Somali National Movement: On a Framework for a Transitional Government in Somalia"(PDF). Wardheernews. Archived from the original(PDF) on May 11, 2012. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2014.
  59. Library Information and Research Service, The Middle East: Abstracts and index, Volume 2, (Library Information and Research Service: 1999), p.327.
  60. Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 13–14. Archived February 22, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
  61. Clancy, Tom; Tony Zinni; Tony Koltz (2005).Battle Ready:Study in Command Commander Series. Penguin. pp. 234–236. ISBN 978-0-425-19892-6.
  62. Map of Mogadishu Green Line
  63. Mohamed Ahmed Jama, “Securing Mogadishu: Neighbourhood Watches,” in Whose Peace is it anyway? Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking Approaches, Accord 21, Conciliation Resources, 2010, 66.
  64. Ken Rutherford, Humanitarianism Under Fire: The US and UN Intervention in Somalia, Kumarian Press, July 2008 ISBN 1-56549-260-9
  65. "United Nations Operation In Somalia I – (Unosom I)". United Nations. Archived from the original on April 8, 2011. RetrievedJanuary 29, 2012.
  66. For further details on UNOSOM-sponsored local-level community-based reconciliation conferences, see Menkhaus, 'International Peacebuilding and the Dynamics of Local and National Reconciliation in Somalia,' International Peacekeeping, Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring 1996, 52.
  67. See also Report of the Secretary-General on Somalia, S/1995/231 (March 28, 1995).
  68. "Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia (S/1996/42)"(PDF). January 19, 1996. Archived(PDF) from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 14, 2014., page 2, paragraph 7.
  69. Djibouti Conference Archived March 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  70. Associated Press (September 19, 1995). "Aidid troops kill Somalis, capture city". The Register-Guard. Archived from the original on September 11, 2015. RetrievedMay 16, 2013.
  71. S/1996/42, 26, 27, 28, 29
  72. Air Command and Staff College, Combatant Commands Informational Series: Central Command: Somalia: Fielded Forces, drawing on the International Institute for Strategic Studies, Military Balance 1994-95.
  73. Report of the Secretary-General on the Situation in Somalia, S/1997/135, February 17, 1997, paragraphs 6,7, and 9. For later occurrences 1997 to 2000, see S/1997/715, S/1999/882, and S/2000/1211 (December 19, 2000).
  74. Somalia: Puntland's Experience in Peace-building and State-building[dead link]
  75. "Somalia: IRIN interview with Hussein Aideed, 5/4/99". IRIN. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. RetrievedApril 19, 2014.
  76. Strategic Survey 1999-2000, 264.
  77. "August 2000 – Somalia". Rulers. Archived from the original on October 29, 2013. RetrievedOctober 6, 2013.
  78. Interpeace, 'The search for peace: A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988,' Interpeace, May 2009, 59-60
  79. Interpeace, May 2009, 60-61.
  80. "Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia". Globalpolicy.org. August 14, 2007. Archived from the original on September 10, 2009. RetrievedJune 27, 2010.
  81. "Profile: Somali's newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed". News.xinhuanet.com. December 29, 2008. Archived from the original on November 15, 2013. RetrievedSeptember 5, 2013.
  82. Ken Menkhaus, 'Somalia: What went wrong?' The RUSI Journal, Vol. 154, No. 4, August 2009, 8. Menkhaus says in addition: '[f]or details, see Human Rights Watch, 'Shell-shocked: Civilians under siege in Mogadishu,' Archived September 17, 2014, at the Wayback Machine August 13, 2007, and HRW, 'So Much to Fear: War Crimes and the Devastation of Somalia,' December 2008.'
  83. Interpeace, May 2009, 61.
  84. Wezeman, Pieter D. "Arms flows and conflict in Somalia"(PDF). SIPRI. Archived from the original(PDF) on June 2, 2013. RetrievedFebruary 10, 2014.
  85. "Background and Political Developments". AMISOM. Archived from the original on August 21, 2011. RetrievedFebruary 11, 2014.
  86. "Hardline Islamist Militia Group Shabbab Emerges in Somalia". Jamestown Foundation. August 8, 2006. Archived from the original on October 10, 2008.
  87. International Crisis Group, Somalia: To Move Beyond the Failed State, Africa Report N°147 – December 23, 2008, 25.
  88. "USCIRF Annual Report 2009 – The Commission's Watch List: Somalia". USCIRF. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2014.
  89. "Somalia: Guide to Puntland Election 2009". Garoweonline.com. December 25, 2008. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. RetrievedJune 12, 2011.
  90. "Opening Annual General Assembly Debate, Secretary-General Urges Member States to Press in Tackling Poverty, Terrorism, Human Rights Abuses, Conflicts". Unis.unvienna.org. Archived from the original on May 11, 2011. RetrievedJune 12, 2011.
  91. "Somalia's president quits office" Archived January 24, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, BBC News, December 29, 2008.
  92. "Somali President Yusuf resigns" Archived December 31, 2008, at the Wayback Machine, Reuters (FT.com), December 29, 2008.
  93. Kamaal says (May 22, 2010). "UN boss urges support for Somalia ahead of Istanbul summit". Horseedmedia.net. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. RetrievedJune 27, 2010.
  94. "Islamists break Somali port truce". BBC News. October 21, 2009. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. RetrievedJune 27, 2010.
  95. Shariah in Somalia Archived September 22, 2012, at the Wayback MachineArab News
  96. Online, Garowe (January 12, 2011). "Somalia President, Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term". Garoweonline.com. Archived from the original on May 14, 2011. RetrievedJune 12, 2011.
  97. "Security Council Meeting on Somalia". Somaliweyn.org. Archived from the original on January 5, 2014.
  98. "Al-Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu". Somalia Report. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 14, 2014.
  99. Chothia, Farouk (August 9, 2011). "Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al-Shabab?". BBC. Archived from the original on April 10, 2018. RetrievedJune 22, 2018.
  100. "Kenya launches offensive in Somalia". National Post. Reuters. October 16, 2011. Archived from the original on January 29, 2013. RetrievedFebruary 15, 2014.
  101. "Joint Communique – Operation Linda Nchi". Kenya High Commission, Tanzania. Archived from the original on August 16, 2012. RetrievedSeptember 25, 2013.
  102. "Somalia government supports Kenyan forces' mission". Standardmedia.co.ke. Archived from the original on March 14, 2012.
  103. Azikiwe, Abayomi (January 4, 2012). "Leaked cables confirm U.S. role in Somalia war". Pan-African News Wire. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 16, 2014.
  104. Anderson, David; McKnight, Jacob (2015). "Kenya at war: Al-Shabaab and its enemies in Eastern Africa". African Affairs. 114 (454): 1–27. doi:10.1093/afraf/adu082.
  105. "Kenya: Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister". Garowe Online. June 19, 2012. RetrievedJune 20, 2012.[dead link]
  106. Chonghaile, Clar Ni (September 28, 2012). "Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo". The Guardian. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. RetrievedSeptember 28, 2012.
  107. Williams, Paul D. Fighting for Peace in Somalia: A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission (AMISOM), 2007-2017, Oxford University Press, 2018.
  108. "United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093". Archived from the original on April 10, 2019. RetrievedApril 25, 2019. S/RES/2093 (2013), March 6, 2013
  109. Hammond, Laura (2013). "Somalia rising: things are starting to change for the world's longest failed state". Journal of Eastern African Studies. 7 (1): 183–193. doi:10.1080/17531055.2012.755316. S2CID 154479105.
  110. "U.S. military advisers deployed to Somalia to help African forces". Reuters. January 10, 2014. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  111. Martinez, Luis (January 10, 2014). "U.S. Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia: First Time Since Blackhawk Down". ABC News. Archived from the original on January 12, 2014. RetrievedJanuary 12, 2014.
  112. Tekle, Tesfa-Alem (November 12, 2013). "Somalia: Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia". Sudan Tribune. Archived from the original on January 13, 2014. RetrievedJanuary 12, 2014.
  113. Ali, Hassan (November 12, 2013). "Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration". Dalsan Radio. Archived from the original on December 2, 2013. RetrievedFebruary 16, 2014.
  114. "Comment on Ethiopian troops formally join AMISOM peacekeepers in Somalia". Foreign Affairs. February 14, 2014. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 16, 2014.
  115. "Ethiopian Forces formally integrated into AMISOM". AMISOM. Archived from the original on March 30, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 14, 2014.
  116. "Mohamud wants UN to extend weapons purchasing mandate". Sabahi. January 31, 2014. Archived from the original on February 21, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  117. "Somalia diverting arms to al-Shabab, UN report claims". BBC News. February 14, 2014. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  118. "Somali Government official denies U.N arms diversion allegations". Horseed Media. February 15, 2014. Archived from the original on February 16, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  119. "Federal government of Somalia denies the report issued by UN monitoring group". Goobjoog. February 15, 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  120. "SOMALIA: Military chief says UN Monitoring Group wants Al Shabab to become an endless project". Raxanreeb. February 17, 2014. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 18, 2014.
  121. "Ethiopia: The Prime Minister of Somalia On a Visit to Ethiopia". Government of Ethiopia. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. RetrievedFebruary 17, 2014.
  122. "UN Security Council Extends Arms Embargo lift on Somalia to eight months". Horseed Media. March 6, 2014. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. RetrievedMarch 6, 2014.
  123. Charbonneau, Louis (March 6, 2014). "U.N. extends partial easing of Somalia arms embargo to October". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. RetrievedMarch 6, 2014.
  124. "Somalia: Federal Govt, AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab". Garowe Online. March 11, 2014. Archived from the original on March 11, 2014. RetrievedMarch 11, 2014.
  125. "SOMALIA: PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts". Raxanreeb. March 12, 2014. Archived from the original on March 12, 2014. RetrievedMarch 12, 2014.
  126. "SOMALIA: The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe, Amisom head says". Raxanreeb. March 22, 2014. Archived from the original on March 22, 2014. RetrievedMarch 23, 2014.
  127. "SOMALIA: Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom". Raxanreeb. March 26, 2014. Archived from the original on March 26, 2014. RetrievedMarch 26, 2014.
  128. "Somalia, AU troops close in on key Shebab base". AFP. March 22, 2014. Archived from the original on March 23, 2014. RetrievedMarch 23, 2014.
  129. "SOMALIA: President says Godane is dead, now is the chance for the members of al-Shabaab to embrace peace". Raxanreeb. September 5, 2014. Archived from the original on September 6, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 6, 2014.
  130. "Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader". Associated Press. September 5, 2014. Archived from the original on September 6, 2014. RetrievedSeptember 6, 2014.
  131. "US Says Airstrike in Somalia Killed 8 Militants". Archived from the original on December 18, 2018. RetrievedDecember 17, 2018.
  132. "AU force in Somalia says not involved in ex-al-Shabaab arrest". Archived from the original on December 18, 2018. RetrievedDecember 17, 2018.
  133. Kleist, Nauja; Edle Ali, Abdirahman; Musa, Ahmed; Hassan, Mohammed Aden; Bradbury, Mark (April 1, 2020). "COVID-19: A Looming humanitarian disaster for Somali East Africa". Diaspora Humanitarianism in Complex Crises. Danish Institute for International Studies. RetrievedApril 1, 2020.
  134. Correspondent, Jim Sciutto, Chief National Security. "CIA officer killed in combat in Somalia". CNN. RetrievedNovember 26, 2020.
  135. https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/trump-orders-us-troops-somalia/story?id=74546220
  136. AfricaNews (May 27, 2021). "Somalia to hold elections within 60 days-Gov't says". Africanews. RetrievedMay 28, 2021.
  137. "Somalia to hold indirect presidential election October 10". Al Jazeera. RetrievedAugust 30, 2021.
  138. "Conflict Trends (No. 23) Real-time Analysis of African Political Violence, February 2014"(PDF). ACLED. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 16, 2014. RetrievedMarch 16, 2014.
  • Afyare Abdi Elmi. Understanding the Somalia conflagration: Identity, political Islam and peacebuilding. Pluto Press, 2010.
  • Barnes, Cedric, and Harun Hassan. "The rise and fall of Mogadishu's Islamic Courts". Journal of Eastern African Studies 1, no. 2 (2007): 151–160.
  • Bøås, Morten. "Returning to realities: a building-block approach to state and statecraft in Eastern Congo and Somalia". Conflict, Security & Development 10, no. 4 (2010): 443–464.
  • I. M. Lewis. A Modern History of the Somali: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, Athens: Ohio University Press, 2002, ISBN 978-0-8214-1495-8.
  • Jutta Bakonyi. "Authority and administration beyond the state: local governance in southern Somalia, 1995–2006", Journal of Eastern African Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2013.
  • Ken Menkhaus. Somalia: State collapse and the threat of terrorism. Adelphi Papers No. 364, Routledge, 2008.
  • McGregor, Andrew. "The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency". Terrorism Monitor, Volume V, Issue 8, April 26, 2007.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Somali Civil War.

Somali Civil War
Somali Civil War Language Watch Edit This article needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information June 2020 The Somali Civil War Somali Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya Arabic الحرب الأهلية الصومالية is an ongoing civil war which is taking place in Somalia It grew out of resistance to the military junta which was led by Siad Barre during the 1980s From 1988 to 1990 the Somali Armed Forces began engaging in combat against various armed rebel groups 21 including the Somali Salvation Democratic Front in the northeast 22 the Somali National Movement in the northwest 21 and the United Somali Congress in the south 23 The clan based armed opposition groups overthrew the Barre government in 1991 24 Somali Civil WarPart of the conflicts in the Horn of Africa and the War on terrorMap of the current phase of the Somali Civil War Somali government and Allies self declared state of Somaliland Al Shabaab and Allies Islamic State Tribal militia Somaliland Puntland Disputed territoryDate1991 disputed present nb 1 LocationSomaliaResultOngoing conflict Fall of the Supreme Revolutionary Council Consolidation of states Conflict between radical Islamists and the government De facto independence of Somaliland New government formed in 2012Territorial changesSomaliland declares independence Somalia loses 27 6 of its territoryBelligerents1986 91 Somali Democratic Republic until 1991 SNA Allied rebel groups SNF after 1991 1986 91 Armed rebel groups USC SNM SSDF SPM1992 95 United Nations UNOSOM I Unified Task Force UNOSOM II1992 93 USC2006 Alliance of WarlordsSupported by USA2006 Islamic Courts Union2006 09 Transitional Federal Government Ethiopia AMISOM Allied armed groups ARPCT Ahlu Sunna Waljama a2006 09 Al Shabaab Oromo Liberation Front 1 Ras Kamboni Brigades from 2007 Jabhatul Islamiya from 2007 Muaskar Anole from 2007 2009 present Federal Government of Somalia AMISOM Supported by Turkey 2 Italy 3 United States limited support 4 5 United Kingdom 6 Note Al Shabaab opposes Islamic State in Somalia2009 present Al Qaeda Al Shabaab Foreign Mujahideen Allegedly supported until 2011 by Eritrea 7 8 ISIL from 2015 9 10 Islamic State in SomaliaCasualties and lossesCasualties 300 000 SFG 500 000 AFP 15 18 19 Displaced 1 1 million 20 Various armed factions began competing for influence in the power vacuum and turmoil that followed particularly in the south 25 In 1990 92 customary law temporarily collapsed due to the fighting 26 This precipitated the arrival of UNOSOM I UN military observers in July 1992 followed by larger peacekeeping forces Factional fighting continued in the south In the absence of a central government Somalia became a failed state 27 The UN withdrew in 1995 having incurred large casualties and the UN created police force collapsed 25 After the central government s collapse there was some return to customary and religious law in most regions 28 In 1991 and 1998 two autonomous regional governments were also established in the northern part of the country 25 This led to a relative decrease in the intensity of the fighting with the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute removing Somalia from its list of major armed conflicts for 1997 and 1998 29 In 2000 the Transitional National Government was established followed by the Transitional Federal Government TFG in 2004 The trend toward reduced conflict halted in 2005 and sustained and destructive conflict took place in the south in 2005 07 30 but the battle was of a much lower scale and intensity than in the early 1990s 29 In 2006 Ethiopian troops seized most of the south from the newly formed Islamic Courts Union ICU The ICU then splintered into more radical groups notably al Shabaab which have since been fighting the Somali government and the AU mandated AMISOM peacekeeping force for control of the country Somalia topped the annual Fragile States Index for six years from 2008 up to and including 2013 31 In October 2011 following preparatory meetings Kenyan troops entered southern Somalia Operation Linda Nchi to fight al Shabaab 32 and establish a buffer zone inside Somalia 33 Kenyan troops were formally integrated into the multinational force in February 2012 34 The Federal Government of Somalia was established in August 2012 constituting the country s first permanent central government since the start of the civil war 35 International stakeholders and analysts subsequently began to describe Somalia as a fragile state that is making some progress toward stability 36 37 38 39 Contents 1 Fall of Siad Barre s government 1978 91 2 United Somali Congress topples Barre 3 United Nations intervention 1992 1995 4 USC SSA 1995 2000 5 TFG Islamic Courts Union and Ethiopia 2006 2009 6 Coalition government 2009 7 Since 2009 8 Casualties 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External linksFall of Siad Barre s government 1978 91 EditMain articles Somali Rebellion Isaaq genocide and Somaliland War of Independence Major General Mohamed Siad Barre Chairman of the Supreme Revolutionary Council and President of Somalia After Somalia lost the Ogaden War in March 1978 the president s popularity with Somalis plummeted and widespread discontent among his generals led to an attempted coup d etat on the 10th of April 1978 Most of the coup s ringleaders were rounded up and executed but some escaped and formed the Somali Salvation Democratic Front starting the rebellion that eventually toppled Siad Barre from power 13 years later In May 1986 Mohamed Siad Barre suffered serious injuries in a car crash near Mogadishu when the car transporting him smashed into the back of a bus during a heavy rainstorm 40 He was treated in a hospital in Saudi Arabia for head injuries broken ribs and shock for a month 41 42 Lieutenant General Mohamed Ali Samatar then Vice President served as de facto head of state for the next several months Although Barre managed to recover enough to present himself for reelection to a seven year term on December 23 1986 his poor health and advanced age led to speculation about who would succeed him Possible contenders included his son in law General Ahmed Suleiman Abdille then the Minister of the Interior in addition to Samatar 40 41 In an effort to hold on to power Barre s ruling Supreme Revolutionary Council SRC became increasingly totalitarian and arbitrary This caused opposition to his government to grow Barre tried to quell the unrest by abandoning appeals to nationalism relying more and more on his own inner circle and exploiting historical clan animosities By the mid 1980s more resistance movements supported by Ethiopia s communist Derg administration had sprung up across the country Barre responded by ordering punitive measures against those he perceived as supporting the guerrillas especially in the north The clampdown included the bombing of cities with the northwestern administrative center of Hargeisa a Somali National Movement SNM stronghold among the targeted areas in 1988 43 In December 1981 unrest was triggered in Northern Somalia by the arrest of 30 Isaaq professionals in Hargeisa who created a self help group to improve local facilities 44 This was followed by the systematic efforts to remove all Isaaqs from positions of power including the military judiciary and security services as well as harsh policies enacted against the Isaaq including a declaration of economic warfare on the Isaaq 45 The transfer of power to non Isaaq pro government individuals further pushed Isaaq communities to rebel against Barre s regime and was one of the main causes of the breakout of the Somaliland War of Independence 44 46 A destroyed M47 Patton in Somaliland left behind wrecked from the Somaliland War of Independence In 1988 Siad Barre and Ethiopian dictator Mengistu Haile Mariam agreed to a secret deal whereby each would cease hosting insurgencies of one another 47 As a result prompting the Somali National Movement SNM to launch an offensive on Northern Somalia from its bases on the Ethiopian border 48 Barre s regime responded with systematic human rights abuses and the genocide of thousands of Isaaq tribesmen resulting in up to 200 000 civilians slaughtered and 500 000 more people seeking refuge in neighbouring Ethiopia 48 In response to these humanitarian abuses Western aid donors cut funding to the Somali regime which at the time was heavily reliant on foreign aid 48 This resulted in a rapid retreat of the state accompanied by a severe drop in value for the Somali Shilling and mass military desertion by Somali army units 48 In 1990 as fighting intensified Somalia s first President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar and about 100 other Somali politicians signed a manifesto advocating reconciliation 49 A number of the signatories were subsequently arrested 50 Barre s heavy handed tactics further strengthened the appeal of the various rebel movements although these groups only common goal was the overthrow of his government 43 It also played a major role in developing piracy in Somalia In the north fighting continued between SNM rebels and heavily armed pro government militia in places like Awdal 51 In January 1991 in one of the final episodes of the civil war in the north SNM militia gave chase to retreating government forces 26th Division to the town of Dilla where a battle took place and the town was destroyed 52 SNM militia then continued into Borama the capital and largest town of Awdal but the SNM leadership withdrew units within 24 hours to allow discussions to take place without the threat of occupation 53 By February 4 SNM s control extended to the entire north of Somalia and all prisoners and pro government ex soldiers were released and ordered to return to their regions of origin mainly Ethiopia except for Hawiye ex soldiers and ex civil servants who were permitted to remain in Burco since their lives would have been at risk if they had traveled through hostile pro Barre country on their return to Mogadishu Somalia 54 United Somali Congress topples Barre Edit Three knocked out Somali National Army SNA M47 Patton medium tanks left abandoned near a warehouse photographed by U S forces in December 1993 By mid 1990 United Somali Congress USC rebels had captured most towns and villages surrounding Mogadishu which prompted some to give Barre the ironic title Mayor of Mogadishu 55 In December the USC entered Mogadishu Four weeks of battle between Barre s remaining troops and the USC ensued during which the USC brought more forces into the city By January 1991 USC rebels defeated the Red Berets Barre s special forces toppling Barre s hold on the government 43 The remainder of the government s forces then finally collapsed Some became irregular regional forces and clan militias 56 After the USC s victory over Barre s troops the other rebel groups declined to cooperate with it as each instead drew primary support from its own constituency 43 Among these other opposition movements were the Somali Patriotic Movement SPM and Somali Democratic Alliance SDA a Gadabuursi group which had been formed in the northwest to counter the Somali National Movement Isaaq militia 57 For its part the SNM initially refused to accept the legitimacy of the provisional government that the USC had established 43 but in March 1991 the SNM s former leader Ahmed Mohamed Silanyo proposed a power sharing framework between the SNM and USC under a new transitional government 58 Many of the opposition groups subsequently began competing for influence in the power vacuum that followed the ousting of Barre s government In the south armed factions led by USC commanders General Mohamed Farah Aidid and Ali Mahdi Mohamed in particular clashed as each sought to exert authority over the capital 59 In the northwest at the Burao conference of April May 1991 the SNM declared an independent Republic of Somaliland in the region that had constituted the British Somaliland before independence and unification with the former colony of Italian Somaliland in 1960 60 electing Abdirahman Ahmed Ali Tuur as president 61 In 1992 after four months of heavy fighting for control of Mogadishu a ceasefire was agreed between Ali Mahdi Mohamed and Mohamed Farah Aideed Neither had seized control of the capital and as a result a greenline was established between east and west 62 that divided their areas of control 63 United Nations intervention 1992 1995 EditMain articles UNITAF and UNOSOM II UN Security Council Resolution 733 and UN Security Council Resolution 746 led to the creation of the United Nations Operation in Somalia I UNOSOM I to provide humanitarian relief and help restore order in Somalia after the dissolution of its central government An American soldier at the main entrance to the Port of Mogadishu points to identify a sniper s possible firing position January 1994 United Nations Security Council Resolution 794 was unanimously passed on December 3 1992 which approved a coalition of United Nations peacekeepers led by the United States Forming the Unified Task Force UNITAF the alliance was tasked with assuring security until humanitarian efforts aimed at stabilizing the situation were transferred to the UN Landing in 1993 the UN peacekeeping coalition started the two year United Nations Operation in Somalia II UNOSOM II primarily in the south 64 UNITAF s original mandate was to use all necessary means to guarantee the delivery of humanitarian aid in accordance to Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter 65 During negotiations from 1993 to 1995 Somali principals had some success in reconciliation and establishment of public authorities Among these initiatives was the Mudug peace agreement of June 1993 between Aidid s forces and the SSDF which established a ceasefire between the Haber Gedir and the Majeerteen clans opened the trade routes and formalized the withdrawal of militants from Galkayo the UNOSOM mediated Hirab reconciliation of January 1994 in Mogadishu between elders of the rival Abgal and Haber Gedir clans which was backed by politicians from these constituencies and concluded with a pact to end hostilities dismantle the green line partitioning the city and remove road blocks the UNOSOM mediated Kismayo initiative of 1994 between the SNA SPM SSDF and representatives of nineteen clans from the southern Lower Juba and Middle Juba regions 66 the 1994 Bardhere conference between the Marehan and Rahanweyn Digil and Mirifle which resolved conflicts over local resources and the short lived Digil Mirifle Governing Council for the southern Bay and Bakool regions which was established in March 1995 60 Some of the militias that were then competing for power saw UNOSOM s presence as a threat to their hegemony Consequently gun battles took place in Mogadishu between local gunmen and peacekeepers Among these was the Battle of Mogadishu in October 1993 an unsuccessful attempt by U S troops to apprehend faction leader Aidid UN soldiers eventually withdrew altogether from the country on March 3 1995 having incurred more significant casualties 67 USC SSA 1995 2000 Edit President of the Transitional National Government Abdiqasim Salad Hassan After UNOSOM II s departure in March 1995 military clashes between local factions became shorter generally less intense and more localized This was in part due to the large scale UN military intervention that had helped to curb the intense fighting between the major factions who then began to focus on consolidating gains that they had made The local peace and reconciliation initiatives that had been undertaken in the south central part of the country between 1993 and 1995 also generally had a positive impact 60 Aidid subsequently declared himself President of Somalia on June 15 1995 68 However his declaration received no recognition as his rival Ali Mahdi Muhammad had already been elected interim President at a conference in Djibouti and recognized as such by the international community 69 Consequently Aidid s faction continued its quest for hegemony in the south In September 1995 militia forces loyal to him attacked and occupied the city of Baidoa 70 Aidid s forces remained in control of Baidoa from September 1995 to at least January 1996 while the local Rahanweyn Resistance Army militia continued to engage his forces in the town s environs 71 Fighting continued in the later half of 1995 in southern Kismayo and the Juba Valley as well as southwestern and central Somalia However despite these pockets of conflict the Gedo and Middle Shabelle regions and northwestern parts of the country remained relatively peaceful A number of the regional and district administrations that had been locally established in the preceding few years continued to operate in these areas 71 In 1994 95 factions contending for power in the newly declared independent Somaliland region included the United Somalia Front the Somalia Democratic Front the Somali National Movement and the United Somali Party 72 Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud leader of the Rahanweyn Resistance Army In March 1996 Ali Mahdi was elected chairman of the United Somali Congress Somali Salvation Alliance USC SSA based in northern Mogadishu In the southern part of city Aidid s forces battled those of Osman Atto for control of the port of Merca as well as strategic areas in Mogadishu Fighting in Merca eventually ended after elders intervened but continued in Mogadishu In August 1996 Aidid died from wounds incurred during combat in the Medina area 73 In 1998 a homegrown constitutional conference was held in the northeastern town of Garowe over a period of three months It was attended by the area s political elite traditional elders Issims members of the business community intellectuals and other civil society representatives The Puntland State of Somalia was subsequently established 74 In 1999 Eritrea was alleged to be supporting Somali National Alliance forces led by the late Aidid s son Hussein Farrah Aidid Aidid Jr denied the claims saying that the Ethiopian Prime Minister Meles Zenawi had requested that he mediate between Ethiopia and Eritrea in their separate conflict 75 However the International Institute for Strategic Studies separately reported that Hussein Aideed himself had acknowledged support from both Eritrea and Uganda 76 Aideed s forces occupied Baidoa in May 1999 However they were driven out by the Rahanweyn Resistance Army in June 1999 backed by an Ethiopian force of up to 3 000 using tanks and artillery The attack was part of a strategy to prevent Eritrea opening up a new front By the end of the year the Rahanweyn Resistance Army had taken control of the southern Bay and Bakool provinces The RRA s leader Hasan Muhammad Nur Shatigadud subsequently established the Southwestern State of Somalia regional administration In 2000 Ali Mahdi participated in another conference in Djibouti He lost a re election bid there to Barre s former Interior Minister Abdiqasim Salad Hassan 77 TFG Islamic Courts Union and Ethiopia 2006 2009 EditMain article Somalia War 2006 2009 Further information Advance of the Islamic Courts Union Transitional Federal Government ARPCT and Islamic Courts Union Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed one of the founders of the Transitional Federal Government established in 2004 In 2000 the Transitional National Government TNG was established 24 The Transitional Federal Government TFG was formed in Nairobi in 2004 Selection of members of parliament was underway by June over two hundred members of parliament MPs took the oath of office in August and Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed was elected president by the parliament in October 2004 78 However in March 2005 the TFG split after a brawl in parliament over deployment of peacekeepers and relocation to an interim capital The parliamentary speaker led some members to Mogadishu while the president and others remained in Nairobi In June 2005 under pressure from Kenya the remainder of the TFG left Nairobi for Jowhar 79 In February 2006 the TFG parliament met in Baidoa for the first time since March 2005 Interpeace 104 A battle for Mogadishu followed in the first half of 2006 in which the ARPCT a coalition of U S backed militia leaders confronted the ascendant Islamic Courts Union ICU However the ICU won a decisive victory in June of that year 80 It then rapidly expanded and consolidated its power throughout southern Somalia By August 2006 the TFG was confined to Baidoa under Ethiopian protection Interpeace 104 In December 2006 Ethiopian troops entered Somalia to assist the TFG against the advancing Islamic Courts Union 24 initially winning the Battle of Baidoa With their support Somali government forces recaptured the capital from the ICU 81 The offensive helped the TFG solidify its rule 80 On January 8 2007 as the Battle of Ras Kamboni raged TFG President and founder Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed entered Mogadishu for the first time since being elected to office But as Meckhaus writes the TFG was seen by most of the Mogadishu population as a puppet of Ethiopia and uncontrolled TFG security forces became the principal sources of insecurity for the local population engaging in kidnapping assaults and worse 82 Within weeks an armed insurgency subsequently arose in the capital against the TFG and its Ethiopian allies The government then relocated to the capital from its interim location in Baidoa 81 The arms embargo on Somalia was amended in February 2007 to allow states to supply weapons to the TFG s security forces provided that they received prior approval from the UN s Somalia Sanctions Committee After long discussions the African Union approved the initial deployment of the African Union Mission to Somalia AMISOM in March 2007 It established a small triangle of protection around Mogadishu s airport seaport and the Villa Somalia and began to adopt a low key negotiating profile with key actors 83 In November 2008 following repeated violations of the weapons blockade the Security Council decided that an arms embargo could be imposed on entities involved in such breaches 84 After a two year consultation process the TFG was formed in 2004 by Somali politicians in Nairobi under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development IGAD The process also led to the establishment of the Transitional Federal Institutions TFIs and concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as president 85 The TFG thereafter became Somalia s internationally recognized government 84 Political situation in Somalia following the Ethiopian military withdrawal February 3 2009 Following their defeat the Islamic Courts Union splintered into several different factions Some of the more radical elements including Al Shabaab regrouped to continue their insurgency against the TFG and oppose the Ethiopian military s presence in Somalia 86 Throughout 2007 and 2008 Al Shabaab scored military victories seizing control of key towns and ports in both central and southern Somalia At the end of 2008 the group had captured Baidoa but not Mogadishu On May 1 2008 the U S made an airstrike on Dhusamareb and followed on 3 May with another airstrike on the border town of Dobley According to the International Crisis Group Ethiopia s leaders were surprised by the insurgency s persistence and strength and frustrated at the TFG s chronic internal problems 87 By January 2009 Al Shabaab and other militias had forced the Ethiopian troops to retreat leaving behind an understaffed African Union peacekeeping force 88 Due to a lack of funding and human resources an arms embargo that made it difficult to re establish a national security force and general indifference on the part of the international community citation needed President Yusuf found himself obliged to deploy thousands of troops from Puntland to Mogadishu to sustain the battle against insurgent elements in the southern part of the country Financial support for this effort was provided by the autonomous region s government This left little revenue for Puntland s own security forces and civil service employees leaving the territory vulnerable to piracy and terrorist attacks 89 90 On December 29 2008 Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed announced before a united parliament in Baidoa his resignation as President of Somalia In his speech which was broadcast on national radio Yusuf expressed regret at failing to end the country s seventeen year conflict as his government had mandated to do 91 He also blamed the international community for its failure to support the government and said that the speaker of parliament would succeed him in office per the charter of the Transitional Federal Government 92 Coalition government 2009 EditSee also Al Shabaab militant group Hizbul Islam Ahlu Sunna Waljama a and Alliance for the Re liberation of Somalia The battle flag of Al Shabaab an Islamist group waging war against the federal government Between May 31 and June 9 2008 representatives of Somalia s federal government and the Alliance for the Re liberation of Somalia ARS participated in peace talks in Djibouti brokered by the former United Nations Special Envoy to Somalia Ahmedou Ould Abdallah The conference ended with a signed agreement calling for the withdrawal of Ethiopian troops in exchange for the cessation of armed confrontation Parliament was subsequently expanded to 550 seats to accommodate ARS members which then elected Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed the former ARS chairman to office President Sharif shortly afterwards appointed Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke the son of slain former President Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke as the nation s new Prime Minister 24 With the help of AMISOM the coalition government also began a counteroffensive in February 2009 to assume full control of the southern half of the country To solidify its rule the TFG formed an alliance with the Islamic Courts Union other members of the Alliance for the Re liberation of Somalia and Ahlu Sunna Waljama a a moderate Sufi militia 93 Furthermore Al Shabaab and Hizbul Islam the two main Islamist groups in opposition began to fight amongst themselves in mid 2009 94 As a truce in March 2009 Somalia s coalition government announced that it would re implement shari a as the nation s official judicial system 95 However conflict continued in the southern and central parts of the country Within months the coalition government had gone from holding about 70 of south central Somalia s conflict zones territory which it had inherited from the previous Yusuf administration to losing control of over 80 of the disputed territory to the Islamist insurgents 96 Since 2009 EditMain article Somali Civil War 2009 present In November 2010 a new technocratic government was elected to office which enacted numerous reforms Among these in its first 50 days in office the new administration completed its first monthly payment of stipends to government soldiers 97 This government subsequently began to push back Al Shabaab over the following years On August 6 2011 Al Shabaab was forced to withdraw from most of Mogadishu Al Shabaab did still retain a foothold in the northern outskirts of the capital but by January 2012 the combined efforts of Somali government and AMISOM forces had expelled them from the city completely 98 An ideological rift within Al Shabaab s leadership also emerged after the 2011 drought and the assassination of top officials in the organization 99 With the majority of Mogadishu secure the Somali Armed Forces and Kenya Defence Forces next launched Operation Linda Nchi a joint advance against Al Shabaab in October 2011 100 101 102 This operation had reportedly been planned for nearly two years during which time Kenyan officials sought U S support for the mission 103 104 After the successful conclusion of Operation Linda Nchi in May 2012 Kenyan troops were formally integrated into AMISOM in June 105 After Operation Linda Nchi the port city of Kismayo was the last major stronghold that remained in Al Shabaab s control A Kenyan led AMISOM force backed by the Raskamboni movement then launched an offensive against Kismayo on September 28 2012 106 After a three day battle Somali government forces were able to gain control of the city The month of September 2012 also saw the establishment of the Federal Government of Somalia 107 In January 2013 AMISOM s mandate was extended for another year following the adoption of UNSC Resolution 2093 The Security Council also unanimously voted to suspend Somalia s arms embargo on light weapons for one year and welcomed the Federal Government s development of a new national security strategy urging the central authorities to accelerate the plan s implementation further define the Somali national security forces composition and identify capability gaps to assist their international partners in better addressing them 108 While many urban areas had been seized Al Shabaab still controlled many rural areas where a number of their operatives disappeared into local communities in order to more effectively exploit any mistakes by the central authorities 109 In October 2013 the U S Africa Command began establishing the Mogadishu Coordinating Cell which became fully operational in late December 110 The unit was formed at the request of the Somali government and AMISOM who had approached U S Department of Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel in September about the possibility It consists of a team of fewer than five advisers including planners and communicators between the Somali authorities and AMISOM The cell is intended to provide consultative and planning support to the allied forces to enhance their capacity and promote peace and security throughout the country and region 111 In November 2013 a senior Ethiopian government official announced that Ethiopia s troops deployed in Somalia would soon join AMISOM having already forwarded a request to do so At the time an estimated 8 000 Ethiopian soldiers were stationed in the country 112 The Somali Foreign Ministry welcomed the decision asserting that the move would galvanize AMISOM s campaign against Al Shabaab 113 Following the adoption of UN Security Council Resolution 2124 which authorized the deployment of 4 000 additional troops to augment AMISOM s 22 126 strong force Ethiopian troops formally joined the mission in January 2014 114 They are mandated to work alongside the Somali National Army with responsibility for the allied forces operations in the southern Gedo Bakool and Bay regions The Ethiopian troops represent AMISOM s sixth contingent after the Djibouti Burundi Sierra Leone Kenya and Uganda units 115 In January 2014 at an African Union Summit in Addis Ababa President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud requested an extension of the UN Security Council s weapons purchasing mandate for Somalia after its March expiration saying that the Somali defence forces required better military equipment and arms to more effectively combat militants 116 The following month the UN Somalia and Eritrea Monitoring Group reported that systematic abuses by Somali government officials had allowed weapons to be diverted away from Somalia s security forces into the hands of faction leaders and Al Shabaab militants The panel had observed various problems with the management of weapons and ammunition stockpiles including difficulties by monitors in accessing local weapons stockpiles and obtaining information about the arms The monitors also suggested that one key adviser to the president was involved in planning arms deliveries to Al Shabaab and that shipments of weapons from Djibouti and Uganda could not be accounted for 117 Somali Chief of Army Dahir Adan Elmi made a pro forma denial of the allegations 118 He also said that a UN monitoring team had twice visited the government s weapons and ammunition storage facilities in Mogadishu 119 where it was shown the arms stockpiles for inspection and had expressed satisfaction 118 Elmi said that the government had twice purchased weapons since the arms embargo on Somalia was partially lifted 119 He also asserted that Al Shabaab already had an adequate supply of weapons and mainly utilized explosive devices and sophisticated bombs 120 Political situation in Somalia in July 2017 In February 2014 a delegation led by Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed met in Addis Ababa with Ethiopian Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn to discuss strengthening relations between the countries Ahmed commended Ethiopia s role in the ongoing peace and stabilization process in Somalia as well as its opposition to Al Shabaab and welcomed the Ethiopian military s decision to join AMISOM Desalegn in turn pledged his administration s continued support for Somalia s peace and stabilization efforts as well as its preparedness to assist in initiatives aiming to build up Somali security forces through experience sharing and training The meeting concluded with a tripartite Memorandum of Understanding agreeing to promote partnership and cooperation including a cooperative agreement to develop the police force 121 On 5 March 2014 the UN Security Council unanimously voted to extend the partial easing of the arms embargo on Somalia to 25 October 122 The resolution permitted the Somali government to purchase light weapons with the stipulation that all member states must take steps to prevent the direct or indirect supply transfer or sale of arms and military equipment to individuals or entities outside of the Somali security forces 122 123 The Somali government was also required to routinely report on the structural status of the military as well as provide information on the extant infrastructure and protocols designed to ensure the military equipment s safe delivery storage and maintenance 123 In early March 2014 AMISOM supported by Somali militias launched another operation to remove Al Shabaab from its remaining areas of control in southern Somalia 124 According to Prime Minister Abdiweli Sheikh Ahmed the government subsequently launched stabilization efforts in the newly liberated areas which included Rab Dhuure Hudur Wajid and Burdhubo The Ministry of Defense provided ongoing reassurance and security to local residents and supplied logistical and security support Additionally the Ministry of Interior was prepared to support and put into place programs to assist local administration and security A Deputy Minister and several religious scholars were dispatched to all four towns to coordinate and supervise the federal government s stabilization initiatives 125 By March 26 the allied forces had liberated ten towns including Qoryoley and El Buur 126 127 UN Special Representative for Somalia Nicholas Kay described the military advance as the most significant and geographically extensive offensive since AU troops began operations in 2007 128 In August 2014 the Somali government led Operation Indian Ocean was launched aiming to reduce insurgent held areas along the coastline 129 On 1 September 2014 a U S drone strike carried out as part of the broader mission killed Al Shabaab leader Moktar Ali Zubeyr 130 U S authorities hailed the raid as a major symbolic and operational loss for Al Shabaab and the Somali government offered a 45 day amnesty to all moderate members of the militant group On 15 December 2018 there were demonstrations in the city of Baidoa by supporters of Mukhtar Rowbow a presidential candidate who had been arrested two days earlier by government forces and transferred to Mogadishu Rowbow was a senior member of al Shabaab 131 AMISOM announced that its forces did not assist in Rowbow s arrest and his transfer to Mogadishu 132 From the beginning of 2020 humanitarian researchers and local medical personnel became increasingly concerned that the COVID 19 pandemic could be catastrophic for Somalis because of the damage the civil war has wrought on Somalia s health care and weak provision since the 1980s 133 On 25 November 2020 it was reported that a CIA officer had been killed in Somalia The death came as the US administration under Donald Trump was making plans to withdraw more than 600 troops from Somalia 134 President Donald Trump ordered the Department of Defense to remove the majority of the 700 U S troops in Somalia many from Special Operations Command Africa in December 2020 He changed the mission of American troops to assist the Somali Armed Forces in its fight against al Shabab 135 When President Mohamed Abdullahi Mohamed s term expired in February 2021 dates had not been set for the election of a successor and fighting subsequently broke out in Mogadishu This fighting continued until May 2021 when the government and opposition agreed to hold elections within 60 days 136 after further negotiation the presidential election was scheduled for October 10 137 Casualties EditAccording to Necrometrics around 500 000 people are estimated to have been killed in Somalia since the start of the civil war in 1991 15 The Armed Conflict Location amp Event Dataset estimates that 3 300 people were killed during the conflict in 2012 138 with the number of fatalities dropping slightly in 2013 to 3 150 138 See also Edit Somalia portal Politics portal War portal Somali Civil War 2009 present Drone strikes in Somalia Somalia War 2006 2009 History of Somalia 1991 2006 Consolidation of states within Somalia 1998 2006 Factions in the Somali Civil War Mogadishu Line IIDA Women s Development Organisation List of conflicts in the Horn of AfricaNotes Edit Various start dates have been offered for when the civil war in Somalia began The Central Bank of Somalia 11 the United Nations 12 13 the US Office of the Secretary of Defense 14 and Necrometrics all assert that the conflict started in 1991 after the ouster of the Siad Barre administration 15 Political scientist James Fearon argues that the start of the conflict could be dated to 1981 when armed Isaaq clan militias began to launch small scale attacks against the Barre regime and its Isaaq members to the razing of the Isaaq majority town of Hargeisa in 1988 by state forces or to 1991 following the collapse of the Barre administration and the commencement of interclan warfare For analytical purposes he settles on 1991 for the start date of a new civil war on the grounds that the fighting had begun previously but that a major party to the conflict was defeated 16 Robinson writes that the civil war had effectively begun by 1987 referring to Compagnon 17 References Edit Kenya Seven Oromo Liberation Front Fighters Held in Garissa Allafrica com Daily Nation January 6 2007 Liddon Paul July 13 2019 The significance of Turkey s overseas military bases AhvalNews Retrieved April 17 2021 US special forces base Italian army convoy attacked in Somalia Al Jazeera September 30 2019 Al Shabaab leader s fate unclear after suspected U S drone strike CNN Archived from the original on June 30 2015 Retrieved September 2 2014 U S drone strike in Somalia targets al Shabab leader The Washington Post Archived from the original on October 19 2017 Retrieved September 12 2017 First British troops arrive in Somalia as part of UN mission The Guardian May 2 2016 Archived from the original on May 2 2016 Retrieved May 2 2016 Exclusive Eritrea reduces support for al Shabaab U N report Reuters July 16 2012 How does poor Eritrea afford to fund Al Shabaab Africa Review November 8 2011 Archived from the original on October 12 2017 Retrieved July 5 2017 ISIL s First East African Affiliate Conducts Attacks in Somalia Kenya DefenseNews December 29 2015 Somalia Pro ISIL militants Al Shabaab clash in deadly Puntland infighting Garowe Online December 24 2015 Archived from the original on January 26 2016 Retrieved January 28 2016 Board of Directors Central Bank of Somalia Archived from the original on May 18 2015 Retrieved May 3 2015 UN senior official calls for widespread support for Somali Government reform efforts PDF United Nations Archived PDF from the original on October 4 2015 Retrieved May 3 2015 Somalia UNOSOM II Background United Nations Archived from the original on January 15 2017 Retrieved May 3 2015 Richard B Cheney George H W Bush Administration US Office of the Secretary of Defense Archived from the original on May 18 2015 Retrieved May 3 2015 a b c Twentieth Century Atlas Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars Dictatorships and Genocides Users erols com Archived from the original on April 26 2011 Retrieved April 20 2011 Fearon James D 2004 Why Do Some Civil Wars Last So Much Longer Than Others Journal of Peace Research 41 3 275 301 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 19 3818 doi 10 1177 0022343304043770 S2CID 7158376 Robinson Colin 2016 Revisiting the rise and fall of the Somali Armed Forces 1960 2012 Defense amp Security Analysis 32 3 237 252 doi 10 1080 14751798 2016 1199122 S2CID 156874430 c f UCDP datasets Archived June 28 2013 at the Wayback Machine for SNA SRRC USC SNM ARS UIC and Al Shabaab tolls UCDP non state conflict Archived March 4 2016 at the Wayback Machine tolls UNHCR report More displaced now than after WWII Archived from the original on January 20 2018 Retrieved January 24 2018 a b Ken Menkhaus Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa in Andersen Moller Stepputat eds Fragile States and Insecure People Palgrave 2007 73 Archived February 22 2014 at the Wayback Machine Legum Colin 1989 Africa Contemporary Record Annual Survey and Documents Volume 20 Africa Research Limited p B 394 Archived from the original on January 25 2015 Retrieved November 12 2016 Bongartz Maria 1991 The civil war in Somalia its genesis and dynamics Nordiska Afrikainstitutet p 24 Archived from the original on January 25 2015 Retrieved November 12 2016 a b c d Central Intelligence Agency 2011 Somalia The World Factbook Langley Virginia Central Intelligence Agency Retrieved October 5 2011 a b c Central Intelligence Agency 2011 Somalia Government Judicial branch The World Factbook Langley Virginia Central Intelligence Agency Archived from the original on May 19 2015 Retrieved May 2 2015 Ken Menkhaus Local Security Systems in Somali East Africa Fragile States and Insecure People 2007 73 Jamal Ahmad Rashid Identifying Causes of State failure The Case of Somalia Universitat Konstanz Politik und Verwaltungswissenschaften Archived from the original on May 22 2015 Retrieved May 22 2015 Fergusson James January 13 2013 Somalia A failed state is back from the dead The Independent Archived from the original on September 8 2017 Retrieved May 18 2015 Anderson Jon Lee December 14 2009 The Most Failed State The New Yorker Archived from the original on March 28 2015 Retrieved May 18 2015 Central Intelligence Agency 2003 Somalia Government Judicial branch The World Factbook Langley Virginia Central Intelligence Agency Archived from the original on March 4 2016 Retrieved May 18 2015 a b In 2007 Menkhaus wrote that armed conflict in Somalia has generally subsided since the early 1990s Armed clashes continue to break out but are nowhere near the scale and intensity of the fighting that destroyed Hargeisa in 1988 89 or Mogadishu in 1991 92 Menkhaus FSIP 2007 75 Menkhaus 2007 op cit 76 Messner J J June 24 2014 Failed States Index 2014 Somalia Displaced as Most Fragile State The Fund for Peace Archived from the original on May 4 2015 Retrieved May 18 2015 Kenya launches offensive in Somalia Reuters October 16 2011 Archived from the original on January 29 2013 Retrieved May 2 2015 United Nations Security Council Report of the Monitoring Group on Somalia and Eritrea pursuant to Security Council Resolution 2002 2011 S 2012 544 p 226 Kenya KDF AMIS Archived from the original on April 2 2013 Retrieved May 5 2015 Communique on Secretary General s Mini Summit on Somalia United Nations Archived from the original on October 19 2013 Retrieved May 18 2015 Balthasar Dominik November 19 2014 New Approaches Are Needed for State Building in Somalia Fair Observer Archived from the original on June 26 2015 Retrieved June 26 2015 Messner J J June 24 2013 Failed States Index 2013 What Were You Expecting The Fund for Peace Archived from the original on June 26 2015 Retrieved June 26 2015 The European Union announces more than 124 million to increase security in Somalia European Commissioner Archived from the original on May 24 2015 Retrieved May 22 2015 Kay Nicholas Somalia s Year of Delivery Goobjoog Archived from the original on April 2 2015 Retrieved May 22 2015 a b World of Information Firm Africa Review World of Information 1987 p 213 a b Arthur S Banks Thomas C Muller William Overstreet Political Handbook of the World 2008 CQ Press 2008 p 1198 National Academy of Sciences U S Committee on Human Rights Institute of Medicine U S Committee on Health and Human Rights Scientists and human rights in Somalia report of a delegation National Academies 1988 p 9 a b c d e Somalia Government Library of Congress Archived from the original on July 4 2014 Retrieved February 15 2014 a b Nannini Vance J Decisions in Operations Other Than War The United States Intervention in Somalia Kapteijns Lidwien December 18 2012 Clan Cleansing in Somalia The Ruinous Legacy of 1991 University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 978 0 8122 0758 3 Balthasar Dominik July 26 2017 State making at Gunpoint The Role of Violent Conflict in Somaliland s March to Statehood Civil Wars 19 65 86 doi 10 1080 13698249 2017 1343411 ISSN 1369 8249 S2CID 149160219 Somalia a country study Metz Helen Chapin 1928 Library of Congress Federal Research Division Thomas Leiper Kane Collection Library of Congress Hebraic Section 4th ed Washington D C Federal Research Division Library of Congress 1993 ISBN 0 8444 0775 5 OCLC 27642849 CS1 maint others link a b c d Menkhaus Ken April 2011 Somalia and the Horn of Africa World Bank Bloomfield Steve June 11 2007 Aden Abdulle Osman First President of Somalia The Independent Archived from the original on December 21 2013 Retrieved December 21 2013 Horn of Africa Bulletin Volumes 3 4 Life amp Peace Institute 1991 p 14 Archived from the original on May 19 2014 Retrieved November 12 2016 Renders Marleen January 20 2012 Consider Somaliland State Building with Traditional Leaders and Institutions BRILL ISBN 978 90 04 21848 2 Walls Michael 2011 State formation in Somaliland Bringing deliberation to institutionalism University College London Walls Michael July 1 2009 The Emergence of a Somali State Building Peace from Civil War in Somaliland African Affairs 108 432 371 389 doi 10 1093 afraf adp019 ISSN 0001 9909 Drysdale John Gordon Stewart 1991 Somaliland 1991 Report and Reference Global Stats Adam Hussein 1998 Somalia Personal Rule Military Rule and Militarism in Hutchful and Bathily The Military and Militarism in Africa Dakar Council for the Development of Economic and Social Research in Africa CODESRIA p 389 ISBN 978 2 86978 069 9 Nina J Fitzgerald Somalia issues history and bibliography Nova Publishers 2002 p 19 Ciisa Salwe Cabdisalaam M 1996 The collapse of the Somali state the impact of the colonial legacy HAAN Publishing p 104 ISBN 978 1874209911 Archived from the original on April 15 2015 Retrieved November 12 2016 Silanyo Ahmed M A Proposal to the Somali National Movement On a Framework for a Transitional Government in Somalia PDF Wardheernews Archived from the original PDF on May 11 2012 Retrieved February 15 2014 Library Information and Research Service The Middle East Abstracts and index Volume 2 Library Information and Research Service 1999 p 327 a b c Interpeace The search for peace A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988 Interpeace May 2009 13 14 Archived February 22 2014 at the Wayback Machine Clancy Tom Tony Zinni Tony Koltz 2005 Battle Ready Study in Command Commander Series Penguin pp 234 236 ISBN 978 0 425 19892 6 Map of Mogadishu Green Line Mohamed Ahmed Jama Securing Mogadishu Neighbourhood Watches in Whose Peace is it anyway Connecting Somali and International Peacemaking Approaches Accord 21 Conciliation Resources 2010 66 Ken Rutherford Humanitarianism Under Fire The US and UN Intervention in Somalia Kumarian Press July 2008 ISBN 1 56549 260 9 United Nations Operation In Somalia I Unosom I United Nations Archived from the original on April 8 2011 Retrieved January 29 2012 For further details on UNOSOM sponsored local level community based reconciliation conferences see Menkhaus International Peacebuilding and the Dynamics of Local and National Reconciliation in Somalia International Peacekeeping Vol 3 No 1 Spring 1996 52 See also Report of the Secretary General on Somalia S 1995 231 March 28 1995 Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Somalia S 1996 42 PDF January 19 1996 Archived PDF from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 14 2014 page 2 paragraph 7 Djibouti Conference Archived March 16 2012 at the Wayback Machine Associated Press September 19 1995 Aidid troops kill Somalis capture city The Register Guard Archived from the original on September 11 2015 Retrieved May 16 2013 a b S 1996 42 26 27 28 29 Air Command and Staff College Combatant Commands Informational Series Central Command Somalia Fielded Forces drawing on the International Institute for Strategic Studies Military Balance 1994 95 Report of the Secretary General on the Situation in Somalia S 1997 135 February 17 1997 paragraphs 6 7 and 9 For later occurrences 1997 to 2000 see S 1997 715 S 1999 882 and S 2000 1211 December 19 2000 Somalia Puntland s Experience in Peace building and State building dead link Somalia IRIN interview with Hussein Aideed 5 4 99 IRIN Archived from the original on March 4 2016 Retrieved April 19 2014 Strategic Survey 1999 2000 264 August 2000 Somalia Rulers Archived from the original on October 29 2013 Retrieved October 6 2013 Interpeace The search for peace A history of mediation in Somalia since 1988 Interpeace May 2009 59 60 Interpeace May 2009 60 61 a b Ethiopian Invasion of Somalia Globalpolicy org August 14 2007 Archived from the original on September 10 2009 Retrieved June 27 2010 a b Profile Somali s newly resigned President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed News xinhuanet com December 29 2008 Archived from the original on November 15 2013 Retrieved September 5 2013 Ken Menkhaus Somalia What went wrong The RUSI Journal Vol 154 No 4 August 2009 8 Menkhaus says in addition f or details see Human Rights Watch Shell shocked Civilians under siege in Mogadishu Archived September 17 2014 at the Wayback Machine August 13 2007 and HRW So Much to Fear War Crimes and the Devastation of Somalia December 2008 Interpeace May 2009 61 a b Wezeman Pieter D Arms flows and conflict in Somalia PDF SIPRI Archived from the original PDF on June 2 2013 Retrieved February 10 2014 Background and Political Developments AMISOM Archived from the original on August 21 2011 Retrieved February 11 2014 Hardline Islamist Militia Group Shabbab Emerges in Somalia Jamestown Foundation August 8 2006 Archived from the original on October 10 2008 International Crisis Group Somalia To Move Beyond the Failed State Africa Report N 147 December 23 2008 25 USCIRF Annual Report 2009 The Commission s Watch List Somalia USCIRF Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 15 2014 Somalia Guide to Puntland Election 2009 Garoweonline com December 25 2008 Archived from the original on May 14 2011 Retrieved June 12 2011 Opening Annual General Assembly Debate Secretary General Urges Member States to Press in Tackling Poverty Terrorism Human Rights Abuses Conflicts Unis unvienna org Archived from the original on May 11 2011 Retrieved June 12 2011 Somalia s president quits office Archived January 24 2012 at the Wayback Machine BBC News December 29 2008 Somali President Yusuf resigns Archived December 31 2008 at the Wayback Machine Reuters FT com December 29 2008 Kamaal says May 22 2010 UN boss urges support for Somalia ahead of Istanbul summit Horseedmedia net Archived from the original on June 19 2010 Retrieved June 27 2010 Islamists break Somali port truce BBC News October 21 2009 Archived from the original on October 26 2009 Retrieved June 27 2010 Shariah in Somalia Archived September 22 2012 at the Wayback Machine Arab News Online Garowe January 12 2011 Somalia President Parliament Speaker dispute over TFG term Garoweonline com Archived from the original on May 14 2011 Retrieved June 12 2011 Security Council Meeting on Somalia Somaliweyn org Archived from the original on January 5 2014 Al Shabaab Evicted from Mogadishu Somalia Report Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 14 2014 Chothia Farouk August 9 2011 Could Somali famine deal a fatal blow to al Shabab BBC Archived from the original on April 10 2018 Retrieved June 22 2018 Kenya launches offensive in Somalia National Post Reuters October 16 2011 Archived from the original on January 29 2013 Retrieved February 15 2014 Joint Communique Operation Linda Nchi Kenya High Commission Tanzania Archived from the original on August 16 2012 Retrieved September 25 2013 Somalia government supports Kenyan forces mission Standardmedia co ke Archived from the original on March 14 2012 Azikiwe Abayomi January 4 2012 Leaked cables confirm U S role in Somalia war Pan African News Wire Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 16 2014 Anderson David McKnight Jacob 2015 Kenya at war Al Shabaab and its enemies in Eastern Africa African Affairs 114 454 1 27 doi 10 1093 afraf adu082 Kenya Defense Minister appointed as acting Internal Security Minister Garowe Online June 19 2012 Retrieved June 20 2012 dead link Chonghaile Clar Ni September 28 2012 Kenyan troops launch beach assault on Somali city of Kismayo The Guardian Archived from the original on September 29 2013 Retrieved September 28 2012 Williams Paul D Fighting for Peace in Somalia A History and Analysis of the African Union Mission AMISOM 2007 2017 Oxford University Press 2018 United Nations Security Council Resolution 2093 Archived from the original on April 10 2019 Retrieved April 25 2019 S RES 2093 2013 March 6 2013 Hammond Laura 2013 Somalia rising things are starting to change for the world s longest failed state Journal of Eastern African Studies 7 1 183 193 doi 10 1080 17531055 2012 755316 S2CID 154479105 U S military advisers deployed to Somalia to help African forces Reuters January 10 2014 Archived from the original on September 24 2015 Retrieved February 17 2014 Martinez Luis January 10 2014 U S Military Advisers Deployed to Somalia First Time Since Blackhawk Down ABC News Archived from the original on January 12 2014 Retrieved January 12 2014 Tekle Tesfa Alem November 12 2013 Somalia Ethiopia Decides to Join Amisom Force in Somalia Sudan Tribune Archived from the original on January 13 2014 Retrieved January 12 2014 Ali Hassan November 12 2013 Somali government welcomes Ethiopia AMISOM integration Dalsan Radio Archived from the original on December 2 2013 Retrieved February 16 2014 Comment on Ethiopian troops formally join AMISOM peacekeepers in Somalia Foreign Affairs February 14 2014 Archived from the original on February 21 2014 Retrieved February 16 2014 Ethiopian Forces formally integrated into AMISOM AMISOM Archived from the original on March 30 2014 Retrieved February 14 2014 Mohamud wants UN to extend weapons purchasing mandate Sabahi January 31 2014 Archived from the original on February 21 2014 Retrieved February 17 2014 Somalia diverting arms to al Shabab UN report claims BBC News February 14 2014 Archived from the original on February 16 2014 Retrieved February 17 2014 a b Somali Government official denies U N arms diversion allegations Horseed Media February 15 2014 Archived from the original on February 16 2014 Retrieved February 17 2014 a b Federal government of Somalia denies the report issued by UN monitoring group Goobjoog February 15 2014 Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 17 2014 SOMALIA Military chief says UN Monitoring Group wants Al Shabab to become an endless project Raxanreeb February 17 2014 Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 18 2014 Ethiopia The Prime Minister of Somalia On a Visit to Ethiopia Government of Ethiopia Archived from the original on February 22 2014 Retrieved February 17 2014 a b UN Security Council Extends Arms Embargo lift on Somalia to eight months Horseed Media March 6 2014 Archived from the original on January 13 2016 Retrieved March 6 2014 a b Charbonneau Louis March 6 2014 U N extends partial easing of Somalia arms embargo to October Reuters Archived from the original on September 24 2015 Retrieved March 6 2014 Somalia Federal Govt AMISOM troops clash with Al Shabaab Garowe Online March 11 2014 Archived from the original on March 11 2014 Retrieved March 11 2014 SOMALIA PM hosts meeting with International Community diplomats on stabilisation efforts Raxanreeb March 12 2014 Archived from the original on March 12 2014 Retrieved March 12 2014 SOMALIA The capture of Qoryooley is critical for the operations to liberate Barawe Amisom head says Raxanreeb March 22 2014 Archived from the original on March 22 2014 Retrieved March 23 2014 SOMALIA Elbur town falls for Somali Army and Amisom Raxanreeb March 26 2014 Archived from the original on March 26 2014 Retrieved March 26 2014 Somalia AU troops close in on key Shebab base AFP March 22 2014 Archived from the original on March 23 2014 Retrieved March 23 2014 SOMALIA President says Godane is dead now is the chance for the members of al Shabaab to embrace peace Raxanreeb September 5 2014 Archived from the original on September 6 2014 Retrieved September 6 2014 Pentagon Confirms Death of Somalia Terror Leader Associated Press September 5 2014 Archived from the original on September 6 2014 Retrieved September 6 2014 US Says Airstrike in Somalia Killed 8 Militants Archived from the original on December 18 2018 Retrieved December 17 2018 AU force in Somalia says not involved in ex al Shabaab arrest Archived from the original on December 18 2018 Retrieved December 17 2018 Kleist Nauja Edle Ali Abdirahman Musa Ahmed Hassan Mohammed Aden Bradbury Mark April 1 2020 COVID 19 A Looming humanitarian disaster for Somali East Africa Diaspora Humanitarianism in Complex Crises Danish Institute for International Studies Retrieved April 1 2020 Correspondent Jim Sciutto Chief National Security CIA officer killed in combat in Somalia CNN Retrieved November 26 2020 https abcnews go com Politics trump orders us troops somalia story id 74546220 AfricaNews May 27 2021 Somalia to hold elections within 60 days Gov t says Africanews Retrieved May 28 2021 Somalia to hold indirect presidential election October 10 Al Jazeera Retrieved August 30 2021 a b Conflict Trends No 23 Real time Analysis of African Political Violence February 2014 PDF ACLED Archived PDF from the original on March 16 2014 Retrieved March 16 2014 Further reading EditAfyare Abdi Elmi Understanding the Somalia conflagration Identity political Islam and peacebuilding Pluto Press 2010 Barnes Cedric and Harun Hassan The rise and fall of Mogadishu s Islamic Courts Journal of Eastern African Studies 1 no 2 2007 151 160 Boas Morten Returning to realities a building block approach to state and statecraft in Eastern Congo and Somalia Conflict Security amp Development 10 no 4 2010 443 464 I M Lewis A Modern History of the Somali Nation and State in the Horn of Africa Athens Ohio University Press 2002 ISBN 978 0 8214 1495 8 Jutta Bakonyi Authority and administration beyond the state local governance in southern Somalia 1995 2006 Journal of Eastern African Studies Vol 7 Issue 2 2013 Ken Menkhaus Somalia State collapse and the threat of terrorism Adelphi Papers No 364 Routledge 2008 McGregor Andrew The Leading Factions Behind the Somali Insurgency Terrorism Monitor Volume V Issue 8 April 26 2007 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Somali Civil War Somalia s Struggle for Stability from The NewsHour with Jim Lehrer Somali U S Relations from the Dean Peter Krogh Foreign Affairs Digital Archives Somalia Operations Lessons Learned by Kenneth Allard CCRP 1995 Preserving American Security Ties to Somalia by Michael Johns The Heritage Foundation December 26 1989 Changed Arab attitudes to Somalia Conflict Security Council Report United Nations Sanctions Committee on Somalia Documents Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Somali Civil War amp oldid 1052896604, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.