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Somali language

Not to be confused with Somali languages.

Somali (Latin: Af-Soomaali; Wadaad:صومالي‎; Osmanya: 𐒖𐒍 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘 ) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch. It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora. Somali is an official language of Somalia and Somaliland, a national language in Djibouti, and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia and also in North Eastern Kenya. The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet although the Arabic alphabet and several Somali scripts like Osmanya and the Borama script are informally used.

Somali
Af Soomaali, Soomaali
𐒖𐒍 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘,𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘
اف صومالي‎,صومالي‎,
RegionHorn of Africa
EthnicitySomalis
Native speakers
21,807,730 (2019)
Somali Latin alphabet (Latin script; official)
Wadaad writing (Arabic script)
Osmanya alphabet
Borama alphabet
Kaddare alphabet
Official status
Official language in
Somalia
Somaliland
Djibouti
Ethiopia
Recognised minority
language in
Regulated byRegional Somali Language Academy
Language codes
ISO 639-1so
ISO 639-2som
ISO 639-3som
Glottologsoma1255
Linguasphere14-GAG-a
Primary Somali Sprachraum
This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper , you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see .

Contents

Somali is classified within the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family, specifically, Lowland East Cushitic in addition to Afar and Saho. Somali is the best-documented of the Cushitic languages, with academic studies of the language dating back to the late 19th century.

The Somali language is spoken in Somali inhabited areas of Somalia, Somaliland, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Yemen and by members of the Somali diaspora. It is also spoken as an adoptive language by a few ethnic minority groups and individuals in Somali majority regions.

Somali is the most widely spoken Cushitic language in the region followed by Oromo and Afar.

As of 2019, there were approximately 21.8 million speakers of Somali, spread in Greater Somalia of which around 7.8 million resided in Somalia. The language is spoken by an estimated 95% of the country's inhabitants, and also by a majority of the population in Djibouti.

Following the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s, the Somali-speaking diaspora increased in size, with newer Somali speech communities forming in parts of the Middle East, North America and Europe.

Official status

Constitutionally, Somali and Arabic are the two official languages of Somalia. Somali has been an official national language since January 1973, when the Supreme Revolutionary Council (SRC) declared it the Somali Democratic Republic's primary language of administration and education. Somali was thereafter established as the main language of academic instruction in forms 1 through 4, following preparatory work by the government-appointed Somali Language Committee. It later expanded to include all 12 forms in 1979. In 1972, the SRC adopted a Latin orthography as the official national alphabet over several other writing scripts that were then in use. Concurrently, the Italian-language daily newspaper Stella d'Ottobre ("The October Star") was nationalized, renamed to Xiddigta Oktoobar, and began publishing in Somali. The state-run Radio Mogadishu has also broadcast in Somali since 1943. Additionally, other state-run public networks like Somaliland National TV, regional public networks such as Puntland TV and Radio and, as well as Eastern Television Network and Horn Cable Television, among other private broadcasters, air programs in Somali.

Somali is recognized as an official working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia. Although it is not an official language of Djibouti, it constitutes a major national language there. Somali is used in television and radio broadcasts, with the government-operated Radio Djibouti transmitting programs in the language from 1943 onwards.

The Kenya Broadcasting Corporation also broadcasts in the Somali language in its Iftin FM Programmes. The language is spoken in the Somali territories within North Eastern Kenya, namely Wajir County, Garissa County and Mandera County.

The Somali language is regulated by the Regional Somali Language Academy, an intergovernmental institution established in June 2013 in Djibouti City by the governments of Djibouti, Somalia and Ethiopia. It is officially mandated with preserving the Somali language.

As of 2013, Somali is also one of the featured languages available on Google Translate.

Distribution of Somali dialectal groups in the Horn of Africa

Somali linguistic varieties are broadly divided into three main groups: Northern, Benadir and Maay. Northern Somali (or Nsom) forms the basis for Standard Somali. It is spoken by more than 85% of the entire Somali population,[citation needed] with its speech area stretching from Djibouti, Somaliland, Somali Region of Ethiopia, Northern Frontier District to most parts of Somalia This widespread modern distribution is a result of a long series of southward population movements over the past ten centuries from the Gulf of Aden littoral. Lamberti subdivides Northern Somali is into three dialects: Northern Somali proper (spoken in the northwest; he describes this dialect as Northern Somali in the proper sense), the Darod group (spoken in the northeast and along the eastern Ethiopia frontier; greatest number of speakers overall), and the Lower Juba group (spoken by northern Somali settlers in the southern riverine areas). The dialect of the Isaaq clan-family has the highest prestige of any other Somali dialect.

Speech sample in Standard Somali (an Islamic discourse containing many Arabic loanwords)

Benadir (also known as Coastal Somali) is spoken on the central Indian Ocean seaboard, including Mogadishu. It forms a relatively smaller group. The dialect is fairly mutually intelligible with Northern Somali.

Northern Somali (Nsom) dialect subgroups

There are other languages that are spoken in Somalia which are not necessarily Afsoomali. They may be a mixture of the Somali Languages and other indigenous Languages. Such a Language is Maay and is principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle (Rahanweyn or Sab) clans in the southern regions of Somalia. Its speech area extends from the southwestern border with Ethiopia to a region close to the coastal strip between Mogadishu and Kismayo, including the city of Baidoa. Maay is not mutually comprehensible with Northern Somali, and it differs in sentence structure and phonology. It is also not generally used in education or media. However, Maay speakers often use Standard Somali as a lingua franca, which is learned via mass communications, internal migration and urbanization.

Maay is not closely related with the Somali language in sentence structure and phonology is spoken by Jiddu, Dabarre, Garre and Tunni varieties that are also spoken by smaller Rahanweyn communities. Collectively, these languages present similarities with Oromo that are not found in mainstream Somali. Chief among these is the lack of pharyngeal sounds in the Rahanweyn/Digil and Mirifle languages, features which by contrast typify Somali but are not Somali. Although in the past frequently classified as dialects of Somali, more recent research by the linguist Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi has shown that these varieties, including Maay, constitute separate Cushitic languages. The degree of divergence is comparable to that between Spanish and Portuguese. Of the Digil varieties, Jiddu is the most incomprehensible to Benadir and Northern speakers. Despite these linguistic differences, Somali speakers collectively view themselves as speaking a common language.

These assumptions however has been contested by a more recent study by Deqa Hassan that tested the mutual intelligibility between Af-Maay and Af-Maxaa speakers (Northern Somali).

The study found that Af-Maay is partially mutually intelligible to Af-Maxaa (Northern Speakers) and that intelligibility increases with increased understanding of Standard Somali, which implies understanding of standard Somali (Northern Somali) increases the chance of understanding Af-Maay. This accounts for the most significant linguistic factor that ties both language variations together. Furthermore, Af-Maay is categorized as a Type 5 dialect for the overlapping common cultural history it shares with Af Maxaa speakers which explains its somewhat mutual intelligibility.

Main article: Somali phonology

Somali has 22 consonant phonemes.

Somali consonant phonemes
Bilabial Labio
dental
Dental Alveolar Palato
alveolar
Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn
geal
Glottal
Nasal m n
Plosive b ɖ k ɡ q ʔ
Affricate t͡ʃ
Fricative f s ʃ x~χ ħ ʕ h
Trill r
Approximant l j w

The consonants/b d̪ ɡ/ often weaken to[β ð ɣ] intervocalically. The retroflex plosive/ɖ/ may have an implosive quality for some speakers, and intervocalically it can be realized as the flap[ɽ]. Some speakers produce/ħ/ with epiglottal trilling./q/ is often epiglottalized.

The language has five basic vowels. Each has a front and back variation as well as long or short versions. This gives a distinct 20 pure vowel sounds. It also exhibits three tones: high, low and falling. Vowels harmonize within a harmonic group, so all vowels within the group must either be front or back. The Somali orthography does not distinguish between the front and back variants of vowels, however, as there are few minimal pairs.

The syllable structure of Somali is (C)V(C). Root morphemes usually have a mono- or di-syllabic structure.

Pitch is phonemic in Somali, but it is debated whether Somali is a pitch accent or tonal language. Andrzejewski (1954) posits that Somali is a tonal language, whereas Banti (1988) suggests that it is a pitch accent language.

Main article: Somali grammar
Somali pronouns
Subject pronouns Object pronouns
Person Emphatic Short Emphatic Short
1. Sing. anigu aan aniga i(i)
2. Sing. adigu aad adiga ku(u)
3. Sing. m. isagu uu isaga (he)
3. Sing. f. iyadu ay iyada (she)
1. Pl. (inclusive) innagu aynu innaga ina/inoo
1. Pl. (exclusive) annagu aannu annaga na/noo
2. Pl. idinku aad idinka idin/idiin
3. Pl. iyagu ay iyaga (u)

Morphology

Somali is an agglutinative language, and also shows properties of inflection. Affixes mark many grammatical meanings, including aspect, tense and case.

Somali has an old prefixal verbal inflection restricted to four common verbs, with all other verbs undergoing inflection by more obvious suffixation. This general pattern is similar to the stem alternation that typifies Cairene Arabic.

Changes in pitch are used for grammatical rather than lexical purposes. This includes distinctions of gender, number and case. In some cases, these distinctions are marked by tone alone (e.g. Ínan, "boy"; inán, "girl").

Somali has two sets of pronouns: independent (substantive, emphatic) pronouns and clitic (verbal) pronouns. The independent pronouns behave grammatically as nouns, and normally occur with the suffixed article -ka/-ta (e.g. adiga, "you"). This article may be omitted after a conjunction or focus word. For example, adna meaning "and you..." (from adi-na). Clitic pronouns are attached to the verb and do not take nominal morphology. Somali marks clusivity in the first person plural pronouns; this is also found in a number of other East Cushitic languages, such as Rendille and Dhaasanac.

As in various other Afro-Asiatic languages, Somali is characterized by polarity of gender, whereby plural nouns usually take the opposite gender agreement of their singular forms. For example, the plural of the masculine noun dibi ("bull") is formed by converting it into feminine dibi. Somali is unusual among the world's languages in that the object is unmarked for case while the subject is marked, though this feature is found in other Cushitic languages such as Oromo.

Syntax

Somali is a subject–object–verb (SOV) language. It is largely head final, with postpositions and with obliques preceding verbs. These are common features of the Cushitic and Semitic Afroasiatic languages spoken in the Horn region (e.g. Amharic). However, Somali noun phrases are head-initial, whereby the noun precedes its modifying adjective. This pattern of general head-finality with head-initial noun phrases is also found in other Cushitic languages (e.g. Oromo), but not generally in Ethiopian Semitic languages.

Somali uses three focus markers: baa, ayaa and waxa(a), which generally mark new information or contrastive emphasis. Baa and ayaa require the focused element to occur preverbally, while waxa(a) may be used following the verb.

Somali language books on display.

Somali loanwords can be divided into those derived from other Afroasiatic languages (mainly Arabic), and those of Indo-European extraction (mainly Italian).

Somali's main lexical borrowings come from Arabic, and are estimated to constitute about 20% of the language's vocabulary. This is a legacy of the Somali people's extensive social, cultural, commercial and religious links and contacts with nearby populations in the Arabian peninsula. Arabic loanwords are most commonly used in religious, administrative and education-related speech (e.g. aamiin for "faith in God"), though they are also present in other areas (e.g. kubbad-da, "ball"). Soravia (1994) noted a total of 1,436 Arabic loanwords in Agostini a.o. 1985, a prominent 40,000-entry Somali dictionary. Most of the terms consisted of commonly used nouns. These lexical borrowings may have been more extensive in the past since a few words that Zaborski (1967:122) observed in the older literature were absent in Agostini's later work. In addition, the majority of personal names are derived from Arabic.

The Somali language also contains a few Indo-European loanwords that were retained from the colonial period. Most of these lexical borrowings come from English and Italian and are used to describe new objects or modern concepts (e.g. telefishen-ka, "television"; raadia-ha, "radio"). There are as well 300 directly Romance loans, such as garawati for "tie" (from the Italian cravatta).

Indeed, the most used loanwords from the Italian are "ciao" as a friendly salute, "dimuqraadi" from Italian "democratico" (democratic), "mikroskoob" from "microscopio” (microscope), "Jalaato" from "gelato" (ice cream), "baasto" from "pasta" (pasta), "bataate" from "patate" (potato), "bistoolad" from "pistol" (pistol), "fiyoore" from "fiore" (flower) and "injinyeer" from "ingegnere" (engineer). Somalis call their calendar months as Soon, soonfur, siditaal, carafa....but these changed recently[when?]. Furthermore, all the months in Somali language are now loaned words from the Italian, like "Febraayo" that comes from "febbraio" (February)[citation needed].

Additionally, Somali contains lexical terms from Persian, Urdu and Hindi that were acquired through historical trade with communities in the Near East and South Asia (e.g. khiyaar "cucumber" from Persian:خيارkhiyār ). Other loan words have also displaced their native synonyms in some dialects (e.g. jabaati "a type of flat bread" from Hindi: चपाती chapāti displacing sabaayad). Some of these words were also borrowed indirectly via Arabic.

As part of a broader governmental effort of linguistic purism in the Somali language, the past few decades have seen a push in Somalia toward replacement of loanwords in general with their Somali equivalents or neologisms. To this end, the Supreme Revolutionary Council during its tenure officially prohibited the borrowing and use of English and Italian terms.

Main article: Somali alphabets
The Osmanya writing script for Somali.
Shaláw Sabaean writing, Sanaag (Photo: by Sada Mire, 2007). Inscription dates between 900 BCE and 300 CE.

Archaeological excavations and research in Somalia uncovered ancient inscriptions in a distinct writing system. In an 1878 report to the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain, scientist Johann Maria Hildebrandt noted upon visiting the area that "we know from ancient authors that these districts, at present so desert, were formerly populous and civilised[...] I also discovered ancient ruins and rock-inscriptions both in pictures and characters[...] These have hitherto not been deciphered." According to the 1974 report for Ministry of Information and National Guidance, this script represents the earliest written attestation of Somali.

Much more recently, Somali archaeologist Sada Mire has published ancient inscriptions found throughout Somaliland. As much for much of Somali linguistic history the language was not widely used for literature, Dr. Mire's publications however prove that writing as a technology was not foreign nor scarce in the region. These piece of writing are from the semetic Himyarite and Sabaean languages that were largely spoken in what is modern day Yemen —"there is an extensive and ancient relationship between the people and cultures of both sides of the Red Sea coast" Mire posits. Yet, while many more such ancient inscriptions are yet to be found or analyzed, many have been "bulldozed by developers, as the Ministry of Tourism could not buy the land or stop the destruction".

Besides Ahmed's Latin script, other orthographies that have been used for centuries for writing the Somali language include the long-established Arabic script and Wadaad writing. According to Bogumił Andrzejewski, this usage was limited to Somali clerics and their associates, as sheikhs preferred to write in the liturgical Arabic language. Various such historical manuscripts in Somali nonetheless exist, which mainly consist of Islamic poems (qasidas), recitations and chants. Among these texts are the Somali poems by Sheikh Uways and Sheikh Ismaaciil Faarah. The rest of the existing historical literature in Somali principally consists of translations of documents from Arabic.

Since then a number of writing systems have been used for transcribing the Somali language. Of these, the Somali Latin alphabet, officially adopted in 1972, is the most widely used and recognised as official orthography of the state. The script was developed by a number of leading scholars of Somali, including Musa Haji Ismail Galal, B. W. Andrzejewski and Shire Jama Ahmed specifically for transcribing the Somali language, and uses all letters of the English Latin alphabet except p, v and z. There are no diacritics or other special characters except the use of the apostrophe for the glottal stop, which does not occur word-initially. There are three consonant digraphs: DH, KH and SH. Tone is not marked, and front and back vowels are not distinguished.

Writing systems developed in the twentieth century include the Osmanya, Borama and Kaddare alphabets, which were invented by Osman Yusuf Kenadid, Abdurahman Sheikh Nuur and Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, respectively.

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Numbers

English Somali
Latin Osmanya #
Zero Eber 𐒗𐒁𐒗𐒇 𐒠
One kow 𐒏𐒙𐒓 𐒡
Two laba 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒖 𐒢
Three saddex 𐒈𐒖𐒆𐒆𐒗𐒄 𐒣
Four afar 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒤
Five shan 𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒥
Six lix 𐒐𐒘𐒄 𐒦
Seven toddoba 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒖 𐒧
Eight siddeed 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒆𐒜𐒆 𐒨
Nine sagaal 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒐 𐒩
Ten toban 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒠
English Somali
Latin Osmanya #
Eleven kow iyo toban 𐒏𐒙𐒓 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒡
Twelve laba iyo toban 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒖 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒢
Thirteen saddex iyo toban 𐒈𐒖𐒆𐒆𐒗𐒄 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒣
Fourteen afar iyo toban 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒤
Fifteen shan iyo toban 𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒥
Sixteen lix iyo toban 𐒐𐒘𐒄 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒦
Seventeen toddoba iyo toban 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒖 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒧
Eighteen sideed iyo toban 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒜𐒆 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒨
Nineteen sagaal iyo toban 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒐 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒩
Twenty labaatan 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒢𐒠

For all number between 11 kow iyo toban and 99 sagaashal iyo sagaal it is equally correct to switch the placement of the numbers, although larger numbers is some dialects prefer to place the 10s numeral first. For example 25 may both be written as labaatan iyo shan and shan iyo labaatan (lit. Twenty and Five & Five and Twenty).

Although neither the Latin nor Osmanya scripts accommodate this numerical switching.

Multiples of 10

English Somali
Latin Osmanya #
Ten toban 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒠
Twenty labaatan 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒢𐒠
Thirty soddon 𐒈𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒒 𐒣𐒠
Forty afartan 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒤𐒠
Fifty konton 𐒏𐒙𐒒𐒂𐒙𐒒 𐒥𐒠
Sixty lixdan 𐒐𐒘𐒄𐒆𐒖𐒒 𐒦𐒠
Seventy todobaatan 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒧𐒠
Eighty sideetan 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒜𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒨𐒠
Ninety sagaashan 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒩𐒠

Names of large numbers

English Somali
Latin Osmanya #*
One hundred boqol 𐒁𐒙𐒎𐒙𐒐 𐒡𐒠𐒠
One thousand kun 𐒏𐒚𐒒 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠
One million milyan 𐒑𐒘𐒐𐒕𐒖𐒒 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠
One billion bilyan 𐒁𐒘𐒐𐒕𐒖𐒒 𐒡,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠,𐒠𐒠𐒠

*the commas in the Osmanya number chart are added for clarity

Days of the week

English Somali
Latin Osmanya
Sunday Axad 𐒖𐒄𐒖𐒆
Monday Isniin 𐒘𐒈𐒒𐒕𐒒
Tuesday Salaasa/Talaado 𐒈𐒖𐒐𐒛𐒈𐒖/𐒂𐒖𐒐𐒛𐒆𐒙
Wednesday Arbaca/Arbaco 𐒖𐒇𐒁𐒖𐒋𐒛/𐒖𐒇𐒁𐒖𐒋𐒙
Thursday Khamiis 𐒅𐒖𐒑𐒕𐒈
Friday Jimce/Jimco 𐒃𐒘𐒑𐒋𐒙
Saturday Sabti 𐒈𐒖𐒁𐒂𐒘

Months of the year

English Somali
Latin Osmanya
January Jeenuwari 𐒃𐒜𐒒𐒚𐒓𐒖𐒇𐒘
February Feebruwari 𐒍𐒛𐒁𐒇𐒚𐒓𐒖𐒇𐒘
March Maaj 𐒑𐒛𐒃
April Abriil 𐒖𐒁𐒇𐒕𐒐
May May 𐒑𐒖𐒕
June Juun 𐒃𐒓𐒒
July Juulaay 𐒃𐒓𐒐𐒛𐒕
August Oogas 𐒝𐒌𐒖𐒈
September Sibtambar 𐒈𐒘𐒁𐒂𐒖𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇
October Oktoobar 𐒙𐒏𐒂𐒝𐒁𐒖𐒇
November Noofambar 𐒒𐒝𐒍𐒖𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇
December Diisambar 𐒆𐒕𐒈𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇
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  35. Somali Dialects in the United States: How intelligible is Af-Maay to Speakers of Af-Maxaa? by Deqa Hassan (Minnesota State University - Mankato)
  36. Saeed (1999:7)
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  38. Gabbard (2010:6)
  39. Saeed (1999:8)
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  46. Dubnov (2003:11)
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  54. Zwicky & Pullum (1983:389)
  55. John I. Saeed (1984). The Syntax of Focus & Topic in Somali. H. Buske. p. 66. ISBN 3871186724.
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Somali edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Somali.
Scholia has a topic profile for Somali language.

Somali language
Somali language Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with Somali languages Somali s e ˈ m ɑː l i s oʊ 4 5 Latin Af Soomaali Wadaad صومالي Osmanya 𐒖𐒍 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘 ae f sɔ ːmɑ ːli 6 is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch It is spoken as a mother tongue by Somalis in Greater Somalia and the Somali diaspora Somali is an official language of Somalia and Somaliland 7 a national language in Djibouti and a working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia and also in North Eastern Kenya The Somali language is written officially with the Latin alphabet although the Arabic alphabet and several Somali scripts like Osmanya and the Borama script are informally used 8 9 SomaliAf Soomaali 1 Soomaali 2 𐒖𐒍 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘 اف صومالي صومالي RegionHorn of AfricaEthnicitySomalisNative speakers21 807 730 2019 3 Language familyAfro Asiatic CushiticLowland East CushiticSomali languagesSomaliWriting systemSomali Latin alphabet Latin script official Wadaad writing Arabic script Osmanya alphabet Borama alphabet Kaddare alphabetOfficial statusOfficial language in Somalia Somaliland Djibouti EthiopiaRecognised minority language in KenyaRegulated byRegional Somali Language AcademyLanguage codesISO 639 1 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php iso 639 1 so so a span ISO 639 2 span class plainlinks a rel nofollow class external text href https www loc gov standards iso639 2 php langcodes name php code ID 419 som a span ISO 639 3 a href https iso639 3 sil org code som class extiw title iso639 3 som som a Glottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id soma1255 soma1255 a Linguasphere14 GAG aPrimary Somali SprachraumThis article contains IPA phonetic symbols Without proper rendering support you may see question marks boxes or other symbols instead of Unicode characters For an introductory guide on IPA symbols see Help IPA Contents 1 Classification 2 Geographic distribution 2 1 Official status 3 Varieties 4 Phonology 5 Grammar 5 1 Morphology 5 2 Syntax 6 Vocabulary 7 Writing system 8 Numbers and calendrical terms 8 1 Numbers 8 2 Multiples of 10 8 3 Names of large numbers 8 4 Days of the week 8 5 Months of the year 9 See also 10 References 10 1 Sources 11 Further reading 12 External linksClassification EditMain articles Afroasiatic languages and Cushitic languages Somali is classified within the Cushitic branch of the Afroasiatic family specifically Lowland East Cushitic in addition to Afar and Saho 10 Somali is the best documented of the Cushitic languages 11 with academic studies of the language dating back to the late 19th century 12 Geographic distribution EditThe Somali language is spoken in Somali inhabited areas of Somalia Somaliland Djibouti Ethiopia Kenya Yemen and by members of the Somali diaspora It is also spoken as an adoptive language by a few ethnic minority groups and individuals in Somali majority regions Somali is the most widely spoken Cushitic language in the region followed by Oromo and Afar 13 As of 2019 there were approximately 21 8 million speakers of Somali spread in Greater Somalia of which around 7 8 million resided in Somalia 3 The language is spoken by an estimated 95 of the country s inhabitants 12 and also by a majority of the population in Djibouti 11 Following the start of the Somali Civil War in the early 1990s the Somali speaking diaspora increased in size with newer Somali speech communities forming in parts of the Middle East North America and Europe 3 Official status Edit Constitutionally Somali and Arabic are the two official languages of Somalia 14 Somali has been an official national language since January 1973 when the Supreme Revolutionary Council SRC declared it the Somali Democratic Republic s primary language of administration and education Somali was thereafter established as the main language of academic instruction in forms 1 through 4 following preparatory work by the government appointed Somali Language Committee It later expanded to include all 12 forms in 1979 In 1972 the SRC adopted a Latin orthography as the official national alphabet over several other writing scripts that were then in use Concurrently the Italian language daily newspaper Stella d Ottobre The October Star was nationalized renamed to Xiddigta Oktoobar and began publishing in Somali 15 The state run Radio Mogadishu has also broadcast in Somali since 1943 16 Additionally other state run public networks like Somaliland National TV regional public networks such as Puntland TV and Radio and as well as Eastern Television Network and Horn Cable Television among other private broadcasters air programs in Somali 17 Somali is recognized as an official working language in the Somali Region of Ethiopia 18 Although it is not an official language of Djibouti it constitutes a major national language there Somali is used in television and radio broadcasts 12 19 with the government operated Radio Djibouti transmitting programs in the language from 1943 onwards 16 The Kenya Broadcasting Corporation also broadcasts in the Somali language in its Iftin FM Programmes The language is spoken in the Somali territories within North Eastern Kenya namely Wajir County Garissa County and Mandera County 20 21 The Somali language is regulated by the Regional Somali Language Academy an intergovernmental institution established in June 2013 in Djibouti City by the governments of Djibouti Somalia and Ethiopia It is officially mandated with preserving the Somali language 22 As of 2013 Somali is also one of the featured languages available on Google Translate 23 Varieties EditMain articles Somali languages Northern Somali and Benadiri Somali Distribution of Somali dialectal groups in the Horn of Africa Somali linguistic varieties are broadly divided into three main groups Northern Benadir and Maay 24 Northern Somali or Nsom 25 forms the basis for Standard Somali 24 It is spoken by more than 85 of the entire Somali population citation needed with its speech area stretching from Djibouti Somaliland Somali Region of Ethiopia Northern Frontier District to most parts of Somalia 26 This widespread modern distribution is a result of a long series of southward population movements over the past ten centuries from the Gulf of Aden littoral 27 Lamberti subdivides Northern Somali is into three dialects Northern Somali proper spoken in the northwest he describes this dialect as Northern Somali in the proper sense the Darod group spoken in the northeast and along the eastern Ethiopia frontier greatest number of speakers overall and the Lower Juba group spoken by northern Somali settlers in the southern riverine areas 25 The dialect of the Isaaq clan family has the highest prestige of any other Somali dialect 28 source source Speech sample in Standard Somali an Islamic discourse containing many Arabic loanwords Benadir also known as Coastal Somali is spoken on the central Indian Ocean seaboard including Mogadishu It forms a relatively smaller group The dialect is fairly mutually intelligible with Northern Somali 29 Northern Somali Nsom dialect subgroups There are other languages that are spoken in Somalia which are not necessarily Afsoomali They may be a mixture of the Somali Languages and other indigenous Languages Such a Language is Maay and is principally spoken by the Digil and Mirifle Rahanweyn or Sab clans in the southern regions of Somalia 24 Its speech area extends from the southwestern border with Ethiopia to a region close to the coastal strip between Mogadishu and Kismayo including the city of Baidoa 29 Maay is not mutually comprehensible with Northern Somali and it differs in sentence structure and phonology 30 It is also not generally used in education or media However Maay speakers often use Standard Somali as a lingua franca 29 which is learned via mass communications internal migration and urbanization 30 Maay is not closely related with the Somali language in sentence structure and phonology is spoken by Jiddu Dabarre Garre and Tunni varieties that are also spoken by smaller Rahanweyn communities Collectively these languages present similarities with Oromo that are not found in mainstream Somali Chief among these is the lack of pharyngeal sounds in the Rahanweyn Digil and Mirifle languages features which by contrast typify Somali but are not Somali Although in the past frequently classified as dialects of Somali more recent research by the linguist Mohamed Diriye Abdullahi has shown that these varieties including Maay constitute separate Cushitic languages 31 The degree of divergence is comparable to that between Spanish and Portuguese 32 Of the Digil varieties Jiddu is the most incomprehensible to Benadir and Northern speakers 33 Despite these linguistic differences Somali speakers collectively view themselves as speaking a common language 34 These assumptions however has been contested by a more recent study by Deqa Hassan that tested the mutual intelligibility between Af Maay and Af Maxaa speakers Northern Somali The study found that Af Maay is partially mutually intelligible to Af Maxaa Northern Speakers and that intelligibility increases with increased understanding of Standard Somali which implies understanding of standard Somali Northern Somali increases the chance of understanding Af Maay This accounts for the most significant linguistic factor that ties both language variations together Furthermore Af Maay is categorized as a Type 5 dialect for the overlapping common cultural history it shares with Af Maxaa speakers which explains its somewhat mutual intelligibility 35 Phonology EditMain article Somali phonology Somali has 22 consonant phonemes 36 Somali consonant phonemes 37 38 Bilabial Labio dental Dental Alveolar Palato alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn geal GlottalNasal m n Plosive b t d ɖ k ɡ q ʔ Affricate t ʃ Fricative f s ʃ x x ħ ʕ h Trill r Approximant l j w The consonants b d ɡ often weaken to b d ɣ intervocalically 39 The retroflex plosive ɖ may have an implosive quality for some speakers and intervocalically it can be realized as the flap ɽ 39 Some speakers produce ħ with epiglottal trilling 40 q is often epiglottalized 41 The language has five basic vowels Each has a front and back variation as well as long or short versions This gives a distinct 20 pure vowel sounds It also exhibits three tones high low and falling Vowels harmonize within a harmonic group so all vowels within the group must either be front or back The Somali orthography does not distinguish between the front and back variants of vowels however as there are few minimal pairs 42 The syllable structure of Somali is C V C Root morphemes usually have a mono or di syllabic structure Pitch is phonemic in Somali but it is debated whether Somali is a pitch accent or tonal language 43 Andrzejewski 1954 posits that Somali is a tonal language 44 whereas Banti 1988 suggests that it is a pitch accent language 45 Grammar EditMain article Somali grammar Somali pronouns Subject pronouns Object pronounsPerson Emphatic Short Emphatic Short1 Sing anigu aan aniga i i 2 Sing adigu aad adiga ku u 3 Sing m isagu uu isaga he 3 Sing f iyadu ay iyada she 1 Pl inclusive innagu aynu innaga ina inoo1 Pl exclusive annagu aannu annaga na noo2 Pl idinku aad idinka idin idiin3 Pl iyagu ay iyaga u Morphology Edit Somali is an agglutinative language and also shows properties of inflection Affixes mark many grammatical meanings including aspect tense and case 46 Somali has an old prefixal verbal inflection restricted to four common verbs with all other verbs undergoing inflection by more obvious suffixation This general pattern is similar to the stem alternation that typifies Cairene Arabic 47 Changes in pitch are used for grammatical rather than lexical purposes 48 This includes distinctions of gender number and case 48 In some cases these distinctions are marked by tone alone e g Inan boy inan girl 49 Somali has two sets of pronouns independent substantive emphatic pronouns and clitic verbal pronouns 50 The independent pronouns behave grammatically as nouns and normally occur with the suffixed article ka ta e g adiga you 50 This article may be omitted after a conjunction or focus word For example adna meaning and you from adi na 50 Clitic pronouns are attached to the verb and do not take nominal morphology 51 Somali marks clusivity in the first person plural pronouns this is also found in a number of other East Cushitic languages such as Rendille and Dhaasanac 52 As in various other Afro Asiatic languages Somali is characterized by polarity of gender whereby plural nouns usually take the opposite gender agreement of their singular forms 53 54 For example the plural of the masculine noun dibi bull is formed by converting it into feminine dibi 53 Somali is unusual among the world s languages in that the object is unmarked for case while the subject is marked though this feature is found in other Cushitic languages such as Oromo 55 Syntax Edit Somali is a subject object verb SOV language 3 It is largely head final with postpositions and with obliques preceding verbs 56 These are common features of the Cushitic and Semitic Afroasiatic languages spoken in the Horn region e g Amharic 57 However Somali noun phrases are head initial whereby the noun precedes its modifying adjective 56 58 This pattern of general head finality with head initial noun phrases is also found in other Cushitic languages e g Oromo but not generally in Ethiopian Semitic languages 56 59 Somali uses three focus markers baa ayaa and waxa a which generally mark new information or contrastive emphasis 60 Baa and ayaa require the focused element to occur preverbally while waxa a may be used following the verb 61 Vocabulary Edit Somali language books on display Somali loanwords can be divided into those derived from other Afroasiatic languages mainly Arabic and those of Indo European extraction mainly Italian 62 Somali s main lexical borrowings come from Arabic and are estimated to constitute about 20 of the language s vocabulary 63 This is a legacy of the Somali people s extensive social cultural commercial and religious links and contacts with nearby populations in the Arabian peninsula Arabic loanwords are most commonly used in religious administrative and education related speech e g aamiin for faith in God though they are also present in other areas e g kubbad da ball 62 Soravia 1994 noted a total of 1 436 Arabic loanwords in Agostini a o 1985 64 a prominent 40 000 entry Somali dictionary 65 Most of the terms consisted of commonly used nouns These lexical borrowings may have been more extensive in the past since a few words that Zaborski 1967 122 observed in the older literature were absent in Agostini s later work 64 In addition the majority of personal names are derived from Arabic 66 The Somali language also contains a few Indo European loanwords that were retained from the colonial period 15 Most of these lexical borrowings come from English and Italian and are used to describe new objects or modern concepts e g telefishen ka television raadia ha radio 67 There are as well 300 directly Romance loans such as garawati for tie from the Italian cravatta Indeed the most used loanwords from the Italian are ciao as a friendly salute dimuqraadi from Italian democratico democratic mikroskoob from microscopio microscope Jalaato from gelato ice cream baasto from pasta pasta bataate from patate potato bistoolad from pistol pistol fiyoore from fiore flower and injinyeer from ingegnere engineer 68 Somalis call their calendar months as Soon soonfur siditaal carafa but these changed recently when Furthermore all the months in Somali language are now loaned words from the Italian like Febraayo that comes from febbraio February citation needed Additionally Somali contains lexical terms from Persian Urdu and Hindi that were acquired through historical trade with communities in the Near East and South Asia e g khiyaar cucumber from Persian خيار khiyar 67 Other loan words have also displaced their native synonyms in some dialects e g jabaati a type of flat bread from Hindi चप त chapati displacing sabaayad Some of these words were also borrowed indirectly via Arabic 67 69 As part of a broader governmental effort of linguistic purism in the Somali language the past few decades have seen a push in Somalia toward replacement of loanwords in general with their Somali equivalents or neologisms To this end the Supreme Revolutionary Council during its tenure officially prohibited the borrowing and use of English and Italian terms 15 Writing system EditMain article Somali alphabets The Osmanya writing script for Somali Shalaw Sabaean writing Sanaag Photo by Sada Mire 2007 Inscription dates between 900 BCE and 300 CE Archaeological excavations and research in Somalia uncovered ancient inscriptions in a distinct writing system 70 In an 1878 report to the Royal Geographical Society of Great Britain scientist Johann Maria Hildebrandt noted upon visiting the area that we know from ancient authors that these districts at present so desert were formerly populous and civilised I also discovered ancient ruins and rock inscriptions both in pictures and characters These have hitherto not been deciphered 71 According to the 1974 report for Ministry of Information and National Guidance this script represents the earliest written attestation of Somali 70 Much more recently Somali archaeologist Sada Mire has published ancient inscriptions found throughout Somaliland As much for much of Somali linguistic history the language was not widely used for literature Dr Mire s publications however prove that writing as a technology was not foreign nor scarce in the region 72 These piece of writing are from the semetic Himyarite and Sabaean languages that were largely spoken in what is modern day Yemen there is an extensive and ancient relationship between the people and cultures of both sides of the Red Sea coast Mire posits Yet while many more such ancient inscriptions are yet to be found or analyzed many have been bulldozed by developers as the Ministry of Tourism could not buy the land or stop the destruction 73 Besides Ahmed s Latin script other orthographies that have been used for centuries for writing the Somali language include the long established Arabic script and Wadaad writing 74 According to Bogumil Andrzejewski this usage was limited to Somali clerics and their associates as sheikhs preferred to write in the liturgical Arabic language Various such historical manuscripts in Somali nonetheless exist which mainly consist of Islamic poems qasidas recitations and chants 75 Among these texts are the Somali poems by Sheikh Uways and Sheikh Ismaaciil Faarah The rest of the existing historical literature in Somali principally consists of translations of documents from Arabic 76 Since then a number of writing systems have been used for transcribing the Somali language Of these the Somali Latin alphabet officially adopted in 1972 is the most widely used and recognised as official orthography of the state 77 The script was developed by a number of leading scholars of Somali including Musa Haji Ismail Galal B W Andrzejewski and Shire Jama Ahmed specifically for transcribing the Somali language and uses all letters of the English Latin alphabet except p v and z 78 79 There are no diacritics or other special characters except the use of the apostrophe for the glottal stop which does not occur word initially There are three consonant digraphs DH KH and SH Tone is not marked and front and back vowels are not distinguished Writing systems developed in the twentieth century include the Osmanya Borama and Kaddare alphabets which were invented by Osman Yusuf Kenadid Abdurahman Sheikh Nuur and Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare respectively 80 Numbers and calendrical terms EditThis section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Numbers Edit English SomaliLatin Osmanya Zero Eber 𐒗𐒁𐒗𐒇 𐒠One kow 𐒏𐒙𐒓 𐒡Two laba 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒖 𐒢Three saddex 𐒈𐒖𐒆𐒆𐒗𐒄 𐒣Four afar 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒤Five shan 𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒥Six lix 𐒐𐒘𐒄 𐒦Seven toddoba 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒖 𐒧Eight siddeed 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒆𐒜𐒆 𐒨Nine sagaal 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒐 𐒩Ten toban 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒠English SomaliLatin Osmanya Eleven kow iyo toban 𐒏𐒙𐒓 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒡Twelve laba iyo toban 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒖 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒢Thirteen saddex iyo toban 𐒈𐒖𐒆𐒆𐒗𐒄 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒣Fourteen afar iyo toban 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒤Fifteen shan iyo toban 𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒥Sixteen lix iyo toban 𐒐𐒘𐒄 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒦Seventeen toddoba iyo toban 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒖 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒧Eighteen sideed iyo toban 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒜𐒆 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒨Nineteen sagaal iyo toban 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒐 𐒘𐒕𐒙 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒩Twenty labaatan 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒢𐒠 For all number between 11 kow iyo toban and 99 sagaashal iyo sagaal it is equally correct to switch the placement of the numbers although larger numbers is some dialects prefer to place the 10s numeral first For example 25 may both be written as labaatan iyo shan and shan iyo labaatan lit Twenty and Five amp Five and Twenty Although neither the Latin nor Osmanya scripts accommodate this numerical switching Multiples of 10 Edit English SomaliLatin Osmanya Ten toban 𐒂𐒙𐒁𐒖𐒒 𐒡𐒠Twenty labaatan 𐒐𐒖𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒢𐒠Thirty soddon 𐒈𐒙𐒆𐒆𐒙𐒒 𐒣𐒠Forty afartan 𐒖𐒍𐒖𐒇𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒤𐒠Fifty konton 𐒏𐒙𐒒𐒂𐒙𐒒 𐒥𐒠Sixty lixdan 𐒐𐒘𐒄𐒆𐒖𐒒 𐒦𐒠Seventy todobaatan 𐒂𐒙𐒆𐒙𐒁𐒛𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒧𐒠Eighty sideetan 𐒈𐒘𐒆𐒜𐒂𐒖𐒒 𐒨𐒠Ninety sagaashan 𐒈𐒖𐒌𐒛𐒉𐒖𐒒 𐒩𐒠Names of large numbers Edit English SomaliLatin Osmanya One hundred boqol 𐒁𐒙𐒎𐒙𐒐 𐒡𐒠𐒠One thousand kun 𐒏𐒚𐒒 𐒡 𐒠𐒠𐒠One million milyan 𐒑𐒘𐒐𐒕𐒖𐒒 𐒡 𐒠𐒠𐒠 𐒠𐒠𐒠One billion bilyan 𐒁𐒘𐒐𐒕𐒖𐒒 𐒡 𐒠𐒠𐒠 𐒠𐒠𐒠 𐒠𐒠𐒠 the commas in the Osmanya number chart are added for clarity Days of the week Edit English SomaliLatin OsmanyaSunday Axad 𐒖𐒄𐒖𐒆Monday Isniin 𐒘𐒈𐒒𐒕𐒒Tuesday Salaasa Talaado 𐒈𐒖𐒐𐒛𐒈𐒖 𐒂𐒖𐒐𐒛𐒆𐒙Wednesday Arbaca Arbaco 𐒖𐒇𐒁𐒖𐒋𐒛 𐒖𐒇𐒁𐒖𐒋𐒙Thursday Khamiis 𐒅𐒖𐒑𐒕𐒈Friday Jimce Jimco 𐒃𐒘𐒑𐒋𐒙Saturday Sabti 𐒈𐒖𐒁𐒂𐒘Months of the year Edit English SomaliLatin OsmanyaJanuary Jeenuwari 𐒃𐒜𐒒𐒚𐒓𐒖𐒇𐒘February Feebruwari 𐒍𐒛𐒁𐒇𐒚𐒓𐒖𐒇𐒘March Maaj 𐒑𐒛𐒃April Abriil 𐒖𐒁𐒇𐒕𐒐May May 𐒑𐒖𐒕June Juun 𐒃𐒓𐒒July Juulaay 𐒃𐒓𐒐𐒛𐒕August Oogas 𐒝𐒌𐒖𐒈September Sibtambar 𐒈𐒘𐒁𐒂𐒖𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇October Oktoobar 𐒙𐒏𐒂𐒝𐒁𐒖𐒇November Noofambar 𐒒𐒝𐒍𐒖𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇December Diisambar 𐒆𐒕𐒈𐒑𐒁𐒖𐒇See also EditLanguages of Djibouti Languages of Somalia Languages of Kenya Somali Sign Language Somali literature Somali Studies Somali Latin alphabetReferences Edit Somali alphabets pronunciation and language Omniglot Retrieved 16 June 2017 cldr so xml at master unicode org cldr Unicode Retrieved 8 November 2020 a b c d Somali SIL International 2021 Retrieved June 28 2021 Jones Daniel 2003 1917 Peter Roach James Hartmann Jane Setter eds English Pronouncing Dictionary Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 3 12 539683 2 Somali Collins Dictionary Retrieved on 21 September 2013 Saeed 1999 107 Constitution of the Republic of Somaliland PDF Retrieved November 10 2019 Lewis I M 1999 A Pastoral Democracy A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa LIT Verlag Munster p 175 ISBN 3825830845 I M Lewis 1958 The Gadabuursi Somali Script Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies University of London Vol 21 pp 134 156 Lewis 1998 11 harvcoltxt error multiple targets 2 CITEREFLewis1998 help a b Lecarme amp Maury 1987 22 a b c Dubnov 2003 9 Saeed 1999 3 The Federal Republic of Somalia Provisional Constitution PDF Archived from the original PDF on 24 January 2013 Retrieved 13 March 2013 a b c Ammon amp Hellinger 1992 128 131 a b Dubnov 2003 10 Somali Media Mapping Report PDF Somali Media Mapping Retrieved 31 August 2014 permanent dead link Kizitus Mpoche Tennu Mbuh eds 2006 Language literature and identity Cuvillier pp 163 164 ISBN 3 86537 839 0 CS1 maint multiple names authors list link CS1 maint extra text authors list link Ethnologue Djibouti Languages Ethnologue Retrieved 25 April 2013 Carrier Neil 2019 Mobile Urbanity Somali Presence in Urban East Africa Berghahn Books p 34 ISBN 9781789202977 https www youtube com watch v 5g2xHqL7Eyo Regional Somali Language Academy Launched in Djibouti COMESA Regional Investment Agency Retrieved 28 February 2014 Google Translate now in 80 languages Google Translate 10 December 2013 Retrieved 30 December 2013 a b c Dalby 1998 571 a b Lamberti Marcello 1986 Map of Somali dialects in the Somalia Democratic Republic PDF H Buske ISBN 9783871186905 Mundus Volumes 23 24 Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft 1987 p 205 Andrzejewski amp Lewis 1964 6 Pia John Joseph 1968 Somali Sounds and Inflections Indiana University p 6 a b c Saeed 1999 4 a b Maay A language of Somalia Ethnologue Retrieved 7 May 2013 Abdullahi 2001 9 harvcoltxt error multiple targets 2 CITEREFAbdullahi2001 help Lewis I M 1998 01 01 Saints and Somalis Popular Islam in a Clan based Society The Red Sea Press p 74 ISBN 9781569021033 Report Somalia Language situation and dialects PDF Country of Origin Information Centre Landinfo 2011 p 6 Somali nationalism international politics and the drive for unity in the Horn of Africa Department of Linguistics and the African Studies Center University of California Los Anglos 1963 p 24 ISBN 9780674818255 Somali Dialects in the United States How intelligible is Af Maay to Speakers of Af Maxaa by Deqa Hassan Minnesota State University Mankato Saeed 1999 7 Saeed 1999 7 10 Gabbard 2010 6 a b Saeed 1999 8 Gabbard 2010 14 Edmondson Esling amp Harris n d 5 Somali ATR harmony www ling upenn edu Retrieved November 10 2019 Keith Brown Sarah Ogilvie 2010 Concise Encyclopedia of Languages of the World Elsevier p 987 ISBN 978 0080877754 Andrzejewski Bogumit Witalis 1954 Is Somali a Tone language Proceedings of the Twenty Third International Congress of Orientalists Royal Asiatic Society pp 367 368 OCLC 496050266 Banti Giorgio 1988 Two Cushitic Systems Somali and Oromo nouns Autosegmental Studies on Pitch Accent PDF Walter de Gruyter pp 11 50 ISBN 3110874261 Archived from the original PDF on 11 October 2017 Retrieved 26 May 2017 Dubnov 2003 11 Kraska Iwona 2007 Analogy the relation between lexicon and grammar Lincom Europa p 140 ISBN 978 3895868986 a b Saeed 1999 21 Saeed 1999 19 a b c Saeed 1999 68 Saeed 1999 72 Weninger 2011 43 a b Tosco Mauro Department of Anthropology Indiana University 2000 Is There an Ethiopian Language Area Anthropological Linguistics 42 3 349 Retrieved 8 May 2013 Zwicky amp Pullum 1983 389 John I Saeed 1984 The Syntax of Focus amp Topic in Somali H Buske p 66 ISBN 3871186724 a b c Heine amp Nurse 2000 253 Klaus Wedekind Charlotte Wedekind Abuzeinab Musa 2007 A learner s grammar of Beja East Sudan grammar texts and vocabulary Beja English and English Beja Rudiger Koppe Verlag p 10 ISBN 978 3896455727 Saeed 1999 164 173 Fisiak 1997 53 Saeed 1999 117 Saeed 1999 240 a b Dubnov 2003 71 Laitin 1977 25 a b Versteegh 2008 273 Saeed 1999 5 Saeed 1999 2 a b c Dubnov 2003 73 Italian and English Loanwords in Somali by Alberto Mioni Retrieved November 10 2019 Sheik ʻAbdi 1993 45 a b Ministry of Information and National Guidance Somalia The writing of the Somali language Ministry of Information and National Guidance 1974 p 5 Royal Geographical Society Great Britain Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society of London Volume 22 Mr J M Hildebrandt on his Travels in East Africa Edward Stanford 1878 p 447 Mire Sada 2015 03 01 Mapping the Archaeology of Somaliland Religion Art Script Time Urbanism Trade and Empire African Archaeological Review 32 1 111 136 doi 10 1007 s10437 015 9184 9 ISSN 1572 9842 Mire Sada 2015 03 01 Mapping the Archaeology of Somaliland Religion Art Script Time Urbanism Trade and Empire African Archaeological Review 32 1 111 136 doi 10 1007 s10437 015 9184 9 ISSN 1572 9842 Omniglot Somali writing scripts Omniglot Retrieved 8 May 2013 Andrezewski B W July 2013 In Praise of Somali Literature Lulu pp 130 131 ISBN 978 1291454536 Retrieved 17 January 2015 Andrezewski B W July 2013 In Praise of Somali Literature Lulu p 232 ISBN 978 1291454536 Retrieved 17 January 2015 Economist Intelligence Unit Great Britain Middle East annual review 1975 p 229 Abdullahi Mohamed Diriye 2001 Culture and Customs of Somalia Greenwood Publishing Group p 73 ISBN 978 0 313 31333 2 Lewis I M 1999 A Pastoral Democracy A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa James Currey Publishers ISBN 978 0 85255 280 3 Laitin 1977 86 87 Sources Edit Abdullahi Mohamed Diriye 2001 Culture and Customs of Somalia Greenwood ISBN 978 0 313 31333 2 Ammon Ulrich Hellinger Marlis 1992 Status Change of Languages Walter de Gruyter Andrzejewski B Lewis I 1964 Somali poetry an introduction Clarendon Press Dalby Andrew 1998 Dictionary of languages the definitive reference to more than 400 languages Columbia University Press Dubnov Helena 2003 A Grammatical Sketch of Somali Koln Rudiger Koppe Verlag Edmondson Jerold Esling John Harris Jimmy n d Supraglottal cavity shape linguistic register and other phonetic features of Somali PDF Fisiak Jacek 1997 Linguistic reconstruction and typology Walter de Gruyter ISBN 978 3 11 014905 0 Gabbard Kevin 2010 A Phonological Analysis of Somali and the Guttural Consonants Thesis The Ohio State University hdl 1811 46639 Heine Bernd Nurse Derek 2000 African Languages An Introduction Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 66629 9 Laitin David 1977 Politics Language and Thought The Somali Experience University Of Chicago Press Lecarme Jacqueline Maury Carole 1987 A software tool for research in linguistics and lexicography Application to Somali Computers and Translation Paradigm Press 2 21 36 doi 10 1007 BF01540131 S2CID 6515240 Lewis I 1998 Peoples of the Horn of Africa Somali Afar and Saho Red Sea Press Saeed John 1999 Somali Amsterdam John Benjamins ISBN 1 55619 224 X Sheik ʻAbdi ʻAbdi ʻAbdulqadir 1993 Divine madness Moḥammed ʻAbdulle Ḥassan 1856 1920 Zed Books Versteegh Kees 2008 Encyclopedia of Arabic language and linguistics Volume 4 Brill ISBN 978 9004144767 Weninger Stefan 2011 Semitic Languages An International Handbook Walter de Gruyter ISBN 978 3 11 025158 6 Zwicky Arnold Pullum Geoffrey 1983 Phonology in Syntax The Somali Optional Agreement Rule PDF Natural Language amp Linguistic Theory 1 3 385 402 doi 10 1007 bf00142471 S2CID 170420275 Further reading EditAbdullahi Mohamed Diriye 2000 Le Somali dialectes et histoire Ph D dissertation Universite de Montreal Armstrong L E 1964 The phonetic structure of Somali Mitteilungen des Seminars fur Orientalische Sprachen Berlin 37 3 116 161 Bell C R V 1953 The Somali Language London Longmans Green amp Co Berchem Jorg 1991 Referenzgrammatik des Somali Koln Omimee Cardona G R 1981 Profilo fonologico del somalo Fonologia e lessico Ed G R Cardona amp F Agostini Rome Dipartimento per la Cooperazione allo Sviluppo Comitato Tecnico Linguistico per l Universita Nazionale Somala Ministero degli Affari Esteri Volume 1 pages 3 26 Dobnova Elena Z 1990 Sovremennyj somalijskij jazyk Moskva Nauka Puglielli Annarita 1997 Somali Phonology Phonologies of Asia and Africa Volume 1 Ed Alan S Kaye Winona Lake Eisenbrauns Pages 521 535 Lamberti M 1986 Die Somali Dialekte Hamburg Buske Lamberti M 1986 Map of the Somali Dialects in the Somali Democratic Republic Hamburg Buske Saeed John Ibrahim 1987 Somali Reference Grammar Springfield VA Dunwoody Press External links EditSomali edition of Wikipedia the free encyclopediaWikivoyage has a phrasebook for Somali Scholia has a topic profile for Somali language Somali Language Page Resources links and information on the Somali language Hooyo Web Somali Grammar Somali Language and Linguistics A Bibliography Learn101 Learn Somali Virtual keyboard for historical Osmanya script Lexilogos Digital Dialects Somali language learning games Enhancing the Quality of Google Somali Translations 1 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Somali language amp oldid 1052164706, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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