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Somaliland campaign

The Somaliland campaign, also called the Anglo-Somali War or the Dervish War, was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in modern-day Somaliland pitting the Dervishes led by Diiriye Guure and his emir against the British. The British were assisted in their offensives by the Ethiopians and Italians. During the First World War (1914–1918), Hassan received symbolic support for a time, from the Emperor Iyasu V of Ethiopia, he was also sent a letter of support by the Ottomans though it was intercepted by Italian agents in Aden and may never have reached him. The conflict ended when the British aerially bombed the Dervish capital of Taleh in February 1920.

Somaliland campaign
Part of the Scramble for Africa
and the First World War (1914–1918)

Aerial bombardment of Dervish forts in Taleh
Date1900–1920
(20 years)
Location
Result

British-Italian victory

Belligerents
British Empire
Italian Empire
Ethiopian Empire (1900-1904)
Dervish movement
Supported by:
Ethiopian Empire (1915-1916)
Commanders and leaders
E.J.E. Swayne
Richard Corfield
Robert Gordon
Giacomo De Martino
Menelik II
Mohammed Abdullah Hassan
Haji Sudi
Nur Ahmed Aman
Ismail Mire
Iyasu V
Casualties and losses
8-12,000
(mostly Ethiopians)

5-9,000(estimate)

Unknown number of northern Somali civilians

Contents

British Somaliland

Main article: British Somaliland

Although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire, Yemen and the sahil (including Zeila) came progressively under the control of Muhammad Ali, ruler of Egypt, between 1821 and 1841. After the Egyptians withdrew from the Yemeni seaboard in 1841, Haj Ali Shermerki, a successful and ambitious Somali merchant, purchased from them executive rights over Zeila. Shermerki's governorship had an instant effect on the city, as he manoeuvred to monopolize as much of the regional trade as possible, with his sights set as far as Harar and the Ogaden. Shermerki was later succeeded as Governor of Zeila by Abu Bakr Pasha, a local Afar statesman.

In 1874–75, the Egyptians obtained a firman from the Ottomans by which they secured claims over the city. At the same time, the Egyptians received British recognition of their nominal jurisdiction as far east as Cape Guardafui. In practice, however, Egypt had little authority over the interior and their period of rule on the coast was brief, lasting only a few years (1870–84).

The British Somaliland protectorate was subsequently established in the late 1880s after the ruling Somali authorities signed a series of protection treaties granting the British access to their territories on the northwestern coast. Among the Somali signatories were the Gadabuursi (1884), Habar Awal (1884 and 1886), and Warsangali.

When the Egyptian garrison in Harar was eventually evacuated in 1885, Zeila became caught up in the competition between the Tadjoura-based French and the British for control of the strategic Gulf of Aden littoral. By the end of 1885, the two powers were on the brink of armed confrontation, but opted instead to negotiate. On 1 February 1888 they signed a convention defining the border between French Somaliland and British Somaliland.

Italian Somaliland

Main article: Italian Somaliland
One of the forts of the Majeerteen Sultanate in Hafun

The Majeerteen Sultanate within the northeastern part of the Somali territories was established in the mid-18th century and rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor (King) Osman Mahamuud.

In late December 1888, Yusuf Ali Kenadid, the founder and first ruler of the Sultanate of Hobyo, requested Italian protection, and a treaty to that effect was signed in February 1889, making Hobyo an Italian protectorate. In April, Yusuf's uncle and rival, Boqor Osman, requested a protectorate from the Italians and was granted it. Both Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals, with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate, as well as in a separate conflict with the Sultan of Zanzibar over an area to the north of Warsheikh. In signing the agreements, the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories. The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the sultanates' respective administrations.

In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy, the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions. The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the sultanates' and their own interests. The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company. An Anglo-Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894, followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate's administration.

1900–01

The first offensive campaign was led by the Haroun against Ethiopian encampment at Jijiga in March 1900. The Ethiopian general Gerazmatch Bante reportedly repulsed the attack and inflicted great losses on the Dervishes, although the British vice-consul at Harar claimed the Ethiopians out of fear armed children with rifles to inflate the size of their forces. The Haroun seized control of the Ogaden but did not attack Harar. Instead, he raided the non-Dervish Qadariyyah clans for their camels and arms.

In 1901, the British joined with the Ethiopians and attacked the Dervishes with a force 17,000 strong. The Haroun was driven across the border into the Majeerteen Sultanate, which had been incorporated into the Italian protectorate. The Ethiopians failed to get a hold on the western Ogaden and the British were eventually forced to retreat, having accomplished none of their goals. In this campaign, "borders were ignored by both British and Somali."

February–June 1903

Cavalry and fort belonging to the Sultanate of Hobyo

The British became convinced of their need of Italian assistance, but memories of the disastrous Battle of Adowa inhibited any Italian fervour for action in the Horn of Africa. In 1903, the Italian Foreign Ministry permitted the British to land forces at Hobyo (Obbia). An Italian naval commander off Hobyo feared "that the expedition will end in a fiasco; the Mad Mullah will become a myth for the British, who will never come across him, and a serious worry for ... our sphere of influence."

The relationship between Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians' proposal to allow British troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against Diiriye Guure's Dervish forces. Viewed as too much of a threat by the Italians, Kenadid was exiled first to the British-controlled Aden Protectorate, and then to Italian Eritrea, as was his son Ali Yusuf, the heir apparent to his throne. In May, the British Foreign Office realised the error, and had Kenadid's son appointed regent, just in time to forestall an attack in Mudug by the Sultan's army.

The expedition ended in failure soon after. The Haroun annihilated a British detachment near Gumburru and then forced another Daratoleh back to base. For trying to save a fellow officer during the fighting withdrawal three officers John Gough, George Rolland, William George Walker were awarded Victoria Crosses. With 1,200–1,500 rifles, 4,000 ponies and some spearmen, he occupied the Nugal Valley from Halin in the British protectorate to Ilig (or Illig) on the Italian-held coast. The main British force near Galad (Galadi) under General William Manning retreated north along the line BohotlehBuraoSheekh. This "old-established line" had already been breached by the Haroun when they invaded the Nugal. By the end of June, the withdrawal was complete.

January–May 1904

British camel troopers in 1913, between Berbera and Odweyne in British Somaliland.

After the failure of General Manning's offensive, General Charles Egerton was entrusted with a response. Following extensive preparations, he united his field force at Bacaadweeyn (Badwein) on 9 January 1904 and defeated the Haroun at Jidballi the next day. The British and their allies from Hobyo harassed the Haroun along their retreat, and lost many of his camels and livestock throughout February.

In early March, the second phase of operations began. The Ethiopians advanced as far as Gerlogubi but turned back in early April. The Italian Navy bombarded Ilig in the winter to no effect. On 16 April, three ships of the East Indies Station under Rear Admiral George Atkinson-Willes left Berbera planning to capture Ilig in cooperation with an advance overland. The attack on Ilig took place on 21 April. A Royal Naval detachment, reinforced by three companies of the Royal Hampshire Regiment, stormed and captured the forts at Illig, the ships' guns supporting the attack. The British lost 3 men killed and 11 wounded, and the Dervishes 58 killed and 14 wounded. The naval detachment remained ashore for four days, assisted by an Italian naval detachment that arrived on 22 April. Control of Ilig was finally relinquished to Ali Yusuf of Hobyo. Having defeated his forces in the field and forced his retreat, the British "offered the Mullah safe conduct into permanent exile at Mecca"; the Haroun did not reply.

1920

Following the end of World War I, British troops once again turned their attention to the disturbances in British Somaliland. The Dervishes had previously defeated British forces at the Battle of Dul Madoba in 1913. Four subsequent British expeditions against Diiriye Guure and his soldiers had also failed.

In 1920, British forces launched a final campaign against Diiriye Guure's Dervishes. Although the majority of the combat took place in January of the year, British troops had begun preparations for the assault as early as November 1919. The British forces were led by the Royal Air Force and the ground component included the Somaliland Camel Corps. After three weeks of battle, the Dervishes were finally defeated, bringing an effective end to their 20-year resistance.

  1. "Twentieth Century Atlas - Death Tolls".
  2. Omar, Mohamed (2001). The Scramble in the Horn of Africa. p. 402. This letter is sent by all the Dervishes, the Amir, and all the Dolbahanta to the Ruler of Berbera ... We are a Government, we have a Sultan, an Amir, and Chiefs, and subjects ... (reply) In his last letter the Mullah pretends to speak in the name of the Dervishes, their Amir (himself), and the Dolbahanta tribes. This letter shows his object is to establish himself as the Ruler of the Dolbahanta
  3. Nicolle (1997), 5.
  4. Gerwarth, Robert; Manela, Erez (2014). Empires at War: 1911-1923. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198702511.
  5. Clifford (1936), 289
  6. Abir (1968), 18.
  7. Lewis (2002), 43, 49.
  8. Lewis (1999), 19.
  9. Laitin (1977), 8.
  10. Ravenstein (1894), 56–58.
  11. Metz (1993), 10.
  12. Hess (1964), 416–17.
  13. Issa-Salwe (1996), 34–35.
  14. Hess (1964), 420.
  15. Commander of the torpedo-gunboat Caprera on 14 March, quoted in Hess (1964), 421.
  16. Sheik-ʻAbdi (1993), 129
  17. Hess (1964), 421.
  18. "Gumburru and Daratoleh: 1903 Somaliland Campaign"
  19. Cunliffe-Owen (1905), 169.
  20. Cunliffe-Owen (1905), 175–76.
  21. Cunliffe-Owen (1905), 178.
  22. Lane (June 2020), 152-156
  23. Cunliffe-Owen (1905), 179–82 ("Appendix A").
  24. Baker (2003), 161–62.

Articles

  • Clifford, E. H. M. (1936). "The British Somaliland–Ethiopia Boundary." The Geographical Journal 87 (4): 289–302.
  • Cunliffe-Owen, Frederick. (1905). "The Somaliland Operations: June, 1903, to May, 1904." Royal United Service Institution Journal 49 (1): 169–83.
  • Galbraith, John S. (1970). "Italy, the British East Africa Company, and the Benadir Coast, 1888–1893." The Journal of Modern History 42 (4): 549–63.
  • Gray, Randal. (1970). "Bombing the ‘Mad Mullah’ – 1920." Royal United Service Institution Journal 25 (4): 41–47.
  • Hess, Robert L. (1964). "The ‘Mad Mullah’ and Northern Somalia." The Journal of African History 5 (3): 415–33.
  • Lane, Paul G. (June 2020). "The capture of the forts at Illig from the Mad Mullah, 21 April 1904." Orders & Medals Research Society Journal 59 (2): 152–156.
  • Latham Brown, D. J. (1956). "The Ethiopia–Somaliland Frontier Dispute." The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 5 (2): 245–64.
  • Ravenstein, E. G. (1894). "The Recent Territorial Arrangements in Africa." The Geographical Journal 4 (1): 54–58.

Books

Somaliland campaign
Somaliland campaign Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Somaliland Campaign The Somaliland campaign also called the Anglo Somali War or the Dervish War was a series of military expeditions that took place between 1900 and 1920 in modern day Somaliland pitting the Dervishes led by Diiriye Guure 2 and his emir against the British 3 The British were assisted in their offensives by the Ethiopians and Italians During the First World War 1914 1918 Hassan received symbolic support for a time from the Emperor Iyasu V of Ethiopia he was also sent a letter of support by the Ottomans though it was intercepted by Italian agents in Aden and may never have reached him 4 The conflict ended when the British aerially bombed the Dervish capital of Taleh in February 1920 Somaliland campaignPart of the Scramble for Africa and the First World War 1914 1918 Aerial bombardment of Dervish forts in TalehDate1900 1920 20 years LocationSomalilandResultBritish Italian victory Collapse of the Dervish movement Consolidation of British Somaliland Consolidation of Italian SomalilandBelligerents British Empire Italian Empire Ethiopian Empire 1900 1904 Dervish movement Supported by Ethiopian Empire 1915 1916 Commanders and leadersE J E Swayne Richard Corfield Robert Gordon Giacomo De Martino Menelik IIMohammed Abdullah Hassan Haji Sudi Nur Ahmed Aman Ismail Mire Iyasu VCasualties and losses8 12 000 1 mostly Ethiopians 5 9 000 1 estimate Unknown number of northern Somali civilians 1 Contents 1 Background 1 1 British Somaliland 1 2 Italian Somaliland 2 Campaigns 2 1 1900 01 2 2 February June 1903 2 3 January May 1904 2 4 1920 3 Notes 4 References 4 1 Articles 4 2 BooksBackground EditBritish Somaliland Edit Main article British Somaliland Although nominally part of the Ottoman Empire Yemen and the sahil including Zeila came progressively under the control of Muhammad Ali ruler of Egypt between 1821 and 1841 5 After the Egyptians withdrew from the Yemeni seaboard in 1841 Haj Ali Shermerki a successful and ambitious Somali merchant purchased from them executive rights over Zeila Shermerki s governorship had an instant effect on the city as he manoeuvred to monopolize as much of the regional trade as possible with his sights set as far as Harar and the Ogaden 6 Shermerki was later succeeded as Governor of Zeila by Abu Bakr Pasha a local Afar statesman 7 In 1874 75 the Egyptians obtained a firman from the Ottomans by which they secured claims over the city At the same time the Egyptians received British recognition of their nominal jurisdiction as far east as Cape Guardafui 5 In practice however Egypt had little authority over the interior and their period of rule on the coast was brief lasting only a few years 1870 84 7 The British Somaliland protectorate was subsequently established in the late 1880s after the ruling Somali authorities signed a series of protection treaties granting the British access to their territories on the northwestern coast Among the Somali signatories were the Gadabuursi 1884 Habar Awal 1884 and 1886 8 and Warsangali 9 When the Egyptian garrison in Harar was eventually evacuated in 1885 Zeila became caught up in the competition between the Tadjoura based French and the British for control of the strategic Gulf of Aden littoral By the end of 1885 the two powers were on the brink of armed confrontation but opted instead to negotiate 7 On 1 February 1888 they signed a convention defining the border between French Somaliland and British Somaliland 10 Italian Somaliland Edit Main article Italian Somaliland One of the forts of the Majeerteen Sultanate in Hafun The Majeerteen Sultanate within the northeastern part of the Somali territories was established in the mid 18th century and rose to prominence the following century under the reign of the resourceful Boqor King Osman Mahamuud 11 In late December 1888 Yusuf Ali Kenadid the founder and first ruler of the Sultanate of Hobyo requested Italian protection and a treaty to that effect was signed in February 1889 making Hobyo an Italian protectorate In April Yusuf s uncle and rival Boqor Osman requested a protectorate from the Italians and was granted it 12 Both Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid had entered into the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist goals with Sultan Kenadid looking to use Italy s support in his ongoing power struggle with Boqor Osman over the Majeerteen Sultanate as well as in a separate conflict with the Sultan of Zanzibar over an area to the north of Warsheikh In signing the agreements the rulers also hoped to exploit the rival objectives of the European imperial powers so as to more effectively assure the continued independence of their territories The terms of each treaty specified that Italy was to steer clear of any interference in the sultanates respective administrations 13 In return for Italian arms and an annual subsidy the Sultans conceded to a minimum of oversight and economic concessions 12 The Italians also agreed to dispatch a few ambassadors to promote both the sultanates and their own interests 13 The new protectorates were thereafter managed by Vincenzo Filonardi through a chartered company 12 An Anglo Italian border protocol was later signed on 5 May 1894 followed by an agreement in 1906 between Cavalier Pestalozza and General Swaine acknowledging that Baran fell under the Majeerteen Sultanate s administration 13 Campaigns Edit1900 01 Edit The first offensive campaign was led by the Haroun against Ethiopian encampment at Jijiga in March 1900 The Ethiopian general Gerazmatch Bante reportedly repulsed the attack and inflicted great losses on the Dervishes although the British vice consul at Harar claimed the Ethiopians out of fear armed children with rifles to inflate the size of their forces The Haroun seized control of the Ogaden but did not attack Harar Instead he raided the non Dervish Qadariyyah clans for their camels and arms 14 In 1901 the British joined with the Ethiopians and attacked the Dervishes with a force 17 000 strong The Haroun was driven across the border into the Majeerteen Sultanate which had been incorporated into the Italian protectorate 14 The Ethiopians failed to get a hold on the western Ogaden and the British were eventually forced to retreat having accomplished none of their goals In this campaign borders were ignored by both British and Somali 14 February June 1903 Edit Cavalry and fort belonging to the Sultanate of Hobyo The British became convinced of their need of Italian assistance but memories of the disastrous Battle of Adowa inhibited any Italian fervour for action in the Horn of Africa In 1903 the Italian Foreign Ministry permitted the British to land forces at Hobyo Obbia An Italian naval commander off Hobyo feared that the expedition will end in a fiasco the Mad Mullah will become a myth for the British who will never come across him and a serious worry for our sphere of influence 15 The relationship between Hobyo and Italy soured when Sultan Kenadid refused the Italians proposal to allow British troops to disembark in his Sultanate so that they might then pursue their battle against Diiriye Guure s 2 Dervish forces 13 Viewed as too much of a threat by the Italians Kenadid was exiled first to the British controlled Aden Protectorate and then to Italian Eritrea as was his son Ali Yusuf the heir apparent to his throne 16 In May the British Foreign Office realised the error and had Kenadid s son appointed regent just in time to forestall an attack in Mudug by the Sultan s army 17 The expedition ended in failure soon after The Haroun annihilated a British detachment near Gumburru and then forced another Daratoleh back to base For trying to save a fellow officer during the fighting withdrawal three officers John Gough George Rolland William George Walker were awarded Victoria Crosses 18 With 1 200 1 500 rifles 4 000 ponies and some spearmen he occupied the Nugal Valley from Halin in the British protectorate to Ilig or Illig on the Italian held coast The main British force near Galad Galadi under General William Manning retreated north along the line Bohotleh Burao Sheekh This old established line had already been breached by the Haroun when they invaded the Nugal 19 By the end of June the withdrawal was complete January May 1904 Edit British camel troopers in 1913 between Berbera and Odweyne in British Somaliland After the failure of General Manning s offensive General Charles Egerton was entrusted with a response Following extensive preparations he united his field force at Bacaadweeyn Badwein on 9 January 1904 and defeated the Haroun at Jidballi the next day The British and their allies from Hobyo harassed the Haroun along their retreat and lost many of his camels and livestock throughout February 20 In early March the second phase of operations began The Ethiopians advanced as far as Gerlogubi but turned back in early April The Italian Navy bombarded Ilig in the winter to no effect On 16 April three ships of the East Indies Station under Rear Admiral George Atkinson Willes left Berbera planning to capture Ilig in cooperation with an advance overland 21 The attack on Ilig took place on 21 April A Royal Naval detachment reinforced by three companies of the Royal Hampshire Regiment stormed and captured the forts at Illig the ships guns supporting the attack The British lost 3 men killed and 11 wounded and the Dervishes 58 killed and 14 wounded 22 The naval detachment remained ashore for four days assisted by an Italian naval detachment that arrived on 22 April Control of Ilig was finally relinquished to Ali Yusuf of Hobyo 23 Having defeated his forces in the field and forced his retreat the British offered the Mullah safe conduct into permanent exile at Mecca the Haroun did not reply 17 1920 Edit Main article Somaliland campaign 1920 Following the end of World War I British troops once again turned their attention to the disturbances in British Somaliland The Dervishes had previously defeated British forces at the Battle of Dul Madoba in 1913 Four subsequent British expeditions against Diiriye Guure 2 and his soldiers had also failed 24 In 1920 British forces launched a final campaign against Diiriye Guure s 2 Dervishes Although the majority of the combat took place in January of the year British troops had begun preparations for the assault as early as November 1919 The British forces were led by the Royal Air Force and the ground component included the Somaliland Camel Corps After three weeks of battle the Dervishes were finally defeated bringing an effective end to their 20 year resistance 24 Notes Edit a b c Twentieth Century Atlas Death Tolls a b c d Omar Mohamed 2001 The Scramble in the Horn of Africa p 402 This letter is sent by all the Dervishes the Amir and all the Dolbahanta to the Ruler of Berbera We are a Government we have a Sultan an Amir and Chiefs and subjects reply In his last letter the Mullah pretends to speak in the name of the Dervishes their Amir himself and the Dolbahanta tribes This letter shows his object is to establish himself as the Ruler of the Dolbahanta Nicolle 1997 5 Gerwarth Robert Manela Erez 2014 Empires at War 1911 1923 Oxford University Press ISBN 9780198702511 a b Clifford 1936 289 Abir 1968 18 a b c Lewis 2002 43 49 Lewis 1999 19 Laitin 1977 8 Ravenstein 1894 56 58 Metz 1993 10 a b c Hess 1964 416 17 a b c d Issa Salwe 1996 34 35 a b c Hess 1964 420 Commander of the torpedo gunboat Caprera on 14 March quoted in Hess 1964 421 Sheik ʻAbdi 1993 129 a b Hess 1964 421 Gumburru and Daratoleh 1903 Somaliland Campaign Cunliffe Owen 1905 169 Cunliffe Owen 1905 175 76 Cunliffe Owen 1905 178 Lane June 2020 152 156 Cunliffe Owen 1905 179 82 Appendix A a b Baker 2003 161 62 References EditArticles Edit Clifford E H M 1936 The British Somaliland Ethiopia Boundary The Geographical Journal 87 4 289 302 Cunliffe Owen Frederick 1905 The Somaliland Operations June 1903 to May 1904 Royal United Service Institution Journal 49 1 169 83 Galbraith John S 1970 Italy the British East Africa Company and the Benadir Coast 1888 1893 The Journal of Modern History 42 4 549 63 Gray Randal 1970 Bombing the Mad Mullah 1920 Royal United Service Institution Journal 25 4 41 47 Hess Robert L 1964 The Mad Mullah and Northern Somalia The Journal of African History 5 3 415 33 Lane Paul G June 2020 The capture of the forts at Illig from the Mad Mullah 21 April 1904 Orders amp Medals Research Society Journal 59 2 152 156 Latham Brown D J 1956 The Ethiopia Somaliland Frontier Dispute The International and Comparative Law Quarterly 5 2 245 64 Ravenstein E G 1894 The Recent Territorial Arrangements in Africa The Geographical Journal 4 1 54 58 Books Edit Abir Mordechai 1968 Ethiopia The Era of the Princes The Challenge of Islam and Re unification of the Christian Empire 1769 1855 Praeger Baker Anne 2003 From Biplane to Spitfire Pen and Sword Books ISBN 0 85052 980 8 Cassanelli Lee V 1982 The Shaping of Somali Society Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People 1600 1900 Philadelphia University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 0812278321 Issa Salwe Abdisalam M 1996 The Collapse of the Somali State The Impact of the Colonial Legacy London Haan Associates ISBN 187420991X Laitin David D 1977 Politics Language and Thought The Somali Experience University of Chicago Press ISBN 9780226467917 Lewis I M 2002 A Modern History of the Somali 4th ed Oxford James Currey Lewis I M 1999 A Pastoral Democracy A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa Oxford James Currey ISBN 0852552807 Metz Helen Chapin 1993 Somalia A Country Study The Division Nicolle David 1997 The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 1935 36 Oxford Osprey Omissi David E 1990 Air Power and Colonial Control The Royal Air Force 1919 1939 New York Manchester University Press pp 14 15 ISBN 0719029600 Sheik ʻAbdi ʻAbdi ʻAbdulqadir 1993 Divine Madness Moḥammed ʻAbdulle Ḥassan 1856 1920 Zed Books ISBN 0862324440 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