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Sonata

For the detailed form of an individual musical movement, see Sonata form. For other uses, see Sonata (disambiguation).
This article includes a list of general references, but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations.(August 2010) ()

Sonata (; Italian: , pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare [archaic Italian; replaced in the modern language by suonare], "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.: 17 The term evolved through the history of music, designating a variety of forms until the Classical era, when it took on increasing importance. Sonata is a vague term, with varying meanings depending on the context and time period. By the early 19th century, it came to represent a principle of composing large-scale works. It was applied to most instrumental genres and regarded—alongside the fugue—as one of two fundamental methods of organizing, interpreting and analyzing concert music. Though the musical style of sonatas has changed since the Classical era, most 20th- and 21st-century sonatas still maintain the same structure.

Ludwig van Beethoven's manuscript sketch for Piano Sonata No. 28, Movement IV Geschwind, doch nicht zu sehr und mit Entschlossenheit (Allegro), in his own handwriting. The piece was completed in 1816.
Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 28 in A major, Op. 101


Performed by Daniel Veesey

Problems playing these files? See .

The term sonatina, pl. sonatine, the diminutive form of sonata, is often used for a short or technically easy sonata.

Contents

In the Baroque period, a sonata was for one or more instruments almost always with continuo. After the Baroque period most works designated as sonatas specifically are performed by a solo instrument, most often a keyboard instrument, or by a solo instrument accompanied by a keyboard instrument.

Sonatas for a solo instrument other than keyboard have been composed, as have sonatas for other combinations of instruments.

Baroque

Individual sheet music of a sonata, written in the Baroque period.

In the works of Arcangelo Corelli and his contemporaries, two broad classes of sonata were established, and were first described by Sébastien de Brossard in his Dictionaire de musique (third edition, Amsterdam, ca. 1710): the sonata da chiesa (that is, suitable for use in church), which was the type "rightly known as Sonatas", and the sonata da camera (proper for use at court), which consists of a prelude followed by a succession of dances, all in the same key.: 21, 40 Although the four, five, or six movements of the sonata da chiesa are also most often in one key, one or two of the internal movements are sometimes in a contrasting tonality.

The sonata da chiesa, generally for one or more violins and bass, consisted normally of a slow introduction, a loosely fugued allegro, a cantabile slow movement, and a lively finale in some binary form suggesting affinity with the dance-tunes of the suite. This scheme, however, was not very clearly defined, until the works of Arcangelo Corelli when it became the essential sonata and persisted as a tradition of Italian violin music.

The sonata da camera consisted almost entirely of idealized dance-tunes. On the other hand, the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera then tended to be freely intermixed. Although nearly half of Bach's 1,100 surviving compositions, arrangements, and transcriptions are instrumental works, only about 4% are sonatas.

The term sonata is also applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo, or sometimes for other keyboard instruments, by Domenico Scarlatti, originally published under the name Essercizi per il gravicembalo (Exercises for the Harpsichord). Most of these pieces are in one binary-form movement only, with two parts that are in the same tempo and use the same thematic material, though occasionally there will be changes in tempo within the sections. They are frequently virtuosic, and use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of the time. They were admired for their great variety and invention.

Both the solo and trio sonatas of Vivaldi show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time. He composed over 70 sonatas, the great majority of which are of the solo type; most of the rest are trio sonatas, and a very small number are of the multivoice type.

The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works with a graceful and melodious little second movement included.

Classical period

The practice of the Classical period would become decisive for the sonata; the term moved from being one of many terms indicating genres or forms, to designating the fundamental form of organization for large-scale works. This evolution stretched over fifty years. The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements (see Sonata form and History of sonata form) and to the layout of the movements in a multi-movement work. In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works, including divertimento, serenade, and partita, many of which are now regarded effectively as sonatas. The usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s. Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771, after which the term divertimento is used sparingly in his output. The term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone (see piano sonata), or for keyboard and one other instrument, often the violin or cello. It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists; for example, piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano, violin, and cello.

Initially, the most common layout of movements was:

  1. Allegro, which at the time was understood to mean not only a tempo, but also some degree of "working out", or development, of the theme.
  2. A middle movement, most frequently a slow movement: an Andante, an Adagio or a Largo; or less frequently a Minuet or Theme and Variations form.
  3. A closing movement was generally an Allegro or a Presto, often labeled Finale. The form was often a Rondo or Minuet.

However, two-movement layouts also occur, a practice Haydn uses as late as the 1790s. There was also in the early Classical period the possibility of using four movements, with a dance movement inserted before the slow movement, as in Haydn's Piano sonatas No. 6 and No. 8. Mozart's sonatas were also primarily in three movements. Of the works that Haydn labelled piano sonata, divertimento, or partita in Hob XIV, seven are in two movements, thirty-five are in three, and three are in four; and there are several in three or four movements whose authenticity is listed as "doubtful." Composers such as Boccherini would publish sonatas for piano and obbligato instrument with an optional third movement—–in Boccherini's case, 28 cello sonatas.

But increasingly instrumental works were laid out in four, not three movements, a practice seen first in string quartets and symphonies, and reaching the sonata proper in the early sonatas of Beethoven. However, two- and three-movement sonatas continued to be written throughout the Classical period: Beethoven's opus 102 pair has a two-movement C major sonata and a three-movement D major sonata. Nevertheless, works with fewer or more than four movements were increasingly felt to be exceptions; they were labelled as having movements "omitted," or as having "extra" movements.

Thus, the four-movement layout was by this point standard for the string quartet, and overwhelmingly the most common for the symphony. The usual order of the four movements was:

  1. An allegro, which by this point was in what is called sonata form, complete with exposition, development, and recapitulation.
  2. A slow movement, an Andante, an Adagio, or a Largo.
  3. A dance movement, frequently Minuet and trio or—especially later in the classical period—a Scherzo and trio.
  4. A finale in a faster tempo, often in a sonata rondo form.

When movements appeared out of this order they would be described as "reversed", such as the scherzo coming before the slow movement in Beethoven's 9th Symphony. This usage would be noted by critics in the early 19th century, and it was codified into teaching soon thereafter.

It is difficult to overstate the importance of Beethoven's output of sonatas: 32 piano sonatas, plus sonatas for cello and piano or violin and piano, forming a large body of music that would over time increasingly be thought essential for any serious instrumentalist to master.

Romantic period

In the early 19th century, the current usage of the term sonata was established, both as regards form per se, and in the sense that a fully elaborated sonata serves as a norm for concert music in general, which other forms are seen in relation to. From this point forward, the word sonata in music theory labels as much the abstract musical form as particular works. Hence there are references to a symphony as a sonata for orchestra. This is referred to by William Newman as the sonata idea.

Among works expressly labeled sonata for the piano, there are the three of Frédéric Chopin, those of Felix Mendelssohn, the three of Robert Schumann, Franz Liszt's Sonata in B minor, and later the sonatas of Johannes Brahms and Sergei Rachmaninoff.

In the early 19th century, the sonata form was defined, from a combination of previous practice and the works of important Classical composers, particularly Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, but composers such as Clementi also. It is during this period that the differences between the three- and the four-movement layouts became a subject of commentary, with emphasis on the concerto being laid out in three movements, and the symphony in four.

Ernest Newman wrote in the essay "Brahms and the Serpent":

That, perhaps, will be the ideal of the instrumental music of the future; the way to it, indeed, seems at last to be opening out before modern composers in proportion as they discard the last tiresome vestiges of sonata form. This, from being what it was originally, the natural mode of expression of a certain eighteenth century way of thinking in music, became in the nineteenth century a drag upon both individual thinking and the free unfolding of the inner vital force of an idea, and is now simply a shop device by which a bad composer may persuade himself and the innocent reader of textbooks that he is a good one.

After the Romantic period

The role of the sonata as an extremely important form of extended musical argument would inspire composers such as Hindemith, Prokofiev, Shostakovich, Tailleferre, Ustvolskaya, and Williams to compose in sonata form, and works with traditional sonata structures continue to be composed and performed.

Sonata idea or principle

Research into the practice and meaning of sonata form, style, and structure has been the motivation for important theoretical works by Heinrich Schenker, Arnold Schoenberg, and Charles Rosen among others; and the pedagogy of music continued to rest on an understanding and application of the rules of sonata form as almost two centuries of development in practice and theory had codified it.

The development of the classical style and its norms of composition formed the basis for much of the music theory of the 19th and 20th centuries. As an overarching formal principle, sonata was accorded the same central status as Baroque fugue; generations of composers, instrumentalists, and audiences were guided by this understanding of sonata as an enduring and dominant principle in Western music. The sonata idea begins before the term had taken on its present importance, along with the evolution of the Classical period's changing norms. The reasons for these changes, and how they relate to the evolving sense of a new formal order in music, is a matter to which research is devoted. Some common factors which were pointed to include: the shift of focus from vocal music to instrumental music; changes in performance practice, including the loss of the continuo.

Crucial to most interpretations of the sonata form is the idea of a tonal center; and, as the Grove Concise Dictionary of Music puts it: "The main form of the group embodying the 'sonata principle', the most important principle of musical structure from the Classical period to the 20th century: that material first stated in a complementary key be restated in the home key".(

The sonata idea has been thoroughly explored by William Newman in his monumental three-volume work Sonata in the Classic Era (A History of the Sonata Idea), begun in the 1950s and published in what has become the standard edition of all three volumes in 1972.

20th-century theory

Heinrich Schenker argued that there was an Urlinie or basic tonal melody, and a basic bass figuration. He held that when these two were present, there was basic structure, and that the sonata represented this basic structure in a whole work with a process known as interruption.

As a practical matter, Schenker applied his ideas to the editing of the piano sonatas of Beethoven, using original manuscripts and his own theories to "correct" the available sources. The basic procedure was the use of tonal theory to infer meaning from available sources as part of the critical process, even to the extent of completing works left unfinished by their composers. While many of these changes were and are controversial, that procedure has a central role today in music theory, and is an essential part of the theory of sonata structure as taught in most music schools.

For a more comprehensive list of sonatas, see List of sonatas.

Baroque (c. 1600 – c. 1760)

Classical (c. 1760 – c. 1830)

Romantic (c. 1795 – c. 1900)

20th-century and contemporary (c. 1910–present)

  1. Newman, William S. (1983). The Sonata in the Baroque Era (Fourth ed.). Q. Q. Norton & Company. ISBN 0393952754.
  2. "Sonata". lib.ugent.be. Retrieved2020-08-27.
  3. Newman 1972a, 23–24.
  4. Newman 1972a, 266.
  5. Newman 1972a, 169–70.
  6. Rosen 1988.
  7. Rosen 1997.
  8. Newman 1958, 51.
  9. Rosen 1997, 196.
  10. Sadie 1988, p. [page needed].
  11. Schenker 1979, 1:134.
  12. "Rachmaninov – Cello Sonata in G minor: Full Works Concert Highlight of the Week". Classic FM. Retrieved2021-04-06.

Sources

Sonata
Sonata Language Watch Edit For the detailed form of an individual musical movement see Sonata form For other uses see Sonata disambiguation This article includes a list of general references but it remains largely unverified because it lacks sufficient corresponding inline citations Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations August 2010 Learn how and when to remove this template message Sonata s e ˈ n ɑː t e Italian soˈnaːta pl sonate from Latin and Italian sonare archaic Italian replaced in the modern language by suonare to sound in music literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata Latin and Italian cantare to sing a piece sung 1 17 The term evolved through the history of music designating a variety of forms until the Classical era when it took on increasing importance Sonata is a vague term with varying meanings depending on the context and time period By the early 19th century it came to represent a principle of composing large scale works It was applied to most instrumental genres and regarded alongside the fugue as one of two fundamental methods of organizing interpreting and analyzing concert music Though the musical style of sonatas has changed since the Classical era most 20th and 21st century sonatas still maintain the same structure Ludwig van Beethoven s manuscript sketch for Piano Sonata No 28 Movement IV Geschwind doch nicht zu sehr und mit Entschlossenheit Allegro in his own handwriting The piece was completed in 1816 Beethoven s Piano Sonata No 28 in A major Op 101 I Allegro ma non troppo source source II Vivace alla marcia source source III Adagio ma non troppo con affetto IV Allegro source source Performed by Daniel VeeseyProblems playing these files See media help The term sonatina pl sonatine the diminutive form of sonata is often used for a short or technically easy sonata Contents 1 Instrumentation 2 History 2 1 Baroque 2 2 Classical period 2 3 Romantic period 2 4 After the Romantic period 3 Scholarship and musicology 3 1 Sonata idea or principle 3 2 20th century theory 4 Notable sonatas 4 1 Baroque c 1600 c 1760 4 2 Classical c 1760 c 1830 4 3 Romantic c 1795 c 1900 4 4 20th century and contemporary c 1910 present 5 References 6 Further readingInstrumentation EditIn the Baroque period a sonata was for one or more instruments almost always with continuo After the Baroque period most works designated as sonatas specifically are performed by a solo instrument most often a keyboard instrument or by a solo instrument accompanied by a keyboard instrument Sonatas for a solo instrument other than keyboard have been composed as have sonatas for other combinations of instruments History EditBaroque Edit Individual sheet music of a sonata written in the Baroque period 2 In the works of Arcangelo Corelli and his contemporaries two broad classes of sonata were established and were first described by Sebastien de Brossard in his Dictionaire de musique third edition Amsterdam ca 1710 the sonata da chiesa that is suitable for use in church which was the type rightly known as Sonatas and the sonata da camera proper for use at court which consists of a prelude followed by a succession of dances all in the same key 1 21 40 Although the four five or six movements of the sonata da chiesa are also most often in one key one or two of the internal movements are sometimes in a contrasting tonality 3 The sonata da chiesa generally for one or more violins and bass consisted normally of a slow introduction a loosely fugued allegro a cantabile slow movement and a lively finale in some binary form suggesting affinity with the dance tunes of the suite This scheme however was not very clearly defined until the works of Arcangelo Corelli when it became the essential sonata and persisted as a tradition of Italian violin music The sonata da camera consisted almost entirely of idealized dance tunes On the other hand the features of sonata da chiesa and sonata da camera then tended to be freely intermixed Although nearly half of Bach s 1 100 surviving compositions arrangements and transcriptions are instrumental works only about 4 are sonatas 4 The term sonata is also applied to the series of over 500 works for harpsichord solo or sometimes for other keyboard instruments by Domenico Scarlatti originally published under the name Essercizi per il gravicembalo Exercises for the Harpsichord Most of these pieces are in one binary form movement only with two parts that are in the same tempo and use the same thematic material though occasionally there will be changes in tempo within the sections They are frequently virtuosic and use more distant harmonic transitions and modulations than were common for other works of the time They were admired for their great variety and invention Both the solo and trio sonatas of Vivaldi show parallels with the concerti he was writing at the same time He composed over 70 sonatas the great majority of which are of the solo type most of the rest are trio sonatas and a very small number are of the multivoice type 5 The sonatas of Domenico Paradies are mild and elongated works with a graceful and melodious little second movement included Classical period Edit The practice of the Classical period would become decisive for the sonata the term moved from being one of many terms indicating genres or forms to designating the fundamental form of organization for large scale works This evolution stretched over fifty years The term came to apply both to the structure of individual movements see Sonata form and History of sonata form and to the layout of the movements in a multi movement work In the transition to the Classical period there were several names given to multimovement works including divertimento serenade and partita many of which are now regarded effectively as sonatas The usage of sonata as the standard term for such works began somewhere in the 1770s Haydn labels his first piano sonata as such in 1771 after which the term divertimento is used sparingly in his output The term sonata was increasingly applied to either a work for keyboard alone see piano sonata or for keyboard and one other instrument often the violin or cello It was less and less frequently applied to works with more than two instrumentalists for example piano trios were not often labelled sonata for piano violin and cello Initially the most common layout of movements was Allegro which at the time was understood to mean not only a tempo but also some degree of working out or development of the theme 6 7 A middle movement most frequently a slow movement an Andante an Adagio or a Largo or less frequently a Minuet or Theme and Variations form A closing movement was generally an Allegro or a Presto often labeled Finale The form was often a Rondo or Minuet However two movement layouts also occur a practice Haydn uses as late as the 1790s There was also in the early Classical period the possibility of using four movements with a dance movement inserted before the slow movement as in Haydn s Piano sonatas No 6 and No 8 Mozart s sonatas were also primarily in three movements Of the works that Haydn labelled piano sonata divertimento or partita in Hob XIV seven are in two movements thirty five are in three and three are in four and there are several in three or four movements whose authenticity is listed as doubtful Composers such as Boccherini would publish sonatas for piano and obbligato instrument with an optional third movement in Boccherini s case 28 cello sonatas But increasingly instrumental works were laid out in four not three movements a practice seen first in string quartets and symphonies and reaching the sonata proper in the early sonatas of Beethoven However two and three movement sonatas continued to be written throughout the Classical period Beethoven s opus 102 pair has a two movement C major sonata and a three movement D major sonata Nevertheless works with fewer or more than four movements were increasingly felt to be exceptions they were labelled as having movements omitted or as having extra movements Thus the four movement layout was by this point standard for the string quartet and overwhelmingly the most common for the symphony The usual order of the four movements was An allegro which by this point was in what is called sonata form complete with exposition development and recapitulation A slow movement an Andante an Adagio or a Largo A dance movement frequently Minuet and trio or especially later in the classical period a Scherzo and trio A finale in a faster tempo often in a sonata rondo form When movements appeared out of this order they would be described as reversed such as the scherzo coming before the slow movement in Beethoven s 9th Symphony This usage would be noted by critics in the early 19th century and it was codified into teaching soon thereafter It is difficult to overstate the importance of Beethoven s output of sonatas 32 piano sonatas plus sonatas for cello and piano or violin and piano forming a large body of music that would over time increasingly be thought essential for any serious instrumentalist to master Romantic period Edit In the early 19th century the current usage of the term sonata was established both as regards form per se and in the sense that a fully elaborated sonata serves as a norm for concert music in general which other forms are seen in relation to From this point forward the word sonata in music theory labels as much the abstract musical form as particular works Hence there are references to a symphony as a sonata for orchestra This is referred to by William Newman as the sonata idea Among works expressly labeled sonata for the piano there are the three of Frederic Chopin those of Felix Mendelssohn the three of Robert Schumann Franz Liszt s Sonata in B minor and later the sonatas of Johannes Brahms and Sergei Rachmaninoff In the early 19th century the sonata form was defined from a combination of previous practice and the works of important Classical composers particularly Haydn Mozart Beethoven but composers such as Clementi also It is during this period that the differences between the three and the four movement layouts became a subject of commentary with emphasis on the concerto being laid out in three movements and the symphony in four Ernest Newman wrote in the essay Brahms and the Serpent That perhaps will be the ideal of the instrumental music of the future the way to it indeed seems at last to be opening out before modern composers in proportion as they discard the last tiresome vestiges of sonata form This from being what it was originally the natural mode of expression of a certain eighteenth century way of thinking in music became in the nineteenth century a drag upon both individual thinking and the free unfolding of the inner vital force of an idea and is now simply a shop device by which a bad composer may persuade himself and the innocent reader of textbooks that he is a good one 8 After the Romantic period Edit The role of the sonata as an extremely important form of extended musical argument would inspire composers such as Hindemith Prokofiev Shostakovich Tailleferre Ustvolskaya and Williams to compose in sonata form and works with traditional sonata structures continue to be composed and performed Scholarship and musicology EditSonata idea or principle Edit Research into the practice and meaning of sonata form style and structure has been the motivation for important theoretical works by Heinrich Schenker Arnold Schoenberg and Charles Rosen among others and the pedagogy of music continued to rest on an understanding and application of the rules of sonata form as almost two centuries of development in practice and theory had codified it The development of the classical style and its norms of composition formed the basis for much of the music theory of the 19th and 20th centuries As an overarching formal principle sonata was accorded the same central status as Baroque fugue generations of composers instrumentalists and audiences were guided by this understanding of sonata as an enduring and dominant principle in Western music The sonata idea begins before the term had taken on its present importance along with the evolution of the Classical period s changing norms The reasons for these changes and how they relate to the evolving sense of a new formal order in music is a matter to which research is devoted Some common factors which were pointed to include the shift of focus from vocal music to instrumental music changes in performance practice including the loss of the continuo 9 Crucial to most interpretations of the sonata form is the idea of a tonal center and as the Grove Concise Dictionary of Music puts it The main form of the group embodying the sonata principle the most important principle of musical structure from the Classical period to the 20th century that material first stated in a complementary key be restated in the home key 10 The sonata idea has been thoroughly explored by William Newman in his monumental three volume work Sonata in the Classic Era A History of the Sonata Idea begun in the 1950s and published in what has become the standard edition of all three volumes in 1972 20th century theory Edit Heinrich Schenker argued that there was an Urlinie or basic tonal melody and a basic bass figuration He held that when these two were present there was basic structure and that the sonata represented this basic structure in a whole work with a process known as interruption 11 As a practical matter Schenker applied his ideas to the editing of the piano sonatas of Beethoven using original manuscripts and his own theories to correct the available sources The basic procedure was the use of tonal theory to infer meaning from available sources as part of the critical process even to the extent of completing works left unfinished by their composers While many of these changes were and are controversial that procedure has a central role today in music theory and is an essential part of the theory of sonata structure as taught in most music schools Notable sonatas EditFor a more comprehensive list of sonatas see List of sonatas Baroque c 1600 c 1760 Edit Johann Sebastian Bach Sonatas for solo violin BWV 1001 1003 and 1005 Sonatas for flute and continuo BWV 1034 1035 Trio sonatas for organ BWV 525 530 for violin and harpsichord BWV 1014 1019 for viola da gamba and harpsichord BWV 1027 1029 for flute and harpsichord BWV 1030 1032 for flute violin and continuo Sonata sopr il Soggetto Reale included in The Musical Offering Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber Rosary Sonatas George Frideric Handel Sonata for Violin and Continuo in D major HWV 371 Giuseppe Tartini Devil s Trill Sonata Domenico Scarlatti List of solo keyboard sonatas by Domenico ScarlattiClassical c 1760 c 1830 Edit Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Piano Sonata No 8 in A minor K 310 Piano Sonata No 11 in A major K 331 300i Piano Sonata No 12 in F major K 332 Piano Sonata No 13 in B flat major K 333 Piano Sonata No 14 in C minor K 457 Piano Sonata No 15 in F major K 533 494 Piano Sonata No 16 in C major K 545 Sonata in A for Violin and Keyboard K 526 Franz Joseph Haydn Sonata No 1 in C major Hob XVI 1 Piano Sonata No 62 Hob XVI 52 Franz Schubert Sonata in C minor D 958 Sonata in A major D 959 Sonata in B major D 960Romantic c 1795 c 1900 Edit Ludwig van Beethoven Piano Sonata No 8 Pathetique Piano Sonata No 14 Moonlight Sonata quasi una fantasia Piano Sonata No 17 Tempest Piano Sonata No 19 Leichte Piano Sonata No 21 Waldstein Piano Sonata No 23 Appassionata Piano Sonata No 29 Hammerklavier Piano Sonata No 32 in C minor Op 111 Violin Sonata No 5 Spring Violin Sonata No 9 Kreutzer Cello Sonata No 1 in F major Op 5 Cello Sonata No 2 in G minor Op 5 Cello Sonata No 3 in A major Op 69 Johannes Brahms Cello Sonata No 1 Cello Sonata No 2 Clarinet Sonatas No 1 and No 2 Violin Sonata No 1 Violin Sonata No 2 Violin Sonata No 3 Johannes Brahms Albert Dietrich and Robert Schumann F A E Sonata Frederic Chopin Piano Sonata No 2 in B minor Piano Sonata No 3 in B minor Paul Dukas Piano Sonata in E flat minor 1900 George Enescu Sonata No 1 for violin and piano in D major Op 2 1897 Sonata No 2 for violin and piano in F minor Op 6 1899 Edvard Grieg Three sonatas for Violin and Piano Franz Liszt Sonata after a Reading of Dante Fantasia Quasi Sonata Sonata in B minor Robert Schumann Violin Sonata No 1 in A minor Op 10520th century and contemporary c 1910 present Edit Samuel Barber Cello Sonata Op 6 Piano Sonata Op 26 1949 Jean Barraque Piano Sonata 1950 52 Bela Bartok Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion Sonata for Piano 1926 Sonata for Solo Violin Sonata No 1 for Violin and Piano Sonata No 2 for Violin and Piano Alban Berg Sonata for Piano Op 1 Leonard Bernstein Sonata for Clarinet and Piano Pierre Boulez Piano Sonata No 1 Piano Sonata No 2 Piano Sonata No 3 Benjamin Britten Sonata for Cello and Piano Op 65 John Cage Sonata for Unaccompanied Clarinet Sonatas and Interludes for Prepared Piano 1946 48 Claude Debussy Sonata No 1 for cello and piano 1915 Sonata No 2 for flute viola and harp 1915 Sonata No 3 for violin and piano 1916 1917 George Enescu Sonata No 3 for violin and piano in A minor dans le caractere populaire roumain Op 25 1926 Sonata No 2 for cello and piano in C major Op 26 No 2 1935 Piano Sonata No 1 in F minor Op 24 No 1 1924 Piano Sonata No 3 in D major Op 24 No 3 1933 1935 Karel Goeyvaerts Sonata for Two Pianos Op 1 Hans Werner Henze Royal Winter Music Guitar Sonatas No 1 and 2 Paul Hindemith Sonata for Viola and Piano Op 11 No 4 1919 Charles Ives Piano Sonata No 2 Concord Mass 1840 60 Leos Janacek 1 X 1905 Janacek s Sonata for Piano Ben Johnston Sonata for Microtonal Piano Gyorgy Ligeti Sonata for solo cello 1948 1953 Darius Milhaud Sonata for flute oboe clarinet and piano Op 47 1918 Sergei Prokofiev Piano Sonatas six juvenile 1904 1907 1907 1907 08 1908 1908 09 Piano Sonata No 1 in F minor Op 1 1907 09 Piano Sonata No 2 in D minor Op 14 1912 Piano Sonata No 3 in A minor Op 28 1907 17 Piano Sonata No 4 in C minor Op 29 1917 Piano Sonata No 5 in C major original version Op 38 1923 Violin Sonata No 1 in F minor Op 80 1938 46 Piano Sonata No 6 in A major Op 82 1939 40 Piano Sonata No 7 in B flat major Stalingrad Op 83 1939 42 Piano Sonata No 8 in B flat major Op 84 1939 44 Flute Sonata in D major Op 94 1943 Violin Sonata No 2 in D major Op 94 bis 1943 Piano Sonata No 9 in C major Op 103 1947 Sonata for Solo Violin Unison Violins in D major Op 115 Cello Sonata in C major Op 119 Sonata for Solo Cello in C sharp minor Op 133 Piano Sonata No 5 in C major revised version Op 135 1952 53 Sergei Rachmaninoff Piano Sonata No 2 in B flat minor Op 36 1913 revised in 1931 Sonata for Cello and Piano in G minor Op 19 1901 12 Alexander Scriabin Piano Sonata No 2 Sonata Fantasy Piano Sonata No 3 Piano Sonata No 4 Piano Sonata No 5 Piano Sonata No 6 Piano Sonata No 7 White Mass Piano Sonata No 8 Piano Sonata No 9 Black Mass Piano Sonata No 10 Igor Stravinsky Sonata for Two Pianos 1943 Eugene Ysaye Six Sonatas for solo violin 1923 References Edit a b Newman William S 1983 The Sonata in the Baroque Era Fourth ed Q Q Norton amp Company ISBN 0393952754 Sonata lib ugent be Retrieved 2020 08 27 Newman 1972a 23 24 Newman 1972a 266 Newman 1972a 169 70 Rosen 1988 Rosen 1997 Newman 1958 51 Rosen 1997 196 Sadie 1988 p page needed Schenker 1979 1 134 Rachmaninov Cello Sonata in G minor Full Works Concert Highlight of the Week Classic FM Retrieved 2021 04 06 Sources Newman Ernest 1958 More Essays from the World of Music Essays from the London Sunday Times selected by Felix Aprahamian London John Calder New York Coward McCann Newman William S 1972a The Sonata in the Baroque Era third edition A History of the Sonata Idea 1 New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 00622 0 Rosen Charles 1988 Sonata Forms revised edition New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 02658 2 Rosen Charles 1997 The Classical Style Haydn Mozart Beethoven expanded edition with CD recording New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 31712 9 Sadie Stanley ed 1988 The Grove Concise Dictionary of Music London Macmillan Publishers ISBN 0 333 43236 3 cloth ISBN 0 393 02620 5 pbk Schenker Heinrich 1979 Free Composition Der freie Satz Volume III of New Musical Theories and Fantasies edited by Oswald Jonas translated by Ernst Oster 2 vols New York Longman ISBN 0 582 28073 7 Further reading EditMangsen Sandra John Irving John Rink and Paul Griffiths 2001 Sonata The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians second edition edited by Stanley Sadie and John Tyrrell London Macmillan Newman William S 1966 The Sonata in the Baroque Era revised ed Chapel Hill The University of North Carolina Press LCCN 66 19475 Newman William S 1972b The Sonata in the Classic Era The Second Volume of a History of the Sonata Idea second edition A History of the Sonata Idea 2 The Norton Library N623 New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 00623 9 Newman William S 1983a The Sonata in the Baroque Era fourth edition A History of the Sonata Idea 1 New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 95275 4 Newman William S 1983b The Sonata in the Classic Era third edition A History of the Sonata Idea 2 New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 95286 X Newman William S 1983c The Sonata since Beethoven third edition A History of the Sonata Idea 3 New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 95290 8 Newman William S 1988 Beethoven on Beethoven Playing His Piano Music His Way New York W W Norton ISBN 0 393 02538 1 cloth ISBN 0 393 30719 0 pbk Rosen Charles 1995 The Romantic Generation Cambridge Harvard University Press ISBN 0 674 77933 9 ISBN 0 674 77934 7 pbk Salzer Felix 1962 Structural Hearing Tonal Coherence in Music New York Dover Publications ISBN 9780486222752 Schoenberg Arnold 1966 Harmonielehre 7th edition Vienna Universal Edition ISBN 3 7024 0029 X Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sonata amp oldid 1053725743, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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