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Song of Songs

For other uses, see Song of Songs (disambiguation). Several terms redirect here: for other uses, see Canticle (disambiguation), Canticle of Canticles (TV series), Song of Solomon (disambiguation). For the Chinese poetry, see Classic of Poetry

The Song of Songs (Hebrew:שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִיםŠīr haŠīrīm; Greek:ᾎσμα ᾀσμάτων, translit. Âisma āismátōn, Koine Greek pronunciation: ; Latin: Canticum canticōrum, Ecclesiastical Latin: ), also Song of Solomon, Canticle of Canticles, or Canticles, is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"). It is unique within the Hebrew Bible: it shows no interest in Law or Covenant or the God of Israel, nor does it teach or explore wisdom like Proverbs or Ecclesiastes (although it does have some affinities to wisdom literature, as the ascription to Solomon indicates); instead, it celebrates sexual love, giving "the voices of two lovers, praising each other, yearning for each other, proffering invitations to enjoy". The two are in harmony, each desiring the other and rejoicing in sexual intimacy. The women of Jerusalem form a chorus to the lovers, functioning as an audience whose participation in the lovers' erotic encounters facilitates the participation of the reader.

Song of Songs (Cantique des Cantiques) by Gustave Moreau, 1893

In modern Judaism the Song is read on the Sabbath during the Passover, which marks the beginning of the grain-harvest as well as commemorating the Exodus from Biblical Egypt. Jewish tradition reads it as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel; Christianity, as an allegory of Christ and his bride, the Church.

Contents

There is widespread consensus that, although the book has no plot, it does have what can be called a framework, as indicated by the links between its beginning and end. Beyond this, however, there appears to be little agreement: attempts to find a chiastic structure have not been compelling, and attempts to analyse it into units have used different methods and arrived at differing results. The following schema, from Kugler & al. must therefore be taken as indicative, rather than determinative:

  • Introduction (1:1–6)
  • Dialogue between the lovers (1:7–2:7)
  • The woman recalls a visit from her lover (2:8–17)
  • The woman addresses the daughters of Zion (3:1–5)
  • Sighting a royal wedding procession (3:6–11)
  • The man describes his lover's beauty (4:1–5:1)
  • The woman addresses the daughters of Jerusalem (5:2–6:4)
  • The man describes his lover, who visits him (6:5–12)
  • Observers describe the woman's beauty (6:13–8:4)
  • Appendix (8:5–14)

The introduction calls the poem "the song of songs", a construction commonly used in Scriptural Hebrew to show something as the greatest and most beautiful of its class (as in Holy of Holies). The poem proper begins with the woman's expression of desire for her lover and her self-description to the "daughters of Jerusalem": she insists on her sun-born blackness, likening it to the "tents of Kedar" (nomads) and the "curtains of Solomon". A dialogue between the lovers follows: the woman asks the man to meet; he replies with a lightly teasing tone. The two compete in offering flattering compliments ("my beloved is to me as a cluster of henna blossoms in the vineyards of En Gedi", "an apple tree among the trees of the wood", "a lily among brambles", while the bed they share is like a forest canopy). The section closes with the woman telling the daughters of Jerusalem not to stir up love such as hers until it is ready.

The woman recalls a visit from her lover in the springtime. She uses imagery from a shepherd's life, and she says of her lover that "he pastures his flock among the lilies".

The woman again addresses the daughters of Jerusalem, describing her fervent and ultimately successful search for her lover through the night-time streets of the city. When she finds him she takes him almost by force into the chamber in which her mother conceived her. She reveals that this is a dream, seen on her "bed at night" and ends by again warning the daughters of Jerusalem "not to stir up love until it is ready".

The next section reports a royal wedding procession. Solomon is mentioned by name, and the daughters of Jerusalem are invited to come out and see the spectacle.

The man describes his beloved: Her hair is like a flock of goats, her teeth like shorn ewes, and so on from face to breasts. Place-names feature heavily: her neck is like the Tower of David, her smell like the scent of Lebanon. He hastens to summon his beloved, saying that he is ravished by even a single glance. The section becomes a "garden poem", in which he describes her as a "locked garden" (usually taken to mean that she is chaste). The woman invites the man to enter the garden and taste the fruits. The man accepts the invitation, and a third party tells them to eat, drink, "and be drunk with love".

The woman tells the daughters of Jerusalem of another dream. She was in her chamber when her lover knocked. She was slow to open, and when she did, he was gone. She searched through the streets again, but this time she failed to find him and the watchmen, who had helped her before, now beat her. She asks the daughters of Jerusalem to help her find him, and describes his physical good looks. Eventually, she admits her lover is in his garden, safe from harm, and committed to her as she is to him.

The man describes his beloved; the woman describes a rendezvous they have shared. (The last part is unclear and possibly corrupted.)

The people praise the beauty of the woman. The images are the same as those used elsewhere in the poem, but with an unusually dense use of place-names, e.g., pools of Hebron, gate of Bath-rabbim, tower of Damascus, etc. The man states his intention to enjoy the fruits of the woman's garden. The woman invites him to a tryst in the fields. She once more warns the daughters of Jerusalem against waking love until it is ready.

The woman compares love to death and sheol: love is as relentless and jealous as these two, and cannot be quenched by any force. She summons her lover, using the language used before: he should come "like a gazelle or a young stag upon the mountain of spices".

Illustration for the first verse, a minstrel playing before Solomon (15th century Rothschild Mahzor)

The poem seems to be rooted in festive performance, and connections have been proposed with the "sacred marriage" of Ishtar and Tammuz. It offers no clue to its author or to the date, place, or circumstances of its composition. The superscription states that it is "Solomon's", but even if this is meant to identify the author, it cannot be read as strictly as a similar modern statement. The most reliable evidence for its date is its language: Aramaic gradually replaced Hebrew after the end of the Babylonian exile in the late 6th century BCE, and the evidence of vocabulary, morphology, idiom and syntax clearly point to a late date, centuries after King Solomon to whom it is traditionally attributed. It has parallels with Mesopotamian and Egyptian love poetry from the first half of the 1st millennium, and with the pastoral idylls of Theocritus, a Greek poet who wrote in the first half of the 3rd century BCE; as a result of these conflicting signs, speculation ranges from the 10th to the 2nd centuries BCE, with the language supporting a date around the 3rd century.

Debate continues on the unity or disunity of the book. Those who see it as an anthology or collection point to the abrupt shifts of scene, speaker, subject matter and mood, and the lack of obvious structure or narrative. Those who hold it to be a single poem point out that it has no internal signs of composite origins, and view the repetitions and similarities among its parts as evidence of unity. Some claim to find a conscious artistic design underlying it, but there is no agreement among them on what this might be. The question, therefore, remains unresolved.

Judaism

A page of Rashi's interpretation of the megillot, National Library of Israel

The Song was accepted into the Jewish canon of scripture in the 2nd century CE, after a period of controversy in the 1st century. It was accepted as canonical because of its supposed authorship by Solomon and based on an allegorical reading where the subject matter was taken to be not sexual desire but God's love for Israel. For instance, the famed first and second century Rabbi Akiva forbade the use of the Song of Songs in popular celebrations. He reportedly said, "He who sings the Song of Songs in wine taverns, treating it as if it were a vulgar song, forfeits his share in the world to come". However, Rabbi Akiva famously defended the canonicity of the Song of Songs, reportedly saying when the question came up of whether it should be considered a defiling work, "God forbid! [...] For all of eternity in its entirety is not as worthy as the day on which Song of Songs was given to Israel, for all the Writings are holy, but Song of Songs is the Holy of Holies."

It is one of the overtly mystical Biblical texts for the Kabbalah, which gave esoteric interpretation on all the Hebrew Bible. Following the dissemination of the Zohar in the 13th century, Jewish mysticism took on a metaphorically anthropomorphic erotic element, and Song of Songs is an example of this. In Zoharic Kabbalah, God is represented by a system of ten sephirot emanations, each symbolizing a different attribute of God, comprising both male and female. The Shechina (indwelling Divine presence) was identified with the feminine sephira Malchut, the vessel of Kingship. This symbolizes the Jewish people, and in the body, the female form, identified with the woman in Song of Songs. Her beloved was identified with the male sephira Tiferet, the "Holy One Blessed be He", central principle in the beneficent Heavenly flow of Divine emotion. In the body, this represents the male torso, uniting through the sephira Yesod of the male sign of the covenant organ of procreation.

Through beneficent deeds and Jewish observance, the Jewish people restore cosmic harmony in the Divine realm, healing the exile of the Shechina with God's transcendence, revealing the essential Unity of God. This elevation of the World is aroused from Above on the Sabbath, a foretaste of the redeemed purpose of Creation. The text thus became a description, depending on the aspect, of the creation of the world, the passage of Shabbat, the covenant with Israel, and the coming of the Messianic age. "Lecha Dodi", a 16th-century liturgical song with strong Kabbalistic symbolism, contains many passages, including its opening two words, taken directly from Song of Songs.

In modern Judaism, certain verses from the Song are read on Shabbat eve or at Passover, which marks the beginning of the grain harvest as well as commemorating the Exodus from Egypt, to symbolize the love between the Jewish People and their God. Jewish tradition reads it as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel. The entire Song of Songs in its original Hebrew is read on the intermediate days of Passover in Synagogues during the intermediate days of Passover. It is often read from a scroll similar to a Torah scroll in style. It is also read in its entirety by some at the end of the Passover Seder and is usually printed in most Hagadahs. Some Jews have the custom to recite the entire book prior to the onset of the Jewish Sabbath.

Christianity

The Shulamite by Albert Joseph Moore (1864)

The literal subject of the Song of Songs is love and sexual longing between a man and a woman, and it has little (or nothing) to say about the relationship of God and man; in order to find such a meaning it was necessary to resort to allegory, treating the love that the Song celebrates as an analogy for the love between God and Church. The Christian church's interpretation of the Song as evidence of God's love for his people, both collectively and individually, began with Origen. Over the centuries the emphases of interpretation shifted, first reading the Song as a depiction of the love between Christ and Church, the 11th century adding a moral element, and the 12th century understanding of the Bride as the Virgin Mary, with each new reading absorbing rather than simply replacing earlier ones, so that the commentary became ever more complex. These theological themes are not in the poem, but derive from a theological reading; nevertheless, what is notable about this approach is the way it leads to conclusions not found in the overtly theological books of the Bible. Those books reveal an abiding imbalance in the relationship between God and man, ranging from slight to enormous; but reading Songs as a theological metaphor produces quite a different outcome, one in which the two partners are equals, bound in a committed relationship.

In modern times the poem has attracted the attention of feminist biblical critics, with Phyllis Trible's foundational "Depatriarchalizing in Biblical Interpretation" treating it as an exemplary text, and the Feminist Companion to the Bible series edited by Athalya Brenner and Carole Fontaine devoting two volumes to it.

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(April 2019) ()
Egon Tschirch: Song of Solomon (picture cycle 1923)

Excerpts from the book have inspired composers to vocal and instrumental compositions, including:

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(June 2018) ()
  1. Garrett 1993, p. 348.
  2. Garrett 1993, p. 366.
  3. Alter 2011, p. 232.
  4. Exum 2012, p. 248.
  5. Sweeney 2011, p. unpaginated.
  6. Norris 2003, p. 1.
  7. Assis 2009, pp. 11, 16.
  8. Assis 2009, pp. 16–18.
  9. Kugler & Hartin 2009, p. 220.
  10. Keel 1994, p. 38.
  11. Kugler & Hartin 2009, pp. 220–22.
  12. Loprieno 2005, p. 126.
  13. Exum 2012, p. 247.
  14. Keel 1994, p. 39.
  15. Bloch & Bloch 1995, p. 23.
  16. Bloch & Bloch 1995, p. 25.
  17. Keel 1994, p. 5.
  18. Hunt 2008, p. 5.
  19. Exum 2005, p. 3334. sfn error: no target: CITEREFExum2005 (help)
  20. Loprieno 2005, p. 107.
  21. Phipps 1979, p. 85. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPhipps1979 (help)
  22. Schiffman 1998, pp. 119–20. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSchiffman1998 (help)
  23. Matter 2011, p. 201.
  24. Kugler & Hartin 2009, p. 223.
  25. Pardes 2017, p. 134.
  26. Brenner & Fontaine 2000, p. passim.
  27. Herz, Gerhard (1972). Bach: Cantata No. 140. WW Norton & Co.
  28. Weisser, Albert (1954). The Modern Renaissance of Jewish Music, Events and Figures, Eastern Europe and America. Bloch Publishing Company.
  29. Allan, J. (February 22, 2008), "Live – John Zorn Abron Arts Centre", Amplifier Magazine (review)
  30. Smith, S (November 27, 2008), "An Unlikely Pairing on Common Ground", The New York Times.
  31. "Cantata Profana Performs Gustav Mahler's Das Lied Von Der Erde – Concert Program"(PDF). YIVO Institute for Jewish Research. YIVO. Retrieved12 May 2018.
  32. "Shir hashirim".
  33. "Uri Tsafon". Archived from the original on 2021-11-07.
  34. Ahava Nafshi, retrieved2021-03-09
  35. Bordwell, David (July 1992). The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer. ISBN 978-0-520-04450-0.
  36. ben David, Solomon, "Song", KJV, The Bible, Bible gateway, 2:15.
  37. The Song of Songs: A Love Poem Illustrated, New Classic Books, 2009, ISBN 978-1600200021.
  38. "THE SONG Movie – The Story – Coming Soon to Digital HD + DVD". Thesongmovie.com. Retrieved20 January 2018.
  39. Librivox. "LibriVox". Librivox.org. Retrieved20 January 2018.
  40. "Song Of Solomon (the)". Kate Bush Encyclopedia. Retrieved2021-04-04.
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Jewish translations and commentary

Christian translations and commentary

Song of Songs
Song of Songs Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Song of Solomon For other uses see Song of Songs disambiguation Several terms redirect here for other uses see Canticle disambiguation Canticle of Canticles TV series Song of Solomon disambiguation For the Chinese poetry see Classic of Poetry The Song of Songs Hebrew ש יר ה ש יר ים Sir haSirim Greek ᾎsma ᾀsmatwn translit Aisma aismatōn Koine Greek pronunciation ˈaˑ z ma aˈz ma to n Latin Canticum canticōrum Ecclesiastical Latin ˈkan t i kum kan t iˈkɔː rum also Song of Solomon Canticle of Canticles or Canticles is one of the megillot scrolls found in the last section of the Tanakh known as the Ketuvim or Writings 1 It is unique within the Hebrew Bible it shows no interest in Law or Covenant or the God of Israel nor does it teach or explore wisdom like Proverbs or Ecclesiastes although it does have some affinities to wisdom literature as the ascription to Solomon indicates instead it celebrates sexual love giving the voices of two lovers praising each other yearning for each other proffering invitations to enjoy 2 3 The two are in harmony each desiring the other and rejoicing in sexual intimacy The women of Jerusalem form a chorus to the lovers functioning as an audience whose participation in the lovers erotic encounters facilitates the participation of the reader 4 Song of Songs Cantique des Cantiques by Gustave Moreau 1893 In modern Judaism the Song is read on the Sabbath during the Passover which marks the beginning of the grain harvest as well as commemorating the Exodus from Biblical Egypt 5 Jewish tradition reads it as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel Christianity as an allegory of Christ and his bride the Church 5 6 Contents 1 Structure 2 Summary 3 Composition 4 Canonisation and interpretation 4 1 Judaism 4 2 Christianity 5 Musical settings 6 In popular culture 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 External links 10 1 Jewish translations and commentary 10 2 Christian translations and commentaryStructure EditThere is widespread consensus that although the book has no plot it does have what can be called a framework as indicated by the links between its beginning and end 7 Beyond this however there appears to be little agreement attempts to find a chiastic structure have not been compelling and attempts to analyse it into units have used different methods and arrived at differing results 8 The following schema from Kugler amp al 9 must therefore be taken as indicative rather than determinative Introduction 1 1 6 Dialogue between the lovers 1 7 2 7 The woman recalls a visit from her lover 2 8 17 The woman addresses the daughters of Zion 3 1 5 Sighting a royal wedding procession 3 6 11 The man describes his lover s beauty 4 1 5 1 The woman addresses the daughters of Jerusalem 5 2 6 4 The man describes his lover who visits him 6 5 12 Observers describe the woman s beauty 6 13 8 4 Appendix 8 5 14 Summary EditThe introduction calls the poem the song of songs a construction commonly used in Scriptural Hebrew to show something as the greatest and most beautiful of its class as in Holy of Holies 10 The poem proper begins with the woman s expression of desire for her lover and her self description to the daughters of Jerusalem she insists on her sun born blackness likening it to the tents of Kedar nomads and the curtains of Solomon A dialogue between the lovers follows the woman asks the man to meet he replies with a lightly teasing tone The two compete in offering flattering compliments my beloved is to me as a cluster of henna blossoms in the vineyards of En Gedi an apple tree among the trees of the wood a lily among brambles while the bed they share is like a forest canopy The section closes with the woman telling the daughters of Jerusalem not to stir up love such as hers until it is ready 11 The woman recalls a visit from her lover in the springtime She uses imagery from a shepherd s life and she says of her lover that he pastures his flock among the lilies 11 The woman again addresses the daughters of Jerusalem describing her fervent and ultimately successful search for her lover through the night time streets of the city When she finds him she takes him almost by force into the chamber in which her mother conceived her She reveals that this is a dream seen on her bed at night and ends by again warning the daughters of Jerusalem not to stir up love until it is ready 11 The next section reports a royal wedding procession Solomon is mentioned by name and the daughters of Jerusalem are invited to come out and see the spectacle 11 The man describes his beloved Her hair is like a flock of goats her teeth like shorn ewes and so on from face to breasts Place names feature heavily her neck is like the Tower of David her smell like the scent of Lebanon He hastens to summon his beloved saying that he is ravished by even a single glance The section becomes a garden poem in which he describes her as a locked garden usually taken to mean that she is chaste The woman invites the man to enter the garden and taste the fruits The man accepts the invitation and a third party tells them to eat drink and be drunk with love 11 The woman tells the daughters of Jerusalem of another dream She was in her chamber when her lover knocked She was slow to open and when she did he was gone She searched through the streets again but this time she failed to find him and the watchmen who had helped her before now beat her She asks the daughters of Jerusalem to help her find him and describes his physical good looks Eventually she admits her lover is in his garden safe from harm and committed to her as she is to him 11 The man describes his beloved the woman describes a rendezvous they have shared The last part is unclear and possibly corrupted 11 The people praise the beauty of the woman The images are the same as those used elsewhere in the poem but with an unusually dense use of place names e g pools of Hebron gate of Bath rabbim tower of Damascus etc The man states his intention to enjoy the fruits of the woman s garden The woman invites him to a tryst in the fields She once more warns the daughters of Jerusalem against waking love until it is ready The woman compares love to death and sheol love is as relentless and jealous as these two and cannot be quenched by any force She summons her lover using the language used before he should come like a gazelle or a young stag upon the mountain of spices 11 Composition Edit Illustration for the first verse a minstrel playing before Solomon 15th century Rothschild Mahzor The poem seems to be rooted in festive performance and connections have been proposed with the sacred marriage of Ishtar and Tammuz 12 It offers no clue to its author or to the date place or circumstances of its composition 13 The superscription states that it is Solomon s but even if this is meant to identify the author it cannot be read as strictly as a similar modern statement 14 The most reliable evidence for its date is its language Aramaic gradually replaced Hebrew after the end of the Babylonian exile in the late 6th century BCE and the evidence of vocabulary morphology idiom and syntax clearly point to a late date centuries after King Solomon to whom it is traditionally attributed 15 It has parallels with Mesopotamian and Egyptian love poetry from the first half of the 1st millennium and with the pastoral idylls of Theocritus a Greek poet who wrote in the first half of the 3rd century BCE 16 4 17 as a result of these conflicting signs speculation ranges from the 10th to the 2nd centuries BCE 13 with the language supporting a date around the 3rd century 18 Debate continues on the unity or disunity of the book Those who see it as an anthology or collection point to the abrupt shifts of scene speaker subject matter and mood and the lack of obvious structure or narrative Those who hold it to be a single poem point out that it has no internal signs of composite origins and view the repetitions and similarities among its parts as evidence of unity Some claim to find a conscious artistic design underlying it but there is no agreement among them on what this might be The question therefore remains unresolved 19 Canonisation and interpretation EditJudaism Edit A page of Rashi s interpretation of the megillot National Library of Israel The Song was accepted into the Jewish canon of scripture in the 2nd century CE after a period of controversy in the 1st century It was accepted as canonical because of its supposed authorship by Solomon and based on an allegorical reading where the subject matter was taken to be not sexual desire but God s love for Israel 20 For instance the famed first and second century Rabbi Akiva forbade the use of the Song of Songs in popular celebrations He reportedly said He who sings the Song of Songs in wine taverns treating it as if it were a vulgar song forfeits his share in the world to come 21 However Rabbi Akiva famously defended the canonicity of the Song of Songs reportedly saying when the question came up of whether it should be considered a defiling work God forbid For all of eternity in its entirety is not as worthy as the day on which Song of Songs was given to Israel for all the Writings are holy but Song of Songs is the Holy of Holies 22 It is one of the overtly mystical Biblical texts for the Kabbalah which gave esoteric interpretation on all the Hebrew Bible Following the dissemination of the Zohar in the 13th century Jewish mysticism took on a metaphorically anthropomorphic erotic element and Song of Songs is an example of this In Zoharic Kabbalah God is represented by a system of ten sephirot emanations each symbolizing a different attribute of God comprising both male and female The Shechina indwelling Divine presence was identified with the feminine sephira Malchut the vessel of Kingship This symbolizes the Jewish people and in the body the female form identified with the woman in Song of Songs Her beloved was identified with the male sephira Tiferet the Holy One Blessed be He central principle in the beneficent Heavenly flow of Divine emotion In the body this represents the male torso uniting through the sephira Yesod of the male sign of the covenant organ of procreation Through beneficent deeds and Jewish observance the Jewish people restore cosmic harmony in the Divine realm healing the exile of the Shechina with God s transcendence revealing the essential Unity of God This elevation of the World is aroused from Above on the Sabbath a foretaste of the redeemed purpose of Creation The text thus became a description depending on the aspect of the creation of the world the passage of Shabbat the covenant with Israel and the coming of the Messianic age Lecha Dodi a 16th century liturgical song with strong Kabbalistic symbolism contains many passages including its opening two words taken directly from Song of Songs In modern Judaism certain verses from the Song are read on Shabbat eve or at Passover which marks the beginning of the grain harvest as well as commemorating the Exodus from Egypt to symbolize the love between the Jewish People and their God Jewish tradition reads it as an allegory of the relationship between God and Israel 5 The entire Song of Songs in its original Hebrew is read on the intermediate days of Passover in Synagogues during the intermediate days of Passover It is often read from a scroll similar to a Torah scroll in style It is also read in its entirety by some at the end of the Passover Seder and is usually printed in most Hagadahs Some Jews have the custom to recite the entire book prior to the onset of the Jewish Sabbath Christianity Edit The Shulamite by Albert Joseph Moore 1864 The literal subject of the Song of Songs is love and sexual longing between a man and a woman and it has little or nothing to say about the relationship of God and man in order to find such a meaning it was necessary to resort to allegory treating the love that the Song celebrates as an analogy for the love between God and Church 6 The Christian church s interpretation of the Song as evidence of God s love for his people both collectively and individually began with Origen Over the centuries the emphases of interpretation shifted first reading the Song as a depiction of the love between Christ and Church the 11th century adding a moral element and the 12th century understanding of the Bride as the Virgin Mary with each new reading absorbing rather than simply replacing earlier ones so that the commentary became ever more complex 23 These theological themes are not in the poem but derive from a theological reading nevertheless what is notable about this approach is the way it leads to conclusions not found in the overtly theological books of the Bible 24 Those books reveal an abiding imbalance in the relationship between God and man ranging from slight to enormous but reading Songs as a theological metaphor produces quite a different outcome one in which the two partners are equals bound in a committed relationship 24 In modern times the poem has attracted the attention of feminist biblical critics with Phyllis Trible s foundational Depatriarchalizing in Biblical Interpretation treating it as an exemplary text and the Feminist Companion to the Bible series edited by Athalya Brenner and Carole Fontaine devoting two volumes to it 25 26 Musical settings EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed April 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message Egon Tschirch Song of Solomon picture cycle 1923 Excerpts from the book have inspired composers to vocal and instrumental compositions including Canticum Canticorum by Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina 29 five part a cappella pieces in fourth volume of motets 1584 Chi e costei a setting of Song of Songs 6 10 in Il Primo libro delle musiche a 1 2 voci e basso continuo 1618 by Francesca Caccini Symphoniae sacrae I 1629 by Heinrich Schutz Dieterich Buxtehude s Membra Jesu Nostri Cantata VI Vulnerasti Cor Meum 1680 J S Bach s Wachet auf ruft uns die Stimme BWV 140 while mainly based on the Parable of the Ten Virgins also uses words and imagery from the Song of Songs 27 Flos Campi by Ralph Vaughan Williams a suite for solo viola small chorus and small orchestra 1925 each movement headed by a verse from the book Lyudov Streicher 1888 1958 composed a musical setting for the Song of Songs 28 Le Cantique des Cantiques 1952 by Jean Yves Daniel Lesur C est un jardin secret for solo viola 1976 by Tristan Murail Nightstone 1979 for voice and piano by Arnold Rosner Song of Soloman 1989 by Steve Kilbey A l Mishkavi Baleylot for soprano and harp 1992 and Spring Calls for soprano and ensemble 2006 by Lior Navok John Zorn s Shir Ha Shirim premiered in February 2008 29 The piece is inspired by Song of Songs and is performed by an amplified quintet of female singers with female and male narrators performing the Song of Solomon A performance at the Guggenheim Museum in November 2008 featured choreography for paired dancers from the Khmer Arts Ensemble by Sophiline Cheam Shapiro 30 In 2013 a new version featuring the five singers without the two narrators premiered in NYC at Alice Tully Hall and at the Jerusalem Sacred Music Festival and released on the album Shir Hashirim David Lang s Just After Song of Songs 2014 was premiered in 2014 by Trio Mediaeval and Garth Knox Saltarello Trio The piece is featured in the film Youth by Paolo Sorrentino Song of Solomon 2017 classical wedding suite composition for orchestra organ and two voices by Chris M Allport Alex Weiser s After Shir Hashirim 2017 draws its inspiration from the text and cantillation of the Song of Songs 31 Adam Balazs Czinege s Shir Hashirim 2017 32 Rami Bar Niv s Uri Tsafon Song of Songs 4 16 Awake North Wind 1972 33 Michael Berkson s Ahava Nafshi performed by Pizmon 2019 34 Several passages from the Song of Songs were set to music in contemporary Israel 1 2 3 In popular culture EditThis section needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed June 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message The 1986 Malayalam classic film Namukku Parkkan Munthirithoppukal uses several verses from the Song of Songs which forms one of its major plot elements Marc Chagall s Song of Songs a five painting cycle is housed in the Marc Chagall Museum in Nice Egon Tschirch s de Song of Solomon a 1923 expressionist nineteen picture cycle was rediscovered in 2015 In Carl Theodor Dreyer s Day of Wrath a film about sexual repression in a puritanical Protestant family the first few verses of Song of Songs chapter 2 are read aloud by the daughter Anne but soon after her father forbids her to continue The chapter s verse paraphrases Anne s own amorous adventures and desires 35 Nobel Prize winning writer Toni Morrison s 1977 novel is entitled Song of Solomon The chorus of Stephen Duffy s 1985 song Kiss Me was based on the comparison of wine to love in Song of Songs Rose of Sharon an epithet in the Song is a major character in John Steinbeck s novel The Grapes of Wrath Lillian Hellman s 1939 play The Little Foxes and the 1941 film adaptation gets its title from Song 2 15 Take us the foxes the little foxes that spoil the vines for our vines have tender grapes 36 Catherine L Morris 2009 collection The Song of Songs A Love Poem Illustrated presents a series of paintings that visualize the book 37 Madeleine L Engle s novel Many Waters is named after a phrase in the Song and two seraphim quote it to soothe the protagonists at a moment of distress The 2014 film The Song is based on the Song of Songs 38 The song is mentioned repeatedly in Sholem Aleichem s Jewish Children 39 In Elizabeth Smart s novel of prose poetry By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept several lines of the Song are spoken by the protagonist while she undergoes police questioning about her relationship with her companion poet George Barker The Song of Solomon played a central theme in the readings and sermon at the wedding of Prince Harry and Meghan Markle Subject of the Song I Hate Heaven by The Residents which is featured in their bible inspired album Wormwood In The Woman in the Window 1944 the character played by Edward G Robinson reads The Song of Songs prior to his romantic entanglement with Joan Bennett Eliza Gilkyson s Rose of Sharon on her album Your town tonight is based on her reading of Song of Songs in a hotel room Gideon Bible as explained in her intro to the song Kate Bush s Song of Solomon from her album The Red Shoes includes lyrics which quote and reference the Song of Songs 40 Several works have taken their name from the phrase the voice of the turtle found in 2 10 2 13 Animals As Leaders s self titled album includes a track titled Song of Solomon See also EditDead Sea Scrolls 4Q106 4Q107 4Q108 6Q6 fragments including portions of the Song of Songs Hortus conclusus Ivory towerNotes Edit Garrett 1993 p 348 Garrett 1993 p 366 Alter 2011 p 232 a b Exum 2012 p 248 a b c Sweeney 2011 p unpaginated a b Norris 2003 p 1 Assis 2009 pp 11 16 Assis 2009 pp 16 18 Kugler amp Hartin 2009 p 220 Keel 1994 p 38 a b c d e f g h Kugler amp Hartin 2009 pp 220 22 Loprieno 2005 p 126 a b Exum 2012 p 247 Keel 1994 p 39 Bloch amp Bloch 1995 p 23 Bloch amp Bloch 1995 p 25 Keel 1994 p 5 Hunt 2008 p 5 Exum 2005 p 3334 sfn error no target CITEREFExum2005 help Loprieno 2005 p 107 Phipps 1979 p 85 sfn error no target CITEREFPhipps1979 help Schiffman 1998 pp 119 20 sfn error no target CITEREFSchiffman1998 help Matter 2011 p 201 a b Kugler amp Hartin 2009 p 223 Pardes 2017 p 134 Brenner amp Fontaine 2000 p passim Herz Gerhard 1972 Bach Cantata No 140 WW Norton amp Co Weisser Albert 1954 The Modern Renaissance of Jewish Music Events and Figures Eastern Europe and America Bloch Publishing Company Allan J February 22 2008 Live John Zorn Abron Arts Centre Amplifier Magazine review Smith S November 27 2008 An Unlikely Pairing on Common Ground The New York Times Cantata Profana Performs Gustav Mahler s Das Lied Von Der Erde Concert Program PDF YIVO Institute for Jewish Research YIVO Retrieved 12 May 2018 Shir hashirim Uri Tsafon Archived from the original on 2021 11 07 Ahava Nafshi retrieved 2021 03 09 Bordwell David July 1992 The Films of Carl Theodor Dreyer ISBN 978 0 520 04450 0 ben David Solomon Song KJV The Bible Bible gateway 2 15 The Song of Songs A Love Poem Illustrated New Classic Books 2009 ISBN 978 1600200021 THE SONG Movie The Story Coming Soon to Digital HD DVD Thesongmovie com Retrieved 20 January 2018 Librivox LibriVox Librivox org Retrieved 20 January 2018 Song Of Solomon the Kate Bush Encyclopedia Retrieved 2021 04 04 References EditAlter Robert 2011 The Art of Biblical Poetry Basic Books ISBN 978 0465028191 Assis Elie 2009 Flashes of Fire A Literary Analysis of the Song of Songs T amp T Clark ISBN 9780567027641 Astell Ann W 1995 The Song of Songs in the Middle Ages Cornell University Press ISBN 0801482674 Barr James Obituary Harold Henry Rowley Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies University of London 33 2 1970 pp 372 373 Ausloos Hans amp Lemmelijn Benedicte Praising God or Singing of Love From Theological into Erotic Allegorisation in the Interpretation of Canticles in Acta Theologica 30 2010 1 18 Bloch Ariel Bloch Chana 1995 The Song of Songs A New Translation With an Introduction and Commentary Random House ISBN 9780520213302 Brenner Athalya Fontaine Carole 2000 A Feminist Companion to Song of Songs A amp C Black ISBN 9781841270524 Burton Joan B 2005 Themes of female desire and female self assertion in the Song of Songs and Hellenistic poetry In Hagedorn Anselm C ed Perspectives on the Song of Songs Walter de Gruyter ISBN 9783110176322 Exum J Cheryl 2012 Song of Songs In Newsom Carol Ann Lapsley Jacqueline E eds Women s Bible Commentary Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 9780664237073 Freehof Solomon B The Song of Songs A General Suggestion The Jewish Quarterly Review New Series 39 4 April 1949 pp 397 402 Garrett Duane 1993 Proverbs Ecclesiastes Song of Songs B amp H Publishing Group ISBN 9780805401141 Hunt Patrick 2008 Poetry in the Song of Songs A Literary Analysis Peter Lang ISBN 9781433104657 Keel Othmar 1994 The Song of Songs A Continental Commentary Fortress Press ISBN 9780800695071 Kugler Robert A Hartin Patrick 2009 The Old Testament between theology and history a critical survey Grand Rapids Eerdmans ISBN 9780802846365 Loprieno Antonio 2005 Searching for a common background Egyptian love poetry and the Biblical Song of Songs In Hagedorn Anselm C ed Perspectives on the Song of Songs Walter de Gruyter ISBN 9783110176322 Martineau Russell The Song of Songs Again The American Journal of Philology 16 4 1895 pp 435 443 Matter E Anne 2011 The Voice of My Beloved The Song of Songs in Western Medieval Christianity University of Pennsylvania Press ISBN 9780812200560 Norris Richard Alfred 2003 The Song of Songs Interpreted by Early Christian and Medieval Commentators Eerdmans ISBN 9780802825797 Pardes Ilana 2017 Toni Morrisom s Shulamites In Sherwood Yvonne ed The Bible and Feminism Remapping the Field Oxford University Press ISBN 9780191034183 Phipps William E 1974 The Plight of the Song of Songs Journal of the American Academy of Religion 42 1 March 1974 pp 82 100 Price Robert M 2005 A Christian Goddess The Da Vinci Fraud Why the Truth Is Stranger Than Fiction Prometheus Books ISBN 9781615923878 Rogerson John W 2003 Song of Songs In Dunn James D G Rogerson John William eds Eerdmans Commentary on the Bible Eerdmans ISBN 9780802837110 Rowley H H 1939 The Meaning of The Shulamite The American Journal of Semitic Languages and Literatures 56 1 January 1939 pp 84 91 Saenz Badillos Angel 1996 A History of the Hebrew Language Cambridge University Press ISBN 9780521556347 Schiffman Lawrence H ed 1998 Texts and Traditions Ktav Hoboken Stern Elsie The Song of Songs Introduction and Annotations The Jewish Study Bible Ed Adele Berlin and Marc Zvi Brettler New York Oxford University Press 2004 1564 77 Sweeney Marvin A 2011 Tanak A Theological and Critical Introduction to the Jewish Bible Fortress Press ISBN 9781451414356 External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Song of Solomon Wikisource has original text related to this article Song of Songs Bible Wikiquote has quotations related to Song of SolomonJewish translations and commentary Edit Shir Hashirim Song of Songs Judaica Press translation with Rashi s commentary at Chabad org Song of Songs in the Jewish Encyclopedia The original Hebrew version vowelized with side by side English translation by Mamre Institute Mechon Mamre Christian translations and commentary Edit Sermons on the Song of Songs by St Bernard of Clairvaux Online Bible at GospelHall org Song of Songs at Bible Gateway various versions Canticle of Canticles in the Catholic Encyclopedia Smith William Robertson Robinson Henry Wheeler 1911 Canticles In Chisholm Hugh ed Encyclopaedia Britannica 5 11th ed Cambridge University Press pp 213 217 This provides an exhaustive contemporaneous Anglican analysis Song of Songs Greek Latin and English versions the newadvent org Solomon s Song of Songs Bible Study Tools Summary Interpretation of the Song of Solomon by H Speckard Song of Solomon public domain audiobook at LibriVox Various versionsSong of SongsHebrew poetryPreceded by Job Hebrew Bible Succeeded by RuthPreceded by Ecclesiastes Protestant Old Testament Succeeded by IsaiahRoman Catholic Old Testament Succeeded by Book of WisdomE Orthodox Old Testament Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Song of Songs amp oldid 1054342029, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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