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Sonoluminescence

This article's lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points. Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article.(February 2017)

Sonoluminescence is the emission of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound.

Single-bubble sonoluminescence – a single, cavitating bubble.

Contents

The sonoluminescence effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar. Hermann Frenzel and H. Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of photographic developer fluid. They hoped to speed up the development process. Instead, they noticed tiny dots on the film after developing and realized that the bubbles in the fluid were emitting light with the ultrasound turned on. It was too difficult to analyze the effect in early experiments because of the complex environment of a large number of short-lived bubbles. This phenomenon is now referred to as multi-bubble sonoluminescence (MBSL).

In 1960 Peter Jarman from Imperial College of London proposed the most reliable theory of sonoluminescence phenomenon. He concluded that sonoluminescence is basically thermal in origin and that it might possibly arise from microshocks with the collapsing cavities.

In 1989 an experimental advance was introduced which produced stable single-bubble sonoluminescence (SBSL).[citation needed] In single-bubble sonoluminescence, a single bubble trapped in an acoustic standing wave emits a pulse of light with each compression of the bubble within the standing wave. This technique allowed a more systematic study of the phenomenon, because it isolated the complex effects into one stable, predictable bubble. It was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel, as seen in an experiment done in 2012; the temperature inside the bubble as it collapsed reached about 12,000 kelvins. Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one million kelvins was postulated. This temperature is thus far not conclusively proven; rather, recent experiments indicate temperatures around 20,000 K (19,700 °C; 35,500 °F).

Long exposure image of multi-bubble sonoluminescence created by a high-intensity ultrasonic horn immersed in a beaker of liquid

Sonoluminescence can occur when a sound wave of sufficient intensity induces a gaseous cavity within a liquid to collapse quickly. This cavity may take the form of a pre-existing bubble, or may be generated through a process known as cavitation. Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable, so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion, emitting a burst of light each time it collapses. For this to occur, a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid, and the bubble will sit at a pressure anti-node of the standing wave. The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained.

Some facts about sonoluminescence:[citation needed]

  • The light that flashes from the bubbles last between 35 and a few hundred picoseconds long, with peak intensities of the order of 1–10 mW.
  • The bubbles are very small when they emit the light—about 1 micrometre in diameter—depending on the ambient fluid (e.g., water) and the gas content of the bubble (e.g., atmospheric air).
  • Single-bubble sonoluminescence pulses can have very stable periods and positions. In fact, the frequency of light flashes can be more stable than the rated frequency stability of the oscillator making the sound waves driving them. However, the stability analyses of the bubble show that the bubble itself undergoes significant geometric instabilities, due to, for example, the Bjerknes forces and Rayleigh–Taylor instabilities.
  • The addition of a small amount of noble gas (such as helium, argon, or xenon) to the gas in the bubble increases the intensity of the emitted light.

Spectral measurements have given bubble temperatures in the range from2300 K to5100 K, the exact temperatures depending on experimental conditions including the composition of the liquid and gas. Detection of very high bubble temperatures by spectral methods is limited due to the opacity of liquids to short wavelength light characteristic of very high temperatures.

A study describes a method of determining temperatures based on the formation of plasmas. Using argon bubbles in sulfuric acid, the data shows the presence of ionized molecular oxygen O2+, sulfur monoxide, and atomic argon populating high-energy excited states, which confirms a hypothesis that the bubbles have a hot plasma core. The ionization and excitation energy of dioxygenyl cations, which they observed, is 18 electronvolts. From this they conclude the core temperatures reach at least 20,000 kelvins—hotter than the surface of the sun.

The dynamics of the motion of the bubble is characterized to a first approximation by the Rayleigh–Plesset equation (named after Lord Rayleigh and Milton Plesset):

R R ¨ + 3 2 R ˙ 2 = 1 ρ ( p g P 0 P ( t ) 4 μ R ˙ R 2 γ R ) {\displaystyle R{\ddot {R}}+{\frac {3}{2}}{\dot {R}}^{2}={\frac {1}{\rho }}\left(p_{g}-P_{0}-P(t)-4\mu {\frac {\dot {R}}{R}}-{\frac {2\gamma }{R}}\right)}

This is an approximate equation that is derived from the Navier–Stokes equations (written in spherical coordinate system) and describes the motion of the radius of the bubble R as a function of time t. Here, μ is the viscosity, p the pressure, and γ the surface tension. The over-dots represent time derivatives. This equation, though approximate, has been shown to give good estimates on the motion of the bubble under the acoustically driven field except during the final stages of collapse. Both simulation and experimental measurement show that during the critical final stages of collapse, the bubble wall velocity exceeds the speed of sound of the gas inside the bubble. Thus a more detailed analysis of the bubble's motion is needed beyond Rayleigh–Plesset to explore the additional energy focusing that an internally formed shock wave might produce.

The mechanism of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is unknown. Hypotheses include: hotspot, bremsstrahlung radiation, collision-induced radiation and corona discharges, nonclassical light, proton tunneling, electrodynamic jets and fractoluminescent jets (now largely discredited due to contrary experimental evidence).[citation needed]

From left to right: apparition of bubble, slow expansion, quick and sudden contraction, emission of light

In 2002, M. Brenner, S. Hilgenfeldt, and D. Lohse published a 60-page review that contains a detailed explanation of the mechanism. An important factor is that the bubble contains mainly inert noble gas such as argon or xenon (air contains about 1% argon, and the amount dissolved in water is too great; for sonoluminescence to occur, the concentration must be reduced to 20–40% of its equilibrium value) and varying amounts of water vapor. Chemical reactions cause nitrogen and oxygen to be removed from the bubble after about one hundred expansion-collapse cycles. The bubble will then begin to emit light. The light emission of highly compressed noble gas is exploited technologically in the argon flash devices.

During bubble collapse, the inertia of the surrounding water causes high pressure and high temperature, reaching around 10,000 kelvins in the interior of the bubble, causing the ionization of a small fraction of the noble gas present. The amount ionized is small enough for the bubble to remain transparent, allowing volume emission; surface emission would produce more intense light of longer duration, dependent on wavelength, contradicting experimental results. Electrons from ionized atoms interact mainly with neutral atoms, causing thermal bremsstrahlung radiation. As the wave hits a low energy trough, the pressure drops, allowing electrons to recombine with atoms and light emission to cease due to this lack of free electrons. This makes for a 160-picosecond light pulse for argon (even a small drop in temperature causes a large drop in ionization, due to the large ionization energy relative to photon energy). This description is simplified from the literature above, which details various steps of differing duration from 15 microseconds (expansion) to 100 picoseconds (emission).

Computations based on the theory presented in the review produce radiation parameters (intensity and duration time versus wavelength) that match experimental results[citation needed] with errors no larger than expected due to some simplifications (e.g., assuming a uniform temperature in the entire bubble), so it seems the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is at least roughly explained, although some details of the process remain obscure.

Any discussion of sonoluminescence must include a detailed analysis of metastability. Sonoluminescence in this respect is what is physically termed a bounded phenomenon meaning that the sonoluminescence exists in a bounded region of parameter space for the bubble; a coupled magnetic field being one such parameter. The magnetic aspects of sonoluminescence are very well documented.

Other proposals

Quantum explanations

An unusually exotic hypothesis of sonoluminescence, which has received much popular attention, is the Casimir energy hypothesis suggested by noted physicist Julian Schwinger and more thoroughly considered in a paper by Claudia Eberlein of the University of Sussex. Eberlein's paper suggests that the light in sonoluminescence is generated by the vacuum within the bubble in a process similar to Hawking radiation, the radiation generated at the event horizon of black holes. According to this vacuum energy explanation, since quantum theory holds that vacuum contains virtual particles, the rapidly moving interface between water and gas converts virtual photons into real photons. This is related to the Unruh effect or the Casimir effect. The argument has been made that sonoluminescence releases too large an amount of energy and releases the energy on too short a time scale to be consistent with the vacuum energy explanation, although other credible sources argue the vacuum energy explanation might yet prove to be correct.

Nuclear reactions

Main article: Bubble fusion

Some have argued that the Rayleigh–Plesset equation described above is unreliable for predicting bubble temperatures and that actual temperatures in sonoluminescing systems can be far higher than 20,000 kelvins. Some research claims to have measured temperatures as high as 100,000 kelvins, and speculates temperatures could reach into the millions of kelvins. Temperatures this high could cause thermonuclear fusion. This possibility is sometimes referred to as bubble fusion and is likened to the implosion design used in the fusion component of thermonuclear weapons.

On January 27, 2006, researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute claimed to have produced fusion in sonoluminescence experiments.

Experiments in 2002 and 2005 by R. P. Taleyarkhan using deuterated acetone showed measurements of tritium and neutron output consistent with fusion. However, the papers were considered low quality and there were doubts cast by a report about the author's scientific misconduct. This made the report lose credibility among the scientific community.

Pistol shrimp (also called snapping shrimp) produce a type of cavitation luminescence from a collapsing bubble caused by quickly snapping its claw. The animal snaps a specialized claw shut to create a cavitation bubble that generates acoustic pressures of up to 80 kPa at a distance of 4 cm from the claw. As it extends out from the claw, the bubble reaches speeds of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and releases a sound reaching 218 decibels. The pressure is strong enough to kill small fish. The light produced is of lower intensity than the light produced by typical sonoluminescence and is not visible to the naked eye. The light and heat produced may have no direct significance, as it is the shockwave produced by the rapidly collapsing bubble which these shrimp use to stun or kill prey. However, it is the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect and was whimsically dubbed "shrimpoluminescence" upon its discovery in 2001. It has subsequently been discovered that another group of crustaceans, the mantis shrimp, contains species whose club-like forelimbs can strike so quickly and with such force as to induce sonoluminescent cavitation bubbles upon impact. A mechanical device with 3D printed snapper claw at five times the actual size was also reported to emit light in a similar fashion, this bioinspired design was based on the snapping shrimp snapper claw molt shed from an Alpheus formosus, the striped snapping shrimp.

  1. Farley J, Hough S (2003). "Single Bubble Sonoluminsescence". APS Northwest Section Meeting Abstracts: D1.007. Bibcode:2003APS..NWS.D1007F.
  2. H. Frenzel and H. Schultes, Luminescenz im ultraschallbeschickten Wasser Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie International journal of research in physical chemistry and chemical physics, Published Online: 2017-01-12 | DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/zpch-1934-0137
  3. Jarman, Peter (1960-11-01). "Sonoluminescence: A Discussion". The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 32 (11): 1459–1462. Bibcode:1960ASAJ...32.1459J. doi:10.1121/1.1907940. ISSN 0001-4966.
  4. Ndiaye AA, Pflieger R, Siboulet B, Molina J, Dufrêche JF, Nikitenko SI (May 2012). "Nonequilibrium vibrational excitation of OH radicals generated during multibubble cavitation in water". The Journal of Physical Chemistry A. 116 (20): 4860–7. Bibcode:2012JPCA..116.4860N. doi:10.1021/jp301989b. PMID 22559729.
  5. Moss, William C.; Clarke, Douglas B.; White, John W.; Young, David A. (September 1994). "Hydrodynamic simulations of bubble collapse and picosecond sonoluminescence". Physics of Fluids. 6 (9): 2979–2985. Bibcode:1994PhFl....6.2979M. doi:10.1063/1.868124. ISSN 1070-6631.
  6. "Temperature inside collapsing bubble four times that of sun | Archives | News Bureau | University of Illinois". News.illinois.edu. 2005-02-03. Retrieved2012-11-14.
  7. Didenko YT, McNamara WB, Suslick KS (January 2000). "Effect of noble gases on sonoluminescence temperatures during multibubble cavitation". Physical Review Letters. 84 (4): 777–80. Bibcode:2000PhRvL..84..777D. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.777. PMID 11017370.
  8. Flannigan DJ, Suslick KS (March 2005). "Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single-bubble cavitation". Nature. 434 (7029): 52–5. Bibcode:2005Natur.434...52F. doi:10.1038/nature03361. PMID 15744295. S2CID 4318225.
  9. Barber BP, Putterman SJ (December 1992). "Light scattering measurements of the repetitive supersonic implosion of a sonoluminescing bubble". Physical Review Letters. 69 (26): 3839–3842. Bibcode:1992PhRvL..69.3839B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.69.3839. PMID 10046927.
  10. Brenner MP, Hilgenfeldt S, Lohse D (May 2002). "Single-bubble sonoluminescence". Reviews of Modern Physics. 74 (2): 425–484. Bibcode:2002RvMP...74..425B. doi:10.1103/RevModPhys.74.425.
  11. Matula TJ, Crum LA (January 1998). "Evidence for gas exchange in single-bubble sonoluminescence". Physical Review Letters. 80 (4): 865–868. Bibcode:1998PhRvL..80..865M. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.80.865.
  12. Young JB, Schmiedel T, Kang W (December 1996). "Sonoluminescence in high magnetic fields". Physical Review Letters. 77 (23): 4816–4819. Bibcode:1996PhRvL..77.4816Y. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.4816. PMID 10062638.
  13. Schwinger J (1989-03-23). "Cold Fusion: A History of Mine". Infinite-energy.com. Retrieved2012-11-14.
  14. Eberlein C (April 1996). "Theory of quantum radiation observed as sonoluminescence"(PDF). Physical Review A. 53 (4): 2772–2787. arXiv:quant-ph/9506024. Bibcode:1996PhRvA..53.2772E. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.53.2772. PMID 9913192. S2CID 10902274. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2019-03-23.
  15. Milton KA (September 2000). "Dimensional and Dynamical Aspects of the Casimir Effect: Understanding the Reality and Significance of Vacuum Energy". p. preprint hep-th/0009173. arXiv:hep-th/0009173.
  16. Liberati S, Belgiorno F, Visser M (2000). "Comment on "Dimensional and dynamical aspects of the Casimir effect: understanding the reality and significance of vacuum energy"". p. hep-th/0010140v1. arXiv:hep-th/0010140.
  17. Chen W, Huang W, Liang Y, Gao X, Cui W (September 2008). "Time-resolved spectra of single-bubble sonoluminescence in sulfuric acid with a streak camera". Physical Review E. 78 (3 Pt 2): 035301. Bibcode:2008PhRvE..78c5301C. doi:10.1103/PhysRevE.78.035301. PMID 18851095. Lay summaryNature China.
  18. "RPI: News & Events – New Sonofusion Experiment Produces Results Without External Neutron Source". News.rpi.edu. 2006-01-27. Retrieved2012-11-14.
  19. "Using Sound Waves To Induce Nuclear Fusion With No External Neutron Source". Sciencedaily.com. 2006-01-31. Retrieved2012-11-14.
  20. Purdue physicist found guilty of misconduct, Los Angeles Times, July 19, 2008, Thomas H. Maugh II
  21. Jayaraman KS (2008). "Bubble fusion discoverer says his science is vindicated". Nature India. doi:10.1038/nindia.2008.271.
  22. "Purdue reprimands fusion scientist for misconduct". USA Today. Associated Press. August 27, 2008. Retrieved2010-12-28.
  23. Lohse D, Schmitz B, Versluis M (October 2001). "Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles". Nature. 413 (6855): 477–8. Bibcode:2001Natur.413..477L. doi:10.1038/35097152. PMID 11586346. S2CID 4429684.
  24. Patek SN, Caldwell RL (October 2005). "Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer: strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus". The Journal of Experimental Biology. 208 (Pt 19): 3655–64. doi:10.1242/jeb.01831. PMID 16169943.
  25. Conover E (15 March 2019). "Some shrimp make plasma with their claws. Now a 3-D printed claw can too". ScienceNews.
  26. Tang X, Staack D (March 2019). "Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation". Science Advances. 5 (3): eaau7765. Bibcode:2019SciA....5.7765T. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aau7765. PMC6420313. PMID 30899783.
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Sonoluminescence
Sonoluminescence Language Watch Edit This article s lead section may be too short to adequately summarize the key points Please consider expanding the lead to provide an accessible overview of all important aspects of the article February 2017 Sonoluminescence is the emission of light from imploding bubbles in a liquid when excited by sound Single bubble sonoluminescence a single cavitating bubble Contents 1 History 2 Properties 3 Rayleigh Plesset equation 4 Mechanism of phenomenon 4 1 Other proposals 4 1 1 Quantum explanations 4 1 2 Nuclear reactions 5 Biological sonoluminescence 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External linksHistory EditThe sonoluminescence effect was first discovered at the University of Cologne in 1934 as a result of work on sonar 1 Hermann Frenzel and H Schultes put an ultrasound transducer in a tank of photographic developer fluid They hoped to speed up the development process Instead they noticed tiny dots on the film after developing and realized that the bubbles in the fluid were emitting light with the ultrasound turned on 2 It was too difficult to analyze the effect in early experiments because of the complex environment of a large number of short lived bubbles This phenomenon is now referred to as multi bubble sonoluminescence MBSL In 1960 Peter Jarman from Imperial College of London proposed the most reliable theory of sonoluminescence phenomenon He concluded that sonoluminescence is basically thermal in origin and that it might possibly arise from microshocks with the collapsing cavities 3 In 1989 an experimental advance was introduced which produced stable single bubble sonoluminescence SBSL citation needed In single bubble sonoluminescence a single bubble trapped in an acoustic standing wave emits a pulse of light with each compression of the bubble within the standing wave This technique allowed a more systematic study of the phenomenon because it isolated the complex effects into one stable predictable bubble It was realized that the temperature inside the bubble was hot enough to melt steel as seen in an experiment done in 2012 the temperature inside the bubble as it collapsed reached about 12 000 kelvins 4 Interest in sonoluminescence was renewed when an inner temperature of such a bubble well above one million kelvins was postulated 5 This temperature is thus far not conclusively proven rather recent experiments indicate temperatures around 20 000 K 19 700 C 35 500 F 6 Properties Edit Long exposure image of multi bubble sonoluminescence created by a high intensity ultrasonic horn immersed in a beaker of liquid Sonoluminescence can occur when a sound wave of sufficient intensity induces a gaseous cavity within a liquid to collapse quickly This cavity may take the form of a pre existing bubble or may be generated through a process known as cavitation Sonoluminescence in the laboratory can be made to be stable so that a single bubble will expand and collapse over and over again in a periodic fashion emitting a burst of light each time it collapses For this to occur a standing acoustic wave is set up within a liquid and the bubble will sit at a pressure anti node of the standing wave The frequencies of resonance depend on the shape and size of the container in which the bubble is contained Some facts about sonoluminescence citation needed The light that flashes from the bubbles last between 35 and a few hundred picoseconds long with peak intensities of the order of 1 10 mW The bubbles are very small when they emit the light about 1 micrometre in diameter depending on the ambient fluid e g water and the gas content of the bubble e g atmospheric air Single bubble sonoluminescence pulses can have very stable periods and positions In fact the frequency of light flashes can be more stable than the rated frequency stability of the oscillator making the sound waves driving them However the stability analyses of the bubble show that the bubble itself undergoes significant geometric instabilities due to for example the Bjerknes forces and Rayleigh Taylor instabilities The addition of a small amount of noble gas such as helium argon or xenon to the gas in the bubble increases the intensity of the emitted light Spectral measurements have given bubble temperatures in the range from 2300 K to 5100 K the exact temperatures depending on experimental conditions including the composition of the liquid and gas 7 Detection of very high bubble temperatures by spectral methods is limited due to the opacity of liquids to short wavelength light characteristic of very high temperatures A study describes a method of determining temperatures based on the formation of plasmas Using argon bubbles in sulfuric acid the data shows the presence of ionized molecular oxygen O2 sulfur monoxide and atomic argon populating high energy excited states which confirms a hypothesis that the bubbles have a hot plasma core 8 The ionization and excitation energy of dioxygenyl cations which they observed is 18 electronvolts From this they conclude the core temperatures reach at least 20 000 kelvins 6 hotter than the surface of the sun Rayleigh Plesset equation EditMain article Rayleigh Plesset equation The dynamics of the motion of the bubble is characterized to a first approximation by the Rayleigh Plesset equation named after Lord Rayleigh and Milton Plesset R R 3 2 R 2 1 r p g P 0 P t 4 m R R 2 g R displaystyle R ddot R frac 3 2 dot R 2 frac 1 rho left p g P 0 P t 4 mu frac dot R R frac 2 gamma R right This is an approximate equation that is derived from the Navier Stokes equations written in spherical coordinate system and describes the motion of the radius of the bubble R as a function of time t Here m is the viscosity p the pressure and g the surface tension The over dots represent time derivatives This equation though approximate has been shown to give good estimates on the motion of the bubble under the acoustically driven field except during the final stages of collapse Both simulation and experimental measurement show that during the critical final stages of collapse the bubble wall velocity exceeds the speed of sound of the gas inside the bubble 9 Thus a more detailed analysis of the bubble s motion is needed beyond Rayleigh Plesset to explore the additional energy focusing that an internally formed shock wave might produce Mechanism of phenomenon EditMain article Mechanism of sonoluminescence The mechanism of the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is unknown Hypotheses include hotspot bremsstrahlung radiation collision induced radiation and corona discharges nonclassical light proton tunneling electrodynamic jets and fractoluminescent jets now largely discredited due to contrary experimental evidence citation needed From left to right apparition of bubble slow expansion quick and sudden contraction emission of light In 2002 M Brenner S Hilgenfeldt and D Lohse published a 60 page review that contains a detailed explanation of the mechanism 10 An important factor is that the bubble contains mainly inert noble gas such as argon or xenon air contains about 1 argon and the amount dissolved in water is too great for sonoluminescence to occur the concentration must be reduced to 20 40 of its equilibrium value and varying amounts of water vapor Chemical reactions cause nitrogen and oxygen to be removed from the bubble after about one hundred expansion collapse cycles The bubble will then begin to emit light 11 The light emission of highly compressed noble gas is exploited technologically in the argon flash devices During bubble collapse the inertia of the surrounding water causes high pressure and high temperature reaching around 10 000 kelvins in the interior of the bubble causing the ionization of a small fraction of the noble gas present The amount ionized is small enough for the bubble to remain transparent allowing volume emission surface emission would produce more intense light of longer duration dependent on wavelength contradicting experimental results Electrons from ionized atoms interact mainly with neutral atoms causing thermal bremsstrahlung radiation As the wave hits a low energy trough the pressure drops allowing electrons to recombine with atoms and light emission to cease due to this lack of free electrons This makes for a 160 picosecond light pulse for argon even a small drop in temperature causes a large drop in ionization due to the large ionization energy relative to photon energy This description is simplified from the literature above which details various steps of differing duration from 15 microseconds expansion to 100 picoseconds emission Computations based on the theory presented in the review produce radiation parameters intensity and duration time versus wavelength that match experimental results citation needed with errors no larger than expected due to some simplifications e g assuming a uniform temperature in the entire bubble so it seems the phenomenon of sonoluminescence is at least roughly explained although some details of the process remain obscure Any discussion of sonoluminescence must include a detailed analysis of metastability Sonoluminescence in this respect is what is physically termed a bounded phenomenon meaning that the sonoluminescence exists in a bounded region of parameter space for the bubble a coupled magnetic field being one such parameter The magnetic aspects of sonoluminescence are very well documented 12 Other proposals Edit Quantum explanations Edit An unusually exotic hypothesis of sonoluminescence which has received much popular attention is the Casimir energy hypothesis suggested by noted physicist Julian Schwinger 13 and more thoroughly considered in a paper by Claudia Eberlein 14 of the University of Sussex Eberlein s paper suggests that the light in sonoluminescence is generated by the vacuum within the bubble in a process similar to Hawking radiation the radiation generated at the event horizon of black holes According to this vacuum energy explanation since quantum theory holds that vacuum contains virtual particles the rapidly moving interface between water and gas converts virtual photons into real photons This is related to the Unruh effect or the Casimir effect The argument has been made that sonoluminescence releases too large an amount of energy and releases the energy on too short a time scale to be consistent with the vacuum energy explanation 15 although other credible sources argue the vacuum energy explanation might yet prove to be correct 16 Nuclear reactions Edit Main article Bubble fusion Some have argued that the Rayleigh Plesset equation described above is unreliable for predicting bubble temperatures and that actual temperatures in sonoluminescing systems can be far higher than 20 000 kelvins Some research claims to have measured temperatures as high as 100 000 kelvins and speculates temperatures could reach into the millions of kelvins 17 Temperatures this high could cause thermonuclear fusion This possibility is sometimes referred to as bubble fusion and is likened to the implosion design used in the fusion component of thermonuclear weapons On January 27 2006 researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute claimed to have produced fusion in sonoluminescence experiments 18 19 Experiments in 2002 and 2005 by R P Taleyarkhan using deuterated acetone showed measurements of tritium and neutron output consistent with fusion However the papers were considered low quality and there were doubts cast by a report about the author s scientific misconduct This made the report lose credibility among the scientific community 20 21 22 Biological sonoluminescence EditPistol shrimp also called snapping shrimp produce a type of cavitation luminescence from a collapsing bubble caused by quickly snapping its claw The animal snaps a specialized claw shut to create a cavitation bubble that generates acoustic pressures of up to 80 kPa at a distance of 4 cm from the claw As it extends out from the claw the bubble reaches speeds of 60 miles per hour 97 km h and releases a sound reaching 218 decibels The pressure is strong enough to kill small fish The light produced is of lower intensity than the light produced by typical sonoluminescence and is not visible to the naked eye The light and heat produced may have no direct significance as it is the shockwave produced by the rapidly collapsing bubble which these shrimp use to stun or kill prey However it is the first known instance of an animal producing light by this effect and was whimsically dubbed shrimpoluminescence upon its discovery in 2001 23 It has subsequently been discovered that another group of crustaceans the mantis shrimp contains species whose club like forelimbs can strike so quickly and with such force as to induce sonoluminescent cavitation bubbles upon impact 24 A mechanical device with 3D printed snapper claw at five times the actual size was also reported to emit light in a similar fashion 25 this bioinspired design was based on the snapping shrimp snapper claw molt shed from an Alpheus formosus the striped snapping shrimp 26 See also EditList of light sources Triboluminescence Sonochemistry Acoustic waveReferences Edit Farley J Hough S 2003 Single Bubble Sonoluminsescence APS Northwest Section Meeting Abstracts D1 007 Bibcode 2003APS NWS D1007F H Frenzel and H Schultes Luminescenz im ultraschallbeschickten Wasser Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie International journal of research in physical chemistry and chemical physics Published Online 2017 01 12 DOI https doi org 10 1515 zpch 1934 0137 Jarman Peter 1960 11 01 Sonoluminescence A Discussion The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 32 11 1459 1462 Bibcode 1960ASAJ 32 1459J doi 10 1121 1 1907940 ISSN 0001 4966 Ndiaye AA Pflieger R Siboulet B Molina J Dufreche JF Nikitenko SI May 2012 Nonequilibrium vibrational excitation of OH radicals generated during multibubble cavitation in water The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 116 20 4860 7 Bibcode 2012JPCA 116 4860N doi 10 1021 jp301989b PMID 22559729 Moss William C Clarke Douglas B White John W Young David A September 1994 Hydrodynamic simulations of bubble collapse and picosecond sonoluminescence Physics of Fluids 6 9 2979 2985 Bibcode 1994PhFl 6 2979M doi 10 1063 1 868124 ISSN 1070 6631 a b Temperature inside collapsing bubble four times that of sun Archives News Bureau University of Illinois News illinois edu 2005 02 03 Retrieved 2012 11 14 Didenko YT McNamara WB Suslick KS January 2000 Effect of noble gases on sonoluminescence temperatures during multibubble cavitation Physical Review Letters 84 4 777 80 Bibcode 2000PhRvL 84 777D doi 10 1103 PhysRevLett 84 777 PMID 11017370 Flannigan DJ Suslick KS March 2005 Plasma formation and temperature measurement during single bubble cavitation Nature 434 7029 52 5 Bibcode 2005Natur 434 52F doi 10 1038 nature03361 PMID 15744295 S2CID 4318225 Barber BP Putterman SJ December 1992 Light scattering measurements of the repetitive supersonic implosion of a sonoluminescing bubble Physical Review Letters 69 26 3839 3842 Bibcode 1992PhRvL 69 3839B doi 10 1103 PhysRevLett 69 3839 PMID 10046927 Brenner MP Hilgenfeldt S Lohse D May 2002 Single bubble sonoluminescence Reviews of Modern Physics 74 2 425 484 Bibcode 2002RvMP 74 425B doi 10 1103 RevModPhys 74 425 Matula TJ Crum LA January 1998 Evidence for gas exchange in single bubble sonoluminescence Physical Review Letters 80 4 865 868 Bibcode 1998PhRvL 80 865M doi 10 1103 PhysRevLett 80 865 Young JB Schmiedel T Kang W December 1996 Sonoluminescence in high magnetic fields Physical Review Letters 77 23 4816 4819 Bibcode 1996PhRvL 77 4816Y doi 10 1103 PhysRevLett 77 4816 PMID 10062638 Schwinger J 1989 03 23 Cold Fusion A History of Mine Infinite energy com Retrieved 2012 11 14 Eberlein C April 1996 Theory of quantum radiation observed as sonoluminescence PDF Physical Review A 53 4 2772 2787 arXiv quant ph 9506024 Bibcode 1996PhRvA 53 2772E doi 10 1103 PhysRevA 53 2772 PMID 9913192 S2CID 10902274 Archived from the original PDF on 2019 03 23 Milton KA September 2000 Dimensional and Dynamical Aspects of the Casimir Effect Understanding the Reality and Significance of Vacuum Energy p preprint hep th 0009173 arXiv hep th 0009173 Liberati S Belgiorno F Visser M 2000 Comment on Dimensional and dynamical aspects of the Casimir effect understanding the reality and significance of vacuum energy p hep th 0010140v1 arXiv hep th 0010140 Chen W Huang W Liang Y Gao X Cui W September 2008 Time resolved spectra of single bubble sonoluminescence in sulfuric acid with a streak camera Physical Review E 78 3 Pt 2 035301 Bibcode 2008PhRvE 78c5301C doi 10 1103 PhysRevE 78 035301 PMID 18851095 Lay summary Nature China RPI News amp Events New Sonofusion Experiment Produces Results Without External Neutron Source News rpi edu 2006 01 27 Retrieved 2012 11 14 Using Sound Waves To Induce Nuclear Fusion With No External Neutron Source Sciencedaily com 2006 01 31 Retrieved 2012 11 14 Purdue physicist found guilty of misconduct Los Angeles Times July 19 2008 Thomas H Maugh II Jayaraman KS 2008 Bubble fusion discoverer says his science is vindicated Nature India doi 10 1038 nindia 2008 271 Purdue reprimands fusion scientist for misconduct USA Today Associated Press August 27 2008 Retrieved 2010 12 28 Lohse D Schmitz B Versluis M October 2001 Snapping shrimp make flashing bubbles Nature 413 6855 477 8 Bibcode 2001Natur 413 477L doi 10 1038 35097152 PMID 11586346 S2CID 4429684 Patek SN Caldwell RL October 2005 Extreme impact and cavitation forces of a biological hammer strike forces of the peacock mantis shrimp Odontodactylus scyllarus The Journal of Experimental Biology 208 Pt 19 3655 64 doi 10 1242 jeb 01831 PMID 16169943 Conover E 15 March 2019 Some shrimp make plasma with their claws Now a 3 D printed claw can too ScienceNews Tang X Staack D March 2019 Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation Science Advances 5 3 eaau7765 Bibcode 2019SciA 5 7765T doi 10 1126 sciadv aau7765 PMC 6420313 PMID 30899783 Further reading EditFrenzel H Schultes H October 1934 Luminescenz im ultraschallbeschickten Wasser Luminescence in ultra hot water Zeitschrift fur Physikalische Chemie in German 27 1 421 4 doi 10 1515 zpch 1934 0137 S2CID 100000845 Gaitan DF Crum LA Church CC Roy RA June 1992 Sonoluminescence and bubble dynamics for a single stable cavitation bubble The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 91 6 3166 83 Bibcode 1992ASAJ 91 3166G doi 10 1121 1 402855 Brenner MP Hilgenfeldt S Lohse D May 2002 Single bubble sonoluminescence PDF Reviews of Modern Physics 74 2 425 484 Bibcode 2002RvMP 74 425B doi 10 1103 RevModPhys 74 425 Taleyarkhan RP West CD Cho JS Lahey RT Nigmatulin RI Block RC March 2002 Evidence for nuclear emissions during acoustic cavitation Science 295 5561 1868 73 Bibcode 2002Sci 295 1868T doi 10 1126 science 1067589 PMID 11884748 S2CID 11405525 Chang K March 15 2005 Tiny Bubbles Implode With the Heat of a Star New York Times Wrbanek JD Fralick GC Wrbanek SY Hall NC 2009 Investigating sonoluminescence as a means of energy harvesting In Millis MG Davis EW eds Frontiers of propulsional science Abstract NASA Technical Reports Server American Inst of Aeronautics and Astronautics pp 605 37 doi 10 2514 4 479953 ISBN 978 1 56347 956 4 For a How to guide for student science projects see Hiller R Barber B 1995 Producing Light from a Bubble of Air Scientific American 272 2 96 98 Bibcode 1995SciAm 272b 96H doi 10 1038 scientificamerican0295 96 Tatrocki P 2006 Difficulties in Sonoluminescence Theory Based on Quantum Phenomenon of Vacuum Radiation PHILICA com Article number 19 This article was created in 1996 together with the alternative theory both were seen by Ms Eberlein It contains many references to the crucial experimental results in this field Buzzacchi M Del Giudice E Preparata G April 1998 Sonoluminescence unveiled arXiv quant ph 9804006 External links EditLook up sonoluminescence in Wiktionary the free dictionary Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sonoluminescence Detailed description of a sonoluminescence experiment A description of the effect and experiment with a diagram of the apparatus An mpg video of the collapsing bubble 934 kB Shrimpoluminescence Impulse Devices Applications of sonochemistry Sound waves size up sonoluminescence Sonoluminescence Sound into light Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sonoluminescence amp oldid 1043268849, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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