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Sonoran Desert

The Sonoran Desert (Spanish: Desierto de Sonora) is a North American desert and ecoregion that covers large parts of the southwestern United States (in Arizona and California), as well as Sonora in northwestern Mexico in, Baja California, and Baja California Sur. It is the hottest desert in Mexico. It has an area of 260,000 square kilometers (100,000 sq mi).

Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert
Ecology
RealmNearctic
BiomeDeserts and xeric shrublands
Borders
Bird species246
Mammal species120
Geography
Area222,998 km2 (86,100 sq mi)
CountriesMexico and United States
StatesArizona, Baja California, California and Sonora
Coordinates32°15′N112°55′W /32.250°N 112.917°W /32.250; -112.917Coordinates: 32°15′N112°55′W /32.250°N 112.917°W /32.250; -112.917
RiversColorado River
Conservation
Conservation statusRelatively Stable/Intact
Habitat loss10.5%
Protected39%

In phytogeography, the Sonoran Desert is within the Sonoran Floristic province of the Madrean Region of southwestern North America, part of the Holarctic realm of the northern Western Hemisphere. The desert contains a variety of unique endemic plants and animals, notably, the saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) and organ pipe cactus (Stenocereus thurberi).

The Sonoran Desert is clearly distinct from nearby deserts (e.g., the Great Basin, Mojave, and Chihuahuan deserts) because it provides subtropical warmth in winter and two seasons of rainfall (in contrast, for example, to the Mojave's dry summers and cold winters). This creates an extreme contrast between aridity and moisture.

Contents

The Sonoran desert wraps around the northern end of the Gulf of California, from Baja California Sur (El Vizcaíno Biosphere Reserve in central and Pacific west coast, Central Gulf Coast subregion on east to southern tip), north through much of Baja California, excluding the central northwest mountains and Pacific west coast, through southeastern California and southwestern and southern Arizona to western and central parts of Sonora.

It is bounded on the west by the Peninsular Ranges, which separate it from the California chaparral and woodlands (northwest) and Baja California Desert (Vizcaino subregion, central and southeast) ecoregions of the Pacific slope. The Gulf of California xeric scrub ecoregion lies south of the Sonoran desert on the Gulf of California slope of the Baja California Peninsula.

To the north in California and northwest Arizona, the Sonoran Desert transitions to the colder-winter, higher-elevation Mojave, Great Basin, and Colorado Plateau deserts.

To coniferous Arizona Mountains forests are to the northeast. The Chihuahuan Desert and Sierra Madre Occidental pine–oak forests are at higher elevations to the east. To the south the Sonoran–Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest is the transition zone from the Sonoran Desert to the tropical dry forests of the Mexican state of Sinaloa.

Sub-regions

The desert's sub-regions include the Colorado Desert of southeastern California; and the Yuma Desert east of the north-to-south section of the Colorado River in southwest Arizona. In the 1957 publication Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert, Forrest Shreve divided the Sonoran Desert into seven regions according to characteristic vegetation: Lower Colorado Valley, Arizona Upland, Plains of Sonora, Foothills of Sonora, Central Gulf Coast, Vizcaíno Region, and Magdalena Region. Many ecologists consider Shreve's Vizcaíno and Magdalena regions, which lie on the western side of the Baja California Peninsula, to be a separate ecoregion, the Baja California Desert.

Within the southern Sonoran Desert in Mexico is found the Gran Desierto de Altar, with the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar ('Pinacate National Park' in Mexico), extending 2,000 square kilometers (770 sq mi) of desert and mountainous regions. The Pinacate National Park includes the only active erg dune region in North America. The nearest city to the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is Puerto Peñasco ('Rocky Point') in the state of Sonora, Mexico.

Sub-regions

Sonoran Desert sub-regions include:

The Sonoran desert has an arid climate. In the lower-elevation portions of the desert, temperatures are warm year-round, and rainfall is infrequent and irregular, often less than 90 mm annually. The Arizona uplands receive 100-300 mm of average annual rainfall, which falls in a more regular bi-seasonal pattern.

Further information: Flora of the Sonoran Desert
The Sonoran Desert near Tucson, Arizona during winter.

Many plants not only survive, but thrive in the harsh conditions of the Sonoran Desert. Many have evolved to have specialized adaptations to the desert climate. The Sonoran Desert's bi-seasonal rainfall pattern results in more plant species than any other desert in the world. The Sonoran Desert includes plant genera and species from the agave family, palm family, cactus family, legume family, and numerous others.

The Sonoran is the only place in the world where the famous saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) grows in the wild. Cholla (Cylindropuntia spp.), beavertail (Opuntia basilaris), hedgehog (Echinocereus spp.), fishhook (Ferocactus wislizeni), prickly pear (Opuntia spp.), nightblooming cereus (Peniocereus spp.), and organ pipe (Stenocereus thurberi) are other taxa of cacti found here. Cactus provides food and homes to many desert mammals and birds, with showy flowers in reds, pinks, yellows, and whites, blooming most commonly from late March through June, depending on the species and seasonal temperatures.

Creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) and bur sage (Ambrosia dumosa) dominate valley floors. Indigo bush (Psorothamnus fremontii) and Mormon tea are other shrubs that may be found. Wildflowers of the Sonoran Desert include desert sand verbena (Abronia villosa), desert sunflower (Geraea canescens), and evening primroses.

Velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina)

Ascending from the valley up bajadas, various subtrees such as velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), palo verde (Parkinsonia florida), desert ironwood (Olneya tesota), desert willow (Chilopsis linearis ssp. arcuata), and crucifixion thorn (Canotia holacantha) are common, as well as multi-stemmed ocotillo (Fouquieria splendens). Shrubs found at higher elevations include whitethorn acacia (Acacia constricta), fairy duster, and jojoba. In the desert subdivisions found on Baja California, cardon cactus, elephant tree, and boojum tree occur.

The California fan palm (Washingtonia filifera) is found in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert, the only native palm in California, among many other introduced Arecaceae genera and species. It is found at spring-fed oases, such as in Anza Borrego Desert State Park, Joshua Tree National Park, and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge.

350 bird species, 20 amphibian species, over 100 reptile species, 30 native fish species, over 1000 native bee species, and more than 2,000 native plant species can be found in the desert area. The Sonoran Desert area southeast of Tucson and near the Mexican border is vital habitat for the only population of jaguars living within the United States. The Colorado River Delta was once an ecological hotspot within the Sonoran desert due to the Colorado river in this otherwise dry area, but the delta has been greatly reduced in extent due to the damming and use of the river upstream. Species that have higher heat tolerance are able to thrive in the conditions of the Sonoran Desert. One such insect species that has evolved a means to thrive in this environment is Drosophila mettleri, a Sonoran Desert fly. This fly contains a specialized P450 detoxification system that enables it to nest in the cool region of exudate moistened soil. Thus, the fly is one of few that can tolerate the high desert temperatures and successfully reproduce.

The Sonoran Desert is home to the cultures of over 17 contemporary Native American tribes, with settlements at American Indian reservations in California and Arizona, as well as populations in Mexico.

The largest city in the Sonoran Desert is Phoenix, Arizona, with a 2017 metropolitan population of about 4.7 million. Located on the Salt River in central Arizona, it is one of the fastest-growing metropolitan areas in the United States. In 2007 in the Phoenix area, desert was losing ground to urban sprawl at a rate of approximately 4,000 square meters (1 acre) per hour.

The next largest cities are Tucson, in southern Arizona, with a metro area population of just over 1 million, and Mexicali, Baja California, with a similarly sized metropolitan population of around 1,000,000. The metropolitan area of Hermosillo, Sonora, has a population close to 900,000. Ciudad Obregón, Sonora, in the southern part of the desert, has a population of 375,800.

California

The Coachella Valley, located in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert, has a population of 365,000. Several famous Southern California desert resort cities such as Palm Springs and Palm Desert are located here.

During the winter months, from November to April, the daytime temperatures in the Coachella Valley range from 70 °F (21 °C) to 90 °F (32 °C) and corresponding nighttime lows range from 46 °F (8 °C) to 68 °F (20 °C) making it a popular winter resort destination. Due to its warm year-round climate citrus and subtropical fruits such as mangoes, figs, and dates are grown in the Coachella Valley and adjacent Imperial Valley. The Imperial Valley has a total population of over 180,000 and has a similar climate to that of the Coachella Valley. Other cities include Indio, Coachella, Calexico, El Centro, Imperial, and Blythe.

United States–Mexico border region

Straddling the US-Mexican border with low levels of human-installed security, the Sonoran desert is a route for unauthorized entry across the border. The harsh conditions mean that the 3-to-5-day march, usually moving at night to minimize exposure to the heat, sometimes results in death.

There are many National Parks and Monuments; federal and state nature reserves and wildlife refuges; state, county, and city parks; and government or nonprofit group operated natural history museums, science research institutes, and botanical gardens and desert landscape gardens.

Sonoran Desert protected areas include
  1. "The Atlas of Global Conservation". maps.tnc.org. Retrieved2020-11-16.
  2. "Sonoran desert". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund. Retrieved2020-11-16.
  3. A Delicate Balance. National Park Service. 15 November 2020. Retrieved6 December 2020.
  4. "Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum, Tucson, AZ - Zoo, Botanical Garden and Art Gallery". www.desertmuseum.org. Retrieved15 April 2018.
  5. "Sonoran Desert: An Overview of the Sonoran Desert by William G. McGinnies". 21 January 2003. Archived from the original on 21 January 2003. Retrieved15 April 2018.
  6. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-02-02. Retrieved2010-03-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. "The Saguaro Cactus"(PDF). nps.gov. Retrieved15 April 2018.
  8. MacMahon, J. A. Deserts. 1986, 638 pages
  9. Hogan, C. M. 2009. California Fan Palm: Washingtonia filifera, GlobalTwitcher.com, ed. N. Stromberg Archived 2009-09-30 at the Wayback Machine
  10. Surviving the Sonoran Archived 2010-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
  11. The Jaguar in the Borderlands of Arizona, New Mexico and Northern Mexico: Conservation – Threats & Strategies Archived 2009-03-30 at the Wayback Machine
  12. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved2019-01-31.
  13. Make No Small Plans, Adelheid Fischer, ASU Research magazine. Accessed on line October 15, 2007
  14. Table 1: Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (CBSA-EST2006-01) Archived September 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine, United States Census Bureau, 2007-04-05. Accessed 2007-09-11
  15. "Población en municipios de zonas metropolitanas". SEMARNAT. 2015.
  16. Arizona: Naming the dead from the desert, BBC News, 17 January 2013
  17. The Sonoran Desert National Monument was created in 2001 in Arizona, to enhance protection of the unique resources of the Sonoran Desert, with 2,008 square kilometers (496,000 acres).
    :Reference: Sonoran Desert National Monument Archived 2009-01-26 at the Wayback Machine, Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Department of the Interior. Accessed on line June 17, 2009.
Sonoran Desertat Wikipedia's sister projects

Parks and recreation areas

Sonoran Desert
Sonoran Desert Language Watch Edit The Sonoran Desert Spanish Desierto de Sonora is a North American desert and ecoregion that covers large parts of the southwestern United States in Arizona and California as well as Sonora in northwestern Mexico in Baja California and Baja California Sur It is the hottest desert in Mexico It has an area of 260 000 square kilometers 100 000 sq mi Sonoran DesertSaguaro National Park ArizonaSonoran DesertEcologyRealmNearcticBiomeDeserts and xeric shrublandsBordersList Arizona Mountains forestsBaja California desertCalifornia coastal sage and chaparralCalifornia montane chaparral and woodlandsChihuahuan DesertColorado Plateau shrublandsGulf of California xeric scrubMojave DesertSierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine oak forestsSonoran Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forestsBird species246 1 Mammal species120 1 GeographyArea222 998 km2 86 100 sq mi CountriesMexico and United StatesStatesArizona Baja California California and SonoraCoordinates32 15 N 112 55 W 32 250 N 112 917 W 32 250 112 917 Coordinates 32 15 N 112 55 W 32 250 N 112 917 W 32 250 112 917RiversColorado RiverConservationConservation statusRelatively Stable Intact 2 Habitat loss10 5 1 Protected39 1 In phytogeography the Sonoran Desert is within the Sonoran Floristic province of the Madrean Region of southwestern North America part of the Holarctic realm of the northern Western Hemisphere The desert contains a variety of unique endemic plants and animals notably the saguaro Carnegiea gigantea and organ pipe cactus Stenocereus thurberi The Sonoran Desert is clearly distinct from nearby deserts e g the Great Basin Mojave and Chihuahuan deserts because it provides subtropical warmth in winter and two seasons of rainfall in contrast for example to the Mojave s dry summers and cold winters This creates an extreme contrast between aridity and moisture 3 Contents 1 Location 1 1 Sub regions 2 Climate 3 Flora 4 Fauna 5 Human population 5 1 California 5 2 United States Mexico border region 6 Protected areas 7 See also 8 References 9 External links 9 1 Parks and recreation areasLocation EditThe Sonoran desert wraps around the northern end of the Gulf of California from Baja California Sur El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in central and Pacific west coast Central Gulf Coast subregion on east to southern tip north through much of Baja California excluding the central northwest mountains and Pacific west coast through southeastern California and southwestern and southern Arizona to western and central parts of Sonora 4 It is bounded on the west by the Peninsular Ranges which separate it from the California chaparral and woodlands northwest and Baja California Desert Vizcaino subregion central and southeast ecoregions of the Pacific slope The Gulf of California xeric scrub ecoregion lies south of the Sonoran desert on the Gulf of California slope of the Baja California Peninsula To the north in California and northwest Arizona the Sonoran Desert transitions to the colder winter higher elevation Mojave Great Basin and Colorado Plateau deserts To coniferous Arizona Mountains forests are to the northeast The Chihuahuan Desert and Sierra Madre Occidental pine oak forests are at higher elevations to the east To the south the Sonoran Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest is the transition zone from the Sonoran Desert to the tropical dry forests of the Mexican state of Sinaloa 4 Sub regions Edit The desert s sub regions include the Colorado Desert of southeastern California and the Yuma Desert east of the north to south section of the Colorado River in southwest Arizona In the 1957 publication Vegetation of the Sonoran Desert Forrest Shreve divided the Sonoran Desert into seven regions according to characteristic vegetation Lower Colorado Valley Arizona Upland Plains of Sonora Foothills of Sonora Central Gulf Coast Vizcaino Region and Magdalena Region 5 Many ecologists consider Shreve s Vizcaino and Magdalena regions which lie on the western side of the Baja California Peninsula to be a separate ecoregion the Baja California Desert Within the southern Sonoran Desert in Mexico is found the Gran Desierto de Altar with the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Pinacate National Park in Mexico extending 2 000 square kilometers 770 sq mi of desert and mountainous regions 6 The Pinacate National Park includes the only active erg dune region in North America The nearest city to the Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar is Puerto Penasco Rocky Point in the state of Sonora Mexico Sub regions Sonoran Desert sub regions include Colorado Desert Gran Desierto de Altar Lechuguilla Desert Tonopah Desert Yuha Desert Yuma DesertClimate EditThe Sonoran desert has an arid climate In the lower elevation portions of the desert temperatures are warm year round and rainfall is infrequent and irregular often less than 90 mm annually The Arizona uplands receive 100 300 mm of average annual rainfall which falls in a more regular bi seasonal pattern 2 Flora EditFurther information Flora of the Sonoran Desert Main page Category Flora of the Sonoran Deserts See also List of flora of the Sonoran Desert Region by common name The Sonoran Desert near Tucson Arizona during winter Many plants not only survive but thrive in the harsh conditions of the Sonoran Desert Many have evolved to have specialized adaptations to the desert climate The Sonoran Desert s bi seasonal rainfall pattern results in more plant species than any other desert in the world 2 The Sonoran Desert includes plant genera and species from the agave family palm family cactus family legume family and numerous others The Sonoran is the only place in the world where the famous saguaro cactus Carnegiea gigantea grows in the wild 7 Cholla Cylindropuntia spp beavertail Opuntia basilaris hedgehog Echinocereus spp fishhook Ferocactus wislizeni prickly pear Opuntia spp nightblooming cereus Peniocereus spp and organ pipe Stenocereus thurberi are other taxa of cacti found here Cactus provides food and homes to many desert mammals and birds with showy flowers in reds pinks yellows and whites blooming most commonly from late March through June depending on the species and seasonal temperatures Creosote bush Larrea tridentata and bur sage Ambrosia dumosa dominate valley floors Indigo bush Psorothamnus fremontii and Mormon tea are other shrubs that may be found Wildflowers of the Sonoran Desert include desert sand verbena Abronia villosa desert sunflower Geraea canescens and evening primroses Velvet mesquite Prosopis velutina Ascending from the valley up bajadas various subtrees such as velvet mesquite Prosopis velutina palo verde Parkinsonia florida desert ironwood Olneya tesota desert willow Chilopsis linearis ssp arcuata and crucifixion thorn Canotia holacantha are common as well as multi stemmed ocotillo Fouquieria splendens Shrubs found at higher elevations include whitethorn acacia Acacia constricta fairy duster and jojoba In the desert subdivisions found on Baja California cardon cactus elephant tree and boojum tree occur 8 Washingtonia filifera in Anza Borrego Desert State Park The California fan palm Washingtonia filifera is found in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert the only native palm in California among many other introduced Arecaceae genera and species It is found at spring fed oases such as in Anza Borrego Desert State Park Joshua Tree National Park and the Kofa National Wildlife Refuge 9 Fauna EditMain page Category Fauna of the Sonoran Desert See also List of Sonoran Desert birds Arizona 350 bird species 20 amphibian species over 100 reptile species 30 native fish species over 1000 native bee species and more than 2 000 native plant species can be found in the desert area 10 The Sonoran Desert area southeast of Tucson and near the Mexican border is vital habitat for the only population of jaguars living within the United States 11 The Colorado River Delta was once an ecological hotspot within the Sonoran desert due to the Colorado river in this otherwise dry area but the delta has been greatly reduced in extent due to the damming and use of the river upstream Species that have higher heat tolerance are able to thrive in the conditions of the Sonoran Desert One such insect species that has evolved a means to thrive in this environment is Drosophila mettleri a Sonoran Desert fly This fly contains a specialized P450 detoxification system that enables it to nest in the cool region of exudate moistened soil Thus the fly is one of few that can tolerate the high desert temperatures and successfully reproduce Human population EditMain page Category History of indigenous peoples of North America See also Category Native American history of California The Sonoran Desert is home to the cultures of over 17 contemporary Native American tribes with settlements at American Indian reservations in California and Arizona as well as populations in Mexico The largest city in the Sonoran Desert is Phoenix Arizona with a 2017 metropolitan population of about 4 7 million 12 Located on the Salt River in central Arizona it is one of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States In 2007 in the Phoenix area desert was losing ground to urban sprawl at a rate of approximately 4 000 square meters 1 acre per hour 13 The next largest cities are Tucson in southern Arizona with a metro area population of just over 1 million 14 and Mexicali Baja California with a similarly sized metropolitan population of around 1 000 000 The metropolitan area of Hermosillo Sonora has a population close to 900 000 Ciudad Obregon Sonora in the southern part of the desert has a population of 375 800 15 California Edit The Coachella Valley located in the Colorado Desert section of the Sonoran Desert has a population of 365 000 Several famous Southern California desert resort cities such as Palm Springs and Palm Desert are located here The entrance to Palm Springs California via Highway 62 During the winter months from November to April the daytime temperatures in the Coachella Valley range from 70 F 21 C to 90 F 32 C and corresponding nighttime lows range from 46 F 8 C to 68 F 20 C making it a popular winter resort destination Due to its warm year round climate citrus and subtropical fruits such as mangoes figs and dates are grown in the Coachella Valley and adjacent Imperial Valley The Imperial Valley has a total population of over 180 000 and has a similar climate to that of the Coachella Valley Other cities include Indio Coachella Calexico El Centro Imperial and Blythe United States Mexico border region Edit Straddling the US Mexican border with low levels of human installed security the Sonoran desert is a route for unauthorized entry across the border The harsh conditions mean that the 3 to 5 day march usually moving at night to minimize exposure to the heat sometimes results in death 16 Protected areas Edit Mexican goldpoppies in the Sonoran Desert National Monument There are many National Parks and Monuments federal and state nature reserves and wildlife refuges state county and city parks and government or nonprofit group operated natural history museums science research institutes and botanical gardens and desert landscape gardens Index Protected areas of the Sonoran Desert Index Protected areas of the Colorado DesertSonoran Desert protected areas includeArizona Sonora Desert Museum Sonoran Desert National Monument 17 Boyce Thompson Arboretum State Park Sonoran Desert flora arboretum Anza Borrego Desert State Park Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument Saguaro National Park Joshua Tree National Park Reserva de la Biosfera el Pinacate y Gran Desierto de Altar Pinacate National Park in Sonora Mexico Indio Hills Palms State Reserve Coachella Valley National Wildlife Refuge Cabeza Prieta National Wildlife Refuge Kofa National Wildlife Refuge South Mountain Park Sonoran Arthropod Studies InstituteSee also EditChihuahuan Desert Dust storm List of deserts by area List of ecoregions in the United States EPA the Sonoran Basin and Range is item 81 on the map List of ecoregions in the United States WWF Mojave Desert Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert Category Mountain ranges of the Sonoran DesertReferences Edit a b c d The Atlas of Global Conservation maps tnc org Retrieved 2020 11 16 a b c Sonoran desert Terrestrial Ecoregions World Wildlife Fund Retrieved 2020 11 16 A Delicate Balance National Park Service 15 November 2020 Retrieved 6 December 2020 a b Arizona Sonora Desert Museum Tucson AZ Zoo Botanical Garden and Art Gallery www desertmuseum org Retrieved 15 April 2018 Sonoran Desert An Overview of the Sonoran Desert by William G McGinnies 21 January 2003 Archived from the original on 21 January 2003 Retrieved 15 April 2018 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2011 02 02 Retrieved 2010 03 02 CS1 maint archived copy as title link The Saguaro Cactus PDF nps gov Retrieved 15 April 2018 MacMahon J A Deserts 1986 638 pages Hogan C M 2009 California Fan Palm Washingtonia filifera GlobalTwitcher com ed N Stromberg Archived 2009 09 30 at the Wayback Machine Surviving the Sonoran Archived 2010 04 30 at the Wayback Machine The Jaguar in the Borderlands of Arizona New Mexico and Northern Mexico Conservation Threats amp Strategies Archived 2009 03 30 at the Wayback Machine U S Census website United States Census Bureau Retrieved 2019 01 31 Make No Small Plans Adelheid Fischer ASU Research magazine Accessed on line October 15 2007 Table 1 Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas April 1 2000 to July 1 2006 CBSA EST2006 01 Archived September 14 2007 at the Wayback Machine United States Census Bureau 2007 04 05 Accessed 2007 09 11 Poblacion en municipios de zonas metropolitanas SEMARNAT 2015 Arizona Naming the dead from the desert BBC News 17 January 2013 The Sonoran Desert National Monument was created in 2001 in Arizona to enhance protection of the unique resources of the Sonoran Desert with 2 008 square kilometers 496 000 acres Reference Sonoran Desert National Monument Archived 2009 01 26 at the Wayback Machine Bureau of Land Management U S Department of the Interior Accessed on line June 17 2009 External links EditSonoran Desertat Wikipedia s sister projects Media from Wikimedia Commons Travel guides from Wikivoyage Arizona Sonora Desert Museum Map of the Sonoran Desert Ecoregion Sonoran Desert and its subdivisions with photos Timeline of the Sonoran desert An Overview of the Sonoran Desert by William G McGinnies The Sonoran Desert Naturalist Very short overview of Sonoran Desert Geology Sonoran Desert images at bioimages vanderbilt edu slow modem version International Sonoran Desert Alliance Sounds of the Sonoran Desert Parks and recreation areas Edit Sonoran Desert National Monument official website Saguaro National Park official website Anza Borrego Desert State official website Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument official website Joshua Tree National Park official website South Mountain Park Preserve Arizona State Parks official website desert plants Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sonoran Desert amp oldid 1049810013, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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