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Sopron

This article is about the city. For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron / Ödenburg, see Sopron (county).

Sopron (Hungarian pronunciation: ; German: Ödenburg, German pronunciation: (); Slovene: Šopron) is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border, near Lake Neusiedl/Lake Fertő.

Sopron
Sopron Megyei Jogú Város


Flag
Coat of arms
Nickname(s):
Civitas Fidelissima (Most Loyal City/Citizenry)
Sopron
Location of Sopron
Show map of Győr-Moson-Sopron County
Sopron
Sopron (Hungary)
Show map of Hungary
Coordinates:47°41′06″N16°34′59″E /47.68489°N 16.58305°E /47.68489; 16.58305Coordinates: 47°41′06″N16°34′59″E /47.68489°N 16.58305°E /47.68489; 16.58305
CountryHungary
RegionWestern Transdanubia
CountyGyőr-Moson-Sopron
DistrictSopron
Established2nd century AD (Scarbantia)
Re-Established9th century AD (Sopron)
City status1277
Government
• MayorDr. Farkas Ciprián (Fidesz-KDNP)
Deputy MayorDr István Simon (Fidesz-KDNP)
Town NotaryDr Szabolcs Sárvári
Area
• City169.01 km2 (65.26 sq mi)
Population
(2017)
• City62,246
• Rank15th
Urban
98,479 (13th)
Demonym(s)soproni
Population by ethnicity (2011)
Hungarians88.%
Germans5.7%
Romani0.6%
Croats0.7%
Romanians0.2%
Slovaks0.1%
Serbs0.1%
Bulgarians0.1%
• Others0.9%
Population by religion (2011)
Roman Catholic47.9%
Greek Catholic1.6%
Evangelicals5.6%
Calvinists3%
Jewish1%
Non-religious5%
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)UTC+2 (CEST)
Postal code
9400
Area code(+36) 99
MotorwaysM85 Motorway (under construction)
NUTS 3 codeHU221
Distance from Budapest214 km (133 mi) West
MPAttila Barcza (Fidesz)
Websitewww.sopron.hu

Contents

Ancient times-13th century

Bilingual names in the Kingdom of Hungary after 1867

When the area that is today Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire, a city called Scarbantia stood here. Its forum was located where the main square of Sopron can be found today.

During the Migration Period, Scarbantia was believed to be deserted. By the time Hungarians arrived in the area, it was in ruins. In the 9th–11th centuries, Hungarians strengthened the old Roman city walls and built a castle. The town was named in Hungarian after a castle steward named Suprun. In 1153, it was mentioned as an important town.

In 1273, King Otakar II of Bohemia occupied the castle. Even though he took the children of Sopron's nobility with him as hostages, the city opened its gates when the armies of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary arrived. The king rewarded Sopron by elevating it to the rank of free royal town.

16th-19th centuries

During the Ottoman occupation of Hungary, the Ottoman Turks ravaged the city in 1529, but did not occupy it. Many Hungarians fled from the occupied areas to Sopron, and the city's importance grew.

While the Ottomans occupied most of central Europe, the region north of lake Balaton remained in the Kingdom of Hungary (1538–1867) (captaincy between Balaton and Drava).

In 1676, Sopron was destroyed by a fire. The modern-day city was born in the next few decades, when Baroque buildings were built to replace the destroyed medieval ones. Sopron became the seat of the comitatus Sopron.

The town was the seat of the Ödenburg comitat near 1850. After the compromise of 1867 and until 1918, the city (known with the dual bilingual name of Sopron - Ödenburg) was part of the Habsburg-ruled Kingdom of Hungary.

20th century-present

Sopron plebiscite, French and Italian officers arrive to control the voting districts on 14 December 1921.
Firewatch Tower (12th century)

Following the breakup of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, ethnic Germans inhabited parts of four western Hungarian counties: Pozsony (Pressburg in German; Bratislava in Czech/Slovak), Vas (Eisenburg), Sopron (Ödenburg) and Moson (Wieselburg). The German-inhabited parts of these counties were initially awarded to Austria in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919). After local unrest and Italian diplomatic mediation in the Venice Protocol, Sopron's status as part of Hungary (along with that of the surrounding eight villages) was decided by a controversial, local plebiscite held on December 14, 1921, with 65% voting for Hungary. Since then Sopron has been called Civitas Fidelissima ("The Most Loyal Town", Hungarian: A Leghűségesebb Város), and the anniversary of the plebiscite is a city holiday. However, the western parts of Vas, Sopron and Moson counties did join Austria and today form the Austrian federal state of Burgenland, while Pressburg/Pozsony was awarded to Czechoslovakia.

Sopron suffered greatly during World War II, it was bombed several times. The Soviet Red Army captured the city on April 1, 1945. On August 19, 1989, it was the site of the Pan-European Picnic, a protest on the border between Austria and Hungary, which was used by over 600 citizens of East Germany to escape from the GDR to the West. As the first successful crossing of the border it helped pave the way for the mass flight of East German citizens that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9, 1989.

During the Socialist era, the government tried to turn Sopron into an industrial city, but much of the medieval town center remains, allowing the city to remain an attractive site for tourists.

Today, Sopron's economy immensely benefits from the European Union. Having been a city close to nowhere, that is, to the Iron Curtain, Sopron now has re-established full trade relations to nearby Austria. Furthermore, after being suppressed during the Cold War, Sopron's German-speaking culture and heritage are now recognized again. As a consequence, many of the city's street-and traffic-signs are written in both Hungarian and German making it an officially bilingual city due to its proximity to the Austrian frontier. Visitors admire the large number of buildings in this city that reflect medieval architecture - rare in war-torn Hungary. Situated close to the Austrian border, Sopron receives many visitors from Vienna (70 kilometres (43 miles) away), and from Bratislava, Slovakia (77 km (48 mi) away), as well as from the United States, Great Britain, The Netherlands, Japan, and Scandinavia, who visit to take advantage of the excellent low-cost dental services offered: Sopron boasts so many dental clinics—more than 300—that the city is known as the "dental capital of the world."

Sopron is a significant wine producing region, one of the few in Hungary to make both red and white wines. Grapes include Kékfrankos for red wine and Traminer (Gewürztraminer) for white wine. In climate it is similar to the neighbouring Burgenland wine region in Austria, and several winemakers make wine in both countries. Blue Frankish (= Kékfrankos, Blaufränkisch), Traminer, and Green Veltliner (= Zöld Veltelini, Grüner Veltliner) are well-known Sopron wines. Sopron's Blue Frankish and Pinot Noir wines are particularly prized.

The Main Square, Town Hall and the Firewatch Tower
Historical population
YearPop.±%
187023,102
188025,513+10.4%
189029,788+16.8%
190035,703+19.9%
191036,721+2.9%
192038,243+4.1%
193039,436+3.1%
194146,120+16.9%
194935,617−22.8%
196041,110+15.4%
197047,111+14.6%
198053,945+14.5%
199055,083+2.1%
200156,175+2.0%
201160,548+7.8%
202063,065+4.2%

In 1910, Sopron had 33,931 inhabitants (51% German, 44.3% Hungarian, 4.7% other). Religions: 64.1% Roman Catholic, 27.8% Lutheran, 6.6% Jewish, 1.2% Calvinist, 0.3% other. In 2001, the city had 56,125 inhabitants (92.8% Hungarian, 3.5% German, 3.7% other). Religions: 69% Roman Catholic, 7% Lutheran, 3% Calvinist, 8.1% Atheist, 11.9% no answer, 1% other.

The architecture of the old section of town reflects its long history; walls and foundations from the Roman Empire are still common, together with a wealth of Medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque structures, often artistically decorated, showing centuries of stability and prosperity.

There is an old synagogue and other remains from the town's former Jewish community, which was expelled in the 16th century.

On Daloshegy, there is a 165-metre tall FM-/TV-broadcasting tower, nicknamed "Rakéta" (Hungarian for rocket).

  • City centre
  • Firewatch Tower
  • Walls with Roman origin
  • Széchenyi Square and Flag of Loyalty
  • Kecske Church
  • Esterházy Palace (baroque)
  • Eggenberg House
  • City Hall (eclectic, 1895)
  • Storno House (renaissance)
  • Fabricius House
  • "Two Moors" House (18th century baroque)
  • Chemist's Museum (15th–16th century. The house was pronounced the first national monument in Hungary by Louis II of Hungary in 1525.)
  • Lábasház (16th–17th century)
  • Gambrinus House (Old city hall)
  • Taródi Castle (István Taródi built the castle by himself. He started the building operations in 1945, when he was 20.)
  • Cartoon Forum (From Tuesday 14 to Friday 17 September 2010)
  • Spring Festival of Sopron (Soproni Tavaszi Fesztivál)
  • Festal Weeks of Sopron (Soproni Ünnepi Hetek)
  • VOLT festival
  • Civitas Pinceszínház (Civitas Basement Theater)
  • Liszt Ferenc Művelődési Központ (Franz Liszt Conference and Cultural Centre )

The current mayor of Sopron is Ciprián Farkas (Fidesz-KDNP).

The local Municipal Assembly, elected at the 2019 local government elections, is made up of 18 members (1 Mayor, 12 Individual constituencies MEPs and 5 Compensation List MEPs) divided into this political parties and alliances:

Party Seats Current Municipal Assembly
Fidesz-KDNP 13 M
Opposition coalition 4
Dialogue 1
  • Goat Church and Holy Trinity Column

  • Saint Michael's Church

  • County Hall of Győr-Moson-Sopron County

  • Fire Tower

  • Town Hall

  • Petőfi Theater

  • Esterházy Palace in the Temple Street

  • Orsolya Square and the Mary Fountain

  • New Street

  • Gothic house in the New Street

  • Előkapu Square

  • House, Kolostor Street 13.

  • Ikva Bridge

  • Statue of István Széchenyi

  • Bilingual (Hungarian/German) road signs in Sopron.

MFC Sopron was a football team based in Sopron. The successor of the club is Soproni VSE.


Sopron is twinned with:

  1. KSH, Sopron, 2017
  2. Eurostat, 2016
  3. KSH - Sopron, 2011
  4. KSH - Sopron, 2011
  5. Dictionnaire universel de M.N. BOUILLET, Paris, 1852 (in French).
  6. Handbook of Austria and Lombardy-Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850-1864, by Edwin MUELLER, 1961.
  7. Beigbeder, Yves (1994), International Monitoring of Plebiscites, Referenda and National Elections, Springer Publishing, p. 81
  8. Surmacz, Jon. "Sopron Hungarian cap city". www.ripso.com.
  9. Beth, Mary. "The inciDENTAL tourist". USA Today.
  10. "Wine Regions Sopron". www.winetime.hu.
  11. 1910 census (English)
  12. 2001 census - Nationalities(in Hungarian)
  13. 2001 census - Religions(in Hungarian)
  14. Historical population of Győr-Moson-Sopron (Hungarian Central Statistical Office)(in Hungarian)
  15. "Városi közgyűlés tagjai 2019-2024 - Sopron (Győr-Moson-Sopron megye)". valasztas.hu. Retrieved2019-11-24.
  16. "Testvérvárosaink". sopron.hu (in Hungarian). Sopron. Retrieved2020-11-10.
Notes
Wikimedia Commons has media related toSopron.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sopron.

Sopron
Sopron Language Watch Edit This article is about the city For the historical county in the Kingdom of Hungary named Sopron Odenburg see Sopron county Sopron Hungarian pronunciation ˈʃopron German Odenburg German pronunciation ˈoːdn ˌbʊʁk listen Slovene Sopron is a city in Hungary on the Austrian border near Lake Neusiedl Lake Ferto SopronSopron Megyei Jogu VarosFlagCoat of armsNickname s Civitas Fidelissima Most Loyal City Citizenry SopronLocation of SopronShow map of Gyor Moson Sopron CountySopronSopron Hungary Show map of HungaryCoordinates 47 41 06 N 16 34 59 E 47 68489 N 16 58305 E 47 68489 16 58305 Coordinates 47 41 06 N 16 34 59 E 47 68489 N 16 58305 E 47 68489 16 58305Country HungaryRegionWestern TransdanubiaCountyGyor Moson SopronDistrictSopronEstablished2nd century AD Scarbantia Re Established9th century AD Sopron City status1277Government MayorDr Farkas Ciprian Fidesz KDNP Deputy MayorDr Istvan Simon Fidesz KDNP Town NotaryDr Szabolcs SarvariArea City169 01 km2 65 26 sq mi Population 2017 City62 246 1 Rank15th Urban98 479 13th 2 Demonym s soproniPopulation by ethnicity 2011 3 Hungarians88 Germans5 7 Romani0 6 Croats0 7 Romanians0 2 Slovaks0 1 Serbs0 1 Bulgarians0 1 Others0 9 Population by religion 2011 4 Roman Catholic47 9 Greek Catholic1 6 Evangelicals5 6 Calvinists3 Jewish1 Non religious5 Time zoneUTC 1 CET Summer DST UTC 2 CEST Postal code9400Area code 36 99MotorwaysM85 Motorway under construction NUTS 3 codeHU221Distance from Budapest214 km 133 mi WestMPAttila Barcza Fidesz Websitewww wbr sopron wbr hu Contents 1 History 1 1 Ancient times 13th century 1 2 16th 19th centuries 1 3 20th century present 2 Wine production 3 Demographics 4 Architecture 5 Places of interest 6 Amusement 7 Politics 8 Gallery 9 Sports 10 Notable residents 11 Twin towns sister cities 12 See also 13 References 14 External linksHistory EditAncient times 13th century Edit Bilingual names in the Kingdom of Hungary after 1867 When the area that is today Western Hungary was a province of the Roman Empire a city called Scarbantia stood here Its forum was located where the main square of Sopron can be found today During the Migration Period Scarbantia was believed to be deserted By the time Hungarians arrived in the area it was in ruins In the 9th 11th centuries Hungarians strengthened the old Roman city walls and built a castle The town was named in Hungarian after a castle steward named Suprun In 1153 it was mentioned as an important town In 1273 King Otakar II of Bohemia occupied the castle Even though he took the children of Sopron s nobility with him as hostages the city opened its gates when the armies of King Ladislaus IV of Hungary arrived The king rewarded Sopron by elevating it to the rank of free royal town 16th 19th centuries Edit During the Ottoman occupation of Hungary the Ottoman Turks ravaged the city in 1529 but did not occupy it Many Hungarians fled from the occupied areas to Sopron and the city s importance grew While the Ottomans occupied most of central Europe the region north of lake Balaton remained in the Kingdom of Hungary 1538 1867 captaincy between Balaton and Drava In 1676 Sopron was destroyed by a fire The modern day city was born in the next few decades when Baroque buildings were built to replace the destroyed medieval ones Sopron became the seat of the comitatus Sopron The town was the seat of the Odenburg comitat near 1850 5 After the compromise of 1867 and until 1918 the city known with the dual bilingual name of Sopron Odenburg 6 was part of the Habsburg ruled Kingdom of Hungary 20th century present Edit Play media Sopron plebiscite French and Italian officers arrive to control the voting districts on 14 December 1921 Firewatch Tower 12th century Following the breakup of the Austro Hungarian Empire ethnic Germans inhabited parts of four western Hungarian counties Pozsony Pressburg in German Bratislava in Czech Slovak Vas Eisenburg Sopron Odenburg and Moson Wieselburg The German inhabited parts of these counties were initially awarded to Austria in the Treaty of Saint Germain en Laye 1919 After local unrest and Italian diplomatic mediation in the Venice Protocol 7 Sopron s status as part of Hungary along with that of the surrounding eight villages was decided by a controversial local plebiscite held on December 14 1921 with 65 voting for Hungary Since then Sopron has been called Civitas Fidelissima The Most Loyal Town Hungarian A Leghusegesebb Varos and the anniversary of the plebiscite is a city holiday However the western parts of Vas Sopron and Moson counties did join Austria and today form the Austrian federal state of Burgenland while Pressburg Pozsony was awarded to Czechoslovakia Sopron suffered greatly during World War II it was bombed several times The Soviet Red Army captured the city on April 1 1945 On August 19 1989 it was the site of the Pan European Picnic a protest on the border between Austria and Hungary which was used by over 600 citizens of East Germany to escape from the GDR to the West As the first successful crossing of the border it helped pave the way for the mass flight of East German citizens that led to the fall of the Berlin Wall on November 9 1989 During the Socialist era the government tried to turn Sopron into an industrial city but much of the medieval town center remains allowing the city to remain an attractive site for tourists Today Sopron s economy immensely benefits from the European Union Having been a city close to nowhere that is to the Iron Curtain Sopron now has re established full trade relations to nearby Austria Furthermore after being suppressed during the Cold War Sopron s German speaking culture and heritage are now recognized again As a consequence many of the city s street and traffic signs are written in both Hungarian and German making it an officially bilingual city due to its proximity to the Austrian frontier Visitors admire the large number of buildings in this city that reflect medieval architecture rare in war torn Hungary Situated close to the Austrian border Sopron receives many visitors from Vienna 70 kilometres 43 miles away and from Bratislava Slovakia 77 km 48 mi away as well as from the United States Great Britain The Netherlands Japan and Scandinavia who visit to take advantage of the excellent low cost dental services offered Sopron boasts so many dental clinics more than 300 that the city is known as the dental capital of the world 8 9 Wine production EditSopron is a significant wine producing region one of the few in Hungary to make both red and white wines Grapes include Kekfrankos for red wine and Traminer Gewurztraminer for white wine In climate it is similar to the neighbouring Burgenland wine region in Austria and several winemakers make wine in both countries Blue Frankish Kekfrankos Blaufrankisch Traminer and Green Veltliner Zold Veltelini Gruner Veltliner are well known Sopron wines Sopron s Blue Frankish and Pinot Noir wines are particularly prized 10 Demographics Edit The Main Square Town Hall and the Firewatch Tower Historical populationYearPop 187023 102 188025 513 10 4 189029 788 16 8 190035 703 19 9 191036 721 2 9 192038 243 4 1 193039 436 3 1 194146 120 16 9 194935 617 22 8 196041 110 15 4 197047 111 14 6 198053 945 14 5 199055 083 2 1 200156 175 2 0 201160 548 7 8 202063 065 4 2 In 1910 Sopron had 33 931 inhabitants 51 German 44 3 Hungarian 4 7 other Religions 64 1 Roman Catholic 27 8 Lutheran 6 6 Jewish 1 2 Calvinist 0 3 other 11 In 2001 the city had 56 125 inhabitants 92 8 Hungarian 3 5 German 3 7 other 12 Religions 69 Roman Catholic 7 Lutheran 3 Calvinist 8 1 Atheist 11 9 no answer 1 other 13 14 Architecture EditThe architecture of the old section of town reflects its long history walls and foundations from the Roman Empire are still common together with a wealth of Medieval Renaissance and Baroque structures often artistically decorated showing centuries of stability and prosperity There is an old synagogue and other remains from the town s former Jewish community which was expelled in the 16th century On Daloshegy there is a 165 metre tall FM TV broadcasting tower nicknamed Raketa Hungarian for rocket Places of interest EditCity centre Firewatch Tower Walls with Roman origin Szechenyi Square and Flag of Loyalty Kecske Church Esterhazy Palace baroque Eggenberg House City Hall eclectic 1895 Storno House renaissance Fabricius House Two Moors House 18th century baroque Chemist s Museum 15th 16th century The house was pronounced the first national monument in Hungary by Louis II of Hungary in 1525 Labashaz 16th 17th century Gambrinus House Old city hall Tarodi Castle Istvan Tarodi built the castle by himself He started the building operations in 1945 when he was 20 Amusement EditCartoon Forum From Tuesday 14 to Friday 17 September 2010 Spring Festival of Sopron Soproni Tavaszi Fesztival Festal Weeks of Sopron Soproni Unnepi Hetek VOLT festival Civitas Pinceszinhaz Civitas Basement Theater Liszt Ferenc Muvelodesi Kozpont Franz Liszt Conference and Cultural Centre Politics EditThe current mayor of Sopron is Ciprian Farkas Fidesz KDNP The local Municipal Assembly elected at the 2019 local government elections is made up of 18 members 1 Mayor 12 Individual constituencies MEPs and 5 Compensation List MEPs divided into this political parties and alliances 15 Party Seats Current Municipal Assembly Fidesz KDNP 13 M Opposition coalition a 4 Dialogue 1 Gallery Edit Goat Church and Holy Trinity Column Saint Michael s Church County Hall of Gyor Moson Sopron County Fire Tower Town Hall Petofi Theater Esterhazy Palace in the Temple Street Orsolya Square and the Mary Fountain New Street Gothic house in the New Street Elokapu Square House Kolostor Street 13 Ikva Bridge Statue of Istvan Szechenyi Bilingual Hungarian German road signs in Sopron Sports EditMFC Sopron was a football team based in Sopron The successor of the club is Soproni VSE Notable residents EditSee also Category People from Burgenland Rogerius of Apulia 1205 1266 medieval chronicler Anna Maria von Eggenberg nee Brandenburg Bayreuth 1609 1680 Margravine of Brandenburg Bayreuth and Princess of Eggenberg Daniel Berzsenyi 1776 1836 poet Ludwig von Benedek 1804 1881 Austrian general Franz Liszt 1811 1886 composer Franz von Suppe 1819 1895 composer Julius Lenck 1845 1901 Hungarian German brewer wholesaler and the founder of the Sopron Brewery Soproni Sorgyar Gyula Fenyi 1845 1927 astronomer Laszlo Ratz 1863 1930 mathematics teacher Kalman Kanya 1869 1945 politician diplomat Foreign Minister Franz Lehar 1870 1948 composer Bela Bartok 1881 1945 composer Charles I of Austria 1887 1922 last king of Hungary Georg Trakl 1887 1914 poet Matyas Rakosi 1892 1971 politician communist leader David Zvi Pinkas 1895 1952 signatory of the Israeli declaration of independence Margaret Mahler 1897 1985 psychoanalyst Sandor Gallus 1907 1996 archaeologist Geza Ankerl hu born 1933 Professor of MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology sociologist Alexander Gallus born 1940 medical researcher Jozsef Szajer born 1961 politician Istvan Hiller born 1964 politician Minister of Culture Mihaly Toth born 1974 football player Vilmos Radasics born 1983 BMX rider Timea Babos born 1993 tennis player Balogh de Manko Buk Hungarian nobility Jozsef Rokop freedom fighter Terezia Mora writerTwin towns sister cities EditSee also List of twin towns and sister cities in Hungary Sopron is twinned with 16 Bad Wimpfen Germany Banska Stiavnica Slovakia Bolzano Italy Eilat Israel Eisenstadt Austria Kazuno Japan Kempten Germany Mediaș Romania Rorschach Switzerland Seinajoki Finland Sparta GreeceSee also EditDaughters of the Divine Redeemer Jewish history of Sopron Lake NeusiedlReferences Edit KSH Sopron 2017 Eurostat 2016 KSH Sopron 2011 KSH Sopron 2011 Dictionnaire universel de M N BOUILLET Paris 1852 in French Handbook of Austria and Lombardy Venetia Cancellations on the Postage Stamp Issues 1850 1864 by Edwin MUELLER 1961 Beigbeder Yves 1994 International Monitoring of Plebiscites Referenda and National Elections Springer Publishing p 81 Surmacz Jon Sopron Hungarian cap city www ripso com Beth Mary The inciDENTAL tourist USA Today Wine Regions Sopron www winetime hu 1910 census English 2001 census Nationalities in Hungarian 2001 census Religions in Hungarian Historical population of Gyor Moson Sopron Hungarian Central Statistical Office in Hungarian Varosi kozgyules tagjai 2019 2024 Sopron Gyor Moson Sopron megye valasztas hu Retrieved 2019 11 24 Testvervarosaink sopron hu in Hungarian Sopron Retrieved 2020 11 10 Notes Coalition of Momentum Jobbik MSZP DK LMP Mindenki Magyarorszaga External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Sopron Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Sopron Official website in Hungarian English and German University of West Hungary University of Sopron in English and Hungarian ImageTownsIndex Virtual Tour of Sopron in Hungarian Aerial photography Sopron Accommodation in Sopron in English Sopron at funiq hu Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sopron amp oldid 1050322629, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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