fbpx
Wikipedia

Sound studies

Sound studies is an interdisciplinary field that to date has focused largely on the emergence of the concept of "sound" in Western modernity, with an emphasis on the development of sound reproduction technologies. The field first emerged in venues like the journal Social Studies of Science by scholars working in science and technology studies and communication studies; it has however greatly expanded and now includes a broad array of scholars working in music, anthropology, sound art, deaf studies, architecture, and many other fields besides. Important studies have focused on the idea of a "soundscape", architectural acoustics, nature sounds, the history of aurality in Western philosophy and nineteenth-century Colombia, Islamic approaches to listening, the voice, studies of deafness, loudness, and related topics. A foundational text is Jonathan Sterne's 2003 book "The Audible Past", though the field has retroactively taken as foundational two texts, Jacques Attali's "Noise" (1985) and R. Murray Schafer's "The Soundscape" (1994).

Initial work in the field was criticized for focusing mainly on white male inventors in Euro-America. Consequently, the field is currently in a period of expansion, with important texts coming out in recent years on sound, listening, and hearing as they relate to race, gender, and colonialism.

Contents

Two significant categories to what we hear and pay attention to are natural and technological sounds. According to R. Murray Schafer (through a survey of quotes in the literature), the proportion of nature sounds heard and noticed among European authors has decreased over the past two centuries from 43% to 20%, but not for North America, where it has stayed around 50%. Additionally, the proportion of technological sounds mentioned in literature has stayed around 35% for Europe, but decreased in North America. While technological increases have not been sonically noticed, the decrease in silence has been noticed, from 19% to 9%.

For the idea of listening, objects can be considered auditorily as compared to visually. The objects that are able to be experienced by sight and by sound can be thought of in a venn diagram, with mute and visible objects in the vision category, with aural and invisible objects in the sound category, and aural and visible objects in the overlapping category. Objects that do not fall into a specific category can be considered beyond the horizons of sound and sight. The common denominator for aural objects is movement.

Three modes of listening have been articulated by sound theorist Michel Chion: causal listening, semantic listening, and reduced listening. Causal listening, the most common, consists of listening in order to gather information about the sound's source, or its cause. Sound in this case is informational and can be used to recognize voices, determine distance, or understand differences between humans and machines. Semantic listening is when one listens in order to understand the encoded meaning of the sound such as in speech or other sounds that are imbued with meaning such as morse code or user interface feedback sounds. Reduced listening focuses on the traits of the sound itself regardless of cause and meaning.

Jean-Luc Nancy's short book, Listening, distinguishes hearing from listening. Hearing is a sonic attentiveness to meaning and understanding while listening is a radical sonic receptivity to what is other and unexpected. "To be listening," he writes, "is always to be on the edge of meaning, or in an edge meaning of extremity."

Sound is heard through space. But this defining of sound and space is further nuanced by their interdependent existence, creation, and dissolution. This idea of the acoustic environment and its social inextricability has become a source of interest within the field of sound studies. Critical to this contemporary discussion of the symbiotic social space and sonic space is R. Murray Schafer's concept of the soundscape. Schafer uses the term soundscape to describe "a total appreciation of the sonic environment," and, through soundscape studies, attempts to more holistically understand "the relationship between man and the sounds of his environment and what happens when those sounds change". In understanding the environment as events being heard, the soundscape is indicative of the social conditions and characteristics that create it. In industrialized cities, the soundscape is industrial noises, in a rainforest the soundscape is the sound of nature, and in an empty space the soundscape is silence. Moreover, the soundscape is argued to foretell future societal trends. The soundscape is not just representative of the environment which surrounds it; it comprises an essential part of the environment's perception and existence. The soundscape is the environment on a wavelength that is auditory rather than tactile or visible, but very much as real.

Schafer's concept of the soundscape has become a hallmark of sound studies and is referenced, built upon, and criticized by writers from a wide breadth of disciplines and perspectives. Common themes explored through the analysis of the soundscape are the conflict between nature and industry, the impact of technology on sound production and consumption, the issue of cultural sound values and the evolution of acoustics, and the power dynamics of silence and noise.

Our perception of a recorded sound's authenticity has been greatly impacted by the commercial influence of capitalism. Even the dead now profit from recordings they've made, making music more timeless than ever before. Bringing the past into the present generates a sense of familiarity which compels the public to engage in new forms of listening.

In a Memorex commercial involving Ella Fitzgerald and Chuck Mangione, Fitzgerald is unable to discern the difference between a live performance and a recording of Mangione playing the trumpet. This presents a scene to viewers which sells cassette tapes as ideal objects of high-fidelity, auditory preservation. What was once an autonomic experience of memory which integrated visual and auditory stimuli (live music) has become a consumable item which popularizes and commodifies sonic memory explicitly.

Part of this shift in the dynamics of recorded sound has to do with a desire for noise reduction. This desire is representative of a mode of recording referred to by scholar James Lastra as "telephonic:" a mode in which sound is regarded as having hierarchically important qualities, with clarity and intelligibility being the most important aspects. This contrasts with phonographic recording, which generates a "point of audition" from which a sense of space can be derived, sacrificing quality for uniqueness and fidelity. This technique is often used in movies to demonstrate how a character hears something (such as muffled voices through a closed door). Through various forms of media, recorded music affects our perceptions and consumptive practices more often than we realize.

  1. Schafer, R. Murray (1994). The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books. p. 145.
  2. Ihde, Don (1974). Listening and Voice: A Phenomenology of Sound. Athens: Ohio University Press. pp. 49–55.
  3. Chion, Michel (1990). Audio Vision: Sound on Screen. New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 48–53.
  4. Nancy, Jean-Luc (2007). Listening. New York: Fordham University Press. p. 7. ISBN 0823227731.
  5. Schafer, R. Murray (1994). The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books. pp. 8, 1.
  6. Stanyek, Jason; Piekut, Benjamin (2010). Deadness: Technologies of the Intermundane. pp. 14–21 & 27–38.
  7. Mowitt, John (1987). The Sound of Music in the Era of its Electronic Reproducibility. New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 184–197.
  8. Lastra, James (2000). Sound Theory. "Fidelity Versus Intelligibility". New York: Columbia University Press. pp. 138–143.
  • R. Murray Schafer (1977), The Tuning of the World, (considered as the first contribution in sound studies.)
  • R. Murray Schafer (1994), The soundscape. In The Soundscape: Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World. Rochester, Vermont: Destiny Books. pp. 3–12
  • Michael Doucet (1983), "Space, Sound, Culture, and Politics: Radio Broadcasting in Southern Ontario". Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadienVolume 27, Issue 2, pages 109–127, June 1983, [1]
  • Jacques Attali (1985), Noise: The Political Economy of Music
  • John Potts (1997), "Is There a Sound Culture?", Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, December 1997, vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 10–14
  • Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco (2002), Analog Days
  • Thompson, Emily (2002), The Soundscape of Modernity: Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America 1900-1930. Cambridge: MIT Press. pp. 1–12
  • Jonathan Sterne (2003), The Audible Past
  • Jonathan Sterne (ed.) (2012), The Sound Studies Reader
  • Georgina Born (1995), Rationalizing Culture
  • Georgina Born (ed.) (2013), Music, Sound and Space: Transformations of Public and Private Experience
  • Peter Szendy (2007), Listen, A History of Our Ears (the original French version, Ecoute, une histoire de nos oreilles, was published in 2001)
  • Michele Hilmes (2005), "Is There a Field Called Sound Culture Studies? And Does It Matter?", American Quarterly, Volume 57, Number 1, March 2005, pp. 249–259, [2]
  • Holger Schulze & Christoph Wulf (2007), Klanganthropologie
  • Holger Schulze (2008), Sound Studies
  • special issue on "The Politics of Recorded Sound" by Social Text 102 (2010), edited by Gustavus Stadler.
  • Veit Erlmann (2010), Reason and Resonance
  • Trevor Pinch & Karin Bijsterveld (2011), Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies
  • Florence Feiereisen & Alexandra Merley Hill (2011), Germany in the Loud Twentieth Century
  • Kate Crawford (2009) "Following You: Disciplines of Listening in Social Media". Continuum: Journal of Media and Cultural Studies Volume 23, Issue 4, pp. 525–535
  • Shuhei Hosokawa (1984), "The Walkman Effect", Popular Music 4:165-80
  • James Lastra (2000), "Fidelity Versus Intelligibility" pp. 138–43. New York: Columbia University Press
  • Kodwo Eshun (1999). Operating System for the Redesign of Sonic Reality. London: Quartet Books.
  • Goodman, Steve (2010) "The Ontology of Vibrational Force" Sonic Warfare: Sound, Affect and the Ecology of Fear Cambridge: MIT Press. pp 81-84
  • Don Ihde (1974). The Auditory Dimension. In Listening and Voice: A Phenomenology of Sound. Athens: Ohio University Press. Pp. 49-55
  • John Picker (2003). Victorian Soundscapes. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 41–52.
  • Michael Bull (2008) Sound Moves : iPod Culture and Urban Experience. London: Routledge. pp 39–49.

Sound studies
Sound studies Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Sound culture Sound studies is an interdisciplinary field that to date has focused largely on the emergence of the concept of sound in Western modernity with an emphasis on the development of sound reproduction technologies The field first emerged in venues like the journal Social Studies of Science by scholars working in science and technology studies and communication studies it has however greatly expanded and now includes a broad array of scholars working in music anthropology sound art deaf studies architecture and many other fields besides Important studies have focused on the idea of a soundscape architectural acoustics nature sounds the history of aurality in Western philosophy and nineteenth century Colombia Islamic approaches to listening the voice studies of deafness loudness and related topics A foundational text is Jonathan Sterne s 2003 book The Audible Past though the field has retroactively taken as foundational two texts Jacques Attali s Noise 1985 and R Murray Schafer s The Soundscape 1994 Initial work in the field was criticized for focusing mainly on white male inventors in Euro America Consequently the field is currently in a period of expansion with important texts coming out in recent years on sound listening and hearing as they relate to race gender and colonialism Contents 1 Hearing and listening 2 Spaces sites and scapes 3 Transduce and record 4 See also 5 References 6 Further reading 7 External linksHearing and listening EditTwo significant categories to what we hear and pay attention to are natural and technological sounds According to R Murray Schafer through a survey of quotes in the literature the proportion of nature sounds heard and noticed among European authors has decreased over the past two centuries from 43 to 20 but not for North America where it has stayed around 50 Additionally the proportion of technological sounds mentioned in literature has stayed around 35 for Europe but decreased in North America While technological increases have not been sonically noticed the decrease in silence has been noticed from 19 to 9 1 For the idea of listening objects can be considered auditorily as compared to visually The objects that are able to be experienced by sight and by sound can be thought of in a venn diagram with mute and visible objects in the vision category with aural and invisible objects in the sound category and aural and visible objects in the overlapping category Objects that do not fall into a specific category can be considered beyond the horizons of sound and sight The common denominator for aural objects is movement 2 Three modes of listening have been articulated by sound theorist Michel Chion causal listening semantic listening and reduced listening Causal listening the most common consists of listening in order to gather information about the sound s source or its cause Sound in this case is informational and can be used to recognize voices determine distance or understand differences between humans and machines Semantic listening is when one listens in order to understand the encoded meaning of the sound such as in speech or other sounds that are imbued with meaning such as morse code or user interface feedback sounds Reduced listening focuses on the traits of the sound itself regardless of cause and meaning 3 Jean Luc Nancy s short book Listening distinguishes hearing from listening Hearing is a sonic attentiveness to meaning and understanding while listening is a radical sonic receptivity to what is other and unexpected To be listening he writes is always to be on the edge of meaning or in an edge meaning of extremity 4 Spaces sites and scapes EditSound is heard through space But this defining of sound and space is further nuanced by their interdependent existence creation and dissolution This idea of the acoustic environment and its social inextricability has become a source of interest within the field of sound studies Critical to this contemporary discussion of the symbiotic social space and sonic space is R Murray Schafer s concept of the soundscape Schafer uses the term soundscape to describe a total appreciation of the sonic environment and through soundscape studies attempts to more holistically understand the relationship between man and the sounds of his environment and what happens when those sounds change 5 In understanding the environment as events being heard the soundscape is indicative of the social conditions and characteristics that create it In industrialized cities the soundscape is industrial noises in a rainforest the soundscape is the sound of nature and in an empty space the soundscape is silence Moreover the soundscape is argued to foretell future societal trends The soundscape is not just representative of the environment which surrounds it it comprises an essential part of the environment s perception and existence The soundscape is the environment on a wavelength that is auditory rather than tactile or visible but very much as real Schafer s concept of the soundscape has become a hallmark of sound studies and is referenced built upon and criticized by writers from a wide breadth of disciplines and perspectives Common themes explored through the analysis of the soundscape are the conflict between nature and industry the impact of technology on sound production and consumption the issue of cultural sound values and the evolution of acoustics and the power dynamics of silence and noise Transduce and record EditOur perception of a recorded sound s authenticity has been greatly impacted by the commercial influence of capitalism Even the dead now profit from recordings they ve made making music more timeless than ever before 6 Bringing the past into the present generates a sense of familiarity which compels the public to engage in new forms of listening In a Memorex commercial involving Ella Fitzgerald and Chuck Mangione Fitzgerald is unable to discern the difference between a live performance and a recording of Mangione playing the trumpet This presents a scene to viewers which sells cassette tapes as ideal objects of high fidelity auditory preservation 7 What was once an autonomic experience of memory which integrated visual and auditory stimuli live music has become a consumable item which popularizes and commodifies sonic memory explicitly Part of this shift in the dynamics of recorded sound has to do with a desire for noise reduction This desire is representative of a mode of recording referred to by scholar James Lastra as telephonic a mode in which sound is regarded as having hierarchically important qualities with clarity and intelligibility being the most important aspects This contrasts with phonographic recording which generates a point of audition from which a sense of space can be derived sacrificing quality for uniqueness and fidelity 8 This technique is often used in movies to demonstrate how a character hears something such as muffled voices through a closed door Through various forms of media recorded music affects our perceptions and consumptive practices more often than we realize See also EditAudiophileReferences Edit Schafer R Murray 1994 The Soundscape Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World Rochester Vermont Destiny Books p 145 Ihde Don 1974 Listening and Voice A Phenomenology of Sound Athens Ohio University Press pp 49 55 Chion Michel 1990 Audio Vision Sound on Screen New York Columbia University Press pp 48 53 Nancy Jean Luc 2007 Listening New York Fordham University Press p 7 ISBN 0823227731 Schafer R Murray 1994 The Soundscape Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World Rochester Vermont Destiny Books pp 8 1 Stanyek Jason Piekut Benjamin 2010 Deadness Technologies of the Intermundane pp 14 21 amp 27 38 Mowitt John 1987 The Sound of Music in the Era of its Electronic Reproducibility New York Cambridge University Press pp 184 197 Lastra James 2000 Sound Theory Fidelity Versus Intelligibility New York Columbia University Press pp 138 143 Further reading EditR Murray Schafer 1977 The Tuning of the World considered as the first contribution in sound studies R Murray Schafer 1994 The soundscape In The Soundscape Our Sonic Environment and the Tuning of the World Rochester Vermont Destiny Books pp 3 12 Michael Doucet 1983 Space Sound Culture and Politics Radio Broadcasting in Southern Ontario Canadian Geographer Le Geographe canadienVolume 27 Issue 2 pages 109 127 June 1983 1 Jacques Attali 1985 Noise The Political Economy of Music John Potts 1997 Is There a Sound Culture Convergence The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies December 1997 vol 3 no 4 pp 10 14 Trevor Pinch and Frank Trocco 2002 Analog Days Thompson Emily 2002 The Soundscape of Modernity Architectural Acoustics and the Culture of Listening in America 1900 1930 Cambridge MIT Press pp 1 12 Jonathan Sterne 2003 The Audible Past Jonathan Sterne ed 2012 The Sound Studies Reader Georgina Born 1995 Rationalizing Culture Georgina Born ed 2013 Music Sound and Space Transformations of Public and Private Experience Peter Szendy 2007 Listen A History of Our Ears the original French version Ecoute une histoire de nos oreilles was published in 2001 Michele Hilmes 2005 Is There a Field Called Sound Culture Studies And Does It Matter American Quarterly Volume 57 Number 1 March 2005 pp 249 259 2 Holger Schulze amp Christoph Wulf 2007 Klanganthropologie Holger Schulze 2008 Sound Studies special issue on The Politics of Recorded Sound by Social Text 102 2010 edited by Gustavus Stadler Veit Erlmann 2010 Reason and Resonance Trevor Pinch amp Karin Bijsterveld 2011 Oxford Handbook of Sound Studies Florence Feiereisen amp Alexandra Merley Hill 2011 Germany in the Loud Twentieth Century Kate Crawford 2009 Following You Disciplines of Listening in Social Media Continuum Journal of Media and Cultural Studies Volume 23 Issue 4 pp 525 535 Shuhei Hosokawa 1984 The Walkman Effect Popular Music 4 165 80 James Lastra 2000 Fidelity Versus Intelligibility pp 138 43 New York Columbia University Press Kodwo Eshun 1999 Operating System for the Redesign of Sonic Reality London Quartet Books Goodman Steve 2010 The Ontology of Vibrational Force Sonic Warfare Sound Affect and the Ecology of Fear Cambridge MIT Press pp 81 84 Don Ihde 1974 The Auditory Dimension In Listening and Voice A Phenomenology of Sound Athens Ohio University Press Pp 49 55 John Picker 2003 Victorian Soundscapes New York Oxford University Press pp 41 52 Michael Bull 2008 Sound Moves iPod Culture and Urban Experience London Routledge pp 39 49 External links EditEuropean Sound Studies Association A syllabus from a graduate seminar on Sound Studies taught by Jonathan Sterne in the fall of 2006 Weird Vibrations a sound studies blog Sounding Out a sound studies blog Anthropology of Sound a sound studies blog Master of Arts Sound Studies and Sonic Arts study Sound Studies at the University of Arts Berlin Sound Studies Lab a research project on auditory culture at the Humboldt University of Berlin Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Sound studies amp oldid 1042585092, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.