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Oxydendrum

Oxydendrum arboreum, the sourwood or sorrel tree, is the sole species in the genus Oxydendrum, in the family Ericaceae. It is native to eastern North America, from southern Pennsylvania south to northwest Florida and west to southern Illinois; it is most common in the lower chain of the Appalachian Mountains. The tree is frequently seen as a component of oak-heath forests.

Sourwood
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Subfamily: Vaccinioideae
Tribe: Oxydendreae
Cox
Genus: Oxydendrum
DC.
Species:
O. arboreum
Binomial name
Oxydendrum arboreum
Foliage

Contents

Sourwood is a small tree or large shrub, growing to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall with a trunk up to 50 cm (20 in) diameter. Occasionally on extremely productive sites, this species can reach heights in excess of 30 meters and 60 cm diameter. The leaves are alternately arranged, deciduous, 8–20 cm (3.1–7.9 in) long and 4–9 cm (1.6–3.5 in) broad, with a finely serrated margin; they are dark green in summer, but turn vivid red in fall. The flowers are white, bell-shaped, 6–9 mm ( 1/4 to 1/3 inch) long, produced on 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) long panicles. The fruit is a small woody capsule. The roots are shallow, and the tree grows best when there is little root competition; it also requires acidic soils for successful growth. The leaves can be chewed (but should not be swallowed) to help alleviate a dry-feeling mouth.

Raceme of flowers

The bark is gray with a reddish tinge, deeply furrowed and scaly. Branchlets at first are light yellow green, but later turn reddish brown. The wood is reddish brown, with paler sapwood; it is heavy, hard, and close-grained, and will take a high polish. Its specific gravity is 0.7458, with a density of 46.48 lb/cu ft.

The winter buds are axillary, minute, dark red, and partly immersed in the bark. Inner scales enlarge when spring growth begins.

Leaves are alternate, four to seven inches long, 1.5 to 2.5 inches wide, oblong to oblanceolate, wedge-shaped at the base, serrate, and acute or acuminate. Leaf veins are feather-veined, the midrib is conspicuous. They emerge from the bud revolute, bronze green and shining, and smooth; when full grown, they are dark green, shining above, and pale and glaucous below. In autumn, they turn bright scarlet. Petioles are long and slender, with stipules wanting. They are heavily laden with acid.

In June and July, cream-white flowers are borne in terminal panicles of secund racemes seven to eight inches long; rachis and short pedicels are downy. The calyx is five-parted and persistent; lobes are valvate in bud. The corolla is ovoid-cylindric, narrowed at the throat, cream-white, and five-toothed. The 10 stamens are inserted on the corolla; filaments are wider than the anthers; anthers are two-celled. The pistil is ovary superior, ovoid, and five-celled; the style is columnar; the stigma is simple; the disk is ten-toothed, and ovules are many.

The fruit is a capsule, downy, five-valved, five-angled, and tipped by the persistent style; the pedicels are curving.

The sourwood is perfectly hardy in the north and a worthy ornamental tree in lawns and parks. Its late bloom makes it desirable, and its autumnal coloring is particularly beautiful and brilliant. The leaves are heavily charged with acid, and to some extent have the poise of those of the peach. The leaves are also a laxative.

It is renowned for nectar, and for the honey which is produced from it. Juice from its blooms is used to make sourwood jelly. The shoots were used by the Cherokee and the Catawba to make arrowshafts.

Sourwood Mountain is a popular old-time tune in the Appalachian region of the United States.

  • Trunk and leaves

  • Sourwood in autumn foliage on top of Pilot Mtn., NC. (10-30-2008)

  1. Stritch, L. (2018). "Oxydendrum arboreum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T62002889A62003254. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T62002889A62003254.en. Retrieved4 May 2020.
  2. Sunset Western Garden Book. 1995. pp. 606–607.
  3. "The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups (Version 2.3)". Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation. 2010. Archived from the original on 2009-01-15.
  4. Schafale, M. P.; A. S., Weakley (1990). Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina: third approximation. North Carolina Natural Heritage Program, North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation.
  5. Keeler, Harriet L. (1900). Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 192–194.
  6. "Sourwood | Augusta, GA - Official Website". www.augustaga.gov. Retrieved2019-02-01.
  7. Honey Bee Biology and Beekeeping, Dewey M. Caron and Lawrence John Conner, 2013. page 151
  8. National Audubon Society Field Guide to Trees, Eastern Region, North America, 2003, page 626
Wikimedia Commons has media related toOxydendrum arboreum.

Oxydendrum
Oxydendrum Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Sourwood Oxydendrum arboreum ˌ ɒ k s ɪ ˈ d ɛ n d r e m ɑːr ˈ b ɔːr i e m 2 the sourwood or sorrel tree is the sole species in the genus Oxydendrum in the family Ericaceae It is native to eastern North America from southern Pennsylvania south to northwest Florida and west to southern Illinois it is most common in the lower chain of the Appalachian Mountains The tree is frequently seen as a component of oak heath forests 3 4 SourwoodConservation statusLeast Concern IUCN 3 1 1 Scientific classificationKingdom PlantaeClade TracheophytesClade AngiospermsClade EudicotsClade AsteridsOrder EricalesFamily EricaceaeSubfamily VaccinioideaeTribe Oxydendreae CoxGenus Oxydendrum DC Species O arboreumBinomial nameOxydendrum arboreum L DC Foliage Contents 1 Growth 2 Description 3 Cultivation and uses 4 In Appalachian culture 5 Gallery 6 References 7 External linksGrowth EditSourwood is a small tree or large shrub growing to 10 20 m 33 66 ft tall with a trunk up to 50 cm 20 in diameter Occasionally on extremely productive sites this species can reach heights in excess of 30 meters and 60 cm diameter The leaves are alternately arranged deciduous 8 20 cm 3 1 7 9 in long and 4 9 cm 1 6 3 5 in broad with a finely serrated margin they are dark green in summer but turn vivid red in fall The flowers are white bell shaped 6 9 mm 1 4 to 1 3 inch long produced on 15 25 cm 5 9 9 8 in long panicles The fruit is a small woody capsule The roots are shallow and the tree grows best when there is little root competition it also requires acidic soils for successful growth The leaves can be chewed but should not be swallowed to help alleviate a dry feeling mouth Description Edit Raceme of flowers The bark is gray with a reddish tinge deeply furrowed and scaly Branchlets at first are light yellow green but later turn reddish brown The wood is reddish brown with paler sapwood it is heavy hard and close grained and will take a high polish Its specific gravity is 0 7458 with a density of 46 48 lb cu ft The winter buds are axillary minute dark red and partly immersed in the bark Inner scales enlarge when spring growth begins Leaves are alternate four to seven inches long 1 5 to 2 5 inches wide oblong to oblanceolate wedge shaped at the base serrate and acute or acuminate Leaf veins are feather veined the midrib is conspicuous They emerge from the bud revolute bronze green and shining and smooth when full grown they are dark green shining above and pale and glaucous below In autumn they turn bright scarlet Petioles are long and slender with stipules wanting They are heavily laden with acid In June and July cream white flowers are borne in terminal panicles of secund racemes seven to eight inches long rachis and short pedicels are downy The calyx is five parted and persistent lobes are valvate in bud The corolla is ovoid cylindric narrowed at the throat cream white and five toothed The 10 stamens are inserted on the corolla filaments are wider than the anthers anthers are two celled The pistil is ovary superior ovoid and five celled the style is columnar the stigma is simple the disk is ten toothed and ovules are many The fruit is a capsule downy five valved five angled and tipped by the persistent style the pedicels are curving 5 Cultivation and uses EditThe sourwood is perfectly hardy in the north and a worthy ornamental tree in lawns and parks Its late bloom makes it desirable and its autumnal coloring is particularly beautiful and brilliant The leaves are heavily charged with acid and to some extent have the poise of those of the peach 5 The leaves are also a laxative 6 It is renowned for nectar and for the honey which is produced from it 7 8 Juice from its blooms is used to make sourwood jelly The shoots were used by the Cherokee and the Catawba to make arrowshafts In Appalachian culture EditSourwood Mountain is a popular old time tune in the Appalachian region of the United States Gallery Edit Trunk and leaves Sourwood in autumn foliage on top of Pilot Mtn NC 10 30 2008 References Edit Stritch L 2018 Oxydendrum arboreum IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018 e T62002889A62003254 doi 10 2305 IUCN UK 2018 1 RLTS T62002889A62003254 en Retrieved 4 May 2020 Sunset Western Garden Book 1995 pp 606 607 The Natural Communities of Virginia Classification of Ecological Community Groups Version 2 3 Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation 2010 Archived from the original on 2009 01 15 Schafale M P A S Weakley 1990 Classification of the natural communities of North Carolina third approximation North Carolina Natural Heritage Program North Carolina Division of Parks and Recreation a b Keeler Harriet L 1900 Our Native Trees and How to Identify Them New York Charles Scribner s Sons pp 192 194 Sourwood Augusta GA Official Website www augustaga gov Retrieved 2019 02 01 Honey Bee Biology and Beekeeping Dewey M Caron and Lawrence John Conner 2013 page 151 National Audubon Society Field Guide to Trees Eastern Region North America 2003 page 626External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Oxydendrum arboreum Oxydendrum arboreum images at bioimages vanderbilt edu Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Oxydendrum amp oldid 1027426762, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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