fbpx
Wikipedia

South African Airways

South African Airways is the flag carrier airline of South Africa.

South African Airways
IATA ICAO Callsign
SA SAA SPRINGBOK
Founded1 February 1934; 87 years ago (1934-02-01)
HubsO. R. Tambo International Airport
Focus citiesCape Town
Frequent-flyer programVoyager
AllianceStar Alliance
Subsidiaries
Fleet size8
Destinations7
Parent companyDepartment of Public Enterprises
HeadquartersJohannesburg
Key peopleThomas Kgokolo (Interim CEO)
Revenue R26.023 billion (2018/19 FY)
Operating income R–3.713 billion (2018/19 FY)
Profit R–5.090 billion (2018/19 FY)
Total assets R15.916 billion (2016/17 FY)
EmployeesGroup: 10,071 (2016/17 FY)
SAA: 5,752 (2016/17 FY)
Websitewww.flysaa.com

Founded in 1934, the airline is headquartered in Airways Park at O. R. Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg and operated a hub-and-spoke network, linking over 40 local and international destinations across Africa, Asia, Europe, North America, South America, and Oceania. The carrier joined Star Alliance in April 2006 (2006-04), making it the first African carrier to sign with one of the three major airline alliances.

The airline entered voluntary business rescue in December 2019 as a result of many years of financial losses, and suspended all operations the following year. In June 2021, the government announced that in an attempt to revive the airline, it had entered into a partnership with the Takatso Consortium, which would hold a 51% controlling stake. The South African Civil Aviation Authority confirmed on 4 August 2021 that SAA's air operator's certificate had been reissued with an approved fleet of eight aircraft.

The airline restarted operations on 23 September 2021 despite not having concluded the investment agreement with the proposed private partners. Nonetheless, SAA was recognised as the second best airline in Africa by Skytrax in 2021, despite not having flown a single scheduled flight for 18 months.

Contents

South African Airways was founded in 1934 after the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. The airline was initially overseen and controlled by South African Railways and Harbours Administration. Anti-apartheid sanctions by African countries deprived the airline of stopover airports during apartheid, forcing it to bypass the continent with long-range aircraft. During this time, it was also known by its Afrikaans name, Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens (SAL, lit.'"South African Air Service"'), which has since been dropped by the airline. In 1997 SAA changed its name, image and aircraft livery and introduced online ticketing services. In 2006, SAA was split from Transnet, its parent company, to operate as an independent airline. It remains one of the largest of South Africa's state-owned enterprises. SAA owns Mango, a low-cost domestic airline, and has established links with Airlink and South African Express. It is a member of the Star Alliance.

Formation and early years

SAA started operations with a number of acquired Union Airways aircraft, including the Junkers F.13, similar to the one pictured
The Douglas DC-4 Skymaster was introduced in May 1946, on which SAA's first in-flight films were shown. This aircraft, registration ZS-AUB, is in Berlin (May 2000).
SAA Lockheed Constellation arriving at Heathrow in 1953
An SAA Boeing 707 sits alongside a BOAC Vickers VC10 at London Heathrow Airport. (1977)

South African Airways was formed on 1 February 1934 following the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government. Forty staff members, along with one de Havilland DH.60 Gypsy Moth, one de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth, three Junkers F.13s and a leased Junkers F13 and Junkers A50 were among the acquired aircraft. Upon acquisition, the government changed the airline's name to South African Airways. It then came under control of the South African Railways and Harbours Administration (now Transnet). Charter operations started that year. On 1 February the following year, the carrier acquired Suidwes Lugdiens / South West Airways (now Air Namibia), which had since 1932 been providing a weekly air-mail service between Windhoek and Kimberley. During this time, South African ordered three Junkers Ju 52/3m aircraft, which were delivered in October 1934 and entered service 10 days later. These aircraft were configured to carry 14 passengers, along with four crew. They enabled thrice-weekly Durban–Johannesburg services, with weekly services on the DurbanEast LondonPort Elizabeth–George/Mossel BayCape Town route. On 1 July 1935, SAA moved its operations to Rand Airport as it became increasingly obvious that Johannesburg would become the country's aviation hub, which coincided with the launching of Rand–Durban–East London–Port Elizabeth–Cape Town services. From July the following year a weekly Rand–Kimberley–Beaufort West–Cape Town service commenced; in April 1936, all Rand–Cape Town services were taken over from Imperial Airways. A fourth Ju 52/3m soon joined the fleet.

Orders for a further ten Ju 52/3m aircraft, along with eighteen Junkers Ju 86s and seven Airspeed Envoys (four for the airline and three for the South African Air Force) were placed. This raised the number of Ju 52s to fourteen, although three older models were sold when deliveries of the newer Ju 52s began. The airline experienced a rapid expansion during this time, but also suffered its first accident; one of the newly delivered Ju 52s crashed after takeoff from Rand Airport in July 1937, with one reported fatality. From 1 February 1934 until the start of World War II, SAA carried 118,822 passengers, 3,278 tonnes of airmail and 248 tonnes of cargo, which were served by 418 employees. On 24 May 1940, all operations were suspended.

Following the war, frequencies were increased and more routes were opened, which necessitated the conversion of three South African Air Force Envoys to passenger layout. These aircraft would prove to be unsuitable for passenger and cargo services and were returned to the SAAF after the arrival of the Junkers Ju 86s.[clarification needed] The main aircraft of SAA in the 1930s was the Junkers Ju 52. Other types used in the 1930s included eighteen Junkers Ju 86s, which served from 1937 onwards.

The slow growth continued during the 1940s, though the airline was effectively-closed for the duration of World War II. In 1944, SAA began operating 28 Lockheed Lodestars to restart domestic services and by 1948 SAA operating nineteen examples. These were withdrawn in 1955.

On 10 November 1945, SAA achieved a longtime company goal by operating a route to Europe when an Avro York landed in Bournemouth, England, after the long flight from Palmietfontein Airport near Johannesburg. These were replaced by the Douglas DC-4 from 1946-onwards, which in turn was replaced by the Lockheed Constellation on international routes in 1950. Also of note in the postwar era was the DC-3 Dakota, of which eight served with SAA, the last example being withdrawn as late as 1970.

Growth: 1946–1952

On 10 November 1945, the airline introduced its first intercontinental service, the 3-day Springbok Service, operated by the Avro York, which was routed Palmietfontein–Nairobi–Khartoum–Cairo–Castel Benito–Hurn Bournemouth. A weekly service was initially flown, but this later increased to 6 times weekly due to high passenger demand. The Douglas DC-4 Skymaster debuted with SAA in May 1946 between Johannesburg and Cape Town, which coincided with the introduction of the Douglas DC-3 on the Johannesburg–Durban route.

From 1946, passengers and cargo carried increased, along with the size of SAA's fleet and staff. As the Skymasters arrived, out went the Avro Yorks, back to BOAC. Air hostesses were introduced in September 1946: at first on domestic routes, then on Springbok Services. The two de Havilland Doves were introduced at the end of the year; these aircraft were utilised on internal services for a short time and were sold within a few years. The 28-seat Vickers Viking served the airline briefly, before being sold to British European Airways.[citation needed]

Palmietfontein Airport replaced Rand Airport as SAA's hub in 1948. In June 1948, SAA began to show films onboard its Skymaster aircraft. SAA received four Lockheed Constellations, its first pressurised aircraft, in August 1950. They provided scheduled service to London's Heathrow airport. Initially, the route from Johannesburg was flown via Nairobi, Khartoum and Rome. The Constellation's higher speed and longer range enabled fewer stops and greatly reduced the flying time to London.

The Jet Age: 1953–1973

The jet age arrived in South Africa on 3 May 1952 when a BOAC de Havilland Comet arrived in Palmietfontein after a 24-hour journey from England with five refuelling-stops en route. South African chartered two Comets from the British airline on 4 October 1953, when Comet G-ANAV left London for Johannesburg. On the same day, Tourist Class was introduced on the 58-seat Lockheed Constellation used on the Springbok Service. The two chartered aircraft sported both BOAC and SAA titles and logos, but were operated by South African crews.

In 1956 Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens introduced the Douglas DC-7B, capable of long-range operations and then probably the fastest piston-engine airliner in the world. SAA exploited the aircraft's performance by introducing it between Johannesburg and London with only one fuel-stop at Khartoum. This was known as the East Coast express, taking 21 hours to complete, versus BOAC's inaugural Comet flight between the two cities of 24 hours. This later became the West Coast express when the technical stop at Khartoum was transferred to Kano, Nigeria, resulting in a shortened flying of 18 hours. The fortnightly Wallaby service, routed Johannesburg–Mauritius–Cocos IslandsPerth, Australia, started in November 1957.

After a host of accidents involving SAA's and other airlines' Comets, the airline ordered three Boeing 707-320 Intercontinentals on 21 February 1958, with the first delivered on 1 July 1960. Three months after arrival, on 1 October 1960, the Boeing 707 was deployed on the airline's flagship Springbok Service, trimming the flying time to London to 13 hours. Other changes brought about by the 707 were a livery change, to an orange tail with blue and white markings, as well as improved comfort, range and speed. A 707 replaced the DC-7B on the Wallaby route in 1967; Cocos Islands was dropped, while Sydney became the terminus. Flights to New York, via Rio de Janeiro, started on 23 February 1969 using a 707. The first 707 of SAA landed in Europe in October 1961 with a nine-hour flight to Athens.[citation needed]

The jets arrived during a period when most African countries, except SA's neighbours, denied South African airlines the use of their airspace, necessitating long detours. In 1967 the Skymasters, Constellations and DC-7Bs were being retired, replaced by the Boeing 727 trijet the following year to complement the Boeing 707. The choice of 727 was based on the geography of the destinations to which it would fly; for example Johannesburg is 1,694 metres (5,558 ft) high and hot, where the 727's wings and other technical capabilities enable it to operate out of such airports.

Revenue Passenger-Kilometers, scheduled flights only (millions)
Year Traffic
1950 197
1955 331
1960 489
1965 1,144
1969 2,168
1971 3,070
1975 5,942
1980 8,843
1985 8,683
2000 19,321
Source: ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950–55, IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960–2000

On 13 March 1968, SAA ordered five Boeing 747-200Bs. The first, Lebombo (registered as ZS-SAN), was delivered on 22 October 1971 after a 3-stop flight from Seattle. It was placed into service in December and proved very popular. SAA eventually operated 23 brand-new "Jumbo Jets", including the −200M (first delivered in 1980), −300 (1983), −400, and the long-range Boeing 747SP, first delivered on March 18–19, 1976 with a nonstop delivery flight of ZS-SPA from Everett, Washington, USA to Cape Town. The 747SP, especially, was acquired to overcome the refusal of many countries to allow SAA to use their airspace by exploiting its long-range capabilities, as well as to serve lower-density routes which were unsuited to the 747-200. Six were delivered starting 19 March 1976. As above, to demonstrate the 747SP's performance, the first one was delivered from Seattle to Cape Town non-stop, an airliner distance record that stood until 1989. The first 747SP arrived in South Africa on 19 March 1976. As the 747 entered service, its smaller siblings, the 707s, were converted to combi (passenger/cargo) configurations and high-density seating. All of SAA's Vickers Viscounts were sold by March 1972 after being replaced by Boeing 737s.

Expansion: 1974–1983

SAA opened a route to Asia, with Boeing 707 flights to Hong Kong via an intermediate stop at the Seychelles Islands in June 1974. In 1980, SAA began nonstop flights to Taipei using a Boeing 747SP; Mauritius had earlier replaced the Seychelles for the Hong Kong service. South Africa became one of the few countries in the world to recognize the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.

Because some African countries denied SAA the use their airspace, SAA bypassed the 'bulge' of Africa, usually via Ilha do Sal - a detour of almost 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi). Another bypass was via Tel Aviv, which doubled the distance and flying time involved. European airlines were allowed to fly over Africa when flying to South Africa, usually via Nairobi and later nonstop.

On 26 December 1980, the last South African Airways Boeing 707 service was operated between Paris and Johannesburg. Its touchdown ended the 20-year career of the 707. The quadjet was replaced by the world's first wide-body twinjet, the Airbus A300, which had entered revenue service in 1976. The 727s were eliminated by 1983, replaced by the more economical Boeing 737. When countries withdrew landing rights for SAA, the airline leased its aircraft and crews to Canada, Mauritius, Brazil, Morocco and Luxembourg.

Effect of apartheid: 1985–1990

Due to international opposition to apartheid during the 1980s, SAA's offices were attacked. In Harare, Zimbabwe, its offices were badly-damaged after protesters went on a rampage.

The US Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act of 1986 banned all flights by South African–owned carriers, including SAA. In 1987, SAA's services to Perth and Sydney in Australia were ended, in light of the Australian Government's opposition to apartheid. The South African Airways Museum Society opened its doors to the public at Jan Smuts International Airport (which was renamed the OR Tambo International Airport in 2006). The organisation was formed by South African Airways employees and outside parties with the mission of preserving South African aviation history, especially SAA itself. Based at Transvaal Aviation Club, Rand Airport, Germiston, it was founded after the restoration of the CASA 352L. Since then, many aircraft have joined SAA Museum Society's collection relating to South African aviation.

A Boeing 747SP donated to South African Airways Museum Society is stored at Rand Airport (2010)
A Boeing 747-400 "ZS-SAW" painted in the pre–1997 orange, blue and white livery during the apartheid era just after 1992, featuring the Afrikaans name of the airline SAL (Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens).

With the demise of apartheid in 1990, SAA started services to former and new destinations in Africa and Asia. On 1 June 1990, South African companies signed a domestic air travel deregulation act. Flights to New York City's JFK International Airport resumed in November 1991 and SAA's planes were able to fly for the first time over Egypt and Sudan, on 8 September. The airline launched flights to Milan on 1 June during the year, and services to Athens were re-introduced. Also, an interline with Aeroflot was established.

The first of SAA's eight Boeing 747-400s, named Durban, arrived in South Africa on 19 January 1991. The airplane was unusual in that two different turbofan engines were operated. Six Rolls-Royce RB211-524H-powered examples were ordered; the other two, part of an unfulfilled Philippine Airlines order, had General Electric CF6-80C2B5Fs. Winglets, structural changes and fuel-efficient engines enabled these aircraft to fly non-stop from South Africa to the East coast of the United States. The arrival of Boeing's newest jumbo jet perhaps overshadowed the acquisition by SAA of the world's first commercial fly-by-wire airliner, the Airbus A320, to assist and enhance services within the country and on regional services. Boeing 767s arrived in August, 1993 and flew on African, Southern European and Middle Eastern routes. They were retired within ten years.

During 1992, SAA began flights to Miami with a Cape Town to Miami International Airport nonstop Boeing 747-400 route, and re-entered Australia, flying nonstop to Perth with a same-day return "shuttle" service to Sydney. This year also saw codesharing agreements with American Airlines and Air Tanzania. There were nonstop flights to Bangkok and Singapore; the latter was discontinued by 1996. The airline Alliance, a partnership between SAA, Uganda Airlines and Air Tanzania, also began. SAA greeted its passengers in four different languages during domestic flights: English, Zulu, Afrikaans and Sotho, while passengers on international flights were also greeted in the destination's language.

On 24 April 1994, South African Express (SA Express), a feeder airline service of South African, began operating after a 3-year preparation process begun in 1991, when the regional airline was granted its operating license. SAA initially held a 20% stake in SA Express (Alliance Airline Holdings held 51%, SA Enterprises, 24.9% and Abyss Investments, 4.1%). SA Express took over some of South African's low-density domestic routes.

In 1995, Lufthansa started a codesharing agreement with SAA, and SAA commissioned Diefenbach Elkins and Herdbuoys to lead its change of image. SAA's Voyager and American Airlines' AAdvantage frequent flier clubs joined.

As of April 1996, South African employed 11,100 people, of whom 3,100 were engineers. It owned and operated 48 aircraft, and served 34 destinations from its hubs at Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg.

Rebranding: 1997–2005

Boeing 747-300 Ndizani at Perth Airport, 2003

In 1997, SAA replaced the Springbok emblem and the old national colours of orange, white and blue with a new livery based upon the new national flag, with a sun motif. The airline's name on its aircraft retained the Afrikaans name Suid-Afrikaanse Lugdiens. As a symbol of the new rainbow nation following the release of Nelson Mandela, one of SAA's 747-300s, named Ndizani (registration ZS-SAJ), was painted in bright colours. This special-liveried 747-300 transported South African athletes to the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta. The airline started online ticket sales and formed an alliance with SA Airlink and SA Express.

In 1998, services to Copenhagen Airport were stopped. A new airline president and CEO, Coleman Andrews, was appointed. The arrival of the American saw a comprehensive and controversial overhaul of the airline, changing the management of SAA. Mr Andrews was hired by Transnet, the state-owned parent company, to remedy the problem of dwindling passengers, which Transnet's market research had revealed was caused by "failure to fly on time, unfriendly and minimally-trained staff, poor food and SAA fares being 12–25% above its competitors". He was credited with rescuing World Airways from the brink of bankruptcy earlier in the decade. During his first 18 months as CEO, South African Airways' market value increased fivefold.

In June 1999, Transnet entered into a sale agreement with Swissair in which Transnet sold 20% of its shareholding in SAA to Swissair for R1,4 billion and also included an option to sell and transfer a further 10% to Swissair, thereby increasing its stake to 30%. In 2002, the South African government repurchased the shares.

Swissair's costly purchases of SAA's and many other large international airlines' shares led directly to its own shocking bankruptcy filing, on April 1, 2002.

In 2000, SAA ordered 21 Boeing 737-800s, reportedly worth US$680 million. Five CFM 56-7B27-powered examples were requested outright from Boeing, the rest from other parties. The 737s were to be deployed on short-haul routes, replacing Airbus A300s and A320s.

The 737 order was followed by an Airbus order in 2002. Under CEO Andre Viljoen, South African Airways requested Airbus to overhaul its fleet at a cost of US$3.5 billion in March 2002, taking advantage of a slump in the order books of both Boeing and Airbus. The airline industry was still staggering after the September 11 attacks in the US, which led to new aircraft orders either being deferred, or cancelled altogether. SAA was in a buyers' market and the demise of Swissair, which had A340-600s about to be delivered, effected Airbus clinching the SAA deal. This was part of a bigger order that covered 11 A319s, 15 A320s, nine A340-600s and six A340-300s. Three of the A340-600 aircraft came from International Lease Finance Corporation (ILFC). The new Airbus A319s replaced the aging Boeing 737-200 fleet, but the Boeing 737-800s continued in service because SAA cancelled its A320 order before any aircraft were delivered.

Later that year, South African Airways made a successful bid for a 49% stake in Air Tanzania. The move highlighted SAA's wish to gain a foothold in eastern Africa. The bid was worth $20 million, and was SAA's first acquisition of a foreign airline. The merger failed in 2006, when new SAA management felt that the arrangement was fruitless.

"New" Business Class seat on display in 2006

On 1 Feb 2000, South African Airways and Delta Air Lines started to codeshare on SAA-operated nonstop Boeing 747-400 flights from Atlanta to Johannesburg, with return flights operated via Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, Florida due to range limitations caused by the 5,557-foot altitude at Johannesburg OR Tambo International Airport.

In 2001, South African Airways won the Best Cargo Airline to Africa award from Air Cargo News – (even though South African is mainly a passenger airline) – and South African Airways signed a codesharing agreement with Nigeria Airways to provide service from the United States to Lagos using South African Airways 747s (this codeshare agreement is no longer in effect, and SAA's flights to/from the United States no longer stop in Nigeria). The airline earned a spot on the Zagat Survey's top-ten international airlines list, opened a new website and named Andre Viljoen as chief executive officer (CEO).

In March 2004, South African Airways announced its application to join Star Alliance. The airline alliance accepted its application in June, with SAA joining as a full member in April 2006.

In July 2004, Andre Viljoen resigned as CEO of SAA. In August 2004, Khaya Ngqula was appointed as CEO of SAA. A new chairman, Professor Jakes Gerwel, was appointed in the same month.

In 2005, SAA became the first non-Saudi airline to fly a direct Hadj service to Medina in Saudi Arabia.

In July 2005, SAA started a four times weekly Johannesburg-Accra-Washington, D.C. service with a Boeing 747-400. Service was increased to daily flights in July 2006, and the 747-400 was replaced by an Airbus A340-600. Because SAA could not obtain rights to fly passengers between Ghana and the US, Dakar replaced Accra as the intermediate stop. In 2010, SAA retired the last of its 747-400 fleet.

On 6 June 2006, the codeshare agreement between South African Airways and Delta Air Lines was terminated because of the airlines' memberships in rival alliances (Star Alliance and SkyTeam respectively).

Restructuring and Star Alliance: 2006–2011

A Boeing 747-400 (ZS-SAX) at London Heathrow Airport in the old colour scheme. This type of aircraft was permanently retired in 2010.

The South African government's plans called for the separation of South African Airways and its parent company Transnet. The deadline was moved from 2005 to 31 March 2006.

SAA joined Star Alliance on 10 April 2006, becoming the first African airline to join Star Alliance. To celebrate the occasion, and as a condition of entry, one Airbus A340-600 (registration ZS-SNC) and one Boeing 737-800 (registration ZS-SJV) were repainted in Star Alliance livery. South African Airways fulfilled 53 requirements during the accession process.

In May 2007, SAA launched an 18-month comprehensive restructuring programme which aimed to make the airline profitable. According to then-CEO Khaya Ngqula, this came largely after "uncompetitive ownership and aircraft lease costs, excessive head count and fuel price volatility". The programme involves: the spin-off of businesses into seven subsidiaries, thereby allowing SAA to concentrate on its core business of passenger and cargo transport; grounding SAA's Boeing 747-400 fleet; rationalising international routes (Paris was dropped altogether); the axing of 30% of the airline's managers; among other reductions. This was expected to save the airline R2.7 billion (US$378.2 million). By June 2009, R2.5 billion had been saved.

Two retired 747-400s were reactivated in 2008 for flights to Lagos, and by 2010 Luanda as well.

On 20 June 2008, the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP) agreed to extend South African Airways' sponsorship of the organisation another 3 and a half years. This extension succeeded two years of co-operation that "have seen a successful partnership blossom between SAA and the ATP". The deal is worth $20 million, and runs until the end of 2012. On the same day it was announced that a new ATP World Tour tournament would be held in South Africa in 2009. In 2010, the company sought to recover $4 million from then-CEO Khaya Ngqula, for allegedly spending the money on his friends and awarding business deals with organisations and individuals in which he had an interest. Among them are ATP and professional golfer Ángel Cabrera.

In February 2010, the airline appointed Siza Mzimela as its first female CEO. She replaced Khaya Ngqula, who was accused of mismanagement and therefore quit. Mzimela was previously CEO of SAA's domestic partner airline, South African Express (SA Express). On 1 April 2010 she took over the position from Chris Smyth, the acting CEO since Khaya Ngqula left in March 2009.

At the end of 2010, SAA permanently retired the two Boeing 747-400s which were temporarily re-introduced in late 2008. This was expected to save it $60 million during the fiscal year ending March 2009. SAA leased two second hand Airbus A340-300s from Airbus Financial Services (AFS) to replace the 747's.

Financial difficulties and bankruptcy: 2012–2020

A former South African Airways Airbus A350-900 in the current colour scheme arriving in New York
South African Airways logo used until 2019.

On 24 February 2012 SAA's new Airbus A320-200, registration ZS-SZZ, made its first revenue flight between Johannesburg and Durban. There were twelve A320 in the fleet as of December 2016. On 16 August 2012, SAA ended its Cape Town-London route after 20 years, due to declining passenger numbers and increasing airport taxes.

SAA began flights to Beijing, China on 31 January 2012. Buenos Aires flights ended in 2013 and, in January 2015, SAA announced plans to end its non-stop services to Beijing and Mumbai. Services to China were replaced by Star Alliance partner Air China with a flight to Beijing. In June 2015, the acting CEO stated that London, Hong Kong, Munich, Frankfurt and Perth were the only profitable long-haul routes; all others were loss-making.

In September 2017, SAA began reducing its fleet and expected to cut 23% of its flights. Standard Chartered Bank was the first bank in June 2017 to call-in its SAA loan. The South African government provided R2.2 billion to settle the debt. Citibank was the second bank to refuse extending the loan facility. Together with some others, another R7.7 billion became payable at the end of September 2017. The South African treasury asked the Public Investment Corporation, which controls government pension funds, for R100 billion to help bailout state-owned enterprises, including SAA.

On 5 December 2019, the Government of South Africa announced that SAA would enter into bankruptcy protection, as the airline had not turned a profit since 2011 and had run out of money. In January 2020, South African Airways announced that it would suspend several routes, e.g. to Munich in order to reduce its financial struggle. In February 2020, the airline introduced its first of four newly leased Airbus A350-900s in an attempt to modernize its loss-making long-haul fleet.

On 5 December 2019, SAA was placed under business rescue. Les Matuson and Siviwe Dongwana were appointed as the Business Rescue Practitioners of SAA in December 2019. A Business Recovery Plan was expected by the end of February 2020, extended, then postponed. A final plan is yet to be presented.

In February 2020, ex-Secretary General of the ANC, Ace Magashule, stated that should the Business Rescue Practitioners take decisions not to the ANC's liking, it would intervene. Economist Jacques Jonker, then at the Free Market Foundation, criticised Magashule, pointing out that the Business Rescue Practitioners are officers of the court in terms of the Companies Act of 2008, and that it would be illegal for the ANC to intervene in the business-rescue process. When Minister of Public Enterprises Pravin Gordhan later tried to justify the notion that the business-rescue practitioners are accountable to him and not to the courts, Jonker pointed out that such a state of affairs would be unconstitutional.

In April 2020, following a request for further emergency financing due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the South African government announced that it would stop funding the airline with immediate effect. The airline then announced plans to lay-off all remaining staff by the end of the month, sparking fears that SAA was on the brink of liquidation.

As of 1 May 2020, all SAA staff members were on unpaid leave of absence, including those who are reporting for duty, with no pay for the 4,708 remaining workforce. Unaudited financial statements presented in a draft report show SAA made losses of almost R16Bn in the last 3 years. SAA received R50 bn of government assistance between 2004 and 2020.

On 2 May 2020, the Government of South Africa announced that South African Airways would be ceasing operations after 86 years of service, and that a new flagship carrier would be created for South Africa out of the ashes of the former airline. The liquidation process was set to begin on 8 May; however, a legal battle between the liquidators and the workforce delayed the proceedings indefinitely. In July, the creditors voted to accept the restructuring plan, allowing the airline to avoid liquidation. A full domestic network was to be reinstated by December 2020.

On 21 August 2020, The Department of Public Enterprises (DPE) appointed Rand Merchant Bank to help with negotiations with private entities interested in buying into the country's insolvent national carrier, which needs at least R10 billion to resume operations. On 30 September the airline announced that it was suspending all operations until critical funding could be agreed.

In September 2020, SAA suspended all flight operations as the Business Rescue Practitioners placed the airline under "care and maintenance" until further funding could be sourced.

In October 2020, the South African government said it was looking for partners in its efforts to bail- out the airline. On 28 October 2020, the South African government bailed SAA out with R10.5 billion in order to implement the turnaround strategy. During 2020, the airline returned 4 Airbus A319s, all of its 10 A320s, all of its 6 A330-200s, 4 A330-300s, 3 A340-300s, 3 A340-600s, and all 4 new A350-900s to their respective lessors. Both Boeing 737 Freighters also left the fleet in early 2020, ending a long history of dedicated freighter operations at the airline.

As of February 2021, the South African government was in talks with three potential investors to revive the airline and resume operations, with a massively-reduced workforce.

Relaunch: 2021 - Present

In June 2021, the South African government relinquished its controlling stake in the airline. After extensive talks with potential investors, they selected the Takatso Consortium. The Consortium will own 51% of the airline, while the government maintains a 49% stake. The Consortium involves Harith General Partners and Global Airways. Harith General Partners is chaired by South Africa's former deputy finance minister, Jabulani Moleketi. In the address in which he announced the takeover, Pravin Gordhan, the Public Enterprises Minister, revealed that SAA will receive a R3 billion boost in investment from the new partners.

Head office

Airways Park, the head office of South African Airways

South African Airways is headquartered in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park, Ekurhuleni, Gauteng. The building was developed by Stauch Vorster Architects. Completed in March 1997 for R70 million, the 27,000-square-metre (290,000 sq ft) current head-office building links to three older buildings.

South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935. Before the head office moved to its current location, the airline's head office was in the Airways Towers in Johannesburg.

Business trends

The business trends shown below are for the South African Airways group (including SAA, Mango, SAA Technical and Air Chefs), based mainly on the published annual reports; there are gaps and some inconsistencies, largely because the reports vary year by year in the information given and because figures are frequently restated in subsequent years. No figures appear to have been made public since SAA went into bankruptcy protection in December, 2019.

The available trends are (for years ending 31 March):

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017
Turnover (R billion) 19.4 20.6 22.2 26.3 22.2 22.6 23.9 27.1 30.3 30.1 30.4 30.7
Operating profit (R million) 414 −610 −973 334 487 807 −1,300 −991 −2,307 −5,163 −538 −2,760
Retained earnings (R million) 301 779 681 −935 −1,204 −2,590 −5,619 −1,492 −5,431
Number of employees 11,524 10,048 8,227 7,989 8,034 10,057 11,044 11,462 11,491 11,476 10,706 10,071
Revenue passenger mile (R million) 24,488 25,920 26,131 23,328 22,413 22,661 23,217 24,880 25,606 24,523 24,234 23,740
- SAA 24,488 25,381 24,619 21,935 21,081 21,181 21,509 22,901 23,124 21,814 21,079 20,678
- Mango - 539 1,512 1,393 1,332 1,480 1,708 1,979 2,482 2,709 3,155 3,062
Number of passengers (million) 7.2 8.3 8.9 8.2 8.0 8.0 8.1 8.8 9.3 9.2 9.9 9.7
- SAA 7.2 7.7 7.4 6.9 6.7 6.6 6.5 7.0 7.1 6.7 6.9 6.8
- Mango - 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.8 2.2 2.5 3.0 2.9
Passenger load factor (%) 70 75 76 74 71 70 72 74 75 73 75 75
Cargo carried (000s tonnes) 185 202 186 138 119 129 142 133 132 131 114 111
Number of aircraft 75 66 61 59 55 45 55 53 64
Notes and sources

Emblems

South African Airways' "Flying Springbok" logo was the symbol of the carrier from its formation in 1934 to 1997. The logo was discontinued in 1997 in favour of a new aircraft livery, but the word "Springbok" remains the airline's radio callsign.

  • 1934-1948

  • 1948-1971

  • 1971-1997

Anti-competitive practices

On 5 June 2007, it was announced that SAA paid R55 million to the Competition Commission of South Africa because of anti-competitive behaviour such as price fixing. This fine was in addition to a R45 million fine paid by SAA on 31 May 2006 as a penalty for SAA's attempts to prevent travel agents from dealing with rival air carriers.

"Kulula has once again called on government to call it a day and keep its promise...that South African taxpayers will stop filling the begging bowl for ailing state-owned businesses". Many other companies like Flitestar, SunAir and Nationwide had failed because they could not compete with state-funded SAA. "State re-nationalisation of the industry will continue to be destructive to free and fair competition". The company said it was "bizarre" that the proceeds of its income tax, fuel taxes, VAT, import duties and other government levies then were paid over to a state-owned competitor.

Racism controversy

SAA has been accused of racism for rejecting white cadet pilots on the grounds of race, who met the educational and physical criteria. By filling out several dummy applications, journalists from the newspaper Beeld established that the online form had been programmed to reject any white applicants. The South African trade union Solidarity instituted legal action against SAA, resulting in the policy being revoked.

"SAA's normal recruitment process allows for the employment of white male pilots as and when vacancies exist; particularly when no candidate is available from a previously-disadvantaged background. Like all other South African companies, the airline is also required to meet statutory transformation targets. This means that, in recruiting, the airline has to ensure that the demographics of its employees match closely those of the country as a whole. This is in line with the employment equity definition which includes white females."

Corruption controversy

During the administration of Jacob Zuma the SAA board was implicated in a number of corruption-related controversies. Most notable were allegations of corrupt or irregular activities by then SAA Non-Executive Director and Zuma appointee Dudu Myeni, which were widely blamed for placing SAA in serious financial difficulty.

2019 Industrial strike action

South African Airways was hit by strike action by unions starting 15 November 2019 with an agreement in principle being reached on 22 November 2019. The strike action reportedly cost the airline R50 million per day.

Chief Executive Officers (CEO) through the years

Term started Term ended Name Notes
1975 1977 Salomon Pienaar
1977 1982 Eddie Smuts
1982 1983 Frans Swarts
1983 1993 Gerrit van der Veer
1993 1998 Michael Myburgh
1998 2001 Coleman Andrews
2001 2004 Andre Viljoen
2004 2009 Khaya Ngqula
2009 2010 Chris Smythe (Acting)
2010 2012 Siza Mzimela
2012 2013 Vuyisile Kona (Chairman / Acting CEO)
2013 2013 Nico Bezuidenhout (Acting)
2013 2014 Monwabisi Kalawe
2014 2015 Nico Bezuidenhout (Acting)
2015 2015 Thuli Mpeshe (Acting)
2015 2017 Musi Zwane (Acting)
2017 2019 Vuyani Jarana
2019 2020 Zukisa Ramasia (Acting)
2020 2020 Philip Saunders (Interim)
2021 incumbent Thomas Kgokolo (Interim)

Delinquent Director Judgement - Dudu Myeni

In March 2017, Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse and the South African Airways Pilots' Association (SAAPA) brought an application in the Pretoria High Court for an order to declare Dudu Myeni a delinquent director in terms of section 162(5) of the South African Companies Act 71 of 2008. The application was based on Myeni's conduct whilst chair of the SAA board. During those five years (2012/13 to 2016/17), SAA ran up losses of R16.844bn‚ although it had previously been profitable. Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse and the South African Airways Pilots' Association (SAAPA) called six witnesses against Myeni, including four former SAA executives. Myeni was the only witness in her own defence. In closing argument, the counsel for the plaintiffs, Advocate Carol Steinberg, said during her time at SAA, Ms Myeni blocked, delayed and obstructed important initiatives to turn the airline around. She broke the law and flouted basic governance principles. The evidence in court showed a pattern of repeated misconduct: dishonesty, obstruction and interference, improperly inserting middlemen, and governance failures. Accused of bringing the embattled SAA to its knees, and based on her actions during her five-year tenure as chairperson of the SAA board, Myeni was declared a delinquent director and banned from holding any directorship position for life by Judge Ronel Tolmay at the Pretoria High Court on 27 May 2020. The judgement and evidence now goes to the National Prosecuting Authority so a criminal case can be pursued.

South African Airways flies to 20 destinations in 17 countries in Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Asia and Australasia. The airline has a strong presence in Southern Africa. Within South Africa, SAA operates to five cities; however, the airline has an extensive domestic and regional network through its affiliate partners such as its LCC Mango Airlines, Airlink, and South African Express.

Codeshare agreements

South African Airways has codeshare agreements with the following airlines:

Interline agreement

South African Airways interlines with the following airlines:

South African Airbus A319-100
South African Airbus A340-600

Current fleet

As of August 2021[update] South African Airways has the following aircraft in its fleet:

Aircraft In
service
Orders Passengers Notes
C Y Total
Airbus A319-100 3 25 95 120
Airbus A320-200 2 24 114 138
Airbus A330-300 1 46 203 249 Parked
Airbus A340-300 4 38 215 253 All parked
Airbus A340-600 2 42 275 317 All parked
Total 12

Historical fleet

South African Airways has previously operated the following aircraft:

South African Airways historical fleet
Aircraft Total Introduced Retired Notes
Airbus A300B2 4 1976 2001
Airbus A300B4 4 1981 2001
Airbus A300C4 1 1982 2000
Airbus A320-200 7 1991 2002
12 2012 2020
Airbus A330-200 5 2002 2004 Leased aircraft from British Midland International and TAM Airlines
6 2011 2020
Airbus A340-200 6 2003 2013
Airbus A350-900 4 2019 2020 Leased from Air Mauritius, Hainan Airlines and Avolon
Airspeed AS.6 Envoy 4 1936 1938
Avro 685 York 8 1945 1947
Boeing 707-320 11 1960 1980 One crashed as Flight 228
Boeing 727-100 6 1965 1982
Boeing 727-100C 3 1967 1982
Boeing 737-200 29 1968 2006
Boeing 737-200F 2 1981 2013
Boeing 737-300SF 3 2007 2020
Boeing 737-800 21 2000 2018 Some aircraft transferred to Mango Airlines, rest goes to FlySafair.
Boeing 747-200B 5 1971 2004 ZS-SAN preserved at the South African Airways Museum Society at Rand Airport
Boeing 747-200F 1 1998 1999
Boeing 747-200M 2 1980 1994 ZS-SAS crashed as Flight 295 in November 1987 due to in-flight fire.
Boeing 747-200SF 1 1995 2000
Boeing 747-300 6 1983 2004
Boeing 747-400 8 1991 2010
Boeing 747SP 6 1976 2003 ZS-SPC preserved at the South African Airways Museum Society at Rand Airport
Boeing 767-200ER 3 1993 2004
de Havilland DH.60 Gypsy Moth 1 1934 1937
de Havilland DH.104 Dove 2 1947 1952
de Havilland DH.106 Comet 2 1953 1954 Leased from BOAC for charter flights.
G-ALYY crashed as Flight 201 due to in-flight break up.
Douglas DC-3 8 1946 1970
Douglas DC-4 7 1946 1967
Douglas DC-7 4 1956 1967
Hawker Siddeley HS 748 3 1970 1983
Junkers F.13 4 1934 1940
Junkers Ju 52/3m 15 1934 1940
Junkers Ju 86 18 1937 1940
Junkers W.34 1 1934 1937
Lockheed Constellation 4 1950 1964
Lockheed L-18 Lodestar 21 1944 1955
Vickers VC.1 Viking 8 1947 1951
Vickers Viscount 8 1958 1971

In-flight services

Business class

South African Airways' Airbus A330-200/-300 business-class seats have a pitch of 73" and 75" respectively whilst those in the A340-300s/-600s are pitched at 73" and 74" respectively; in a 2-2-2 configuration in both types. Passengers receive a welcome pack, a duvet & full-size pillow and a personal touchscreen monitor with audio/video on demand. South African Airways operates the Airbus A319 and Airbus A320-200 on its domestic and regional routes. South African Airways' A319 business-class seats have a pitch of 36" in a 3-2 configuration, whilst the A320 business-class seats have a 39" pitch in a 2-2 configuration.

Economy

SAA Airbus A330 and A340 economy-class seats have a pitch of 32" in a 2-4-2 configuration.Passengers receive a welcome pack, a blanket & full-size pillow and a personal touchscreen monitor with audio/video on demand. The Airbus A319 and A320 economy-class seats have a pitch of 31".

Frequent-flyer program

Voyager is the frequent-flyer program of South African Airways. Apart from South African Airlink, South African Express and Eswatini Airlink, which have an alliance with SAA, the program also partners 32 other airlines, along with many more businesses. Voyager consists of five tiers – Blue, Silver, Gold, Platinum and Lifetime Platinum. To reach a higher tier, members must fly on selected flights to allocate "Tier Miles". This differs from "Base Miles", which members can only use to receive awards.

  • On 16 June 1937, a Junkers Ju 52/3m (registration ZS-AKY) was destroyed by fire after it crashed on take-off at Port Elizabeth Airport following engine failure in two engines. All on board escaped. This was the airline's first accident in which passengers were injured.
  • On 16 October 1937, a Junkers W34 fi (registration ZS-AEC), named Sir George Grey, crashed during a mail flight. The aeroplane was damaged beyond repair.
  • On 28 March 1941, a Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar (registration ZS-AST) crashed at Elands Bay, South Africa. All on board were killed on impact and in the post-crash fire.
  • On 5 January 1948, a Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar (registration ZS-ASW) touched down at Palmietfontein too far along the runway for it to stop before running off the end. The undercarriage was ripped off and the hull damaged beyond repair. There were light injuries to passengers but no fatalities.
  • On 15 October 1951, a Douglas DC-3 (registration ZS-AVJ), named Pardeberg, flying in instrument meteorological conditions en route on a domestic flight from Port Elizabeth to Durban, flew into Mount Ingeli near Kokstad, Western KwaZulu-Natal. Seventeen people were killed. The board of inquiry determined that the unserviceability of ground-based radio navigational aids along the route was a major contributing factor.
  • On 15 September 1952, a Douglas DC-3 (registration ZS-AVI) was damaged beyond repair while attempting to land at an unlit country airport at Carolina, South Africa after the crew became lost on a flight to Johannesburg from Livingstone, Zambia. After attempting to hold for thunderstorms to clear near their destination, the crew initiated a landing when their fuel ran low. The elevation of the airfield was mis-judged and the aircraft hit a rocky outcrop on final approach to the runway. No passengers or crew were killed or injured.
  • On 8 April 1954, a de Havilland Comet (registration G-ALYY, aka 'Yoke Yoke'), Flight 201, departed Rome for Cairo and Johannesburg. The aircraft crashed off the coast of Italy, killing all 21 people on board. Along with BOAC Flight 781, it was one of two Comet crashes caused by a flaw in the design. The aircraft was leased from British Overseas Airways Corporation.
  • On 29 October 1960, Flight 218, operated by a Boeing 707-344A (registration ZS-CKC), executed a wheels-up landing at Nairobi airport after damaging the undercarriage during an impact with the ground on its initial approach. No passengers or crew were killed or injured but the aircraft remained out of operation for many months until it was repaired and re-introduced into service.
  • On 6 March 1962, a Douglas DC-3 (registration ZS-DJC) operating as Flight 512 crashed into a mountainside in the vicinity of Seymour, Eastern Cape, South Africa, after the pilot insisted on conducting the flight under visual flight rules (VFR) while flying below low cloud above rising ground. The pilot and first officer were killed but the passengers and cabin staff survived.
  • On 30 June 1962, a Douglas DC-4 (registration ZS-BMH) was involved in a mid-air collision with a military Harvard training aircraft near Durban airport. The military aircraft crashed but the crew managed to land the airliner without injury to passengers or crew despite losing a large part of the vertical stabiliser. The aircraft was the last DC-4 manufactured and was repaired and returned to service. It is currently owned by the South African Airways Museum Society and still flies.
  • On 13 March 1967, a Vickers Viscount 818 (registration ZS-CVA), christened Rietbok, operating as Flight 406, crashed into the sea near Kayser's Beach during bad weather while on approach to East London, Eastern Cape. All twenty-five persons on board were killed. The accident investigation board stated 'The available data is not sufficient for the originating cause of the accident to be determined with any degree of probability'. However the board couldn't rule out the possibility that the pilot suffered a heart attack resulting in a loss of control.
  • On 20 April 1968, Flight 228, operated by a six-week-old Boeing 707-344C (registration ZS-EUW), named Pretoria, was lost near Windhoek, South West Africa (now Namibia). The crew used a flap-retraction sequence from the 707-B series which removed flaps in larger increments than desirable for that stage of the flight, leading to a loss of lift at 600 feet (180 m) above ground level. The subsequent descent went undetected by the crew, leading to impact with the ground; 123 people died.
  • On 24 May 1972, the only successful hijacking of a SAA flight took place; a Boeing 727-100 (registration ZS-SBE) was en route from Salisbury, Rhodesia (now known as Harare, Zimbabwe) to Johannesburg. Two Lebanese, Kamil and Yagi, took control of the aircraft by packing dynamite sticks on the hat-racks. They were armed with a pistol. They forced the pilot, Captain Blake Flemington, to return to Salisbury, where they landed and re-fuelled with 12 hostages remaining on board. The captain tricked them into thinking that they were en route to the Seychelles, while he was in fact heading for Blantyre, Malawi. After landing, the passengers used nightfall to enter the cockpit, where they climbed down the emergency escape rope. By the time the hijackers realised this, only the captain, one passenger, and a flight steward, Dirk Nel, remained on the aircraft. The two hijackers started fighting with each other for possession of the dynamite fuse. In the ensuing chaos, the three captives escaped, leaving the two hijackers on board. Members of the Malawi security forces started shooting and the two surrendered. They were jailed for two years on a charge of being in possession of an undeclared firearm on board an aircraft. After serving one year of their sentence, they were released.
Boeing 747-244M ZS-SAS, photographed in 1986. ZS-SAS crashed in 1987 as South African Airways Flight 295.
  • On 28 November 1987, a Boeing 747-200B Combi (registration ZS-SAS and named Helderberg), operating as Flight 295, crashed in the Indian Ocean en route from Taipei, Taiwan to Johannesburg via Mauritius, after a fire in the main cargo hold. The cause of the fire is undetermined, and a number of conspiracy theories (mostly pertaining to the nuclear armaments being produced by the South African government at the time) are in circulation surrounding the crash. All 159 people on board were killed.
  • On 17 June 2006, on South African Airways Flight 322, a Boeing 737-800 en route from Cape Town to Johannesburg, a 21-year-old Zimbabwean took a flight attendant hostage in an attempt to enter the aircraft's cockpit and divert the aircraft to Maputo, Mozambique. He was subdued while still in the cabin. The pilots had been monitoring the incident via CCTV and the aircraft returned to Cape Town where a police task force stormed the aircraft and arrested the suspect.
  • On 24 February 2021 the ACARS unit of South African Airways flight SA4272 from Johannesburg's OR Tambo International Airport to Brussels, to fetch COVID-19 vaccines, sent an ACARS message about an “alpha floor event”, which was activated when the Airbus A340-600's envelope protection system activated to override the pilots to prevent the plane from stalling on take-off.
  1. "South African Airways resecures its AOC ahead of restart". ch-aviation. 4 August 2021. Retrieved9 August 2021.
  2. https://www.businesslive.co.za/bd/national/2021-04-14-saa-appoints-thomas-kgokolo-as-interim-ceo/
  3. "SAA counts R16 billion in losses over three years". 15 May 2020.
  4. "South African Airways | SA Airlines Flights & Specials". www.sa-airlines.co.za. Retrieved3 October 2019.
  5. "Flight Destinations - South African Airways". www.flysaa.com. Retrieved3 October 2019.
  6. "Member Airline Details". www.staralliance.com. Retrieved3 October 2019.
  7. "South African Airways is in business rescue: what comes next?". The Africa Report. 9 December 2019.
  8. "SAA administrators suspend all operations until funding found". Reuters. 29 September 2020.
  9. "Takatso Consortium to own 51% of SAA". www.africaglobalfunds.com. Retrieved21 June 2021.
  10. Alan Dron (24 September 2021). "South African Airways restarts service with limited route network". Routes Online.
  11. "Ahead of SAA take-off, Takatso makes it clear it is not (yet) involved". News24. 21 September 2021.
  12. "World's Top 100 Airlines 2021". Skytrax. Retrieved29 September 2021.
  13. "South African Airways: A Brief History". SAA Museum Society. Retrieved17 December 2010.
  14. "Brief history". South African Airways.[permanent dead link]
  15. May, Daryl (28 April 1966). "SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS". Flight International. Retrieved22 December 2010.
  16. "SOUTH AFRICA GOES AHEAD". Flight International. 9 January 1936. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  17. "History of Airlines: South African Airways". www.historycentral.com. Retrieved17 December 2010.
  18. May, Daryl (28 April 1966). "SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS". Flight International. Retrieved23 December 2010.
  19. "Douglas DC-3 Dakota". www.saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved24 May 2019.
  20. Marson, 1982, pp. 244-245
  21. In January 1958 the weekly DC-7B took 20 hr 10 min Heathrow to Johannesburg including the one-hour Kano stop.
  22. "SAA CONFIDENT ABOUT GROWTH ON WALLABY ROUTE". eTravel Blackboard. 20 June 2008. Retrieved22 December 2010.
  23. "707 Model Summary". Boeing Commercial Airplanes. Archived from the original on 24 July 2013. Retrieved10 December 2010.
  24. Pirie, G. H. (1990). "Aviation, Apartheid and Sanctions: Air Transport to and from South Africa,1945—1989". GeoJournal. 22 (3): 231–40. doi:10.1007/BF00192821. S2CID 154691990.
  25. "747 Model Summary". Boeing. Archived from the original on 1 September 2012. Retrieved22 December 2010.
  26. ""Lebombo" Boeing 747-244B ZS-SAN: c/n 20239". South African Airways Museum – saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved22 December 2010.
  27. BELSON, JOHN (21 August 1976). "Boeing s Special Performer". Flight International. Retrieved31 December 2010.
  28. "Johannesburg - Ilha do Sal - Amsterdam". Great Circle Mapper. Retrieved24 July 2013.
  29. A. J. Christopher (2001). The Atlas of Changing South Africa. Routledge Press. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-415-21178-9.
  30. Thousands Rampage Through Harare, Upset Over Machel's Death, Associated Press, 21 October 1986
  31. Pirie, G.H. Aviation, apartheid and sanctions: air transport to and from South Africa, 1945–1989.GeoJournal, 22 (1990), 231–240.
  32. "Introduction". South African Airways Museum Society. Retrieved23 December 2010.
  33. "Our Aircraft". www.saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved24 May 2019.
  34. Pirie, G.H., Southern African air transport after apartheid. Journal of Modern African Studies, 30 (1992), 341–348.
  35. Pirie, G.H. ‘Africanisation’ of South Africa's international air links, 1994–2003. Journal of Transport Geography, 14 (2006), 3–14
  36. Beveridge, Dirk (9 November 1991). "South Africa resumes flights to N.Y." The Pittsburgh Press. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  37. "Article: The Springbok springs back. (South African Airways) (Company Profile)". Highbeam.com. Retrieved7 January 2011.[dead link]
  38. "SAA (Pty) Ltd". FundingUniverse.com. Retrieved7 January 2011.
  39. "About Us". SA Express. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  40. Daly, Kieran (1–7 June 1994). "BRAVE NEW WORLD". Flight International. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  41. THE MEDIA BUSINESS; Advertising, The New York Times, January 9, 1996
  42. "World Airline Directory: South African Airways (SAA) [SA]". Flight International. 3–9 April 1996. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  43. "Photo Search Results". Retrieved24 April 2015.
  44. David Parker Brown (10 June 2010). "Guest Blog: First-hand perspective on airlines in South Africa". Airlinereporter.com. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  45. Chalmers, Robyn (31 May 2001). "South Africa: The Amazing Coleman Andrews Story". AllAfrica.com. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  46. "Coleman Andrews". Bloomberg. Retrieved1 January 2011.
  47. SAA Reacquisition of 20% Shares Held by Swissair, Department of Public Enterprises, Government of South Africa, 21 November 2001
  48. Swissair sells back South African stake, BBC News, 14 February 2002
  49. "South Africa to buy Airbuses". CNN. 7 March 2002. Retrieved24 December 2010.
  50. "737 Model Summary". Boeing. Archived from the original on 21 November 2018. Retrieved27 December 2010.
  51. "South African Airways Chooses Boeing 737s For Fleet Renewal" (Press release). Seattle: Boeing. 1 March 2000. Archived from the original on 14 January 2011. Retrieved27 December 2010.
  52. "Air Tanzania attracts $20m bid". BBC. 7 October 2002. Retrieved27 December 2010.
  53. Mande, Mike (9 December 2002). "Tanzania: Air Tanzania Finally Sold to SAA for $20m". AllAfrica.com. Retrieved27 December 2010.
  54. "SAA to get out of Air Tanzania 'blunder'". Business Report. 17 February 2006. Archived from the original on 1 October 2008. Retrieved14 March 2007.
  55. "Yahoo - Delta Air Lines, South African Airways to Codeshare On Flights from Atlanta, New York to Johannesburg". 28 November 1999. Archived from the original on 28 November 1999. Retrieved3 August 2021.
  56. "Deal with Delta Air Lines Gets the Go-Ahead". Business Day. 10 January 2000. Retrieved3 August 2021.
  57. "SAA-Transnet split awaits new laws". PPrune.org. 20 October 2005. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  58. "First African airline to join an alliance" (Press release). Star Alliance. 10 June 2006. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  59. "South African Airways joins Star Alliance". AsiaTravelTips.com. 11 April 2006. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  60. "SAA joins Star Alliance network". 21 April 2006. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  61. "SAA changes livery for Star Alliance". IAfrica.com. 17 March 2006. Archived from the original on 12 July 2011. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  62. "Gearing for growth – Annual Report 2006"(PDF). South African Airways. Archived from the original(PDF) on 31 December 2010. Retrieved1 January 2011.
  63. "SAA to Embark on Airline Restructuring Plan". Reuters. Johannesburg. 4 June 2007. Retrieved1 December 2010.
  64. "SAA to overhaul business model". Mmegi.bw. Retrieved1 January 2011.
  65. "Restructuring saves SAA R2,5-billion". Mail&Guardian Online. 2 June 2009. Retrieved1 January 2011.
  66. Sobie, Brendan (30 October 2008). "SAA reintroduces 747-400s". Flight International. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  67. "South African Airways Extends $20m ATP Sponsorship". Sportbusiness.com. 20 June 2008. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  68. Wild, Franz (21 July 2010). "South African Airways Seeks to Recover $4 Million From Former CEO Ngqula". Bloomberg. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  69. "South African Airways appoints new CEO". Mail&Guardian Online. 24 February 2010. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  70. "South African Airways welcomes new CEO". eTravelBlackborad.com. 26 February 2010. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  71. Baumann, Julius (11 March 2009). "A Chief Khaya Ngqula Quits Amid Probe". AllAfrica.com. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  72. "SAfrica main airline appoints new chief executive". Reuters. 24 February 2010. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  73. Sobie, Brendan (20 May 2010). "SAA plans to finally phase out 747-400s at year-end". Flight International. Retrieved30 December 2010.
  74. "SAA plans to finally phase out 747-400s at year-end". Flight International. 2010. Retrieved20 May 2010.
  75. "ZS-SXG South African Airways Airbus A340-300". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved18 February 2021.
  76. "ZS-SXH South African Airways Airbus A340-300". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved18 February 2021.
  77. "Introducing Direct Services to Beijing, China - South African Airways". Retrieved24 April 2015.
  78. "South African Airways outlook brightens as recovery plan and partnership strategy roll out". centreforaviation.com. 6 February 2015. Retrieved7 February 2015.
  79. "South African Airways Upbeat On Turnaround". aviationweek.com.
  80. Reuters. "SAA to shrink services as part of revamp". Retrieved22 September 2017.
  81. "Why Citibank pulled the plug on bankrupt SAA". Retrieved22 September 2017.
  82. "Treasury said to ask PIC for R100bn for state-owned enterprises". Fin24. Retrieved22 September 2017.
  83. "South African Airways to Enter Into Bankruptcy Protection". Bloomberg.com. 4 December 2019. Retrieved5 December 2019.
  84. "South African Airways cancels some flights to Munich to save cash". Reuters. 21 January 2020.
  85. businessinsider.de 9 February 2020
  86. "Business Rescue of South African Airways (SOC) Limited". matusonassociates.co.za. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  87. "Gordhan Stakes His Reputation and South Africa's on Airline". bloomberg.com. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  88. "How was R5.5bn spent by SAA BRPs? Gordhan wants answers". moneyweb.co.za. 7 May 2020. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  89. Cele, Juniour Khumalo and S’thembile. "ANC allies put their foot down: 'Business rescue practitioners do not own SAA; we do'". Citypress. Retrieved25 June 2021.
  90. "Government can't interfere in SAA business rescue process, unless... – Jacques Jonker". BizNews.com. 20 February 2020. Retrieved25 June 2021.
  91. Jonker, Jacques. "Accountability is more important than government's desire for control". Citypress. Retrieved25 June 2021.
  92. "Is this the end of SAA? Government shoots down funding request". Fin24. 14 April 2020. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  93. "Shape up or ship out, parliament tells SAA's business rescuers". iol.co.za. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  94. "SAA's business rescue practitioners 'raked in over R30m without producing a plan'". iol.co.za. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  95. "Full extent of SAA burden on taxpayers revealed - at last". tourismupdate.co.za. Retrieved21 May 2020.
  96. "South African Airways nears collapse, plans to fire all staff". Executive Traveller. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  97. Kaminski-Morrow2020-05-07T14:38:00+01:00, David. "SAA on brink as government scrambles to defer 'drop dead' date". Flight Global. Retrieved7 May 2020.
  98. Kaminski-Morrow2020-05-08T17:57:00+01:00, David. "SAA defies shutdown as unions claim labour court victory". Flight Global. Retrieved9 May 2020.
  99. "SAA creditors approve turnaround plan". CH Aviation. Retrieved22 July 2020.
  100. Bloomberg. "SAA in talks with potential buyers". Retrieved21 August 2020.
  101. Kaminski-Morrow, David (30 September 2020)."SAA suspends operations as rescuers seek to preserve finances". FlightGlobal. Retrieved30 September 2020.
  102. Reuters. "SAA to go under care and maintenance until funding found". www.engineeringnews.co.za. Retrieved12 February 2021.
  103. "South Africa Defends State Airline Bailout As It Seeks Partners". Bloomberg.com. 28 October 2020. Retrieved28 October 2020.
  104. "South African Airways Fleet Details and History". www.planespotters.net. Retrieved21 August 2020.
  105. businesstech.co.za - ‘New SAA’ to get partner as it prepares to exit business rescue 15 February 2021
  106. "South Africa: SAA's new deal gives it wings, but no flying the skies just yet". The Africa Report.com. 21 June 2021. Retrieved21 June 2021.
  107. Ndenze, Babalo. "Who's who in the new Takatso Consortium". ewn.co.za. Retrieved21 June 2021.
  108. "POLICIES & DISCLAIMER." South African Airways. Retrieved 23 June 2010. "Physical address for receipt of legal service: Airways Park, 1 Jones Road, OR Tambo International Airport, Kempton Park, Gauteng, South Africa." Archived copy at the Icelandic Web Archive (17 November 2009).
  109. "Background[permanent dead link]." Ekurhuleni. 3 (3/8). Retrieved 30 September 2009.[dead link]
  110. Beaver, Robyn (2004). 1000 Architects. 1. Images Publishing. p. 504. ISBN 9781876907914. Retrieved23 June 2010 – via Google Books. ISBN 1-876907-91-6, ISBN 978-1-876907-91-4
  111. "Printable version of the site." Stauch Vorster Architects. 10/18. Retrieved 23 June 2010.
  112. "South African Airways – A Brief History". saamuseum.co.za. Retrieved12 June 2012.
  113. "World Airline Directory." Flight International. 3–9 April 1996. 81.
  114. "Gearing for growth: ANNUAL REPORT 2006"(PDF). South African Airways. 2006. Retrieved12 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  115. "Annual Report 2007"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved13 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  116. "Annual Report 2007 part 2"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved29 September 2013.
  117. "08 Annual Report – Restructuring towards profitability"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved13 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  118. "09 Annual Report – Restructuring towards profitability"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved14 January 2011.[permanent dead link]
  119. "Annual Report 2010"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved24 September 2013.
  120. "Annual Report 2011"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved24 September 2013.
  121. "Annual Report 2012"(PDF). South African Airways. Retrieved24 September 2013.[permanent dead link]
  122. "South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2013". South African Airways. 2013. Retrieved12 September 2017.
  123. "South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2014". South African Airways. 2014. Retrieved12 September 2017.
  124. "South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2015". South African Airways. 2015. Retrieved12 September 2017.
  125. "South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2016". South African Airways. 2016. Retrieved12 September 2017.
  126. "SAA Integrated Report 2017". SAA. 31 March 2017. Retrieved3 April 2018.
  127. "Another mega fine for SAA". Moneyweb.co.za. 25 May 2006. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  128. "SAA pays competition penalty". Southafrica.info. 6 June 2007. Archived from the original on 19 September 2011. Retrieved29 December 2010.
  129. "SAA pays competition fine". iol.co.za. 5 June 2007.[permanent dead link]
  130. "Kulula bemoans SAA government bailouts". IOL News. 17 July 2008. Retrieved22 December 2010.
  131. "No more white cadet pilots for SAA". Fin24. Retrieved20 August 2012.
  132. "SAA training policy evokes anger". Fin24. Retrieved20 August 2012.
  133. "SAA backtracks on white cadet ban - Solidarity - PARTY". Politicsweb. Retrieved20 August 2012.
  134. "SAA lifts ban on white cadets". Fin24. 19 August 2012. Retrieved10 June 2013.
  135. "News articles". www.flysaa.com. Retrieved25 August 2015.
  136. "If Myeni was delinquent, so is the entire SAA board - lawyer". Fin24. 21 October 2019. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  137. Cotterill, Joseph (15 November 2019). "President in showdown with unions over South African Airways". Financial Times. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  138. Cronje, Jan (19 June 2019). "Former SAA exec says Dudu Myeni asked staff to 'do illegal things'". Fin24. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  139. "'Lock her up' - Mzansi's verdict after Dudu Myeni state capture revelations". TimesLIVE. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  140. Skiti, Sabelo. "Capture leaves SA's talent in tatters". The M&G Online. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  141. "Ferial Haffajee: Why should SAA employees pay for the sins of Dudu Myeni and Jacob Zuma?". Fin24. 14 November 2019. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  142. "SAA Pilots' Association stands with Numsa, Sacca and calls for leadership overhaul | IOL Business Report". www.iol.co.za. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  143. "SAA, unions reach wage deal - if funds are available". Fin24. 22 November 2019. Retrieved22 November 2019.
  144. "Our Aircraft". SAA Museum Society.
  145. https://www.rmwc.com/team/coleman-andrews/
  146. https://www.flightglobal.com/viljoen-seeks-to-put-the-passion-back-into-saa-/37170.article
  147. https://www.flightglobal.com/turmoil-at-saa-as-chief-resigns/55374.article
  148. https://pmg.org.za/committee-meeting/9995/
  149. https://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/saa-appoints-chris-smyth-as-acting-ceo-2009-02-13
  150. https://www.bizcommunity.com/Article/196/534/83063.html
  151. https://centreforaviation.com/analysis/reports/south-african-airways-hits-a-new-low-with-the-suspension-of-acting-ceo-vuyisile-kona-98087
  152. https://www.polity.org.za/print-version/saa-suspends-acting-ceo-2013-02-12
  153. https://mg.co.za/article/2015-04-24-saas-kalawe-resigns-as-ceo/
  154. https://www.timeslive.co.za/sunday-times/business/2015-07-30-saa-acting-ceo-nico-bezuidenhout-returns-to-mango/
  155. https://ewn.co.za/topic/saa-acting-ceo-thuli-mpshe
  156. https://www.timeslive.co.za/sunday-times/business/2015-11-18-saa-names-musa-zwane-as-new-ceo/
  157. https://www.news24.com/fin24/Economy/saa-ceo-vuyani-jarana-resigns-20190602
  158. https://www.sanews.gov.za/south-africa/vuyani-jarana-appointed-saa-ceo
  159. https://www.news24.com/fin24/companies/industrial/saa-acting-ceo-zuks-ramasia-to-retire-early-20200326-3
  160. https://mybroadband.co.za/news/government/380892-saa-to-lose-its-11th-ceo-in-11-years-report.html
  161. "CHALLENGING DUDU MYENI-1". OUTA.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  162. "CHALLENGING DUDU MYENI". OUTA.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  163. "The NPA should investigate the allegations against Dudu Myeni". Moneyweb.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  164. "HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA CASE NO: 15996/17 PLAINTIFFS' OPENING STATEMENT". OUTA.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  165. "HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA CASE NO: 15996/17 PLAINTIFFS' CLOSING ADDRESS". OUTA.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  166. "Myeni was dishonest, obstructive and ignored good-governance principles while she chaired the SAA board". OUTA.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  167. "Dudu Myeni's delinquency case starts after dismissal of yet another application". HeraldLive.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  168. "Hat Trick for OUTA in the case against Dudu Myeni". Politicsweb.co.za. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  169. "DUDU MYENI LOSES BID TO STOP OUTA IN 'DELINQUENCY' CASE". oudtshoorncourant.com. Retrieved19 April 2020.
  170. "FORMER SAA BOARD CHAIR DUDU MYENI DECLARED A DELINQUENT DIRECTOR". ewn.co.za. Retrieved28 May 2020.
  171. "Victory for civil society: Dudu Myeni declared delinquent director for life". outa.co.za. Retrieved28 May 2020.
  172. "Former SAA chair Dudu Myeni declared delinquent director". fin24.com. Retrieved28 May 2020.
  173. "Dudu Myeni 'failed abysmally', declared delinquent director for life". timeslive.co.za. Retrieved28 May 2020.
  174. "Profile on South African Airways". CAPA. Centre for Aviation. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved3 November 2016.
  175. "Africa World Airlines and South African Airways Unveil New Codeshare Agreement". Aviation Tribune. 31 October 2019.
  176. "SAA enters into code-sharing agreement with TAAG Angola Airlines". eNCA.
  177. "SAA and Hawaiian Airlines strike deal". The Citizen. African News Agency. 25 April 2017. Retrieved25 April 2017.
  178. 50 Golden Years of Flight First Edition 1984.
  179. "SAA Fleet". South African Airways Fleet. South African Airways. Retrieved4 July 2017.
  180. "Voyager Programme Partners". South African Airways. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved3 January 2011.
  181. "About Miles". South African Airways. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved5 January 2011.
  182. Young, Mark D (May 2007). A Firm resolve: A History of SAA Accidents and Incidents 1934–1987. Laminar Publishing Associates, South Africa.
  183. "Civil Aircraft Register – South Africa". Archived from the original on 7 January 2009."ASN Aircraft accident 16 October 1937 Junkers W.34 ZS-AEC".
  184. "Plane Crash Info: Airline/Operator Sj-Sz". planecrashinfo.com.
  185. "Error"(PDF). www.caa.co.za.
  186. "Hijacking procedures top notch, says SAA". Cape Times. 20 June 2006.
  187. "SAA probed after 'extraordinarily dangerous' take-off".

Media related to South African Airways at Wikimedia Commons

South African Airways
South African Airways Language Watch Edit South African Airways is the flag carrier airline of South Africa 4 South African AirwaysIATA ICAO CallsignSA SAA SPRINGBOKFounded1 February 1934 87 years ago 1934 02 01 HubsO R Tambo International AirportFocus citiesCape TownFrequent flyer programVoyagerAllianceStar AllianceSubsidiariesAir ChefsMangoSouth African Airways CargoSouth African Airways TechnicalFleet size8 1 Destinations7Parent companyDepartment of Public EnterprisesHeadquartersJohannesburgKey peopleThomas Kgokolo Interim CEO 2 RevenueR26 023 billion 2018 19 FY Operating incomeR 3 713 billion 2018 19 FY ProfitR 5 090 billion 2018 19 FY 3 Total assetsR15 916 billion 2016 17 FY EmployeesGroup 10 071 2016 17 FY SAA 5 752 2016 17 FY Websitewww wbr flysaa wbr com Founded in 1934 the airline is headquartered in Airways Park at O R Tambo International Airport in Johannesburg and operated a hub and spoke network linking over 40 local and international destinations across Africa Asia Europe North America South America and Oceania 5 The carrier joined Star Alliance in April 2006 2006 04 making it the first African carrier to sign with one of the three major airline alliances 6 The airline entered voluntary business rescue in December 2019 as a result of many years of financial losses 7 and suspended all operations the following year 8 In June 2021 the government announced that in an attempt to revive the airline it had entered into a partnership with the Takatso Consortium which would hold a 51 controlling stake 9 The South African Civil Aviation Authority confirmed on 4 August 2021 that SAA s air operator s certificate had been reissued with an approved fleet of eight aircraft 1 The airline restarted operations on 23 September 2021 10 despite not having concluded the investment agreement with the proposed private partners 11 Nonetheless SAA was recognised as the second best airline in Africa by Skytrax in 2021 12 despite not having flown a single scheduled flight for 18 months Contents 1 History 1 1 Formation and early years 1 2 Growth 1946 1952 1 3 The Jet Age 1953 1973 1 4 Expansion 1974 1983 1 5 Effect of apartheid 1985 1990 1 6 Rebranding 1997 2005 1 7 Restructuring and Star Alliance 2006 2011 1 8 Financial difficulties and bankruptcy 2012 2020 1 9 Relaunch 2021 Present 2 Corporate affairs 2 1 Head office 2 2 Business trends 2 3 Emblems 2 4 Anti competitive practices 2 5 Racism controversy 2 6 Corruption controversy 2 7 2019 Industrial strike action 2 8 Chief Executive Officers CEO through the years 2 9 Delinquent Director Judgement Dudu Myeni 3 Destinations 3 1 Codeshare agreements 3 2 Interline agreement 4 Fleet 4 1 Current fleet 4 2 Historical fleet 5 Services 5 1 In flight services 5 2 Frequent flyer program 6 Accidents and incidents 7 See also 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External linksHistory EditSouth African Airways was founded in 1934 after the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government The airline was initially overseen and controlled by South African Railways and Harbours Administration Anti apartheid sanctions by African countries deprived the airline of stopover airports during apartheid forcing it to bypass the continent with long range aircraft During this time it was also known by its Afrikaans name Suid Afrikaanse Lugdiens SAL lit South African Air Service which has since been dropped by the airline In 1997 SAA changed its name image and aircraft livery and introduced online ticketing services In 2006 SAA was split from Transnet its parent company to operate as an independent airline It remains one of the largest of South Africa s state owned enterprises SAA owns Mango a low cost domestic airline and has established links with Airlink and South African Express It is a member of the Star Alliance Formation and early years Edit SAA started operations with a number of acquired Union Airways aircraft including the Junkers F 13 similar to the one pictured The Douglas DC 4 Skymaster was introduced in May 1946 on which SAA s first in flight films were shown This aircraft registration ZS AUB is in Berlin May 2000 SAA Lockheed Constellation arriving at Heathrow in 1953 An SAA Boeing 707 sits alongside a BOAC Vickers VC10 at London Heathrow Airport 1977 South African Airways was formed on 1 February 1934 following the acquisition of Union Airways by the South African government Forty staff members along with one de Havilland DH 60 Gypsy Moth one de Havilland DH 80A Puss Moth three Junkers F 13s and a leased Junkers F13 and Junkers A50 were among the acquired aircraft 13 Upon acquisition the government changed the airline s name to South African Airways 14 It then came under control of the South African Railways and Harbours Administration now Transnet 15 16 Charter operations started that year 17 On 1 February the following year the carrier acquired Suidwes Lugdiens South West Airways now Air Namibia 13 which had since 1932 been providing a weekly air mail service between Windhoek and Kimberley 16 During this time South African ordered three Junkers Ju 52 3m aircraft which were delivered in October 1934 and entered service 10 days later 13 These aircraft were configured to carry 14 passengers along with four crew They enabled thrice weekly Durban Johannesburg services with weekly services on the Durban East London Port Elizabeth George Mossel Bay Cape Town route 13 On 1 July 1935 SAA moved its operations to Rand Airport as it became increasingly obvious that Johannesburg would become the country s aviation hub which coincided with the launching of Rand Durban East London Port Elizabeth Cape Town services 13 From July the following year a weekly Rand Kimberley Beaufort West Cape Town service commenced in April 1936 all Rand Cape Town services were taken over from Imperial Airways 13 A fourth Ju 52 3m soon joined the fleet Orders for a further ten Ju 52 3m aircraft along with eighteen Junkers Ju 86s and seven Airspeed Envoys four for the airline and three for the South African Air Force were placed 13 This raised the number of Ju 52s to fourteen although three older models were sold when deliveries of the newer Ju 52s began 13 The airline experienced a rapid expansion during this time but also suffered its first accident one of the newly delivered Ju 52s crashed after takeoff from Rand Airport in July 1937 with one reported fatality 13 From 1 February 1934 until the start of World War II SAA carried 118 822 passengers 3 278 tonnes of airmail and 248 tonnes of cargo which were served by 418 employees 13 On 24 May 1940 all operations were suspended 18 Following the war frequencies were increased and more routes were opened which necessitated the conversion of three South African Air Force Envoys to passenger layout 13 These aircraft would prove to be unsuitable for passenger and cargo services and were returned to the SAAF after the arrival of the Junkers Ju 86s clarification needed The main aircraft of SAA in the 1930s was the Junkers Ju 52 Other types used in the 1930s included eighteen Junkers Ju 86s which served from 1937 onwards The slow growth continued during the 1940s though the airline was effectively closed for the duration of World War II In 1944 SAA began operating 28 Lockheed Lodestars to restart domestic services and by 1948 SAA operating nineteen examples These were withdrawn in 1955 On 10 November 1945 SAA achieved a longtime company goal by operating a route to Europe when an Avro York landed in Bournemouth England after the long flight from Palmietfontein Airport near Johannesburg These were replaced by the Douglas DC 4 from 1946 onwards which in turn was replaced by the Lockheed Constellation on international routes in 1950 Also of note in the postwar era was the DC 3 Dakota of which eight served with SAA the last example being withdrawn as late as 1970 19 Growth 1946 1952 Edit On 10 November 1945 the airline introduced its first intercontinental service the 3 day Springbok Service operated by the Avro York which was routed Palmietfontein Nairobi Khartoum Cairo Castel Benito Hurn Bournemouth 13 A weekly service was initially flown but this later increased to 6 times weekly due to high passenger demand The Douglas DC 4 Skymaster debuted with SAA in May 1946 between Johannesburg and Cape Town which coincided with the introduction of the Douglas DC 3 on the Johannesburg Durban route 13 From 1946 passengers and cargo carried increased along with the size of SAA s fleet and staff As the Skymasters arrived out went the Avro Yorks back to BOAC 13 Air hostesses were introduced in September 1946 at first on domestic routes then on Springbok Services The two de Havilland Doves were introduced at the end of the year these aircraft were utilised on internal services for a short time and were sold within a few years 13 The 28 seat Vickers Viking served the airline briefly before being sold to British European Airways citation needed Palmietfontein Airport replaced Rand Airport as SAA s hub in 1948 In June 1948 SAA began to show films onboard its Skymaster aircraft 13 SAA received four Lockheed Constellations its first pressurised aircraft in August 1950 They provided scheduled service to London s Heathrow airport Initially the route from Johannesburg was flown via Nairobi Khartoum and Rome The Constellation s higher speed and longer range enabled fewer stops and greatly reduced the flying time to London 20 The Jet Age 1953 1973 Edit The jet age arrived in South Africa on 3 May 1952 when a BOAC de Havilland Comet arrived in Palmietfontein after a 24 hour journey from England with five refuelling stops en route South African chartered two Comets from the British airline on 4 October 1953 when Comet G ANAV left London for Johannesburg 13 On the same day Tourist Class was introduced on the 58 seat Lockheed Constellation used on the Springbok Service The two chartered aircraft sported both BOAC and SAA titles and logos but were operated by South African crews In 1956 Suid Afrikaanse Lugdiens introduced the Douglas DC 7B capable of long range operations and then probably the fastest piston engine airliner in the world SAA exploited the aircraft s performance by introducing it between Johannesburg and London with only one fuel stop at Khartoum 13 This was known as the East Coast express taking 21 hours to complete 13 versus BOAC s inaugural Comet flight between the two cities of 24 hours This later became the West Coast express when the technical stop at Khartoum was transferred to Kano Nigeria resulting in a shortened flying of 18 hours 21 The fortnightly Wallaby service 22 routed Johannesburg Mauritius Cocos Islands Perth Australia started in November 1957 13 After a host of accidents involving SAA s and other airlines Comets the airline ordered three Boeing 707 320 Intercontinentals on 21 February 1958 with the first delivered on 1 July 1960 23 Three months after arrival on 1 October 1960 the Boeing 707 was deployed on the airline s flagship Springbok Service trimming the flying time to London to 13 hours 13 Other changes brought about by the 707 were a livery change to an orange tail with blue and white markings 13 as well as improved comfort range and speed A 707 replaced the DC 7B on the Wallaby route in 1967 Cocos Islands was dropped while Sydney became the terminus Flights to New York via Rio de Janeiro started on 23 February 1969 using a 707 13 The first 707 of SAA landed in Europe in October 1961 with a nine hour flight to Athens citation needed The jets arrived during a period when most African countries except SA s neighbours denied South African airlines the use of their airspace necessitating long detours 24 In 1967 the Skymasters Constellations and DC 7Bs were being retired replaced by the Boeing 727 trijet the following year to complement the Boeing 707 The choice of 727 was based on the geography of the destinations to which it would fly for example Johannesburg is 1 694 metres 5 558 ft high and hot where the 727 s wings and other technical capabilities enable it to operate out of such airports Revenue Passenger Kilometers scheduled flights only millions Year Traffic1950 1971955 3311960 4891965 1 1441969 2 1681971 3 0701975 5 9421980 8 8431985 8 6832000 19 321Source ICAO Digest of Statistics for 1950 55 IATA World Air Transport Statistics 1960 2000 On 13 March 1968 SAA ordered five Boeing 747 200Bs 25 The first Lebombo registered as ZS SAN was delivered on 22 October 1971 after a 3 stop flight from Seattle 25 26 It was placed into service in December and proved very popular SAA eventually operated 23 brand new Jumbo Jets including the 200M first delivered in 1980 300 1983 400 and the long range Boeing 747SP first delivered on March 18 19 1976 with a nonstop delivery flight of ZS SPA from Everett Washington USA to Cape Town 25 The 747SP especially was acquired to overcome the refusal of many countries to allow SAA to use their airspace by exploiting its long range capabilities as well as to serve lower density routes which were unsuited to the 747 200 27 Six were delivered starting 19 March 1976 25 As above to demonstrate the 747SP s performance the first one was delivered from Seattle to Cape Town non stop an airliner distance record that stood until 1989 13 The first 747SP arrived in South Africa on 19 March 1976 25 As the 747 entered service its smaller siblings the 707s were converted to combi passenger cargo configurations and high density seating 13 All of SAA s Vickers Viscounts were sold by March 1972 after being replaced by Boeing 737s 13 Expansion 1974 1983 Edit SAA opened a route to Asia with Boeing 707 flights to Hong Kong via an intermediate stop at the Seychelles Islands in June 1974 13 In 1980 SAA began nonstop flights to Taipei using a Boeing 747SP Mauritius had earlier replaced the Seychelles for the Hong Kong service South Africa became one of the few countries in the world to recognize the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan Because some African countries denied SAA the use their airspace SAA bypassed the bulge of Africa usually via Ilha do Sal a detour of almost 3 000 kilometres 1 900 mi 28 Another bypass was via Tel Aviv which doubled the distance and flying time involved 29 European airlines were allowed to fly over Africa when flying to South Africa usually via Nairobi and later nonstop On 26 December 1980 the last South African Airways Boeing 707 service was operated between Paris and Johannesburg Its touchdown ended the 20 year career of the 707 The quadjet was replaced by the world s first wide body twinjet the Airbus A300 which had entered revenue service in 1976 13 The 727s were eliminated by 1983 replaced by the more economical Boeing 737 13 When countries withdrew landing rights for SAA the airline leased its aircraft and crews to Canada Mauritius Brazil Morocco and Luxembourg Effect of apartheid 1985 1990 Edit Due to international opposition to apartheid during the 1980s SAA s offices were attacked In Harare Zimbabwe its offices were badly damaged after protesters went on a rampage 30 The US Comprehensive Anti Apartheid Act of 1986 banned all flights by South African owned carriers including SAA In 1987 SAA s services to Perth and Sydney in Australia were ended in light of the Australian Government s opposition to apartheid 31 The South African Airways Museum Society opened its doors to the public at Jan Smuts International Airport which was renamed the OR Tambo International Airport in 2006 32 The organisation was formed by South African Airways employees and outside parties with the mission of preserving South African aviation history especially SAA itself 32 Based at Transvaal Aviation Club Rand Airport Germiston it was founded after the restoration of the CASA 352L Since then many aircraft have joined SAA Museum Society s collection relating to South African aviation 33 A Boeing 747SP donated to South African Airways Museum Society is stored at Rand Airport 2010 A Boeing 747 400 ZS SAW painted in the pre 1997 orange blue and white livery during the apartheid era just after 1992 featuring the Afrikaans name of the airline SAL Suid Afrikaanse Lugdiens With the demise of apartheid in 1990 SAA started services to former and new destinations in Africa and Asia 34 35 On 1 June 1990 South African companies signed a domestic air travel deregulation act Flights to New York City s JFK International Airport resumed in November 1991 36 and SAA s planes were able to fly for the first time over Egypt and Sudan on 8 September 37 The airline launched flights to Milan on 1 June during the year and services to Athens were re introduced 37 Also an interline with Aeroflot was established The first of SAA s eight Boeing 747 400s named Durban arrived in South Africa on 19 January 1991 25 The airplane was unusual in that two different turbofan engines were operated Six Rolls Royce RB211 524H powered examples were ordered the other two part of an unfulfilled Philippine Airlines order had General Electric CF6 80C2B5Fs 25 Winglets structural changes and fuel efficient engines enabled these aircraft to fly non stop from South Africa to the East coast of the United States The arrival of Boeing s newest jumbo jet perhaps overshadowed the acquisition by SAA of the world s first commercial fly by wire airliner the Airbus A320 to assist and enhance services within the country and on regional services 13 Boeing 767s arrived in August 1993 13 and flew on African Southern European and Middle Eastern routes They were retired within ten years During 1992 SAA began flights to Miami with a Cape Town to Miami International Airport nonstop Boeing 747 400 route and re entered Australia flying nonstop to Perth with a same day return shuttle service to Sydney This year also saw codesharing agreements with American Airlines 38 and Air Tanzania There were nonstop flights to Bangkok and Singapore the latter was discontinued by 1996 The airline Alliance a partnership between SAA Uganda Airlines and Air Tanzania also began SAA greeted its passengers in four different languages during domestic flights English Zulu Afrikaans and Sotho while passengers on international flights were also greeted in the destination s language On 24 April 1994 South African Express SA Express a feeder airline service of South African began operating 39 after a 3 year preparation process begun in 1991 when the regional airline was granted its operating license SAA initially held a 20 stake in SA Express Alliance Airline Holdings held 51 SA Enterprises 24 9 and Abyss Investments 4 1 40 SA Express took over some of South African s low density domestic routes Airbus A340 200 landing at London Heathrow Airport 2010 In 1995 Lufthansa started a codesharing agreement with SAA and SAA commissioned Diefenbach Elkins and Herdbuoys to lead its change of image 41 SAA s Voyager and American Airlines AAdvantage frequent flier clubs joined As of April 1996 South African employed 11 100 people of whom 3 100 were engineers 42 It owned and operated 48 aircraft 42 and served 34 destinations from its hubs at Cape Town Durban and Johannesburg Rebranding 1997 2005 Edit Boeing 747 300 Ndizani at Perth Airport 2003 In 1997 SAA replaced the Springbok emblem and the old national colours of orange white and blue with a new livery based upon the new national flag with a sun motif The airline s name on its aircraft retained the Afrikaans name Suid Afrikaanse Lugdiens As a symbol of the new rainbow nation following the release of Nelson Mandela one of SAA s 747 300s named Ndizani registration ZS SAJ was painted in bright colours 43 This special liveried 747 300 transported South African athletes to the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta 44 The airline started online ticket sales and formed an alliance with SA Airlink and SA Express In 1998 services to Copenhagen Airport were stopped A new airline president and CEO Coleman Andrews was appointed The arrival of the American saw a comprehensive and controversial overhaul of the airline changing the management of SAA Mr Andrews was hired by Transnet the state owned parent company to remedy the problem of dwindling passengers which Transnet s market research had revealed was caused by failure to fly on time unfriendly and minimally trained staff poor food and SAA fares being 12 25 above its competitors 45 He was credited with rescuing World Airways from the brink of bankruptcy earlier in the decade 38 During his first 18 months as CEO South African Airways market value increased fivefold 46 In June 1999 Transnet entered into a sale agreement with Swissair in which Transnet sold 20 of its shareholding in SAA to Swissair for R1 4 billion and also included an option to sell and transfer a further 10 to Swissair thereby increasing its stake to 30 47 In 2002 the South African government repurchased the shares 48 Swissair s costly purchases of SAA s and many other large international airlines shares led directly to its own shocking bankruptcy filing on April 1 2002 In 2000 SAA ordered 21 Boeing 737 800s reportedly worth US 680 million 49 Five CFM 56 7B27 powered examples were requested outright from Boeing the rest from other parties 50 The 737s were to be deployed on short haul routes replacing Airbus A300s and A320s 51 The 737 order was followed by an Airbus order in 2002 Under CEO Andre Viljoen South African Airways requested Airbus to overhaul its fleet at a cost of US 3 5 billion in March 2002 taking advantage of a slump in the order books of both Boeing and Airbus 49 The airline industry was still staggering after the September 11 attacks in the US which led to new aircraft orders either being deferred or cancelled altogether SAA was in a buyers market and the demise of Swissair which had A340 600s about to be delivered effected Airbus clinching the SAA deal This was part of a bigger order that covered 11 A319s 15 A320s nine A340 600s and six A340 300s 49 Three of the A340 600 aircraft came from International Lease Finance Corporation ILFC The new Airbus A319s replaced the aging Boeing 737 200 fleet but the Boeing 737 800s continued in service because SAA cancelled its A320 order before any aircraft were delivered 49 Later that year South African Airways made a successful bid for a 49 stake in Air Tanzania The move highlighted SAA s wish to gain a foothold in eastern Africa The bid was worth 20 million and was SAA s first acquisition of a foreign airline 52 53 The merger failed in 2006 when new SAA management felt that the arrangement was fruitless 54 New Business Class seat on display in 2006 On 1 Feb 2000 South African Airways and Delta Air Lines started to codeshare on SAA operated nonstop Boeing 747 400 flights from Atlanta to Johannesburg 55 56 with return flights operated via Fort Lauderdale Hollywood International Airport Florida due to range limitations caused by the 5 557 foot altitude at Johannesburg OR Tambo International Airport In 2001 South African Airways won the Best Cargo Airline to Africa award from Air Cargo News even though South African is mainly a passenger airline and South African Airways signed a codesharing agreement with Nigeria Airways to provide service from the United States to Lagos using South African Airways 747s this codeshare agreement is no longer in effect and SAA s flights to from the United States no longer stop in Nigeria The airline earned a spot on the Zagat Survey s top ten international airlines list opened a new website and named Andre Viljoen as chief executive officer CEO In March 2004 South African Airways announced its application to join Star Alliance The airline alliance accepted its application in June with SAA joining as a full member in April 2006 In July 2004 Andre Viljoen resigned as CEO of SAA In August 2004 Khaya Ngqula was appointed as CEO of SAA A new chairman Professor Jakes Gerwel was appointed in the same month In 2005 SAA became the first non Saudi airline to fly a direct Hadj service to Medina in Saudi Arabia In July 2005 SAA started a four times weekly Johannesburg Accra Washington D C service with a Boeing 747 400 Service was increased to daily flights in July 2006 and the 747 400 was replaced by an Airbus A340 600 Because SAA could not obtain rights to fly passengers between Ghana and the US Dakar replaced Accra as the intermediate stop In 2010 SAA retired the last of its 747 400 fleet On 6 June 2006 the codeshare agreement between South African Airways and Delta Air Lines was terminated because of the airlines memberships in rival alliances Star Alliance and SkyTeam respectively Restructuring and Star Alliance 2006 2011 Edit A Boeing 747 400 ZS SAX at London Heathrow Airport in the old colour scheme This type of aircraft was permanently retired in 2010 The South African government s plans called for the separation of South African Airways and its parent company Transnet The deadline was moved from 2005 to 31 March 2006 57 SAA joined Star Alliance on 10 April 2006 58 59 becoming the first African airline to join Star Alliance 60 To celebrate the occasion and as a condition of entry one Airbus A340 600 registration ZS SNC and one Boeing 737 800 registration ZS SJV were repainted in Star Alliance livery 61 South African Airways fulfilled 53 requirements during the accession process 62 In May 2007 SAA launched an 18 month comprehensive restructuring programme 63 which aimed to make the airline profitable According to then CEO Khaya Ngqula this came largely after uncompetitive ownership and aircraft lease costs excessive head count and fuel price volatility The programme involves the spin off of businesses into seven subsidiaries 63 thereby allowing SAA to concentrate on its core business of passenger and cargo transport grounding SAA s Boeing 747 400 fleet 63 rationalising international routes Paris was dropped altogether the axing of 30 of the airline s managers 64 among other reductions This was expected to save the airline R2 7 billion US 378 2 million 63 By June 2009 R2 5 billion had been saved 65 Two retired 747 400s were reactivated in 2008 for flights to Lagos and by 2010 Luanda as well 66 On 20 June 2008 the Association of Tennis Professionals ATP agreed to extend South African Airways sponsorship of the organisation another 3 and a half years This extension succeeded two years of co operation that have seen a successful partnership blossom between SAA and the ATP 67 The deal is worth 20 million and runs until the end of 2012 On the same day it was announced that a new ATP World Tour tournament would be held in South Africa in 2009 In 2010 the company sought to recover 4 million from then CEO Khaya Ngqula for allegedly spending the money on his friends and awarding business deals with organisations and individuals in which he had an interest Among them are ATP and professional golfer Angel Cabrera 68 In February 2010 the airline appointed Siza Mzimela as its first female CEO She replaced Khaya Ngqula 69 who was accused of mismanagement and therefore quit Mzimela was previously CEO of SAA s domestic partner airline South African Express SA Express On 1 April 2010 she took over the position from Chris Smyth 70 the acting CEO since Khaya Ngqula left in March 2009 71 72 At the end of 2010 SAA permanently retired the two Boeing 747 400s which were temporarily re introduced in late 2008 73 74 This was expected to save it 60 million during the fiscal year ending March 2009 SAA leased two second hand Airbus A340 300s from Airbus Financial Services AFS to replace the 747 s 75 76 Financial difficulties and bankruptcy 2012 2020 Edit A former South African Airways Airbus A350 900 in the current colour scheme arriving in New York South African Airways logo used until 2019 On 24 February 2012 SAA s new Airbus A320 200 registration ZS SZZ made its first revenue flight between Johannesburg and Durban There were twelve A320 in the fleet as of December 2016 On 16 August 2012 SAA ended its Cape Town London route after 20 years due to declining passenger numbers and increasing airport taxes SAA began flights to Beijing China on 31 January 2012 77 Buenos Aires flights ended in 2013 and in January 2015 SAA announced plans to end its non stop services to Beijing and Mumbai Services to China were replaced by Star Alliance partner Air China with a flight to Beijing 78 In June 2015 the acting CEO stated that London Hong Kong Munich Frankfurt and Perth were the only profitable long haul routes all others were loss making 79 In September 2017 SAA began reducing its fleet and expected to cut 23 of its flights 80 Standard Chartered Bank was the first bank in June 2017 to call in its SAA loan The South African government provided R2 2 billion to settle the debt 81 Citibank was the second bank to refuse extending the loan facility Together with some others another R7 7 billion became payable at the end of September 2017 The South African treasury asked the Public Investment Corporation which controls government pension funds for R100 billion to help bailout state owned enterprises including SAA 82 On 5 December 2019 the Government of South Africa announced that SAA would enter into bankruptcy protection as the airline had not turned a profit since 2011 and had run out of money 83 In January 2020 South African Airways announced that it would suspend several routes e g to Munich in order to reduce its financial struggle 84 In February 2020 the airline introduced its first of four newly leased Airbus A350 900s in an attempt to modernize its loss making long haul fleet 85 On 5 December 2019 SAA was placed under business rescue Les Matuson and Siviwe Dongwana were appointed as the Business Rescue Practitioners of SAA in December 2019 86 A Business Recovery Plan was expected by the end of February 2020 extended then postponed A final plan is yet to be presented 87 88 In February 2020 ex Secretary General of the ANC Ace Magashule stated that should the Business Rescue Practitioners take decisions not to the ANC s liking it would intervene Economist Jacques Jonker then at the Free Market Foundation criticised Magashule pointing out that the Business Rescue Practitioners are officers of the court in terms of the Companies Act of 2008 and that it would be illegal for the ANC to intervene in the business rescue process 89 90 When Minister of Public Enterprises Pravin Gordhan later tried to justify the notion that the business rescue practitioners are accountable to him and not to the courts Jonker pointed out that such a state of affairs would be unconstitutional 91 In April 2020 following a request for further emergency financing due to the COVID 19 pandemic the South African government announced that it would stop funding the airline with immediate effect 92 The airline then announced plans to lay off all remaining staff by the end of the month sparking fears that SAA was on the brink of liquidation As of 1 May 2020 all SAA staff members were on unpaid leave of absence including those who are reporting for duty with no pay for the 4 708 remaining workforce 93 94 Unaudited financial statements presented in a draft report show SAA made losses of almost R16Bn in the last 3 years 93 94 SAA received R50 bn of government assistance between 2004 and 2020 95 On 2 May 2020 the Government of South Africa announced that South African Airways would be ceasing operations after 86 years of service and that a new flagship carrier would be created for South Africa out of the ashes of the former airline 96 The liquidation process was set to begin on 8 May however a legal battle between the liquidators and the workforce delayed the proceedings indefinitely 97 98 In July the creditors voted to accept the restructuring plan allowing the airline to avoid liquidation A full domestic network was to be reinstated by December 2020 99 On 21 August 2020 The Department of Public Enterprises DPE appointed Rand Merchant Bank to help with negotiations with private entities interested in buying into the country s insolvent national carrier which needs at least R10 billion to resume operations 100 On 30 September the airline announced that it was suspending all operations until critical funding could be agreed 101 In September 2020 SAA suspended all flight operations as the Business Rescue Practitioners placed the airline under care and maintenance until further funding could be sourced 102 In October 2020 the South African government said it was looking for partners in its efforts to bail out the airline On 28 October 2020 the South African government bailed SAA out with R10 5 billion in order to implement the turnaround strategy 103 During 2020 the airline returned 4 Airbus A319s all of its 10 A320s all of its 6 A330 200s 4 A330 300s 3 A340 300s 3 A340 600s and all 4 new A350 900s to their respective lessors 104 Both Boeing 737 Freighters also left the fleet in early 2020 ending a long history of dedicated freighter operations at the airline As of February 2021 the South African government was in talks with three potential investors to revive the airline and resume operations with a massively reduced workforce 105 Relaunch 2021 Present Edit In June 2021 the South African government relinquished its controlling stake in the airline After extensive talks with potential investors they selected the Takatso Consortium The Consortium will own 51 of the airline while the government maintains a 49 stake 106 The Consortium involves Harith General Partners and Global Airways Harith General Partners is chaired by South Africa s former deputy finance minister Jabulani Moleketi In the address in which he announced the takeover Pravin Gordhan the Public Enterprises Minister revealed that SAA will receive a R3 billion boost in investment from the new partners 107 Corporate affairs EditHead office Edit Airways Park the head office of South African Airways South African Airways is headquartered in Airways Park on the grounds of OR Tambo International Airport in Kempton Park Ekurhuleni Gauteng 108 109 The building was developed by Stauch Vorster Architects 110 Completed in March 1997 for R70 million the 27 000 square metre 290 000 sq ft current head office building links to three older buildings 111 South African Airways moved its head office from Durban to Rand Airport in Germiston on 1 July 1935 112 Before the head office moved to its current location the airline s head office was in the Airways Towers in Johannesburg 113 Business trends Edit The business trends shown below are for the South African Airways group including SAA Mango SAA Technical and Air Chefs based mainly on the published annual reports there are gaps and some inconsistencies largely because the reports vary year by year in the information given and because figures are frequently restated in subsequent years No figures appear to have been made public since SAA went into bankruptcy protection in December 2019 The available trends are for years ending 31 March 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017Turnover R billion 19 4 20 6 22 2 26 3 22 2 22 6 23 9 27 1 30 3 30 1 30 4 30 7Operating profit R million 414 610 973 334 487 807 1 300 991 2 307 5 163 538 2 760Retained earnings R million 301 779 681 935 1 204 2 590 5 619 1 492 5 431Number of employees 11 524 10 048 8 227 7 989 8 034 10 057 11 044 11 462 11 491 11 476 10 706 10 071Revenue passenger mile R million 24 488 25 920 26 131 23 328 22 413 22 661 23 217 24 880 25 606 24 523 24 234 23 740 SAA 24 488 25 381 24 619 21 935 21 081 21 181 21 509 22 901 23 124 21 814 21 079 20 678 Mango 539 1 512 1 393 1 332 1 480 1 708 1 979 2 482 2 709 3 155 3 062Number of passengers million 7 2 8 3 8 9 8 2 8 0 8 0 8 1 8 8 9 3 9 2 9 9 9 7 SAA 7 2 7 7 7 4 6 9 6 7 6 6 6 5 7 0 7 1 6 7 6 9 6 8 Mango 1 5 1 3 1 3 1 4 1 8 2 2 2 5 3 0 2 9Passenger load factor 70 75 76 74 71 70 72 74 75 73 75 75Cargo carried 000s tonnes 185 202 186 138 119 129 142 133 132 131 114 111Number of aircraft 75 66 61 59 55 45 55 53 64Notes and sources 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 Emblems Edit South African Airways Flying Springbok logo was the symbol of the carrier from its formation in 1934 to 1997 The logo was discontinued in 1997 in favour of a new aircraft livery but the word Springbok remains the airline s radio callsign 1934 1948 1948 1971 1971 1997Anti competitive practices Edit On 5 June 2007 it was announced that SAA paid R55 million to the Competition Commission of South Africa because of anti competitive behaviour such as price fixing 127 128 This fine was in addition to a R45 million fine paid by SAA on 31 May 2006 as a penalty for SAA s attempts to prevent travel agents from dealing with rival air carriers 129 Kulula has once again called on government to call it a day and keep its promise that South African taxpayers will stop filling the begging bowl for ailing state owned businesses Many other companies like Flitestar SunAir and Nationwide had failed because they could not compete with state funded SAA State re nationalisation of the industry will continue to be destructive to free and fair competition The company said it was bizarre that the proceeds of its income tax fuel taxes VAT import duties and other government levies then were paid over to a state owned competitor 130 Racism controversy Edit SAA has been accused of racism for rejecting white cadet pilots on the grounds of race who met the educational and physical criteria By filling out several dummy applications journalists from the newspaper Beeld established that the online form had been programmed to reject any white applicants 131 132 The South African trade union Solidarity instituted legal action against SAA resulting in the policy being revoked 133 134 SAA s normal recruitment process allows for the employment of white male pilots as and when vacancies exist particularly when no candidate is available from a previously disadvantaged background Like all other South African companies the airline is also required to meet statutory transformation targets This means that in recruiting the airline has to ensure that the demographics of its employees match closely those of the country as a whole This is in line with the employment equity definition which includes white females 135 Corruption controversy Edit During the administration of Jacob Zuma the SAA board was implicated in a number of corruption related controversies 136 Most notable were allegations of corrupt or irregular activities by then SAA Non Executive Director and Zuma appointee Dudu Myeni which were widely blamed for placing SAA in serious financial difficulty 137 138 139 140 141 142 2019 Industrial strike action Edit South African Airways was hit by strike action by unions starting 15 November 2019 with an agreement in principle being reached on 22 November 2019 The strike action reportedly cost the airline R50 million per day 143 Chief Executive Officers CEO through the years Edit Term started Term ended Name Notes1975 1977 Salomon Pienaar 144 1977 1982 Eddie Smuts 144 1982 1983 Frans Swarts 144 1983 1993 Gerrit van der Veer 144 1993 1998 Michael Myburgh 144 1998 2001 Coleman Andrews 145 2001 2004 Andre Viljoen 146 147 2004 2009 Khaya Ngqula 148 2009 2010 Chris Smythe Acting 149 2010 2012 Siza Mzimela 150 2012 2013 Vuyisile Kona Chairman Acting CEO 151 2013 2013 Nico Bezuidenhout Acting 152 2013 2014 Monwabisi Kalawe 153 2014 2015 Nico Bezuidenhout Acting 154 2015 2015 Thuli Mpeshe Acting 155 2015 2017 Musi Zwane Acting 156 2017 2019 Vuyani Jarana 157 158 2019 2020 Zukisa Ramasia Acting 159 2020 2020 Philip Saunders Interim 160 2021 incumbent Thomas Kgokolo Interim 2 Delinquent Director Judgement Dudu Myeni Edit In March 2017 Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse and the South African Airways Pilots Association SAAPA brought an application in the Pretoria High Court for an order to declare Dudu Myeni a delinquent director in terms of section 162 5 of the South African Companies Act 71 of 2008 The application was based on Myeni s conduct whilst chair of the SAA board During those five years 2012 13 to 2016 17 SAA ran up losses of R16 844bn although it had previously been profitable 161 162 Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse and the South African Airways Pilots Association SAAPA called six witnesses against Myeni including four former SAA executives Myeni was the only witness in her own defence 163 164 In closing argument the counsel for the plaintiffs Advocate Carol Steinberg said during her time at SAA Ms Myeni blocked delayed and obstructed important initiatives to turn the airline around She broke the law and flouted basic governance principles 165 The evidence in court showed a pattern of repeated misconduct dishonesty obstruction and interference improperly inserting middlemen and governance failures 163 166 167 168 169 Accused of bringing the embattled SAA to its knees and based on her actions during her five year tenure as chairperson of the SAA board Myeni was declared a delinquent director and banned from holding any directorship position for life by Judge Ronel Tolmay at the Pretoria High Court on 27 May 2020 170 171 The judgement and evidence now goes to the National Prosecuting Authority so a criminal case can be pursued 172 173 Destinations EditMain article List of South African Airways destinations South African Airways flies to 20 destinations in 17 countries in Africa Europe North America South America Asia and Australasia The airline has a strong presence in Southern Africa Within South Africa SAA operates to five cities however the airline has an extensive domestic and regional network through its affiliate partners such as its LCC Mango Airlines Airlink and South African Express Codeshare agreements Edit South African Airways has codeshare agreements with the following airlines 174 Africa World Airlines 175 Air Canada Air China Airlink Air Mauritius Air New Zealand Air Seychelles All Nippon Airways Asiana Airlines EgyptAir Ethiopian Airlines JetBlue LAM Mozambique Airlines Lufthansa Mango RwandAir Scandinavian Airlines Singapore Airlines Swiss International Air Lines TAAG Angola Airlines 176 TAP Air Portugal United Airlines Virgin Australia Interline agreement Edit South African Airways interlines with the following airlines Hawaiian Airlines 177 Fleet Edit South African Airbus A319 100 South African Airbus A340 600 Current fleet Edit As of August 2021 update South African Airways has the following aircraft in its fleet 1 Aircraft In service Orders Passengers NotesC Y TotalAirbus A319 100 3 25 95 120Airbus A320 200 2 24 114 138Airbus A330 300 1 46 203 249 ParkedAirbus A340 300 4 38 215 253 All parkedAirbus A340 600 2 42 275 317 All parkedTotal 12 Historical fleet Edit South African Airways has previously operated the following aircraft 104 178 South African Airways historical fleet Aircraft Total Introduced Retired NotesAirbus A300B2 4 1976 2001Airbus A300B4 4 1981 2001Airbus A300C4 1 1982 2000Airbus A320 200 7 1991 200212 2012 2020Airbus A330 200 5 2002 2004 Leased aircraft from British Midland International and TAM Airlines6 2011 2020Airbus A340 200 6 2003 2013Airbus A350 900 4 2019 2020 Leased from Air Mauritius Hainan Airlines and AvolonAirspeed AS 6 Envoy 4 1936 1938 178 Avro 685 York 8 1945 1947Boeing 707 320 11 1960 1980 One crashed as Flight 228Boeing 727 100 6 1965 1982Boeing 727 100C 3 1967 1982Boeing 737 200 29 1968 2006Boeing 737 200F 2 1981 2013Boeing 737 300SF 3 2007 2020Boeing 737 800 21 2000 2018 Some aircraft transferred to Mango Airlines rest goes to FlySafair Boeing 747 200B 5 1971 2004 ZS SAN preserved at the South African Airways Museum Society at Rand AirportBoeing 747 200F 1 1998 1999Boeing 747 200M 2 1980 1994 ZS SAS crashed as Flight 295 in November 1987 due to in flight fire Boeing 747 200SF 1 1995 2000Boeing 747 300 6 1983 2004Boeing 747 400 8 1991 2010Boeing 747SP 6 1976 2003 ZS SPC preserved at the South African Airways Museum Society at Rand AirportBoeing 767 200ER 3 1993 2004de Havilland DH 60 Gypsy Moth 1 1934 1937de Havilland DH 104 Dove 2 1947 1952de Havilland DH 106 Comet 2 1953 1954 Leased from BOAC for charter flights G ALYY crashed as Flight 201 due to in flight break up Douglas DC 3 8 1946 1970Douglas DC 4 7 1946 1967Douglas DC 7 4 1956 1967Hawker Siddeley HS 748 3 1970 1983Junkers F 13 4 1934 1940Junkers Ju 52 3m 15 1934 1940Junkers Ju 86 18 1937 1940Junkers W 34 1 1934 1937Lockheed Constellation 4 1950 1964Lockheed L 18 Lodestar 21 1944 1955Vickers VC 1 Viking 8 1947 1951Vickers Viscount 8 1958 1971Services EditIn flight services Edit Business class South African Airways Airbus A330 200 300 business class seats have a pitch of 73 and 75 respectively whilst those in the A340 300s 600s are pitched at 73 and 74 respectively in a 2 2 2 configuration in both types Passengers receive a welcome pack a duvet amp full size pillow and a personal touchscreen monitor with audio video on demand South African Airways operates the Airbus A319 and Airbus A320 200 on its domestic and regional routes South African Airways A319 business class seats have a pitch of 36 in a 3 2 configuration whilst the A320 business class seats have a 39 pitch in a 2 2 configuration 179 Economy SAA Airbus A330 and A340 economy class seats have a pitch of 32 in a 2 4 2 configuration Passengers receive a welcome pack a blanket amp full size pillow and a personal touchscreen monitor with audio video on demand The Airbus A319 and A320 economy class seats have a pitch of 31 179 Frequent flyer program Edit Voyager is the frequent flyer program of South African Airways Apart from South African Airlink South African Express and Eswatini Airlink which have an alliance with SAA the program also partners 32 other airlines along with many more businesses 180 Voyager consists of five tiers Blue Silver Gold Platinum and Lifetime Platinum To reach a higher tier members must fly on selected flights to allocate Tier Miles This differs from Base Miles which members can only use to receive awards 181 Accidents and incidents EditOn 16 June 1937 a Junkers Ju 52 3m registration ZS AKY was destroyed by fire after it crashed on take off at Port Elizabeth Airport following engine failure in two engines All on board escaped This was the airline s first accident in which passengers were injured 182 On 16 October 1937 a Junkers W34 fi registration ZS AEC named Sir George Grey crashed during a mail flight The aeroplane was damaged beyond repair 183 On 28 March 1941 a Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar registration ZS AST crashed at Elands Bay South Africa All on board were killed on impact and in the post crash fire 182 184 On 5 January 1948 a Lockheed Model 18 Lodestar registration ZS ASW touched down at Palmietfontein too far along the runway for it to stop before running off the end The undercarriage was ripped off and the hull damaged beyond repair There were light injuries to passengers but no fatalities 182 On 15 October 1951 a Douglas DC 3 registration ZS AVJ named Pardeberg flying in instrument meteorological conditions en route on a domestic flight from Port Elizabeth to Durban flew into Mount Ingeli near Kokstad Western KwaZulu Natal Seventeen people were killed The board of inquiry determined that the unserviceability of ground based radio navigational aids along the route was a major contributing factor 182 184 On 15 September 1952 a Douglas DC 3 registration ZS AVI was damaged beyond repair while attempting to land at an unlit country airport at Carolina South Africa after the crew became lost on a flight to Johannesburg from Livingstone Zambia After attempting to hold for thunderstorms to clear near their destination the crew initiated a landing when their fuel ran low The elevation of the airfield was mis judged and the aircraft hit a rocky outcrop on final approach to the runway No passengers or crew were killed or injured 182 On 8 April 1954 a de Havilland Comet registration G ALYY aka Yoke Yoke Flight 201 departed Rome for Cairo and Johannesburg The aircraft crashed off the coast of Italy killing all 21 people on board Along with BOAC Flight 781 it was one of two Comet crashes caused by a flaw in the design The aircraft was leased from British Overseas Airways Corporation On 29 October 1960 Flight 218 operated by a Boeing 707 344A registration ZS CKC executed a wheels up landing at Nairobi airport after damaging the undercarriage during an impact with the ground on its initial approach No passengers or crew were killed or injured but the aircraft remained out of operation for many months until it was repaired and re introduced into service 182 On 6 March 1962 a Douglas DC 3 registration ZS DJC operating as Flight 512 crashed into a mountainside in the vicinity of Seymour Eastern Cape South Africa after the pilot insisted on conducting the flight under visual flight rules VFR while flying below low cloud above rising ground The pilot and first officer were killed but the passengers and cabin staff survived 182 184 On 30 June 1962 a Douglas DC 4 registration ZS BMH was involved in a mid air collision with a military Harvard training aircraft near Durban airport The military aircraft crashed but the crew managed to land the airliner without injury to passengers or crew despite losing a large part of the vertical stabiliser The aircraft was the last DC 4 manufactured and was repaired and returned to service It is currently owned by the South African Airways Museum Society and still flies 182 On 13 March 1967 a Vickers Viscount 818 registration ZS CVA christened Rietbok operating as Flight 406 crashed into the sea near Kayser s Beach during bad weather while on approach to East London Eastern Cape All twenty five persons on board were killed 182 184 The accident investigation board stated The available data is not sufficient for the originating cause of the accident to be determined with any degree of probability However the board couldn t rule out the possibility that the pilot suffered a heart attack resulting in a loss of control 185 On 20 April 1968 Flight 228 operated by a six week old Boeing 707 344C registration ZS EUW named Pretoria was lost near Windhoek South West Africa now Namibia The crew used a flap retraction sequence from the 707 B series which removed flaps in larger increments than desirable for that stage of the flight leading to a loss of lift at 600 feet 180 m above ground level The subsequent descent went undetected by the crew leading to impact with the ground 123 people died 182 184 On 24 May 1972 the only successful hijacking of a SAA flight took place a Boeing 727 100 registration ZS SBE was en route from Salisbury Rhodesia now known as Harare Zimbabwe to Johannesburg Two Lebanese Kamil and Yagi took control of the aircraft by packing dynamite sticks on the hat racks They were armed with a pistol They forced the pilot Captain Blake Flemington to return to Salisbury where they landed and re fuelled with 12 hostages remaining on board The captain tricked them into thinking that they were en route to the Seychelles while he was in fact heading for Blantyre Malawi After landing the passengers used nightfall to enter the cockpit where they climbed down the emergency escape rope By the time the hijackers realised this only the captain one passenger and a flight steward Dirk Nel remained on the aircraft The two hijackers started fighting with each other for possession of the dynamite fuse In the ensuing chaos the three captives escaped leaving the two hijackers on board Members of the Malawi security forces started shooting and the two surrendered They were jailed for two years on a charge of being in possession of an undeclared firearm on board an aircraft After serving one year of their sentence they were released Boeing 747 244M ZS SAS photographed in 1986 ZS SAS crashed in 1987 as South African Airways Flight 295 On 28 November 1987 a Boeing 747 200B Combi registration ZS SAS and named Helderberg operating as Flight 295 crashed in the Indian Ocean en route from Taipei Taiwan to Johannesburg via Mauritius after a fire in the main cargo hold The cause of the fire is undetermined and a number of conspiracy theories mostly pertaining to the nuclear armaments being produced by the South African government at the time are in circulation surrounding the crash All 159 people on board were killed 184 On 17 June 2006 on South African Airways Flight 322 a Boeing 737 800 en route from Cape Town to Johannesburg a 21 year old Zimbabwean took a flight attendant hostage in an attempt to enter the aircraft s cockpit and divert the aircraft to Maputo Mozambique He was subdued while still in the cabin The pilots had been monitoring the incident via CCTV and the aircraft returned to Cape Town where a police task force stormed the aircraft and arrested the suspect 186 On 24 February 2021 the ACARS unit of South African Airways flight SA4272 from Johannesburg s OR Tambo International Airport to Brussels to fetch COVID 19 vaccines sent an ACARS message about an alpha floor event which was activated when the Airbus A340 600 s envelope protection system activated to override the pilots to prevent the plane from stalling on take off 187 See also EditAirlines of Africa Airlink Congo Express List of companies of South Africa Mango South African Express Transport in South Africa Wikipedia listing of airports in South Africa Dudu Myeni South African Airways Malusi Gigaba South African AirwaysReferences Edit a b c South African Airways resecures its AOC ahead of restart ch aviation 4 August 2021 Retrieved 9 August 2021 a b https www businesslive co za bd national 2021 04 14 saa appoints thomas kgokolo as interim ceo SAA counts R16 billion in losses over three years 15 May 2020 South African Airways SA Airlines Flights amp Specials www sa airlines co za Retrieved 3 October 2019 Flight Destinations South African Airways www flysaa com Retrieved 3 October 2019 Member Airline Details www staralliance com Retrieved 3 October 2019 South African Airways is in business rescue what comes next The Africa Report 9 December 2019 SAA administrators suspend all operations until funding found Reuters 29 September 2020 Takatso Consortium to own 51 of SAA www africaglobalfunds com Retrieved 21 June 2021 Alan Dron 24 September 2021 South African Airways restarts service with limited route network Routes Online Ahead of SAA take off Takatso makes it clear it is not yet involved News24 21 September 2021 World s Top 100 Airlines 2021 Skytrax Retrieved 29 September 2021 a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae South African Airways A Brief History SAA Museum Society Retrieved 17 December 2010 Brief history South African Airways permanent dead link May Daryl 28 April 1966 SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS Flight International Retrieved 22 December 2010 a b SOUTH AFRICA GOES AHEAD Flight International 9 January 1936 Retrieved 29 December 2010 History of Airlines South African Airways www historycentral com Retrieved 17 December 2010 May Daryl 28 April 1966 SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS Flight International Retrieved 23 December 2010 Douglas DC 3 Dakota www saamuseum co za Retrieved 24 May 2019 Marson 1982 pp 244 245 In January 1958 the weekly DC 7B took 20 hr 10 min Heathrow to Johannesburg including the one hour Kano stop SAA CONFIDENT ABOUT GROWTH ON WALLABY ROUTE eTravel Blackboard 20 June 2008 Retrieved 22 December 2010 707 Model Summary Boeing Commercial Airplanes Archived from the original on 24 July 2013 Retrieved 10 December 2010 Pirie G H 1990 Aviation Apartheid and Sanctions Air Transport to and from South Africa 1945 1989 GeoJournal 22 3 231 40 doi 10 1007 BF00192821 S2CID 154691990 a b c d e f g 747 Model Summary Boeing Archived from the original on 1 September 2012 Retrieved 22 December 2010 Lebombo Boeing 747 244B ZS SAN c n 20239 South African Airways Museum saamuseum co za Retrieved 22 December 2010 BELSON JOHN 21 August 1976 Boeing s Special Performer Flight International Retrieved 31 December 2010 Johannesburg Ilha do Sal Amsterdam Great Circle Mapper Retrieved 24 July 2013 A J Christopher 2001 The Atlas of Changing South Africa Routledge Press p 174 ISBN 978 0 415 21178 9 Thousands Rampage Through Harare Upset Over Machel s Death Associated Press 21 October 1986 Pirie G H Aviation apartheid and sanctions air transport to and from South Africa 1945 1989 GeoJournal 22 1990 231 240 a b Introduction South African Airways Museum Society Retrieved 23 December 2010 Our Aircraft www saamuseum co za Retrieved 24 May 2019 Pirie G H Southern African air transport after apartheid Journal of Modern African Studies 30 1992 341 348 Pirie G H Africanisation of South Africa s international air links 1994 2003 Journal of Transport Geography 14 2006 3 14 Beveridge Dirk 9 November 1991 South Africa resumes flights to N Y The Pittsburgh Press Retrieved 24 December 2010 a b Article The Springbok springs back South African Airways Company Profile Highbeam com Retrieved 7 January 2011 dead link a b SAA Pty Ltd FundingUniverse com Retrieved 7 January 2011 About Us SA Express Archived from the original on 19 August 2010 Retrieved 24 December 2010 Daly Kieran 1 7 June 1994 BRAVE NEW WORLD Flight International Retrieved 24 December 2010 THE MEDIA BUSINESS Advertising The New York Times January 9 1996 a b World Airline Directory South African Airways SAA SA Flight International 3 9 April 1996 Retrieved 29 December 2010 Photo Search Results Retrieved 24 April 2015 David Parker Brown 10 June 2010 Guest Blog First hand perspective on airlines in South Africa Airlinereporter com Retrieved 24 December 2010 Chalmers Robyn 31 May 2001 South Africa The Amazing Coleman Andrews Story AllAfrica com Retrieved 24 December 2010 Coleman Andrews Bloomberg Retrieved 1 January 2011 SAA Reacquisition of 20 Shares Held by Swissair Department of Public Enterprises Government of South Africa 21 November 2001 Swissair sells back South African stake BBC News 14 February 2002 a b c d South Africa to buy Airbuses CNN 7 March 2002 Retrieved 24 December 2010 737 Model Summary Boeing Archived from the original on 21 November 2018 Retrieved 27 December 2010 South African Airways Chooses Boeing 737s For Fleet Renewal Press release Seattle Boeing 1 March 2000 Archived from the original on 14 January 2011 Retrieved 27 December 2010 Air Tanzania attracts 20m bid BBC 7 October 2002 Retrieved 27 December 2010 Mande Mike 9 December 2002 Tanzania Air Tanzania Finally Sold to SAA for 20m AllAfrica com Retrieved 27 December 2010 SAA to get out of Air Tanzania blunder Business Report 17 February 2006 Archived from the original on 1 October 2008 Retrieved 14 March 2007 Yahoo Delta Air Lines South African Airways to Codeshare On Flights from Atlanta New York to Johannesburg 28 November 1999 Archived from the original on 28 November 1999 Retrieved 3 August 2021 Deal with Delta Air Lines Gets the Go Ahead Business Day 10 January 2000 Retrieved 3 August 2021 SAA Transnet split awaits new laws PPrune org 20 October 2005 Retrieved 29 December 2010 First African airline to join an alliance Press release Star Alliance 10 June 2006 Retrieved 29 December 2010 South African Airways joins Star Alliance AsiaTravelTips com 11 April 2006 Retrieved 29 December 2010 SAA joins Star Alliance network 21 April 2006 Retrieved 29 December 2010 SAA changes livery for Star Alliance IAfrica com 17 March 2006 Archived from the original on 12 July 2011 Retrieved 29 December 2010 Gearing for growth Annual Report 2006 PDF South African Airways Archived from the original PDF on 31 December 2010 Retrieved 1 January 2011 a b c d SAA to Embark on Airline Restructuring Plan Reuters Johannesburg 4 June 2007 Retrieved 1 December 2010 SAA to overhaul business model Mmegi bw Retrieved 1 January 2011 Restructuring saves SAA R2 5 billion Mail amp Guardian Online 2 June 2009 Retrieved 1 January 2011 Sobie Brendan 30 October 2008 SAA reintroduces 747 400s Flight International Retrieved 30 December 2010 South African Airways Extends 20m ATP Sponsorship Sportbusiness com 20 June 2008 Archived from the original on 10 March 2012 Retrieved 30 December 2010 Wild Franz 21 July 2010 South African Airways Seeks to Recover 4 Million From Former CEO Ngqula Bloomberg Retrieved 30 December 2010 South African Airways appoints new CEO Mail amp Guardian Online 24 February 2010 Retrieved 30 December 2010 South African Airways welcomes new CEO eTravelBlackborad com 26 February 2010 Retrieved 30 December 2010 Baumann Julius 11 March 2009 A Chief Khaya Ngqula Quits Amid Probe AllAfrica com Retrieved 30 December 2010 SAfrica main airline appoints new chief executive Reuters 24 February 2010 Retrieved 30 December 2010 Sobie Brendan 20 May 2010 SAA plans to finally phase out 747 400s at year end Flight International Retrieved 30 December 2010 SAA plans to finally phase out 747 400s at year end Flight International 2010 Retrieved 20 May 2010 ZS SXG South African Airways Airbus A340 300 www planespotters net Retrieved 18 February 2021 ZS SXH South African Airways Airbus A340 300 www planespotters net Retrieved 18 February 2021 Introducing Direct Services to Beijing China South African Airways Retrieved 24 April 2015 South African Airways outlook brightens as recovery plan and partnership strategy roll out centreforaviation com 6 February 2015 Retrieved 7 February 2015 South African Airways Upbeat On Turnaround aviationweek com Reuters SAA to shrink services as part of revamp Retrieved 22 September 2017 Why Citibank pulled the plug on bankrupt SAA Retrieved 22 September 2017 Treasury said to ask PIC for R100bn for state owned enterprises Fin24 Retrieved 22 September 2017 South African Airways to Enter Into Bankruptcy Protection Bloomberg com 4 December 2019 Retrieved 5 December 2019 South African Airways cancels some flights to Munich to save cash Reuters 21 January 2020 businessinsider de 9 February 2020 Business Rescue of South African Airways SOC Limited matusonassociates co za Retrieved 21 May 2020 Gordhan Stakes His Reputation and South Africa s on Airline bloomberg com Retrieved 21 May 2020 How was R5 5bn spent by SAA BRPs Gordhan wants answers moneyweb co za 7 May 2020 Retrieved 21 May 2020 Cele Juniour Khumalo and S thembile ANC allies put their foot down Business rescue practitioners do not own SAA we do Citypress Retrieved 25 June 2021 Government can t interfere in SAA business rescue process unless Jacques Jonker BizNews com 20 February 2020 Retrieved 25 June 2021 Jonker Jacques Accountability is more important than government s desire for control Citypress Retrieved 25 June 2021 Is this the end of SAA Government shoots down funding request Fin24 14 April 2020 Retrieved 19 April 2020 a b Shape up or ship out parliament tells SAA s business rescuers iol co za Retrieved 21 May 2020 a b SAA s business rescue practitioners raked in over R30m without producing a plan iol co za Retrieved 21 May 2020 Full extent of SAA burden on taxpayers revealed at last tourismupdate co za Retrieved 21 May 2020 South African Airways nears collapse plans to fire all staff Executive Traveller Retrieved 19 April 2020 Kaminski Morrow2020 05 07T14 38 00 01 00 David SAA on brink as government scrambles to defer drop dead date Flight Global Retrieved 7 May 2020 Kaminski Morrow2020 05 08T17 57 00 01 00 David SAA defies shutdown as unions claim labour court victory Flight Global Retrieved 9 May 2020 SAA creditors approve turnaround plan CH Aviation Retrieved 22 July 2020 Bloomberg SAA in talks with potential buyers Retrieved 21 August 2020 Kaminski Morrow David 30 September 2020 SAA suspends operations as rescuers seek to preserve finances FlightGlobal Retrieved 30 September 2020 Reuters SAA to go under care and maintenance until funding found www engineeringnews co za Retrieved 12 February 2021 South Africa Defends State Airline Bailout As It Seeks Partners Bloomberg com 28 October 2020 Retrieved 28 October 2020 a b South African Airways Fleet Details and History www planespotters net Retrieved 21 August 2020 businesstech co za New SAA to get partner as it prepares to exit business rescue 15 February 2021 South Africa SAA s new deal gives it wings but no flying the skies just yet The Africa Report com 21 June 2021 Retrieved 21 June 2021 Ndenze Babalo Who s who in the new Takatso Consortium ewn co za Retrieved 21 June 2021 POLICIES amp DISCLAIMER South African Airways Retrieved 23 June 2010 Physical address for receipt of legal service Airways Park 1 Jones Road OR Tambo International Airport Kempton Park Gauteng South Africa Archived copy at the Icelandic Web Archive 17 November 2009 Background permanent dead link Ekurhuleni 3 3 8 Retrieved 30 September 2009 dead link Beaver Robyn 2004 1000 Architects 1 Images Publishing p 504 ISBN 9781876907914 Retrieved 23 June 2010 via Google Books ISBN 1 876907 91 6 ISBN 978 1 876907 91 4 Printable version of the site Stauch Vorster Architects 10 18 Retrieved 23 June 2010 South African Airways A Brief History saamuseum co za Retrieved 12 June 2012 World Airline Directory Flight International 3 9 April 1996 81 Gearing for growth ANNUAL REPORT 2006 PDF South African Airways 2006 Retrieved 12 January 2011 permanent dead link Annual Report 2007 PDF South African Airways Retrieved 13 January 2011 permanent dead link Annual Report 2007 part 2 PDF South African Airways Retrieved 29 September 2013 08 Annual Report Restructuring towards profitability PDF South African Airways Retrieved 13 January 2011 permanent dead link 09 Annual Report Restructuring towards profitability PDF South African Airways Retrieved 14 January 2011 permanent dead link Annual Report 2010 PDF South African Airways Retrieved 24 September 2013 Annual Report 2011 PDF South African Airways Retrieved 24 September 2013 Annual Report 2012 PDF South African Airways Retrieved 24 September 2013 permanent dead link South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2013 South African Airways 2013 Retrieved 12 September 2017 South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2014 South African Airways 2014 Retrieved 12 September 2017 South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2015 South African Airways 2015 Retrieved 12 September 2017 South African Airways Group Integrated Annual Report 2016 South African Airways 2016 Retrieved 12 September 2017 SAA Integrated Report 2017 SAA 31 March 2017 Retrieved 3 April 2018 Another mega fine for SAA Moneyweb co za 25 May 2006 Retrieved 29 December 2010 SAA pays competition penalty Southafrica info 6 June 2007 Archived from the original on 19 September 2011 Retrieved 29 December 2010 SAA pays competition fine iol co za 5 June 2007 permanent dead link Kulula bemoans SAA government bailouts IOL News 17 July 2008 Retrieved 22 December 2010 No more white cadet pilots for SAA Fin24 Retrieved 20 August 2012 SAA training policy evokes anger Fin24 Retrieved 20 August 2012 SAA backtracks on white cadet ban Solidarity PARTY Politicsweb Retrieved 20 August 2012 SAA lifts ban on white cadets Fin24 19 August 2012 Retrieved 10 June 2013 News articles www flysaa com Retrieved 25 August 2015 If Myeni was delinquent so is the entire SAA board lawyer Fin24 21 October 2019 Retrieved 22 November 2019 Cotterill Joseph 15 November 2019 President in showdown with unions over South African Airways Financial Times Retrieved 22 November 2019 Cronje Jan 19 June 2019 Former SAA exec says Dudu Myeni asked staff to do illegal things Fin24 Retrieved 22 November 2019 Lock her up Mzansi s verdict after Dudu Myeni state capture revelations TimesLIVE Retrieved 22 November 2019 Skiti Sabelo Capture leaves SA s talent in tatters The M amp G Online Retrieved 22 November 2019 Ferial Haffajee Why should SAA employees pay for the sins of Dudu Myeni and Jacob Zuma Fin24 14 November 2019 Retrieved 22 November 2019 SAA Pilots Association stands with Numsa Sacca and calls for leadership overhaul IOL Business Report www iol co za Retrieved 22 November 2019 SAA unions reach wage deal if funds are available Fin24 22 November 2019 Retrieved 22 November 2019 a b c d e Our Aircraft SAA Museum Society https www rmwc com team coleman andrews https www flightglobal com viljoen seeks to put the passion back into saa 37170 article https www flightglobal com turmoil at saa as chief resigns 55374 article https pmg org za committee meeting 9995 https www engineeringnews co za article saa appoints chris smyth as acting ceo 2009 02 13 https www bizcommunity com Article 196 534 83063 html https centreforaviation com analysis reports south african airways hits a new low with the suspension of acting ceo vuyisile kona 98087 https www polity org za print version saa suspends acting ceo 2013 02 12 https mg co za article 2015 04 24 saas kalawe resigns as ceo https www timeslive co za sunday times business 2015 07 30 saa acting ceo nico bezuidenhout returns to mango https ewn co za topic saa acting ceo thuli mpshe https www timeslive co za sunday times business 2015 11 18 saa names musa zwane as new ceo https www news24 com fin24 Economy saa ceo vuyani jarana resigns 20190602 https www sanews gov za south africa vuyani jarana appointed saa ceo https www news24 com fin24 companies industrial saa acting ceo zuks ramasia to retire early 20200326 3 https mybroadband co za news government 380892 saa to lose its 11th ceo in 11 years report html CHALLENGING DUDU MYENI 1 OUTA co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 CHALLENGING DUDU MYENI OUTA co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 a b The NPA should investigate the allegations against Dudu Myeni Moneyweb co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA CASE NO 15996 17 PLAINTIFFS OPENING STATEMENT OUTA co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 HIGH COURT OF SOUTH AFRICA CASE NO 15996 17 PLAINTIFFS CLOSING ADDRESS OUTA co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 Myeni was dishonest obstructive and ignored good governance principles while she chaired the SAA board OUTA co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 Dudu Myeni s delinquency case starts after dismissal of yet another application HeraldLive co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 Hat Trick for OUTA in the case against Dudu Myeni Politicsweb co za Retrieved 19 April 2020 DUDU MYENI LOSES BID TO STOP OUTA IN DELINQUENCY CASE oudtshoorncourant com Retrieved 19 April 2020 FORMER SAA BOARD CHAIR DUDU MYENI DECLARED A DELINQUENT DIRECTOR ewn co za Retrieved 28 May 2020 Victory for civil society Dudu Myeni declared delinquent director for life outa co za Retrieved 28 May 2020 Former SAA chair Dudu Myeni declared delinquent director fin24 com Retrieved 28 May 2020 Dudu Myeni failed abysmally declared delinquent director for life timeslive co za Retrieved 28 May 2020 Profile on South African Airways CAPA Centre for Aviation Archived from the original on 3 November 2016 Retrieved 3 November 2016 Africa World Airlines and South African Airways Unveil New Codeshare Agreement Aviation Tribune 31 October 2019 SAA enters into code sharing agreement with TAAG Angola Airlines eNCA SAA and Hawaiian Airlines strike deal The Citizen African News Agency 25 April 2017 Retrieved 25 April 2017 a b 50 Golden Years of Flight First Edition 1984 a b SAA Fleet South African Airways Fleet South African Airways Retrieved 4 July 2017 Voyager Programme Partners South African Airways Archived from the original on 19 August 2010 Retrieved 3 January 2011 About Miles South African Airways Archived from the original on 19 August 2010 Retrieved 5 January 2011 a b c d e f g h i j Young Mark D May 2007 A Firm resolve A History of SAA Accidents and Incidents 1934 1987 Laminar Publishing Associates South Africa Civil Aircraft Register South Africa Archived from the original on 7 January 2009 ASN Aircraft accident 16 October 1937 Junkers W 34 ZS AEC a b c d e f Plane Crash Info Airline Operator Sj Sz planecrashinfo com Error PDF www caa co za Hijacking procedures top notch says SAA Cape Times 20 June 2006 SAA probed after extraordinarily dangerous take off Further reading EditMarson Peter J 1982 The Lockheed Constellation Series Air Britain Historians Ltd ISBN 0 85130 100 2 South African Airways A Brief History SAA Museum Society South African Airways FUBAR Word of Mouth Music OUTA SOUTH AFRICAN AIRWAYS SAA amp BNP CAPITAL Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse OUTA CHALLENGING DUDU MYENI Organisation Undoing Tax Abuse External links Edit Media related to South African Airways at Wikimedia Commons Official website South African Airways at the Wayback Machine archived 10 December 1997 Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South African Airways amp oldid 1053002710, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.