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South African Republic

Not to be confused with the modern-day Republic of South Africa.

The South African Republic (Dutch: Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek; the ZAR; also known as the Transvaal Republic, Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Republiek) was an independent and internationally recognised state in what is now South Africa, from 1852 to 1902.

South African Republic
Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek
1852–1877
1881–1902
Motto: "Eendragt maakt magt"
Anthem: "Volkslied van Transvaal"
CapitalPretoria
  • • 1858–1860
  • • 1880–1881 (exile)
Official languageDutch
• Common languages
English, Pedi, and other Bantu languages
Religion
Dutch Reformed Church
GovernmentParliamentary republic and a republic under British suzerainty
Executive Council
• 1857–1860
Marthinus W. Pretorius
• 1860–1862
Stephanus Schoeman
• 1862–1864
W. C. J. van Rensburg
• 1864–1866
Marthinus Pretorius
State President
• 1866–1871
Marthinus W. Pretorius
• 1872–1877
Thomas F. Burgers
• 1883–1902
Paul Kruger
• 1900–1902 (acting)
Schalk Willem Burger
State Secretary
• 1880–1888
Willem Eduard Bok
• 1888–1898
Willem Johannes Leyds
• 1898–1902
Francis William Reitz
LegislatureVolksraad
Establishment
17 January 1852
7 October 1862
12 April 1877
12 December 1880
3 August 1881
27 February 1884
11 October 1899
31 May 1902
Area
• Total
191,789 km2 (74,050 sq mi)
Population
• 1897
867,941
CurrencySouth African pound
Today part ofSouth Africa
Eswatini

The Republic defeated the British Empire in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902, when it was forced to surrender to the British after Lord Kitchener authorised the use of a scorched earth policy and concentration camps to hold captured Boer women and children. More than 27,000 of these civilians died as result. After the war the territory of the ZAR became the Transvaal Colony. During World War I, there was an attempt at resurrecting the republic in the Maritz rebellion.

The land area that was once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng, Limpopo, Mpumalanga, and North West in the northeastern portion of the modern-day Republic of South Africa.

Contents

In 1853 the Volksraad adopted a resolution briefly adopting the name of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek (South African Republic). The same year, the Volksraad renamed the state to the Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Benoorden de Vaalrivier (South African Republic to the North of the Vaal River). In 1858, the constitution permanently established the name of the country as the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek. The ZAR was also commonly referred to as Transvaal in reference to the area beyond (or "trans") the Vaal River, including by the British and European press. The British objected to the use of the name Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek. After the end of the First Boer War, the ZAR came under British suzerainty and in the Pretoria Convention of 3 August 1881, the British insisted on the use of the name Transvaal State over Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek. This convention was renegotiated in a subsequent treaty between Britain and the ZAR, the London Convention of 27 February 1884, where Britain acquiesced to the ZAR's demands to revert to the use of the previous name.

The name of the South African Republic was of such political significance that on 1 September 1900, the British declared by special proclamation that the name of the country be changed from Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek to the Transvaal. This proclamation was issued during the British occupation of the region in the Second Boer War and while the ZAR was still nominally an independent country.

On 31 May 1902, the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed with the government of the South African Republic, the Orange Free State government, and the British government, ending the war, and converted the ZAR into the Transvaal Colony. Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910, the Transvaal Colony became Transvaal Province. The name Transvaal was finally changed in 1994, when the post-apartheid African National Congress-dominated South African government broke up the province into four provinces and renamed the core region Gauteng.[citation needed]

Establishment

The South African Republic came into existence on 17 January 1852, when the British signed the Sand River Convention treaty with about 40,000 Boer people, recognising their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River.

The first president of the ZAR was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius, elected in 1857, son of Boer leader Andries Pretorius, who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River. The capital was established at Potchefstroom and later moved to Pretoria. The parliament was called the Volksraad and had 24 members.

British annexation

The unpopular presidency of Thomas F. Burgers came to a head with his campaign against the Bapedi under Sekhukhune. The republic close to bankruptcy and his siege of Sekhukhune's stronghold failed because commando members objected to Burgers's theology, calling him a heretic, and abandoned the siege in droves. Burgers, having failed to eliminate the threat of the Bapedi, resigned and left the country. A. N. Pelzer writes: "Although Sekhukhune made overtures for peace, he was not defeated and this fact, together with the shaky financial position, gave Sir Theophilus Shepstone the pretext he required to annex the republic [as the Transvaal, a British colony, on 12 April 1877."

Sir Garnet Wolseley, High Commissioner for South East Africa, declared war on Sekhukhune, and with the aid of British troops and allied troops – including the Swazis who had supported Burgers – and in 1879 defeated him and imprisoned him in Pretoria. With the threat of Sekhukhune removed, the burghers were no longer so amenable to British rule.

On 13 December 1880, the members of the last Volksraad were summoned to a meeting at Paardekraal, where authority was placed in the hands of a triumvirate comprising Paul Kruger, Piet Joubert and Marthinus W. Pretorius. They declared Heidelberg their seat of government and hoisted the Vierkleur there on 16 December. The war – not officially declared to the occupying British troops – opened with an irregular attack on a British regiment on the march at Bronkhorstspruit. The British garrisons in the Transvaal were besieged, but only one fell to the republicans.

The British suffered defeat at Laing's Nek and Ingogo, and on 27 February 1881, at Majuba, where General Sir George Pomeroy Colley fell at the head of his troops. While the British would in other circumstances have sent more troops and defeated the rebels, Prime Minister William Gladstone chose to make peace. Drawing up of the detailed peace treaty (the Pretoria Convention) was left in the hands of a royal commission comprising Sir Hercules Robinson, General Sir Evelyn Wood and Justice John de Villiers of the Cape Colony. Britain now referred to the territory as the Transvaal State, but the Volksraad regarded the old South African Republic as having been restored.[citation needed]

Independence

The ZAR became fully independent on 27 February 1884, when the London Convention was signed. The country independently also entered into various agreements with other foreign countries after that date. On 3 November 1884 the country signed a postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony and later a similar convention with the Orange Free State.

In November 1859, the independent Republics of Lijdenburg and Utrecht merged with the ZAR. On 9 May 1887, burghers from the territories of Stellaland and Goosen (sometimes referred to as "Goshen") were granted rights to the ZAR franchise. On 25 July 1895 the burghers that took part in the battle at Zoutpansberg, were granted citizenship of the ZAR.

1st ZAR President Marthinus Pretorius

The constitution of the ZAR was legally interesting for its time. It contained provisions for the division between the political leadership and office bearers in government administration. The legal system consisted of higher and lower courts and had adopted a jury system. Laws were enforced by the South African Republic Police (Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Politie or ZARP) which were divided into Mounted Police (Rijdende Politie) and Foot Police.

On 10 April 1902, the Magistrates Court powers were extended to increase the civil ceiling amounts and to expand criminal jurisdiction to include all criminal cases not punishable by death or banishment. Also established were municipal government, the Witwatersrand District Court and the High Court of Transvaal.

Demographics

The State Almanac for 1897 states that the total white population was 245,397; with the total black population being 622,544.

Statistics of White Population of the South African Republic
District White
Males Females Total
Barberton 3,500 2,900 6,400
Bloemhof 2,000 1,600 3,600
Boksburg 3,200 2,100 5,300
Carolina 2,500 1,200 3,700
Ermelo 2,700 1,850 4,650
Heidelberg 5,770 2,050 7,820
Johannesburg (town) 32,387 18,520 50,907
Johannesburg (neighbourhood) 4,000 2,500 6,500
Krugersdorp 10,600 9,950 20,450
Lichtenburg 3,600 3,000 6,500
Lydenburg 1,600 1,250 2,750
Marico 3,600 3,000 6,500
Middelburg 5,500 4,000 9,500
Piet-Retief 600 660 1,160
Potchefstroom 12,600 12,300 24,900
Pretoria 15,700 14,600 30,300
Rustenburg 5,600 5,000 10,600
Standerton 3,600 3,750 7,550
Utrecht 1,750 1,100 2,860
Vrijheid 2,640 2,520 5,160
Wakkerstroom 6,000 6,700 11,700
Waterberg 2,600 2,300 4,900
Wolmaranstad 1,600 1,600 3,100
Zoutpansberg 4,500 4,200 8,700
Total 137,947 107,450 245,397

Religion

Initially, the state and church were not separated in the constitution; citizens of the ZAR had to be members of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk – a breakaway of the Dutch Reformed Church. In 1858, these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad to approve other Dutch Christian churches. The Dopper Church was approved by the Volksraad in 1858, which had the effect of allowing Paul Kruger, a Dopper himself, to remain a citizen of the ZAR. The Bible itself was also often used to interpret the intention of legal documents. The Bible was also used to interpret a prisoner exchange agreement, reached in terms of the Sand River Convention, between a commando of the ZAR, led by Kruger, and a Commando of the Orange Free State.[citation needed]

President Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff had issued a death sentence over two ZAR citizens, for treason. Kruger argued with President Boshoff that the Bible said punishment does not mean a death sentence and at the prisoner exchange, it was agreed that the accused would be punished if found guilty. After double-checking Commandant Kruger's Bible, President Boshoff commuted the sentences to lashes with a sjambok.

Citizenship

Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger's wagon

Citizenship of the ZAR was legislated by the constitution as well as Law No 7 of 1882, as amended on 23 June 1890. Citizenship was gained by being born in the republic or by naturalisation. The voting age was 16 years. Persons not born in the republic could become citizens by taking the prescribed oath and procuring the letters of naturalisation. The oath involved abandoning, discarding and renouncing all allegiance and subjugation towards foreign sovereignties and in particular their previous citizenship. Under a law of 1855, only white people were permitted to be citizens of the ZAR and to own land. The constitution of the ZAR stated: "The volk (people) are not prepared to allow any equality of the non-white with the white inhabitants, either in the church or the state".

The Witwatersrand gold rush led to an influx of Indians and Chinese into the new city of Johannesburg that was emerging on the veld, which led the volksraad to pass Law Number 3, which was aimed at stopping Asian immigration into the Transvaal. Under Law Number 3, all Asians which were defined as "Coolies, Chinese etc, Arabs, Malays, and Mohammedan subjects of the Turkish dominion" were forbidden from owning fixed property, had to register with the local magistrate within 8 days of arriving, were restricted to living in certain neighborhoods and had to pay an entry free of £25. The Indian merchants, who were classified as "Arabs", objected to this law and appealed to the British government to protect their rights as British subjects. Following British diplomatic pressure, Law Number 3 was amended by the volksraad in 1887 to allow the "Asiatics" the right to own fixed property, though not land, and the entry fee was lowered to £3. Because the Indians in the ZAR had the British government to protect them, the anti-Asian laws in the ZAR tended to single out the Chinese, through the Hong Kong Chinese were like the Indians able to claim as British subjects certain exemptions from the anti-Chinese laws.

To be eligible for citizenship, white foreigners had to have been residing in the Republic for a period of two years, be of good character and have been accepted as member of the Dutch Reformed or Reformed Church. On 20 September 1893 the ZAR Constitution was amended so that two-thirds of the Volksraad would have to agree to changes to the citizenship law. This proclamation, No 224, also changed Law No 7 with regard to voting.

All citizens who were born in the ZAR or had obtained their franchise prior to 23 June 1890 would have the right to vote for both the first and second Volksraad and in all other elections. Citizens who obtained their franchise through naturalization after 23 June 1890 would be able to vote in all elections, except those for the first Volksraad. The total population of the republic in 1890 was an estimated 120,000 people.

In common with the Orange Free State, the basis of the military of the ZAR was the kommando system under which all able-bodied burghers could be called up for military service under their own elected officers. The men of the kommandos wore no uniforms and had no medals. The basic officer was the field cornet who was elected by the local burghers and performed both military and administrative functions in his district. The field cornet was responsible for collecting taxes, performing the census, training the male burghers, collecting arms and with upholding the power of the state over the local black population. The commander of the ZAR's military was the elected commandant-general who like the field cornets performed both military and political functions. The commandant-general was responsible for buying guns and ammunition, fixed the prices of commodities and most importantly controlled the ivory trade. The economy of the Transvaal was very much a barter economy, and ivory was one of the principal currencies used in trade and commence. The professional military of the ZAR was the Staatsartillerie (State Artillery), who in 1899 numbered 314 men. The Staatsartillerie was armed with the modern Krupp artillery guns imported from Germany, and whose second-in-command was the Austrian officer Captain Adolf Zboril, who did his best to bring up the Staatsartillerie to the level of a European army. The closest the ZAR had to a professional infantry and cavalry was the para-military ZARP (Zuid-Afrikaansche Republiek Politie-South African Republic Police). In 1899, the ZAR had about 30, 000 men who were called up to serve in the kommandos.

Through in theory, any white male burgher could be elected to a military office, in practice the men who were elected came from the wealthier families, who used their wealth to build up patronage networks that put the poorer farmers into their debt in one manner or another. The South African historian Ian van der Waag described Boer society as being characterized by a quasi-feudalism as the wealthier families set themselves up as something alike to the marcher lords of medieval Europe. The field cornets often waged war against the local African peoples in order to seize land, ivory and people to redistribute to their followers in order to win election to higher offices in the republic. There was a strong dynastic element to the election of generals who commanded the kommandos as there was a tendency for men from the same families to be elected to the office of general over the generations. In 1899, the average age of a general in the ZAR was 58 and the majority had a very limited education. In a society that venerated age, the most respected man was the takhaar, the wealthy patriarch with the long hair and long beard that indicated wisdom, and these were accordingly the people most likely to be elected as officers. Most of the takhaars serving as officers in 1899 were in some way connected to President Paul Kruger, either by ties of blood or marriage.

The language spoken and written by the citizens of the ZAR was a variant of Dutch, locally referred to as Hooghollands. On 3 October 1884. the Volksraad stated that they had reason to believe that in certain schools impure Dutch (in fact an early form of Afrikaans) was being used. The Volksraad issued Proclamation 207 and compelled the Superintendent of Education to apply the language law enforcing the exclusive use of Dutch. On 30 July 1888, Dutch language was declared the sole official language, in court as well as education, trade and general use. All other languages were declared "foreign".

These changes to the ZAR laws made the use of all other foreign languages illegal in the ZAR. On 1 October 1895 Alfred Fernandez Harington was appointed English master at the Staats Model School in Pretoria. Use of any foreign language was subject to criminal penalty and fine of £20 (ZAR) for each offence. The British similarly had declared English to be the only language spoken in the Cape Colony some decades earlier to outlaw[dubiousdiscuss] the Dutch language. The discovery of gold in 1885 led to a major influx of foreigners. By 1896, the language of government and citizens remained Dutch but in many market places, shops and homes the English language was spoken.

War with Mapela and Makapaan, 1854

Hendrik Potgieter was elected at the assembly of 1849 as commandant general for life and it became necessary, to avoid strife, to appoint three commandants general all possessing equal powers.: 41 Commandant General Andries Pretorius became commandant general of the Potchefstroom and Rustenburg districts. On 16 December 1852, Commandant General Potgieter died and his son, Piet, was appointed in his stead as commandant general of the Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg districts.

There were some disputes over cattle which Mapela was raising on behalf of Potgieter and earlier Commandant Scholtz had confiscated a large number of rifles and amounts of ammunition, rifle repair equipment and materials of war from the home of English missionary, The Rev Mr Livingstone. Livingstone admitted to storing these for Secheli and by this he was acting in breach of the Sand River Convention of 1852, which prescribed that neither arms nor ammunition should be supplied to the natives.: 40 In 1853, Herman Potgieter was called to Mapela to come and cull the elephant population.: 42

When Herman arrived, Maphela took Herman, his son, his groom and a few other burghers to show them where the elephants were. On the way, Mapela and hundreds of natives attacked the Potgieter party. They killed Herman's son, Andries, and then dragged Herman up a hill, where they proceeded to skin him alive. They stopped once they had torn the entrails from his body.: 43 At the same time of these events, the Ndebele chief Magobane (known to the Boers as Makapaan) attacked and killed an entire convoy of women and children traveling to Pretoria. The two chiefs had concluded an agreement to murder all the Europeans in their respective districts: 44 and to keep the cattle that they were raising for the Europeans.

General Piet Potgieter set out with 100 men from Zoutpansberg and Commandant General Pretorius left Pretoria with 200 men. After the commandos met up, they first attacked Magobane and the natives were driven back to their caves in the mountains where they lived before. The Boers held them at siege in their caves and eventually hundreds of women and children came out.

Orphan children of the native tribes were booked in strictly controlled by legal process, at appointed Boer families to look after them until they came of age.: 47 The administration was similar to the system of indentured workers, which was simply another form of slavery, with the exception that children so registered had to be released at age 16. The commando would return all such children to the nearest landdrost district, for registration and allocation to a Boer family.

As there were slavers and other criminals dealing in children, any burgher found in possession of an unregistered minor child was guilty of a criminal offence. These children were also often called "oorlams" in reference to being overly used to the Dutch culture, and in reference to a hand-raised orphan sheep, or "hanslam". These children, even after their 16th birthday, and being free to come and go as they please, never re-connected with their own culture and own language and except for surviving and being cared for in terms of food and shelter, were basically forcefully divorced from their native tribe forever.

Among the casualties of this war was Commandant General Potgieter.: 46 The natives were armed with rifles and were good shots. The general was killed by a native sniper on the ridge of a trench and his body recovered by then commandant Paul Kruger whilst under heavy fire from the natives. What remained of the joint commando, now under command of General Pretorius focussed their attention on Mapela. By the time the commando had reached Mapela, the natives had fled. A few wagons, bloody clothes, chests and other goods were discovered at a kop near Mapela's town. Mapela and his soldiers escaped and with their rifles and ammunition intact and Mapela was only captured much later, in 1858.

Civil War, 1861–1864

Main article: Transvaal Civil War

Commandant-General Stephanus Schoeman did not accept the Volksraad proclamation of 20 September 1858, under which members of the Reformed Churches of South Africa would be entitled to citizenship of the ZAR. Consequently, Paul Kruger was not accepted as a citizen and disallowed from political intercourse. Acting President van Rensburg called a special meeting of the general council of the Dutch Reformed Church, which then voted in a special resolution to allow members of the Reformed Church access to the franchise.

Sekhukune War, 1876

In 1876, a war between the ZAR and the Bapedi broke out over cattle theft and land encroachment. The Volksraad declared war on the Pedi leader, Sekhukune, on 16 May 1876. The war only began in July 1876. The president of the ZAR, Burgers led an army of 2000 burghers and was joined by a strong force of Swazi warriors. The Swazis joined the war to aid Mampuru, who was ousted from his position of chieftain by Sekhukune.

One of the early battles occurred at Botsabelo Mission Station on 13 July 1876, against Johannes Dinkwanyane, who was Sekhukune's brother. The Boer forces were led by Commandant Coetzee and accompanied by Swazi warriors. The Swazi warriors launched a surprise and successful attack while the Boers held back. Seeing this, the Swazis refused to hand over to the Boers any spoils from the battle, thereafter leaving and returning to Swaziland. Dinkwanyane's followers also surrendered after this campaign.

First Boer War, 1880–1881

Main article: First Boer War
President Paul Kruger in 1898

On 12 April 1877, the British issued the "Annexation of the S. A. Republic to the British Empire." In it, the British stated that the country was "unstable, ungovernable, bankrupt and facing civil war", though in reality they wished to annex it merely for its strategic position, using the skirmishes merely as a poor excuse to justify this. The unsuccessful annexation apparently would not suspend self-government, but nonetheless attempted to convert the ZAR into a colony of the British Empire.

The ZAR recognised this proclamation as an act of aggression, and resisted. Instead of declaring war, the country decided to send a delegation to the United Kingdom and the United States, to protest. This did not have any effect, and the First Boer War formally broke out on 20 December 1880. The First Boer War was the first conflict since the American Revolution in which the British had been decisively defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty under unfavourable terms.

It would see the introduction of the khaki uniform, marking the beginning of the end of the famous Redcoat. The Battle of Laing's Nek would be the last occasion on which a British regiment carried its official regimental colours into battle. The Pretoria Convention of 1881 was signed on 3 August 1881 and ratified on 25 October 1881 by the ZAR, where the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek is referred to by the name "Transvaal Territory". The Pretoria Convention of 1881 was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention, and in which the British suzerainty over the South African Republic, was relinquished.

The British Government, in the London Convention, accepted the name of the country as the South African Republic. The convention was signed in duplicate in London on 27 February 1884, by Hercules Robinson, Paul Kruger, Stephanus Jacobus du Toit and Nicolaas Smit, and later ratified by the South African Republic Volksraad. In 1885, rich gold reefs were discovered. ZAR burghers were farmers and not miners and much of the mining fell to immigrants. The immigrants were also referred to as "outlanders". By 1897, immigrants had invested over 300,000,000 British Pounds in the ZAR goldfields.

Malaboch War, 1894

The Malaboch War was between Chief Malaboch (Mmaleboho, Mmaleboxo) of the Bahananwa (Xananwa) people and the South African Republic (ZAR) Government led by Commandant-General Piet Joubert. Malboch refused to pay taxes to the Transvaal after it was given back to the Boers in 1881 by the British, which resulted in a military drive against him by the South African Republic (ZAR)..

Second Boer War, 1899–1902

Main article: Second Boer War
Piet Cronjé's followers delivering up their rifles

The British first attacked the ZAR with the December 1895 Jameson Raid, which ended in failure. British forces started building up troops and resources at the borders, followed by a demand for voting rights for the ZAR's 60,000 foreign nationals—of whom 50,000 were British. Kruger rejected the British demand and called for the withdrawal of British troops from the ZAR's borders. When the British refused, Kruger declared war against Britain, Britain received assistance from its possessions Australia, and Canada, as well as Natal and the Cape Colony.

The Second Boer War was a watershed for the British Army in particular and for the British Empire as a whole. The British used concentration camps where women and children were held without adequate food or medical care. The abhorrent conditions in these camps caused the death of 4,177 women and 22,074 children under 16; death rates were between 344 and 700 per 1000 per year.

The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed on 31 May 1902. The treaty ended the existence of the ZAR and the Orange Free State as independent Boer republics and placed them within the British Empire. On 20 May 1903, an Inter Colonial Council was established to manage the colonies of the British Government. The Boers were promised eventual limited self-government and this was granted in 1906 and 1907. The Union of South Africa was established in 1910.

Maritz Rebellion, 1914–1915

Main article: Maritz Rebellion

The Maritz rebellion was an armed insurrection which occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I. It was led by Boers who created a provisional government and sought to reestablish the South African Republic in the Transvaal. Many members of the South African government were themselves former Boers who had fought with the Maritz rebels against the British in the Second Boer War. The self-proclaimed rebel republic allied with Germany, with whom Britain and South Africa were at war. Boer Commandos operated in and out of bordering German South West Africa. By 1915, the rebellion had failed, and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment.

All the east–west railways were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company, while lines were built from the Cape and Natal, and one to Pietersburg was built by a private British company

The discovery of gold during the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886 changed the economic fortunes of the formerly impoverished ZAR. The city of Johannesburg was founded as a gold mining town in the same year. Within 10 years it would be the largest city in the entire Southern Africa, surpassing Cape Town.[citation needed]

The discovery of gold allowed the construction of a railway network in the ZAR. The east–west railways in the ZAR, and notably the line from Pretoria to Lourenço Marques in Portuguese East Africa, were constructed by the Netherlands-South African Railway Company. The construction of the Pretoria-Lourenço Marques line allowed the ZAR access to harbour facilities not controlled by the British Empire, a key policy of Paul Kruger who deemed it vital to the country's long-term survival.[citation needed]

The flag of the South African Republic featured three horizontal stripes of red, white and blue (mirroring the flag of the Netherlands) with a vertical green stripe at the hoist, and was known as the Vierkleur (English: "Four colour"). While the only legislation describing the flag required that the green panel be inscribed "Eendracht maakt macht" ("Unity makes strength," the motto of the republic), this was in fact rarely seen, and instead the motto was displayed with the republic's coat of arms. The Vierkleur was later incorporated into the flag of South Africa between 1928 and 1994.

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  33. Waag 2005, p. 24.
  34. Waag 2005, p. 25-26.
  35. Jansen, E. (2017). "Afrikaans: A Language on the Move". In Gosselink, M.; et al. (eds.). Good Hope: South Africa and The Netherlands from 1600. Pretoria: Protea Boekhuis. p. 341. ISBN 9789460043130.
  36. Coetzee, A. J. (1948). Standaard Afrikaans(PDF). Afrikaner Pers. Retrieved17 September 2014.
  37. Law number 1, Article 7 of 1882, Locale Wetten der Z.A Rep. I, 1071.
  38. Eybers 1917, pp. 481–482. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  39. Law articles 1017/1025 dd. 13 Juli 1888 & article 1026/1027, dd. 14 Juli 1888 & article 1030, dd. 16 Juli 1888.
  40. Eybers 1917, p. 483. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  41. Kachru, B.; et al. (2009). The Handbook of World Englishes. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 160–161. ISBN 978-1-40518831-9.
  42. De Villiers, J. (1896). The Transvaal. London: Chatto & Windus. p. 14.
  43. Kinsey, H. W. (June 1973). "The Sekukuni wars". Military History Journal. The South African Military History Society. 2 (5). Retrieved28 September 2014.
  44. Eybers 1917, pp. 448–449. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  45. Eybers 1917, pp. 448–453. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  46. Eybers 1917, pp. 454–455. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  47. Eybers 1917, pp. 456–457. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  48. Eybers 1917, pp. 469–470. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  49. "THE SIEGE OF LEBOHO: - South African Military History Society - Journal". samilitaryhistory.org. Retrieved6 January 2020.
  50. "Chief Malaboch is taken prisoner | South African History Online". www.sahistory.org.za. Retrieved6 January 2020.
  51. C. N. Connolly, "Manufacturing 'spontaneity': The Australian offers of troops for the Boer War." Australian Historical Studies 18.70 (1978): 106–117.
  52. Carman Miller, "Loyalty, Patriotism and Resistance: Canada's Response to the Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902." South African Historical Journal 41.1 (1999): 312–323.
  53. Hobhouse, E. (1902). The Brunt of the War. Methuen & Co.
  54. Totten, S.; Bartrop, P. R. (2008). "Concentration Camps, South African War". Dictionary of Genocide. Westport: Greenwood Press. pp. 84–85. ISBN 9780313346415.
  55. Eybers 1917, p. 516. sfn error: no target: CITEREFEybers1917 (help)
  56. T. R. H. Davenport, "The South African Rebellion, 1914." English Historical Review 78.306 (1963): 73–94 online.
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South African Republic
South African Republic Language Watch Edit Not to be confused with the modern day Republic of South Africa The South African Republic Dutch Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek the ZAR also known as the Transvaal Republic Afrikaans Suid Afrikaanse Republiek was an independent and internationally recognised state in what is now South Africa from 1852 to 1902 South African RepublicZuid Afrikaansche Republiek1852 1877 1881 1902Flag Coat of armsMotto Eendragt maakt magt Anthem Volkslied van Transvaal source source track CapitalPretoria 1858 1860 1880 1881 exile PotchefstroomHeidelbergOfficial languageDutch Common languagesEnglish Pedi and other Bantu languagesReligionDutch Reformed Church a GovernmentParliamentary republic and a republic under British suzeraintyExecutive Council 1857 1860Marthinus W Pretorius 1860 1862Stephanus Schoeman 1862 1864W C J van Rensburg 1864 1866Marthinus PretoriusState President 1866 1871Marthinus W Pretorius 1872 1877Thomas F Burgers 1883 1902Paul Kruger 1900 1902 acting Schalk Willem BurgerState Secretary 1880 1888Willem Eduard Bok 1888 1898Willem Johannes Leyds 1898 1902Francis William ReitzLegislatureVolksraadEstablishment Sand River Convention17 January 1852 Civil War7 October 1862 Transvaal Colony12 April 1877 First Boer War12 December 1880 Pretoria Convention3 August 1881 London Convention27 February 1884 Second Boer War11 October 1899 Treaty of Vereeniging31 May 1902Area Total191 789 km2 74 050 sq mi Population 1897867 941CurrencySouth African poundPreceded by Succeeded byKlein VrystaatNieuwe RepubliekZoutpansbergLydenburg RepublicPotchefstroom Transvaal ColonyToday part ofSouth Africa Eswatini The Republic defeated the British Empire in what is often referred to as the First Boer War and remained independent until the end of the Second Boer War on 31 May 1902 when it was forced to surrender to the British after Lord Kitchener authorised the use of a scorched earth policy and concentration camps to hold captured Boer women and children More than 27 000 of these civilians died as result After the war the territory of the ZAR became the Transvaal Colony During World War I there was an attempt at resurrecting the republic in the Maritz rebellion The land area that was once the ZAR now comprises all or most of the provinces of Gauteng Limpopo Mpumalanga and North West in the northeastern portion of the modern day Republic of South Africa Contents 1 Name and etymology 2 History 2 1 Establishment 2 2 British annexation 2 3 Independence 3 Constitution and laws 3 1 Demographics 3 2 Religion 3 3 Citizenship 4 Military 5 Language 6 Military history 6 1 War with Mapela and Makapaan 1854 6 2 Civil War 1861 1864 6 3 Sekhukune War 1876 6 4 First Boer War 1880 1881 6 5 Malaboch War 1894 6 6 Second Boer War 1899 1902 6 7 Maritz Rebellion 1914 1915 7 Economy and transport 8 Flag 9 Books and articles 10 Notes 11 References 12 External linksName and etymology EditIn 1853 the Volksraad adopted a resolution briefly adopting the name of the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek South African Republic The same year the Volksraad renamed the state to the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Benoorden de Vaalrivier South African Republic to the North of the Vaal River 1 In 1858 the constitution permanently established the name of the country as the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek 2 The ZAR was also commonly referred to as Transvaal in reference to the area beyond or trans the Vaal River 3 including by the British and European press The British objected to the use of the name Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek After the end of the First Boer War the ZAR came under British suzerainty and in the Pretoria Convention of 3 August 1881 4 the British insisted on the use of the name Transvaal State over Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek 5 This convention was renegotiated in a subsequent treaty between Britain and the ZAR the London Convention of 27 February 1884 6 where Britain acquiesced to the ZAR s demands to revert to the use of the previous name 7 The name of the South African Republic was of such political significance that on 1 September 1900 the British declared by special proclamation that the name of the country be changed from Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek to the Transvaal 8 This proclamation was issued during the British occupation of the region in the Second Boer War and while the ZAR was still nominally an independent country On 31 May 1902 the Treaty of Vereeniging was signed with the government of the South African Republic the Orange Free State government and the British government ending the war and converted the ZAR into the Transvaal Colony Following the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910 the Transvaal Colony became Transvaal Province The name Transvaal was finally changed in 1994 when the post apartheid African National Congress dominated South African government broke up the province into four provinces and renamed the core region Gauteng citation needed History EditEstablishment Edit The South African Republic came into existence on 17 January 1852 9 when the British signed the Sand River Convention treaty with about 40 000 Boer people recognising their independence in the region to the north of the Vaal River The first president of the ZAR was Marthinus Wessel Pretorius elected in 1857 son of Boer leader Andries Pretorius who commanded the Boers to victory at the Battle of Blood River The capital was established at Potchefstroom and later moved to Pretoria The parliament was called the Volksraad and had 24 members British annexation Edit The unpopular presidency of Thomas F Burgers came to a head with his campaign against the Bapedi under Sekhukhune The republic close to bankruptcy and his siege of Sekhukhune s stronghold failed because commando members objected to Burgers s theology calling him a heretic and abandoned the siege in droves Burgers having failed to eliminate the threat of the Bapedi resigned and left the country A N Pelzer writes Although Sekhukhune made overtures for peace he was not defeated and this fact together with the shaky financial position gave Sir Theophilus Shepstone the pretext he required to annex the republic as the Transvaal a British colony on 12 April 1877 10 11 Sir Garnet Wolseley High Commissioner for South East Africa declared war on Sekhukhune and with the aid of British troops and allied troops including the Swazis who had supported Burgers and in 1879 defeated him and imprisoned him in Pretoria With the threat of Sekhukhune removed the burghers were no longer so amenable to British rule On 13 December 1880 the members of the last Volksraad were summoned to a meeting at Paardekraal where authority was placed in the hands of a triumvirate comprising Paul Kruger Piet Joubert and Marthinus W Pretorius They declared Heidelberg their seat of government and hoisted the Vierkleur there on 16 December The war not officially declared to the occupying British troops opened with an irregular attack on a British regiment on the march at Bronkhorstspruit The British garrisons in the Transvaal were besieged but only one fell to the republicans The British suffered defeat at Laing s Nek and Ingogo and on 27 February 1881 at Majuba where General Sir George Pomeroy Colley fell at the head of his troops While the British would in other circumstances have sent more troops and defeated the rebels Prime Minister William Gladstone chose to make peace Drawing up of the detailed peace treaty the Pretoria Convention was left in the hands of a royal commission comprising Sir Hercules Robinson General Sir Evelyn Wood and Justice John de Villiers of the Cape Colony Britain now referred to the territory as the Transvaal State but the Volksraad regarded the old South African Republic as having been restored citation needed Independence Edit The ZAR became fully independent on 27 February 1884 when the London Convention was signed The country independently also entered into various agreements with other foreign countries after that date On 3 November 1884 the country signed a postal convention with the government of the Cape Colony and later a similar convention with the Orange Free State 12 In November 1859 13 the independent Republics of Lijdenburg and Utrecht merged with the ZAR On 9 May 1887 burghers from the territories of Stellaland and Goosen sometimes referred to as Goshen were granted rights to the ZAR franchise 14 On 25 July 1895 the burghers that took part in the battle at Zoutpansberg 15 were granted citizenship of the ZAR Constitution and laws Edit 1st ZAR President Marthinus Pretorius The constitution of the ZAR was legally interesting for its time It contained provisions for the division between the political leadership and office bearers in government administration The legal system consisted of higher and lower courts and had adopted a jury system Laws were enforced by the South African Republic Police Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Politie or ZARP which were divided into Mounted Police Rijdende Politie and Foot Police On 10 April 1902 the Magistrates Court powers were extended to increase the civil ceiling amounts and to expand criminal jurisdiction to include all criminal cases not punishable by death or banishment Also established were municipal government the Witwatersrand District Court and the High Court of Transvaal 16 Demographics Edit The State Almanac for 1897 states that the total white population was 245 397 with the total black population being 622 544 17 Statistics of White Population of the South African Republic District WhiteMales Females TotalBarberton 3 500 2 900 6 400Bloemhof 2 000 1 600 3 600Boksburg 3 200 2 100 5 300Carolina 2 500 1 200 3 700Ermelo 2 700 1 850 4 650Heidelberg 5 770 2 050 7 820Johannesburg town 32 387 18 520 50 907Johannesburg neighbourhood 4 000 2 500 6 500Krugersdorp 10 600 9 950 20 450Lichtenburg 3 600 3 000 6 500Lydenburg 1 600 1 250 2 750Marico 3 600 3 000 6 500Middelburg 5 500 4 000 9 500Piet Retief 600 660 1 160Potchefstroom 12 600 12 300 24 900Pretoria 15 700 14 600 30 300Rustenburg 5 600 5 000 10 600Standerton 3 600 3 750 7 550Utrecht 1 750 1 100 2 860Vrijheid 2 640 2 520 5 160Wakkerstroom 6 000 6 700 11 700Waterberg 2 600 2 300 4 900Wolmaranstad 1 600 1 600 3 100Zoutpansberg 4 500 4 200 8 700Total 137 947 107 450 245 397Religion Edit Initially the state and church were not separated in the constitution citizens of the ZAR had to be members of the Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk a breakaway of the Dutch Reformed Church In 1858 these clauses were altered in the constitution to allow for the Volksraad to approve other Dutch Christian churches 18 The Dopper Church was approved by the Volksraad in 1858 which had the effect of allowing Paul Kruger a Dopper himself to remain a citizen of the ZAR The Bible itself was also often used to interpret the intention of legal documents The Bible was also used to interpret a prisoner exchange agreement reached in terms of the Sand River Convention between a commando of the ZAR led by Kruger and a Commando of the Orange Free State citation needed President Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff had issued a death sentence over two ZAR citizens for treason Kruger argued with President Boshoff that the Bible said punishment does not mean a death sentence and at the prisoner exchange it was agreed that the accused would be punished if found guilty After double checking Commandant Kruger s Bible President Boshoff commuted the sentences to lashes with a sjambok 19 Citizenship Edit Coat of arms of the South African Republic displayed on Kruger s wagon Citizenship of the ZAR was legislated by the constitution as well as Law No 7 of 1882 as amended on 23 June 1890 20 Citizenship was gained by being born in the republic or by naturalisation The voting age was 16 years Persons not born in the republic could become citizens by taking the prescribed oath and procuring the letters of naturalisation The oath involved abandoning discarding and renouncing all allegiance and subjugation towards foreign sovereignties and in particular their previous citizenship Under a law of 1855 only white people were permitted to be citizens of the ZAR and to own land 21 The constitution of the ZAR stated The volk people are not prepared to allow any equality of the non white with the white inhabitants either in the church or the state 22 The Witwatersrand gold rush led to an influx of Indians and Chinese into the new city of Johannesburg that was emerging on the veld which led the volksraad to pass Law Number 3 which was aimed at stopping Asian immigration into the Transvaal 21 Under Law Number 3 all Asians which were defined as Coolies Chinese etc Arabs Malays and Mohammedan subjects of the Turkish dominion were forbidden from owning fixed property had to register with the local magistrate within 8 days of arriving were restricted to living in certain neighborhoods and had to pay an entry free of 25 21 The Indian merchants who were classified as Arabs objected to this law and appealed to the British government to protect their rights as British subjects 21 Following British diplomatic pressure Law Number 3 was amended by the volksraad in 1887 to allow the Asiatics the right to own fixed property though not land and the entry fee was lowered to 3 21 Because the Indians in the ZAR had the British government to protect them the anti Asian laws in the ZAR tended to single out the Chinese through the Hong Kong Chinese were like the Indians able to claim as British subjects certain exemptions from the anti Chinese laws 23 To be eligible for citizenship white foreigners had to have been residing in the Republic for a period of two years be of good character and have been accepted as member of the Dutch Reformed or Reformed Church On 20 September 1893 the ZAR Constitution was amended so that two thirds of the Volksraad would have to agree to changes to the citizenship law This proclamation No 224 also changed Law No 7 with regard to voting 24 All citizens who were born in the ZAR or had obtained their franchise prior to 23 June 1890 would have the right to vote for both the first and second Volksraad and in all other elections Citizens who obtained their franchise through naturalization after 23 June 1890 would be able to vote in all elections except those for the first Volksraad The total population of the republic in 1890 was an estimated 120 000 people 25 Military EditIn common with the Orange Free State the basis of the military of the ZAR was the kommando system under which all able bodied burghers could be called up for military service under their own elected officers 26 The men of the kommandos wore no uniforms and had no medals 27 The basic officer was the field cornet who was elected by the local burghers and performed both military and administrative functions in his district 26 The field cornet was responsible for collecting taxes performing the census training the male burghers collecting arms and with upholding the power of the state over the local black population 26 The commander of the ZAR s military was the elected commandant general who like the field cornets performed both military and political functions 28 The commandant general was responsible for buying guns and ammunition fixed the prices of commodities and most importantly controlled the ivory trade 28 The economy of the Transvaal was very much a barter economy and ivory was one of the principal currencies used in trade and commence 28 The professional military of the ZAR was the Staatsartillerie State Artillery who in 1899 numbered 314 men 28 The Staatsartillerie was armed with the modern Krupp artillery guns imported from Germany and whose second in command was the Austrian officer Captain Adolf Zboril who did his best to bring up the Staatsartillerie to the level of a European army 29 The closest the ZAR had to a professional infantry and cavalry was the para military ZARP Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek Politie South African Republic Police 30 In 1899 the ZAR had about 30 000 men who were called up to serve in the kommandos 28 Through in theory any white male burgher could be elected to a military office in practice the men who were elected came from the wealthier families who used their wealth to build up patronage networks that put the poorer farmers into their debt in one manner or another 26 The South African historian Ian van der Waag described Boer society as being characterized by a quasi feudalism as the wealthier families set themselves up as something alike to the marcher lords of medieval Europe 31 The field cornets often waged war against the local African peoples in order to seize land ivory and people to redistribute to their followers in order to win election to higher offices in the republic 31 There was a strong dynastic element to the election of generals who commanded the kommandos as there was a tendency for men from the same families to be elected to the office of general over the generations 32 In 1899 the average age of a general in the ZAR was 58 and the majority had a very limited education 33 In a society that venerated age the most respected man was the takhaar the wealthy patriarch with the long hair and long beard that indicated wisdom and these were accordingly the people most likely to be elected as officers 27 Most of the takhaars serving as officers in 1899 were in some way connected to President Paul Kruger either by ties of blood or marriage 34 Language EditThe language spoken and written by the citizens of the ZAR was a variant of Dutch locally referred to as Hooghollands 35 36 On 3 October 1884 the Volksraad stated that they had reason to believe that in certain schools impure Dutch in fact an early form of Afrikaans was being used The Volksraad issued Proclamation 207 and compelled the Superintendent of Education to apply the language law 37 enforcing the exclusive use of Dutch 12 On 30 July 1888 Dutch language was declared the sole official language in court as well as education trade and general use 38 All other languages were declared foreign 39 These changes to the ZAR laws made the use of all other foreign languages illegal in the ZAR On 1 October 1895 Alfred Fernandez Harington was appointed English master at the Staats Model School in Pretoria Use of any foreign language was subject to criminal penalty and fine of 20 ZAR for each offence 40 The British similarly had declared English to be the only language spoken in the Cape Colony some decades earlier to outlaw 41 dubious discuss the Dutch language The discovery of gold in 1885 led to a major influx of foreigners By 1896 the language of government and citizens remained Dutch but in many market places shops and homes the English language was spoken 42 Military history EditWar with Mapela and Makapaan 1854 Edit Hendrik Potgieter was elected at the assembly of 1849 as commandant general for life and it became necessary to avoid strife to appoint three commandants general all possessing equal powers 19 41 Commandant General Andries Pretorius became commandant general of the Potchefstroom and Rustenburg districts On 16 December 1852 Commandant General Potgieter died and his son Piet was appointed in his stead as commandant general of the Lydenburg and Zoutpansberg districts There were some disputes over cattle which Mapela was raising on behalf of Potgieter and earlier Commandant Scholtz had confiscated a large number of rifles and amounts of ammunition rifle repair equipment and materials of war from the home of English missionary The Rev Mr Livingstone Livingstone admitted to storing these for Secheli and by this he was acting in breach of the Sand River Convention of 1852 which prescribed that neither arms nor ammunition should be supplied to the natives 19 40 In 1853 Herman Potgieter was called to Mapela to come and cull the elephant population 19 42 When Herman arrived Maphela took Herman his son his groom and a few other burghers to show them where the elephants were On the way Mapela and hundreds of natives attacked the Potgieter party They killed Herman s son Andries and then dragged Herman up a hill where they proceeded to skin him alive They stopped once they had torn the entrails from his body 19 43 At the same time of these events the Ndebele chief Magobane known to the Boers as Makapaan attacked and killed an entire convoy of women and children traveling to Pretoria The two chiefs had concluded an agreement to murder all the Europeans in their respective districts 19 44 and to keep the cattle that they were raising for the Europeans General Piet Potgieter set out with 100 men from Zoutpansberg and Commandant General Pretorius left Pretoria with 200 men After the commandos met up they first attacked Magobane and the natives were driven back to their caves in the mountains where they lived before The Boers held them at siege in their caves and eventually hundreds of women and children came out Orphan children of the native tribes were booked in strictly controlled by legal process at appointed Boer families to look after them until they came of age 19 47 The administration was similar to the system of indentured workers which was simply another form of slavery with the exception that children so registered had to be released at age 16 The commando would return all such children to the nearest landdrost district for registration and allocation to a Boer family As there were slavers and other criminals dealing in children any burgher found in possession of an unregistered minor child was guilty of a criminal offence These children were also often called oorlams in reference to being overly used to the Dutch culture and in reference to a hand raised orphan sheep or hanslam These children even after their 16th birthday and being free to come and go as they please never re connected with their own culture and own language and except for surviving and being cared for in terms of food and shelter were basically forcefully divorced from their native tribe forever Among the casualties of this war was Commandant General Potgieter 19 46 The natives were armed with rifles and were good shots The general was killed by a native sniper on the ridge of a trench and his body recovered by then commandant Paul Kruger whilst under heavy fire from the natives What remained of the joint commando now under command of General Pretorius focussed their attention on Mapela By the time the commando had reached Mapela the natives had fled A few wagons bloody clothes chests and other goods were discovered at a kop near Mapela s town Mapela and his soldiers escaped and with their rifles and ammunition intact and Mapela was only captured much later in 1858 Civil War 1861 1864 Edit Main article Transvaal Civil War Commandant General Stephanus Schoeman did not accept the Volksraad proclamation of 20 September 1858 under which members of the Reformed Churches of South Africa would be entitled to citizenship of the ZAR Consequently Paul Kruger was not accepted as a citizen and disallowed from political intercourse Acting President van Rensburg called a special meeting of the general council of the Dutch Reformed Church which then voted in a special resolution to allow members of the Reformed Church access to the franchise Sekhukune War 1876 Edit In 1876 a war between the ZAR and the Bapedi broke out over cattle theft and land encroachment 43 The Volksraad declared war on the Pedi leader Sekhukune on 16 May 1876 The war only began in July 1876 The president of the ZAR Burgers led an army of 2000 burghers and was joined by a strong force of Swazi warriors The Swazis joined the war to aid Mampuru who was ousted from his position of chieftain by Sekhukune 43 One of the early battles occurred at Botsabelo Mission Station on 13 July 1876 against Johannes Dinkwanyane who was Sekhukune s brother The Boer forces were led by Commandant Coetzee and accompanied by Swazi warriors The Swazi warriors launched a surprise and successful attack while the Boers held back 43 Seeing this the Swazis refused to hand over to the Boers any spoils from the battle thereafter leaving and returning to Swaziland Dinkwanyane s followers also surrendered after this campaign 43 First Boer War 1880 1881 Edit Main article First Boer War President Paul Kruger in 1898 On 12 April 1877 the British issued the Annexation of the S A Republic to the British Empire 44 In it the British stated that the country was unstable ungovernable bankrupt and facing civil war though in reality they wished to annex it merely for its strategic position using the skirmishes merely as a poor excuse to justify this The unsuccessful annexation apparently would not suspend self government but nonetheless attempted to convert the ZAR into a colony of the British Empire 45 The ZAR recognised this proclamation as an act of aggression 46 and resisted Instead of declaring war the country decided to send a delegation to the United Kingdom and the United States to protest This did not have any effect and the First Boer War formally broke out on 20 December 1880 The First Boer War was the first conflict since the American Revolution in which the British had been decisively defeated and forced to sign a peace treaty under unfavourable terms It would see the introduction of the khaki uniform marking the beginning of the end of the famous Redcoat The Battle of Laing s Nek would be the last occasion on which a British regiment carried its official regimental colours into battle The Pretoria Convention of 1881 was signed on 3 August 1881 and ratified on 25 October 1881 by the ZAR where the Zuid Afrikaansche Republiek is referred to by the name Transvaal Territory The Pretoria Convention of 1881 was superseded in 1884 by the London Convention 47 and in which the British suzerainty over the South African Republic was relinquished 48 The British Government in the London Convention accepted the name of the country as the South African Republic The convention was signed in duplicate in London on 27 February 1884 by Hercules Robinson Paul Kruger Stephanus Jacobus du Toit and Nicolaas Smit and later ratified by the South African Republic Volksraad In 1885 rich gold reefs were discovered ZAR burghers were farmers and not miners and much of the mining fell to immigrants The immigrants were also referred to as outlanders By 1897 immigrants had invested over 300 000 000 British Pounds in the ZAR goldfields Malaboch War 1894 Edit The Malaboch War was between Chief Malaboch Mmaleboho Mmaleboxo of the Bahananwa Xananwa people and the South African Republic ZAR Government led by Commandant General Piet Joubert Malboch refused to pay taxes to the Transvaal after it was given back to the Boers in 1881 by the British which resulted in a military drive against him by the South African Republic ZAR 49 50 Second Boer War 1899 1902 Edit Main article Second Boer War Piet Cronje s followers delivering up their rifles The British first attacked the ZAR with the December 1895 Jameson Raid which ended in failure British forces started building up troops and resources at the borders followed by a demand for voting rights for the ZAR s 60 000 foreign nationals of whom 50 000 were British Kruger rejected the British demand and called for the withdrawal of British troops from the ZAR s borders When the British refused Kruger declared war against Britain Britain received assistance from its possessions Australia 51 and Canada 52 as well as Natal and the Cape Colony The Second Boer War was a watershed for the British Army in particular and for the British Empire as a whole The British used concentration camps where women and children were held without adequate food or medical care 53 The abhorrent conditions in these camps caused the death of 4 177 women and 22 074 children under 16 death rates were between 344 and 700 per 1000 per year 54 The Treaty of Vereeniging was signed on 31 May 1902 The treaty ended the existence of the ZAR and the Orange Free State as independent Boer republics and placed them within the British Empire On 20 May 1903 an Inter Colonial Council was established to manage the colonies of the British Government 55 The Boers were promised eventual limited self government and this was granted in 1906 and 1907 The Union of South Africa was established in 1910 Maritz Rebellion 1914 1915 Edit Main article Maritz Rebellion The Maritz rebellion was an armed insurrection which occurred in South Africa in 1914 at the start of World War I It was led by Boers who created a provisional government and sought to reestablish the South African Republic in the Transvaal Many members of the South African government were themselves former Boers who had fought with the Maritz rebels against the British in the Second Boer War The self proclaimed rebel republic allied with Germany with whom Britain and South Africa were at war Boer Commandos operated in and out of bordering German South West Africa By 1915 the rebellion had failed and the ringleaders received heavy fines and terms of imprisonment 56 Economy and transport Edit All the east west railways were constructed by the Netherlands South African Railway Company while lines were built from the Cape and Natal and one to Pietersburg was built by a private British company The discovery of gold during the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in 1886 changed the economic fortunes of the formerly impoverished ZAR The city of Johannesburg was founded as a gold mining town in the same year Within 10 years it would be the largest city in the entire Southern Africa surpassing Cape Town citation needed The discovery of gold allowed the construction of a railway network in the ZAR The east west railways in the ZAR and notably the line from Pretoria to Lourenco Marques in Portuguese East Africa were constructed by the Netherlands South African Railway Company The construction of the Pretoria Lourenco Marques line allowed the ZAR access to harbour facilities not controlled by the British Empire a key policy of Paul Kruger who deemed it vital to the country s long term survival citation needed Flag EditThe flag of the South African Republic featured three horizontal stripes of red white and blue mirroring the flag of the Netherlands with a vertical green stripe at the hoist and was known as the Vierkleur English Four colour While the only legislation describing the flag required that the green panel be inscribed Eendracht maakt macht Unity makes strength the motto of the republic this was in fact rarely seen and instead the motto was displayed with the republic s coat of arms The Vierkleur was later incorporated into the flag of South Africa between 1928 and 1994 South Africa portalBooks and articles EditWaag Ian van der January 2005 Boer Generalship and the Politics of Command War in History 12 1 15 43 Yap Melanie Leong Man Dianne 1996 Colour Confusion and Concessions The History of the Chinese in South Africa Hong Kong Hong Kong University Press ISBN 9789622094246 Notes Edit Dutch Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk van Afrika NHK References Edit Eybers G W 1918 Select constitutional documents illustrating South African history 1795 1910 George Routledge amp Sons Limited New York E P Button amp Co p 360 361 OL 24129017M Retrieved 16 February 2021 Eybers 1917 p 363 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Tamarkin M 1996 Cecil Rhodes and the Cape Afrikaners London Psychology Press pp 249 250 ISBN 9780714646275 Eybers 1917 p 455 463 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Irish University Press Series British Parliamentary Papers Colonies Africa BPPCA Transvaal Vol 37 1971 No 41 at 267 Eybers 1917 pp 469 474 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Giliomee H 2011 The Afrikaners Biography of a People London C Hurst and Co pp 234 235 ISBN 9781850657149 Eybers 1917 p 514 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 357 359 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa Cape Town Nasou Alan F Hattersley The Annexation of the Transvaal 1877 History 21 81 1936 41 47 online a b Eybers 1917 p 477 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 420 422 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 p 479 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 p 505 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 p 515 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Transvaal and Orange Free State Chamber of Mines 1897 The Mining Industry Evidence and Report of the Industrial Commission of Enquiry Johannesburg Times printing and publishing works pp 574 575 Retrieved 23 March 2021 Eybers 1917 pp 358 359 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help a b c d e f g h Kruger P 1902 Memoirs of Paul Kruger Toronto Morang and Co p 59 Eybers 1917 p 495 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help a b c d e Yap amp Leong Man 1996 p 76 Yap amp Leong Man 1996 p 72 Yap amp Leong Man 1996 p 79 80 Eybers 1917 p 501 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Mackay A 1870 Manual of Modern Geography 2 Edinburgh William Blackwood and Sons p 484 OCLC 913570496 a b c d Waag 2005 p 19 a b Waag 2005 p 25 a b c d e Waag 2005 p 20 Waag 2005 p 33 Waag 2005 p 29 a b Waag 2005 p 18 19 Waag 2005 p 20 22 Waag 2005 p 24 Waag 2005 p 25 26 Jansen E 2017 Afrikaans A Language on the Move In Gosselink M et al eds Good Hope South Africa and The Netherlands from 1600 Pretoria Protea Boekhuis p 341 ISBN 9789460043130 Coetzee A J 1948 Standaard Afrikaans PDF Afrikaner Pers Retrieved 17 September 2014 Law number 1 Article 7 of 1882 Locale Wetten der Z A Rep I 1071 Eybers 1917 pp 481 482 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Law articles 1017 1025 dd 13 Juli 1888 amp article 1026 1027 dd 14 Juli 1888 amp article 1030 dd 16 Juli 1888 Eybers 1917 p 483 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Kachru B et al 2009 The Handbook of World Englishes John Wiley amp Sons pp 160 161 ISBN 978 1 40518831 9 De Villiers J 1896 The Transvaal London Chatto amp Windus p 14 a b c d Kinsey H W June 1973 The Sekukuni wars Military History Journal The South African Military History Society 2 5 Retrieved 28 September 2014 Eybers 1917 pp 448 449 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 448 453 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 454 455 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 456 457 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help Eybers 1917 pp 469 470 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help THE SIEGE OF LEBOHO South African Military History Society Journal samilitaryhistory org Retrieved 6 January 2020 Chief Malaboch is taken prisoner South African History Online www sahistory org za Retrieved 6 January 2020 C N Connolly Manufacturing spontaneity The Australian offers of troops for the Boer War Australian Historical Studies 18 70 1978 106 117 Carman Miller Loyalty Patriotism and Resistance Canada s Response to the Anglo Boer War 1899 1902 South African Historical Journal 41 1 1999 312 323 Hobhouse E 1902 The Brunt of the War Methuen amp Co Totten S Bartrop P R 2008 Concentration Camps South African War Dictionary of Genocide Westport Greenwood Press pp 84 85 ISBN 9780313346415 Eybers 1917 p 516 sfn error no target CITEREFEybers1917 help T R H Davenport The South African Rebellion 1914 English Historical Review 78 306 1963 73 94 online External links EditWikimedia Commons has media related to South African Republic Chisholm Hugh ed 1911 Transvaal Encyclopaedia Britannica 11th ed Cambridge University Press Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South African Republic amp oldid 1055059364, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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