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South African Sign Language

South African Sign Language (SASL, Afrikaans: Suid-Afrikaanse Gebaretaal) is the primary sign language used by deaf people in South Africa. The South African government added a National Language Unit for South African Sign Language in 2001. SASL is not the only manual language used in South Africa, but it is the language that is being promoted as the language to be used by the Deaf in South Africa, although Deaf peoples in South Africa historically do not form a single group.

South African Sign Language
Native toSouth Africa
Native speakers
235,000 (2011 census)
BANZSL
  • South African Sign Language
Language codes
ISO 639-3sfs
Glottologsout1404

In 1995, the previous South African National Council for the Deaf (SANCD) was transformed into the Deaf Federation of South Africa (DeafSA), which resulted in a radical policy change in matters for Deaf people in South Africa, such as the development and adoption of a single sign language and the promotion of sign language over oralism. Schools for the deaf have remained largely untransformed, however, and different schools for Deaf children in South African still use different sign language systems, and at a number of schools for the Deaf the use of any sign language is either discouraged or simply not taught. There are as many as twelve different systems of signed oral language in South Africa.

In addition to South African sign languages, American Sign Language (ASL) is also used by some Deaf people in South Africa. Most local sign languages in South Africa show the influence of American Sign Language.

SASL is the sign language that is used during television news casts in South Africa. Sign language is also used in the South African parliament, but different sign language interpreters are known to use different signs for the same concepts. There are around 40 schools for the Deaf in South Africa, most using a variety of SASL.

Sign language is explicitly mentioned in the South African constitution, and the South African Schools Act permits the study of the language in lieu of another official language at school.

By 2011, there were 84 SASL interpreters on DeafSA's interpreter register, including 43 without any training, 31 who have completed 240 study hours of interpreter training, and 10 who have gained an additional 3 years' experience and completed a further 480 study hours. A total of seven SASL interpreters have actually been accredited by SATI/DeafSA. SASL interpreters can apply for accreditation without having completed any formal training in SASL.

Contents

South African Sign Language is not entirely uniform and continues to evolve. Due to the geographical spread of its users and past educational policies, there are localised dialects of South African Sign Language and signs with many variants. Earlier efforts to create reference material and standardise the language, such as books (1980 Talking to the Deaf, 1994 Dictionary of SASL), can only be used as historical records of the language. Daily TV broadcasts in sign language give today's South African Sign Language its national cohesion and unity.

Official recognition

Sign language is mentioned in four South African laws, namely the Constitution, the Use of Official Languages Act, the South African Schools Act, and the Pan South African Language Board Act.

General recognition

The Constitution states that a board named the Pan South African Language Board should be established to "promote, and create conditions for, the development and use of ... sign language". In terms of the law that establishes the Pan South African Language Board (Act 59 of 1995), the board may establish language bodies to advise it on "any particular language, sign language or augmentative and alternative communication".

In terms of the Use of Official Languages Act, Act No. 12 of 2012, all government departments and government entities must have a language policy that states which languages are considered the official languages of that entity, and each language policy must also specify how that department or entity intends to communicate with people whose language of choice is "South African sign language".

Neither South African Sign Language nor any other sign language is an official language of South Africa. In 2008 the SASL Policy Implementation Conference gathered many key role players including scholars, researchers and teachers, policy makers, advocates and governmental bodies to promote South African Sign Language to become recognised as South Africa's twelfth official language.

Educational recognition

According to the South African Schools Act, Act 84 of 1996, all schools must have a language policy, and that when selecting languages for such a policy, a "recognised Sign Language" should be evaluated as if it has official language status along with the other eleven official languages.

According to the "Language in Education" policy in terms of section 3(4)(m) of the National Education Policy Act, Act 27 of 1996, the main aims of the Ministry of Education’s policy for language in education include "to support the teaching and learning of all other languages required by learners or used by communities in South Africa, including languages used for religious purposes, languages which are important for international trade and communication, and South African Sign Language, as well as Alternative and Augmentative Communication".

South African Sign Language is accepted as one of the languages of instruction in the education of Deaf learners.

Demographics

The number of deaf people in South Africa (600,000 deaf and 1.4 million people with hearing loss) does not give an accurate depiction of the number of people who communicate in South African Sign Language. There is currently no estimate for the number of people who communicate in South African Sign Language in South Africa. Estimates vary greatly, from 700,000 to 2 million users. A request was made to the Human Sciences Research Council (South Africa) to measure this as part of the 2011 census.[needs update]

This section needs attention from an expert in Deaf. The specific problem is: the section contains practically nothing about the linguistics of SASL. WikiProject Deaf may be able to help recruit an expert.(May 2013)

Fingerspelling

South African Sign Language one-handed manual alphabet for fingerspelling

Fingerspelling is a manual technique of signing used to spell letters and numbers (numerals, cardinals). Therefore, fingerspelling is a sign language technique for borrowing words from spoken languages, as well as for spelling names of people, places and objects. It is a practical tool to refer to the written word.

Some words which are often fingerspelled tend to become signs in their own right (becoming "frozen"), following linguistic transformation processes such as alphanumeric incorporation and abbreviation. For instance, one of the sign-names for Cape Town uses incorporated fingerspelled letters C.T. ( transition from handshape for letter 'C' to letter 'T' of both wrists with rotation on an horizontal axis). The month of July is often abbreviated as 'J-L-Y'.

Fingerspelling words is not a substitute for using existing signs: it takes longer to sign and it is harder to perceive. If the fingerspelled word is a borrowing, fingerspelling depends on both users having knowledge of the oral language (English, Sotho, Afrikaans etc.). Although proper names (such as a person's name, a company name) are often fingerspelled, it is often a temporary measure until the Deaf community agrees on a Sign name replacement.

Sign-names and Idioms

Sign names are specific signs which are associated with proper names (a location, a person, an organisation). Sign names are often chosen based on a salient physical property. For instance, the sign name for Nelson Mandela is signed using a flat B-hand that follows a hair-line over the head. The sign name for the bank ABSA is made with both hands following the movement implied in the company corporate logo.

Variation

South Africa is one of a few countries to have legal recognition of sign language. There is presumably some regional variation, but signers from across the country can readily understand each other, as demonstrated for example at the annual Deaf Forum.

It is commonly believed among South Africans, even among Deaf South Africans, that different language communities have different sign languages. This is evidently the result of the Deaf not being able to understand sign-language interpreters from other communities. However, this is because such "interpreters" do not actually use sign language, but rather Signed English, Signed Xhosa, etc., and only those who have been schooled in these artificial codes can understand them. (See manually coded language in South Africa.)

BANZSL family tree
Old British Sign Language
(c. 1760–1900)
Maritime SL
(c. 1860–present)
Swedish SL family?
(c. 1800–present)
Papua NG SL
(c. 1990–present)
Auslan
(c. 1860–present)
New Zealand SL
(c. 1870–present)
British SL
(c. 1900–present)
N. Ireland SL
(c. 1920–present)
South African SL
(c. 1860–present)

Timeline:

  • 1863 Irish nuns start training programmes in sign language
  • 1874 Grimley Institute for the Deaf and Dumb established by Bridget Lynne in Cape Town
  • 1881 De La Bat school established in Worcester
  • 1920 Adoption of oralism in Deaf schools
  • 1934 Separation between European and Non-European schools
  • 1941 First school "for the Black Deaf" established
  • 1984 Medium of education changed from vernacular (native tongue) to English in Department Of Education and Training schools
  • 1996 "Sign language" (but not specifically SASL) mentioned in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa as a language to be promoted

As early as 1863, Irish nuns were involved in training programmes for the Deaf. Irish Sign Language, "originally heavily influenced by French Sign Language" is said to have had a noticeable influence in sign languages in the world, including in South Africa.

In 1874 in Cape Town, the first institution for the Deaf called Grimley Institute for Deaf and Dumb was established by an Irish Deaf woman named Bridget Lynne.

In 1881 in Worcester, De La Bat school for the Deaf was established.

From 1877, Dominican sisters started to settle near Durban. In 1884, Sister Stephanie Hanshuber from Germany introduced the oral method in South Africa.

In 1888 "King William's Town Convent School for the Education of the Deaf" was formally opened.

"Since there is little historical evidence, it is presumed that South African Sign Language has a mixture of the Irish influence from the Dominican Irish nuns, and British influence as well as the American influence. (Sign Language is the natural language of the Deaf.)"

  1. South African Sign Language at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. Ganiso, Mirriam Nosiphiwo (2012). Sign Language in South Africa: Language Planning and Policy Challenges(PDF) (MA thesis). Rhodes University. Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 December 2013. Retrieved14 December 2013.
  3. Aarons, Debra; Akach, Philemon (1998). "South African Sign Language - One Language or Many? A Sociolinguistic Question". Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics. 31: 1–28. doi:10.5774/31-0-55. Archived from the original on 14 December 2013. Retrieved14 December 2013.
  4. "[Untitled]"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 14 December 2013. Retrieved14 December 2013.
  5. Aarons, Debra; Akach, Philemon. "South African Sign Language: One Language or Many?". In Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.). Language in South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 127–147.
  6. "About Deaf Federation of South Africa (DeafSA)". Deaf Federation of South Africa. Archived from the original on 18 December 2013. Retrieved12 December 2013.
  7. PDF page 4, document page 114
  8. Jackson, Neels (13 February 2008). "'n Bybel in gebaretaal kom gou". argief.beeld.com (in Afrikaans). Archived from the original on 14 March 2014. Retrieved14 March 2014.
  9. Selzer, Marsanne (2010). South African Sign Language Used in Parliament: Is There a Need for Standardisation? (MPhil thesis). University of Stellenbosch. hdl:10019.1/4200.
  10. Reagan, Timothy (2008), "South African Sign Language and language-in-education policy in South Africa"(PDF), Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics, 38: 165–190, archived from the original(PDF) on 24 December 2010, retrieved14 July 2010
  11. "Bill NO. 84 OF 1996", South African Schools Act, 1996, 1996, archived from the original on 16 December 2009, retrieved2 August 2010
  12. DeafSA (2011) [Originally approved 2009]. "Policy on the Provision and Regulation of South African Sign Language Interpreters"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 16 December 2013. Retrieved15 December 2013.
  13. "South African Sign Language Interpreting National Centre". SASLINC.
  14. South African Translators' Institute (n.d.). "Guidelines: SASL Interpreter Accreditation Testing"(PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 6 October 2014. Retrieved15 December 2013.
  15. Lavanithum, Joseph (2008), "The impact of using graphic representations of signs in teaching signs to hearing mothers of deaf children"(PDF), PhD thesis Augmentative and Alternative Communication, University of Pretoria: 20, retrieved14 July 2010
  16. Nieder-Heitman, N. (1980), Talking to the Deaf. Praat met die Dowes. A visual manual of standardized signs for the Deaf in South AfricaLanguage policy and SASL: interpreters in the public service, South Africa: Government Printer
  17. Penn, Claire; Ogilvy-Foreman, Dale; Doldin, Debbie; Landman, Kas; Jan, Steenekamp (1994), Dictionary of Southern African Signs for Communication with the Deaf, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (South Africa), pp. 599–613 [600], ISBN 0-7969-1523-7
  18. "Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, Section 6.5.8.iii"(PDF) – via justice.gov.za.
  19. "Pan South African Language Board Act, Act 59 of 1995, Section 8(8)(b)". Archived from the original on 11 November 2009. Retrieved16 December 2013 – via info.gov.za.
  20. "Use of Official Languages Act, Act No. 12 of 2012, Section 4.2(d)". Archived from the original on 19 October 2012. Retrieved16 December 2013 – via info.gov.za.
  21. "South African Schools Act, Act 84 of 1996, Section 6(4)". Archived from the original on 27 August 2013. Retrieved16 December 2013 – via info.gov.za.
  22. "Language in Education" policy in terms of section 3(4)(m) of the National Education Policy Act, Act 27 of 1996
  23. (2003). DeafSA Information Booklet. South Africa: DeafSA.
  24. Olivier, Jaco (2007), South African Sign Language, retrieved9 October 2007[permanent dead link]
  25. Walker, Lou Ann (1987). A Loss for Words: The Story of Deafness in a Family. New York: HarperPerennial. p. 31. ISBN 0-06-091425-4.
  26. Lucas, Ceil (2001), The Sociolinguistics of sign languages, Cambridge University Press: Cambridge University Press, p. 29, ISBN 0-521-79137-5
  27. Heap, Marion; Morgans, Helen (2006), "11", Language policy and SASL: interpreters in the public service, South Africa: Human Sciences Research Council (South Africa), pp. 134–147 [141], ISBN 0-7969-2137-7
  28. Boner, K (2000), Dominican women: A time to speak, Pietermaritzburg: Cluster Press
  29. A Short History of St Vincent School, 2009, archived from the original on 21 May 2010, retrieved14 July 2010
  30. Morgans, Helen (1999), Where did South African Sign Language Originate?, Language Matters, 30, South Africa: Routledge Informa Ltd, pp. 53–58, doi:10.1080/10228199908566144

General information:

Organisations:

Learning:

Research resources:

South African Sign Language
South African Sign Language Article Talk Language Watch Edit South African Sign Language SASL Afrikaans Suid Afrikaanse Gebaretaal is the primary sign language used by deaf people in South Africa The South African government added a National Language Unit for South African Sign Language in 2001 2 SASL is not the only manual language used in South Africa 3 4 but it is the language that is being promoted as the language to be used by the Deaf in South Africa 5 although Deaf peoples in South Africa historically do not form a single group South African Sign Language source Native toSouth AfricaNative speakers235 000 2011 census 1 Language familyBANZSL South African Sign LanguageLanguage codesISO 639 3 a href https iso639 3 sil org code sfs class extiw title iso639 3 sfs sfs a Glottolog a rel nofollow class external text href http glottolog org resource languoid id sout1404 sout1404 a In 1995 the previous South African National Council for the Deaf SANCD was transformed into the Deaf Federation of South Africa DeafSA 6 which resulted in a radical policy change in matters for Deaf people in South Africa such as the development and adoption of a single sign language and the promotion of sign language over oralism Schools for the deaf have remained largely untransformed however and different schools for Deaf children in South African still use different sign language systems and at a number of schools for the Deaf the use of any sign language is either discouraged or simply not taught 7 There are as many as twelve different systems of signed oral language in South Africa 8 In addition to South African sign languages American Sign Language ASL is also used by some Deaf people in South Africa Most local sign languages in South Africa show the influence of American Sign Language SASL is the sign language that is used during television news casts in South Africa Sign language is also used in the South African parliament but different sign language interpreters are known to use different signs for the same concepts 9 There are around 40 schools for the Deaf in South Africa most using a variety of SASL Sign language is explicitly mentioned in the South African constitution and the South African Schools Act permits the study of the language in lieu of another official language at school 10 11 By 2011 there were 84 SASL interpreters on DeafSA s interpreter register including 43 without any training 31 who have completed 240 study hours of interpreter training and 10 who have gained an additional 3 years experience and completed a further 480 study hours 12 A total of seven SASL interpreters have actually been accredited by SATI DeafSA 13 SASL interpreters can apply for accreditation without having completed any formal training in SASL 14 Contents 1 Status 1 1 Official recognition 1 1 1 General recognition 1 1 2 Educational recognition 1 2 Demographics 2 Linguistic features 2 1 Fingerspelling 2 2 Sign names and Idioms 2 3 Variation 3 History of education of the Deaf in South Africa 4 See also 5 Citations 6 External linksStatus EditSouth African Sign Language is not entirely uniform and continues to evolve Due to the geographical spread of its users and past educational policies there are localised dialects of South African Sign Language and signs with many variants Earlier efforts to create reference material and standardise the language such as books 15 1980 Talking to the Deaf 16 1994 Dictionary of SASL 17 can only be used as historical records of the language Daily TV broadcasts in sign language give today s South African Sign Language its national cohesion and unity Official recognition Edit See also Legal recognition of sign languages South Africa Sign language is mentioned in four South African laws namely the Constitution the Use of Official Languages Act the South African Schools Act and the Pan South African Language Board Act General recognition Edit The Constitution states that a board named the Pan South African Language Board should be established to promote and create conditions for the development and use of sign language 18 In terms of the law that establishes the Pan South African Language Board Act 59 of 1995 the board may establish language bodies to advise it on any particular language sign language or augmentative and alternative communication 19 In terms of the Use of Official Languages Act Act No 12 of 2012 all government departments and government entities must have a language policy that states which languages are considered the official languages of that entity and each language policy must also specify how that department or entity intends to communicate with people whose language of choice is South African sign language 20 Neither South African Sign Language nor any other sign language is an official language of South Africa In 2008 the SASL Policy Implementation Conference gathered many key role players including scholars researchers and teachers policy makers advocates and governmental bodies to promote South African Sign Language to become recognised as South Africa s twelfth official language Educational recognition Edit According to the South African Schools Act Act 84 of 1996 all schools must have a language policy and that when selecting languages for such a policy a recognised Sign Language should be evaluated as if it has official language status along with the other eleven official languages 21 According to the Language in Education policy in terms of section 3 4 m of the National Education Policy Act Act 27 of 1996 the main aims of the Ministry of Education s policy for language in education include to support the teaching and learning of all other languages required by learners or used by communities in South Africa including languages used for religious purposes languages which are important for international trade and communication and South African Sign Language as well as Alternative and Augmentative Communication 22 South African Sign Language is accepted as one of the languages of instruction in the education of Deaf learners Demographics Edit The number of deaf people in South Africa 600 000 deaf and 1 4 million people with hearing loss 23 does not give an accurate depiction of the number of people who communicate in South African Sign Language There is currently no estimate for the number of people who communicate in South African Sign Language in South Africa Estimates vary greatly from 700 000 to 2 million users 24 A request was made to the Human Sciences Research Council South Africa to measure this as part of the 2011 census needs update Linguistic features EditThis section needs attention from an expert in Deaf The specific problem is the section contains practically nothing about the linguistics of SASL WikiProject Deaf may be able to help recruit an expert May 2013 Fingerspelling Edit South African Sign Language one handed manual alphabet for fingerspelling Fingerspelling is a manual technique of signing used to spell letters and numbers numerals cardinals Therefore fingerspelling is a sign language technique for borrowing words from spoken languages as well as for spelling names of people places and objects It is a practical tool to refer to the written word Some words which are often fingerspelled tend to become signs in their own right becoming frozen following linguistic transformation processes such as alphanumeric incorporation and abbreviation For instance one of the sign names for Cape Town uses incorporated fingerspelled letters C T transition from handshape for letter C to letter T of both wrists with rotation on an horizontal axis The month of July is often abbreviated as J L Y Fingerspelling words is not a substitute for using existing signs it takes longer to sign and it is harder to perceive If the fingerspelled word is a borrowing fingerspelling depends on both users having knowledge of the oral language English Sotho Afrikaans etc Although proper names such as a person s name a company name are often fingerspelled it is often a temporary measure until the Deaf community agrees on a Sign name replacement Sign names and Idioms Edit Sign names are specific signs which are associated with proper names a location a person an organisation Sign names are often chosen based on a salient physical property For instance the sign name for Nelson Mandela is signed using a flat B hand that follows a hair line over the head The sign name for the bank ABSA is made with both hands following the movement implied in the company corporate logo Variation Edit South Africa is one of a few countries to have legal recognition of sign language 25 There is presumably some regional variation but signers from across the country can readily understand each other as demonstrated for example at the annual Deaf Forum It is commonly believed among South Africans even among Deaf South Africans that different language communities have different sign languages This is evidently the result of the Deaf not being able to understand sign language interpreters from other communities However this is because such interpreters do not actually use sign language but rather Signed English Signed Xhosa etc and only those who have been schooled in these artificial codes can understand them See manually coded language in South Africa History of education of the Deaf in South Africa EditBANZSL family treeOld British Sign Language c 1760 1900 Maritime SL c 1860 present Swedish SL family c 1800 present Papua NG SL c 1990 present Auslan c 1860 present New Zealand SL c 1870 present British SL c 1900 present N Ireland SL c 1920 present South African SL c 1860 present Timeline 17 1863 Irish nuns start training programmes in sign language 1874 Grimley Institute for the Deaf and Dumb established by Bridget Lynne in Cape Town 1881 De La Bat school established in Worcester 1920 Adoption of oralism in Deaf schools 1934 Separation between European and Non European schools 1941 First school for the Black Deaf established 1984 Medium of education changed from vernacular native tongue to English in Department Of Education and Training schools 1996 Sign language but not specifically SASL mentioned in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa as a language to be promoted As early as 1863 Irish nuns were involved in training programmes for the Deaf 17 Irish Sign Language originally heavily influenced by French Sign Language is said to have had a noticeable influence in sign languages in the world including in South Africa 26 In 1874 in Cape Town the first institution for the Deaf called Grimley Institute for Deaf and Dumb was established by an Irish Deaf woman named Bridget Lynne 27 28 In 1881 in Worcester De La Bat school for the Deaf was established From 1877 Dominican sisters started to settle near Durban In 1884 Sister Stephanie Hanshuber from Germany introduced the oral method in South Africa 29 In 1888 King William s Town Convent School for the Education of the Deaf was formally opened Since there is little historical evidence it is presumed that South African Sign Language has a mixture of the Irish influence from the Dominican Irish nuns and British influence as well as the American influence Sign Language is the natural language of the Deaf 30 See also Edit South Africa portal Languages portal Sign language Languages of South Africa Manually coded language in South AfricaCitations Edit South African Sign Language at Ethnologue 18th ed 2015 Ganiso Mirriam Nosiphiwo 2012 Sign Language in South Africa Language Planning and Policy Challenges PDF MA thesis Rhodes University Archived from the original PDF on 14 December 2013 Retrieved 14 December 2013 Aarons Debra Akach Philemon 1998 South African Sign Language One Language or Many A Sociolinguistic Question Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 31 1 28 doi 10 5774 31 0 55 Archived from the original on 14 December 2013 Retrieved 14 December 2013 Untitled PDF Archived from the original PDF on 14 December 2013 Retrieved 14 December 2013 Aarons Debra Akach Philemon South African Sign Language One Language or Many In Mesthrie Rajend ed Language in South Africa Cambridge Cambridge University Press pp 127 147 About Deaf Federation of South Africa DeafSA Deaf Federation of South Africa Archived from the original on 18 December 2013 Retrieved 12 December 2013 PDF page 4 document page 114 Jackson Neels 13 February 2008 n Bybel in gebaretaal kom gou argief beeld com in Afrikaans Archived from the original on 14 March 2014 Retrieved 14 March 2014 Selzer Marsanne 2010 South African Sign Language Used in Parliament Is There a Need for Standardisation MPhil thesis University of Stellenbosch hdl 10019 1 4200 Reagan Timothy 2008 South African Sign Language and language in education policy in South Africa PDF Stellenbosch Papers in Linguistics 38 165 190 archived from the original PDF on 24 December 2010 retrieved 14 July 2010 Bill NO 84 OF 1996 South African Schools Act 1996 1996 archived from the original on 16 December 2009 retrieved 2 August 2010 DeafSA 2011 Originally approved 2009 Policy on the Provision and Regulation of South African Sign Language Interpreters PDF Archived from the original PDF on 16 December 2013 Retrieved 15 December 2013 South African Sign Language Interpreting National Centre SASLINC South African Translators Institute n d Guidelines SASL Interpreter Accreditation Testing PDF Archived from the original PDF on 6 October 2014 Retrieved 15 December 2013 Lavanithum Joseph 2008 The impact of using graphic representations of signs in teaching signs to hearing mothers of deaf children PDF PhD thesis Augmentative and Alternative Communication University of Pretoria 20 retrieved 14 July 2010 Nieder Heitman N 1980 Talking to the Deaf Praat met die Dowes A visual manual of standardized signs for the Deaf in South AfricaLanguage policy and SASL interpreters in the public service South Africa Government Printer a b c Penn Claire Ogilvy Foreman Dale Doldin Debbie Landman Kas Jan Steenekamp 1994 Dictionary of Southern African Signs for Communication with the Deaf South Africa Human Sciences Research Council South Africa pp 599 613 600 ISBN 0 7969 1523 7 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa Section 6 5 8 iii PDF via justice gov za Pan South African Language Board Act Act 59 of 1995 Section 8 8 b Archived from the original on 11 November 2009 Retrieved 16 December 2013 via info gov za Use of Official Languages Act Act No 12 of 2012 Section 4 2 d Archived from the original on 19 October 2012 Retrieved 16 December 2013 via info gov za South African Schools Act Act 84 of 1996 Section 6 4 Archived from the original on 27 August 2013 Retrieved 16 December 2013 via info gov za Language in Education policy in terms of section 3 4 m of the National Education Policy Act Act 27 of 1996 2003 DeafSA Information Booklet South Africa DeafSA Olivier Jaco 2007 South African Sign Language retrieved 9 October 2007 permanent dead link Walker Lou Ann 1987 A Loss for Words The Story of Deafness in a Family New York HarperPerennial p 31 ISBN 0 06 091425 4 Lucas Ceil 2001 The Sociolinguistics of sign languages Cambridge University Press Cambridge University Press p 29 ISBN 0 521 79137 5 Heap Marion Morgans Helen 2006 11 Language policy and SASL interpreters in the public service South Africa Human Sciences Research Council South Africa pp 134 147 141 ISBN 0 7969 2137 7 Boner K 2000 Dominican women A time to speak Pietermaritzburg Cluster Press A Short History of St Vincent School 2009 archived from the original on 21 May 2010 retrieved 14 July 2010 Morgans Helen 1999 Where did South African Sign Language Originate Language Matters 30 South Africa Routledge Informa Ltd pp 53 58 doi 10 1080 10228199908566144External links EditGeneral information About com Sign Language in South Africa Organisations DeafSA Deaf South Africa national non governmental organisation Worcester Institute for the Deaf School and Professional formation DTV Deaf TV is a South African Sign Language studio with weekly broadcast on national TV South African Sign Language Interpretation National Centre Interpreting services Learning Realsasl com South African Sign Language dictionary searchable by handshape location or text University of Witwatersrand SASL courses Research resources University of Western Cape SASL project iSign and PhoneReader University of the Free State Afroasiatic Studies Sign Language and Language Practice offers linguistic B A and M A courses University of Stellenbosch English Text to South African Sign Language SASL Project Sutton SignWriting Dictionary of South African Sign Language sign represented in a graphical form Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South African Sign Language amp oldid 1057158333, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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