fbpx
Wikipedia

South America

"Southern America" redirects here. For the region of the United States, see Southern United States. For the botanical continent defined in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions, see Southern America (WGSRPD).
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "South America"news · newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR
(October 2017) ()

South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere. It can also be described as the southern subcontinent of a single continent, America. The reference to South America instead of other regions (like Latin America or the Southern Cone) has increased in recent decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics (in particular, the rise of Brazil).[additional citation(s) needed]

South America
Area17,840,000 km2 (6,890,000 sq mi) (4th)
Population423,581,078 (2018; 5th)
Population density21.4/km2 (56.0/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$6.53 trillion (2021 est; 5th)
GDP (nominal)$2.90 trillion (2021 est; 4th)
GDP per capita$6,720 (2021 est; 5th)
DemonymSouth American
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zonesUTC-2 to UTC-5
Largest citiesList of cities in South America
UN M49 code005 – South America
419Latin America
019Americas
001World
Map of South America showing physical, political and population characteristics, as per 2018

South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean, North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, and Venezuela; two dependent territories: the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; and one internal territory: French Guiana. In addition, the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Ascension Island (dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, a British Overseas Territory), Bouvet Island (dependency of Norway), Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of 2018[update] has been estimated at more than 423 million. South America ranks fourth in area (after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America). Brazil is by far the most populous South American country, with more than half of the continent's population, followed by Colombia, Argentina, Venezuela and Peru. In recent decades, Brazil has also generated half of the continent's GDP and has become the continent's first regional power.

Most of the population lives near the continent's western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated. The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains; in contrast, the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon, Orinoco, and Paraná flow. Most of the continent lies in the tropics, except for a large part of the Southern Cone located in the middle latitudes.

The continent's cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and, more locally, with African slaves. Given a long history of colonialism, the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish, and societies and states reflect Western traditions. Relative to Europe, Asia and Africa, 20th-century South America has been a peaceful continent with few wars.

Contents

A composite relief image of South America
Contemporary political map of South America

South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas. The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darién watershed along the Colombia–Panama border, although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal. Geopolitically and geographically, all of Panama – including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus – is typically included in North America alone and among the countries of Central America. Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate.

South America is home to the world's highest uninterrupted waterfall, Angel Falls in Venezuela; the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana; the largest river by volume, the Amazon River; the longest mountain range, the Andes (whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6,962 m or 22,841 ft); the driest non-polar place on earth, the Atacama Desert; the wettest place on earth, López de Micay in Colombia; the largest rainforest, the Amazon rainforest; the highest capital city, La Paz, Bolivia; the highest commercially navigable lake in the world, Lake Titicaca; and, excluding research stations in Antarctica, the world's southernmost permanently inhabited community, Puerto Toro, Chile.

South America's major mineral resources are gold, silver, copper, iron ore, tin, and petroleum. These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere. However, the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies. The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states, often causing extreme political instability. This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export.

Brazil is the largest country in South America, covering approx. 47.3% of the continent's land area and encompassing around half of the continent's population. The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions: the Andean states, Caribbean South America, The Guianas, and the Southern Cone.

Outlying islands

Physiographically, South America also includes some of the nearby islands. The Dutch ABC islands (Aruba, Bonaire, and Curaçao), the islands of Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad Island and Tobago Island etc.), the State of Nueva Esparta, and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northern portion of the South American continental shelf and are sometimes considered parts of the continent. Geopolitically, all the island countries and territories in the Caribbean have generally been grouped as a subregion of North America instead. By contrast, Aves Island (administered by Venezuela) and the Archipelago of San Andrés, Providencia and Santa Catalina (San Andrés Island, Providencia Island, and Santa Catalina Island etc., which are administered by Colombia) are politically parts of South American countries but physiographically parts of North America.

Other islands often associated with South America are the Chiloé Archipelago and Robinson Crusoe Island (both administered by Chile), Easter Island (generally considered a part of Oceania, also administered by Chile), the Galápagos Islands (administered by Ecuador), and Tierra del Fuego (split between Argentina and Chile). In the Atlantic Ocean, Brazil administers Fernando de Noronha, Trindade and Martim Vaz, and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago, while the Falkland Islands (Spanish: Islas Malvinas) and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica) have been administered as two British Overseas Territories under the Crown, whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina.

Special cases

An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate, Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America. Administered as a dependency of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, the island is geopolitically a part of Africa.

An uninhabited sub-Antarctic volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean, Bouvet Island (administered by Norway) is geographically, geologically, biographically, and hydrologically associated with Antarctica, but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead.

Climate

Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006

The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30° of latitude south, when the isotherms tend, more and more, to be confused with the degrees of latitude.

In temperate latitudes, winters and summers are milder than in North America. This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone (the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region.), therefore giving the Southern Cone more oceanic influence, which moderates year round temperatures.

The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 °C (81 °F), with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices. Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco, predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese, that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory.

The east-central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate. The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type, while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type. At the highest points of the Andean region, climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords. In the Andean plateaus, the warm climate prevails, although it is tempered by the altitude, while in the coastal strip, there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type. From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear, successively, Mediterranean oceanic climate, temperate of the Breton type and, already in Tierra del Fuego, cold climate of the Siberian type.

The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses. In most of the tropical region east of the Andes, winds blowing from the northeast, east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic, causing abundant rainfall. However, due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone, South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare. In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas Plateau, the precipitation levels go from moderate to high. The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions, with Chocó in Colombia being the rainiest place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas. The Atacama Desert, along this stretch of coast, is one of the driest regions in the world. The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones, and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert. In the Pampas of Argentina, Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate, with rains well distributed during the year. The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay. In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime.

Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents, such as the current Humboldt and Falklands. The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others: the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles, where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world, the Gulf Stream.

Fauna

South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on Earth. South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama, anaconda, piranha, jaguar, vicuña, and tapir. The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity, containing a major proportion of Earth's species.

Prehistory

The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos, or "Cave of the Hands", in Argentina

South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era, until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago. Therefore, South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers.

South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge (now the Bering Strait) at least 15,000 years ago from the territory that is present-day Russia. They migrated south through North America, and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama.

The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC, when squashes, chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin. Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc, which remains a staple food today, was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC.

By 2000 BC, many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions. Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast, helping establish fish as a primary source of food. Irrigation systems were also developed at this time, which aided in the rise of an agrarian society.

South American cultures began domesticating llamas, vicuñas, guanacos, and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC. Besides their use as sources of meat and wool, these animals were used for transportation of goods.

Pre-Columbian civilizations

The Inca estate of Machu Picchu, Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America.

One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico, on the central Peruvian coast. Though a pre-ceramic culture, the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt. Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavín by 900 BC, according to some estimates and archaeological finds. Artifacts were found at a site called Chavín de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3,177 meters (10,423 ft). Chavín civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC.

In the central coast of Peru, around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD, Moche (100 BC – 700 AD, at the northern coast of Peru), Paracas and Nazca (400 BC – 800 AD, Peru) cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art. At the Altiplano, Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku (100 BC – 1200 AD, Bolivia) managed a large commercial network based on religion.

Around the 7th century, both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire (600–1200, Central and northern Peru) expanded its influence to all the Andean region, imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography.

The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia. They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans, or cacicazgos, that had a free trade network among themselves. They were goldsmiths and farmers.

Other important Pre-Columbian cultures include: the Cañaris (in south central Ecuador), Chimú Empire (1300–1470, Peruvian northern coast), Chachapoyas, and the Aymaran kingdoms (1000–1450, Western Bolivia and southern Peru). Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco, the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533. Known as Tawantin suyu, and "the land of the four regions," in Quechua, the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed. Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities, some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25,000 kilometer road system. Cities were built with precise, unmatched stonework, constructed over many levels of mountain terrain. Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture.

The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers, waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years.

European colonization

Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci's first voyage (1497-98) to the New World, from the first known published edition of Vespucci's 1504 letter to Piero Soderini.

In 1494, Portugal and Spain, the two great maritime European powers of that time, on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west, signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, by which they agreed, with the support of the Pope, that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries.

The Inca–Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead.

The treaty established an imaginary line along a north–south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands, roughly 46° 37' W. In terms of the treaty, all land to the west of the line (known to comprise most of the South American soil) would belong to Spain, and all land to the east, to Portugal. As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time, the line was not strictly enforced, resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian.

Beginning in the 1530s, the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors, first from Spain and later from Portugal. These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies.

European infectious diseases (smallpox, influenza, measles, and typhus) – to which the native populations had no immune resistance – caused large-scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control. Systems of forced labor, such as the haciendas and mining industry's mit'a also contributed to the depopulation. After this, enslaved Africans, who had developed immunities to these diseases, were quickly brought in to replace them.

The Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500
A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post
A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790

The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end; however, many initial attempts at this were only partially successful, as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices. Furthermore, the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion, although the Roman Catholic Church's evangelization in Quechua, Aymara, and Guaraní actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form.

Eventually, the natives and the Spaniards interbred, forming a mestizo class. At the beginning, many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers. After independence, most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers.

Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers; this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America, which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal. Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent, and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges, roads, and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered. They also significantly increased economic and trade relations, not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples. Finally, with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages, many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American.

Guyana was initially colonized by the Dutch before coming under British control, though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was occupied by the French. The region was initially partitioned between the Dutch, French and British before fully coming under the control of Britain.

Suriname was first explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century. It became a Dutch colony in 1667.

Slavery in South America

Public flogging of a slave in 19th-century Brazil.

The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines; along with enslaved Africans who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries via the slave trade. European colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy, and natives were often captured by expeditions. The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century, but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries. The Atlantic slave trade brought enslaved Africans primarily to South American colonies, beginning with the Portuguese since 1502. The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil, as European nations built up economically slave-dependent colonies in the New World. Nearly 40% of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil. An estimated 4.9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866.

In contrast to other European colonies in the Americas which mainly used the labor of African slaves, Spanish colonists mainly enslaved indigenous Americans. In 1750, the Portuguese Crown abolished the enslavement of indigenous peoples in colonial Brazil, under the belief that they were unfit for labor and less effective than enslaved Africans. Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas on slave ships, under inhuman conditions and ill-treatment, and those who survived were sold in slave markets. After independence, all South American countries maintained slavery for some time. The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823, Uruguay in 1830, Bolivia in 1831, Colombia and Ecuador in 1851, Argentina in 1853, Peru and Venezuela in 1854, Suriname in 1863, Paraguay in 1869, and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery.

Independence from Spain and Portugal

The European Peninsular War (1807–1814), a theater of the Napoleonic Wars, changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies. First, Napoleon invaded Portugal, but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil. Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain, and appointed his own brother instead. This appointment provoked severe popular resistance, which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king.

The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822
Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil
Bernardo O'Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile.

Many cities in the Spanish colonies, however, considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain. This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots, who promoted such autonomy, and the royalists, who supported Spanish authority over the Americas. The Juntas, in both Spain and the Americas, promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment. Five years after the beginning of the war, Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict.

The independence of South America was secured by Simón Bolívar (Venezuela) and José de San Martín (Argentina), the two most important Libertadores. Bolívar led a great uprising in the north, then led his army southward towards Lima, the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Meanwhile, San Martín led an army across the Andes Mountains, along with Chilean expatriates, and liberated Chile. He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea, and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru. The two armies finally met in Guayaquil, Ecuador, where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender.

In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil, Dom Pedro I (also Pedro IV of Portugal), son of the Portuguese King Dom João VI, proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822, which later became the Empire of Brazil. Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia, Cisplatina and Pará, independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825, on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom.

Nation-building and fragmentation

The Thirty-Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province.
Battle of Fanfa, battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War

The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation, with several civil and international wars. However, it was not as strong as in Central America. Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times (such as Paraguay or Uruguay), while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries (such as the Republic of Entre Ríos and the Riograndense Republic).

The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Ríos, led by a caudillo. In spite of the "Republic" in its title, General Ramírez, its caudillo, never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios. Rather, he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics. The "country" was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821.

In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil, which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata to control the region. Three years later, the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country: The Oriental Republic of Uruguay.

Later in 1836, while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency, Rio Grande do Sul proclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis. With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil, the country could stabilize and fight the separatists, which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839. The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845.

The Peru–Bolivian Confederation, a short-lived union of Peru and Bolivia, was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation (1836–1839) and again during the War of the Pacific (1879–1883). Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War.

Wars and conflicts

Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandú, 1865
The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay, 1868
The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos, 1883
A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina, 31 July 1943

Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence, the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves. Most of the 1810 borders countries had initially accepted on the uti possidetis iuris principle had by 1848 either been altered by war or were constested.

In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata, Argentina's predecessor. The result was a stalemate, ending with the British government arranging for the independence of Uruguay. Soon after, another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won.

Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short-lived Peru-Bolivian Confederation and Chile, with the support of the Argentine Confederation. The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina.

Meanwhile, the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence. The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation. During this period it can be said that "there were two Argentines": the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic. At the same time, the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country. All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil, which was soon forced to take sides. In 1851 the Brazilian Empire, supporting the centralizing unitarians, and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo, Juan Manuel Rosas, who ruled the confederation with an iron hand. Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina, it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won, supported by the Brazil, Britain, France and the Unitarian Party of Argentina.

Peace lasted only a short time: in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War. The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders. The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success. In 1864, after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused, the imperial government declared that Brazil's military would begin reprisals. Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war, and, for most of its duration, the Uruguayan–Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro-Brazilian Colorados to power again. This angered the Paraguayan government, which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil, beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories: the Paraguayan War.[citation needed]

The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano López ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul. His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro-Brazilian Argentine government into the war. The pro-Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops. In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay. At the beginning of the war, the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories, until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively. This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War. It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries, taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay. The country lost 40% of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60% of its population, including 90% of the men. The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil, which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876.

The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other. In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports, followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru. The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881. The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884. Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea.

In the new century, as wars became less violent and less frequent, Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre, which was acquired by Brazil in 1902. In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers, joined the allied side in the First World War and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces in the region. Brazil was the only South American country that participated in the First World War. Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru entered a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon. In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco, in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay's victory. Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru, usurping Ecuador's frontier with Brazil.

Also in this period, the first major naval battle of World War II took place in the South Atlantic close to the continental mainland: the Battle of the River Plate, between a British cruiser squadron and a German pocket batttleship. The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast, causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942, being the only South American country to fight in this war (and in both World Wars). Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic, in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign.

A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982, following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands, which ended with an Argentine defeat. The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border.

Rise and fall of military dictatorships

Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War

Wars became less frequent in the 20th century, with Bolivia-Paraguay and Peru-Ecuador fighting the last inter-state wars. Early in the 20th century, the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type, the "dreadnought". At one point, the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts, a price that did not include later in-service costs, which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase.

The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century. Some democratically elected governments of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s. To curtail opposition, their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners, many of whom were tortured and/or killed on inter-state collaboration. Economically, they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies. They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of "National Security" against internal subversion. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Peru suffered from an internal conflict.

In 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, a British dependent territory. The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered.

Colombia has had an ongoing, though diminished internal conflict, which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas (FARC-EP) and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist-leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords. Many of these are now defunct, and only a small portion of the ELN remains, along with the stronger, though also greatly reduced, FARC.

Revolutionary movements and right-wing military dictatorships became common after World War II, but since the 1980s, a wave of democratization passed through the continent, and democratic rule is widespread now. Nonetheless, allegations of corruption are still very common, and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments, although, on most occasions, regular civilian succession has continued.

Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasília Summit on 23 May 2008.

International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s, and some countries, despite having strong democracies, have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies, as most recently illustrated by Argentina's default in the early 21st century.[neutrality is disputed] The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration, with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community, Mercosur and Unasur. Notably, starting with the election of Hugo Chávez in Venezuela in 1998, the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide[citation needed] – the election of several leftist and center-left administrations to most countries of the area, except for the Guianas and Colombia.

Arms Flag Country or territory Capital Area Population
(2018)
Population
density
Argentina Buenos Aires 2,766,890 km2
(1,068,300 sq mi)
44,361,150 14.3/km2
(37/sq mi)
Bolivia La Paz,
Sucre
1,098,580 km2
(424,160 sq mi)
11,353,142 8.4/km2
(22/sq mi)
Bouvet Island
(Norway)
49 km2
(19 sq mi)
0 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
Brazil Brasília 8,514,877 km2
(3,287,612 sq mi)
209,469,323 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
Chile Santiago 756,950 km2
(292,260 sq mi)
18,729,160 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
Colombia Bogotá 1,141,748 km2
(440,831 sq mi)
49,661,048 40/km2
(100/sq mi)
Ecuador Quito 283,560 km2
(109,480 sq mi)
17,084,358 53.8/km2
(139/sq mi)
Falkland Islands
(United Kingdom)
Stanley 12,173 km2
(4,700 sq mi)
3,234 0.26/km2
(0.67/sq mi)
French Guiana
(France)
Cayenne (Préfecture) 91,000 km2
(35,000 sq mi)
282,938 2.1/km2
(5.4/sq mi)
Guyana Georgetown 214,999 km2
(83,012 sq mi)
779,006 3.5/km2
(9.1/sq mi)
Paraguay Asunción 406,750 km2
(157,050 sq mi)
6,956,066 15.6/km2
(40/sq mi)
Peru Lima 1,285,220 km2
(496,230 sq mi)
31,989,260 22/km2
(57/sq mi)
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
(United Kingdom)
King Edward Point 3,093 km2
(1,194 sq mi)
20 0/km2
(0/sq mi)
Suriname Paramaribo 163,270 km2
(63,040 sq mi)
575,990 3/km2
(7.8/sq mi)
Uruguay Montevideo 176,220 km2
(68,040 sq mi)
3,449,285 19.4/km2
(50/sq mi)
Venezuela Caracas 916,445 km2
(353,841 sq mi)
28,887,118 27.8/km2
(72/sq mi)
Total 17,824,513 km2
(6,882,083 sq mi)
423,581,078 21.5/km2
(56/sq mi)
Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito, Ecuador
South American flags

Historically, the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos. Brazil was the only exception, being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence, until a coup d'état proclaimed a republic. In the late 19th century, the most democratic countries were Brazil, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay.

All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname, a parliamentary republic. French Guiana is a French overseas department, while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories. It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies; the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile. Also in the twentieth century, Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence.

Recently, an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions: Mercosur and the Andean Community, thus forming the third-largest trade bloc in the world. This new political organization, known as Union of South American Nations, seeks to establish free movement of people, economic development, a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs.

Satellite view of South America at night from NASA.

South America has a population of over 428 million people.There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests, the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia. On the other hand, the continent presents regions of high population density, such as the great urban centers. The population is formed by descendants of Europeans (mainly Spaniards, Portuguese and Italians), Africans and Amerindians. There is a high percentage of Mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place. There is also a minor population of Asians,[further explanation needed] especially in Brazil, Peru, and Argentina. The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese, followed by English, French and Dutch in smaller numbers.

Language

Official languages in South America

Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America, with approximately 200 million speakers each. Spanish is the official language of most countries, along with other native languages in some countries. Portuguese is the official language of Brazil. Dutch is the official language of Suriname; English is the official language of Guyana, although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country, including Portuguese, Chinese, Hindustani and several native languages. English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands. French is the official language of French Guiana and the second language in Amapá, Brazil.

Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Chile and Colombia; Wayuunaiki in northern Colombia (La Guajira) and northwestern Venezuela (Zulia); Guaraní in Paraguay and, to a much lesser extent, in Bolivia; Aymara in Bolivia, Peru, and less often in Chile; and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile. At least three South American indigenous languages (Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani) are recognized along with Spanish as national languages.

Other languages found in South America include Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname; Italian in Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Venezuela; and German in certain pockets of Argentina and Brazil. German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil, Riograndenser Hunsrückisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country; among other Germanic dialects, a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival. Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia. There are also small clusters of Japanese-speakers in Brazil, Colombia and Peru. Arabic speakers, often of Lebanese, Syrian, or Palestinian descent, can be found in Arab communities in Argentina, Colombia, Brazil, Venezuela and in Paraguay.

Religion

An estimated 90% of South Americans are Christians (82% Roman Catholic, 8% other Christian denominations mainly traditional Protestants and Evangelicals but also Orthodox), accounting for c. 19% of Christians worldwide.

African descendent religions and Indigenous religions are also common throughout all South America, some examples of are Santo Daime, Candomblé, Umbanda and Encantados.

Crypto-Jews or Marranos, conversos, and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America.

Both Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area.

East Asian religions such as Japanese Buddhism, Shintoism, and Shinto-derived Japanese New Religions are common in Brazil and Peru. Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent.

Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries.

Hindus form 25% of the Guyanese population and 22% of Suriname's.

Muslims account for 6.8% of the Guyanese population and 13.9 of the Surinamese population. Almost all Muslims in Suriname are either Javanese or Indians and in Guyana, most are Indian.

Part of Religions in South America (2013):

Religion in South America
Countries Christians Roman Catholics Other Christians No religion (atheists and agnostics)
Argentina 88% 77% 11% 11%
Bolivia 96% 74% 22% 4%
Brazil 88% 64% 22% 8%
Chile 70% 57% 13% 25%
Colombia 92% 80% 12% 7%
Paraguay 96% 87% 9% 2%
Peru 94% 81% 13% 3%
Suriname 51% 29% 22% 5%
Uruguay 58% 47% 11% 41%
Venezuela 88% 71% 17% 8%

Ethnic demographics

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is: Table seem to be original research (OR) and 48% is not "more than half of the population". Section seem plagued by OR and inconsistencies. Please help improve this section if you can.(May 2020) ()
Afro-Colombian fruit sellers in Cartagena.
A Japanese-Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba
Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul
Peruvian woman and her son

Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America. In Argentina, the European influence accounts for 65–79% of the genetic background, Amerindian for 17–31% and sub-Saharan African for 2–4%. In Colombia, the sub-Saharan African genetic background varied from 1% to 89%, while the European genetic background varied from 20% to 79%, depending on the region. In Peru, European ancestries ranged from 1% to 31%, while the African contribution was only 1% to 3%. The Genographic Project determined the average Peruvian from Lima had about 28% European ancestry, 68% Native American, 2% Asian ancestry and 2% sub-Saharan African.

Descendants of indigenous peoples, such as the Quechua and Aymara, or the Urarina of Amazonia make up the majority of the population in Bolivia (56%) and Peru (44%). In Ecuador, Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two-fifths of the population. The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies.

People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent, or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group, are more of a majority in Argentina, and Uruguay and more than half of the population of Chile (64.7%) and (48.4%) in Brazil. In Venezuela, according to the national census 42% of the population is primarily native Spanish, Italian and Portuguese descendants. In Colombia, people who identify as European descendants are about 37%. In Peru, European descendants are the third group in number (15%).

Mestizos (mixed European and Amerindian) are the largest ethnic group in Bolivia, Paraguay, Venezuela, Colombia and Ecuador and the second group in Peru and Chile.

South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans. This group is significantly present in Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana, Venezuela and Ecuador.

Brazil followed by Peru have the largest Japanese, Korean and Chinese communities in South America, Lima has the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America. Guyana and Suriname have the largest ethnic East Indian community.

Ethnic distribution in South America
Country Amerindians White people Mestizos / Pardos Mulatos Black people Zambos Asian people
Argentina 1% 85% 14% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Bolivia 48% 12% 37% 2% 0% <1% 0%
Brazil <1% 48% 43% 0% 8% 0% 2%
Chile 6% 57% 37% 0% 0% 0% 0%
Colombia 2% 37% 50% 8% 2% 0% <1%
Ecuador 39% 10% 41% 5% 5% 0% 0%
Paraguay 3% 20% 75% 4% 0% 0% 0%
Peru 45% 15% 35% 2% 0% 0% 3%
Suriname 3.8% 1% 13.4%* noted in Suriname as mixed, regardless of race combination *see Pardo 37.4% *see Pardo 48.3%
Uruguay 0% 88% 8% 4% 0% 0% 0%
Venezuela 2.7% 43.6% 51.6% 0.7% 2.8% 0.6% 0.6%
Guyana 10.5% 0.36% 19.9%* noted in Guyana as mixed regardless of race combination *see Pardo 29.2% *see Pardo 39.98%

Indigenous people

In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter-gatherers. There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest.

Populace

The most populous country in South America is Brazil with 209.5 million people. The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 49,661,048. Argentina is the third most populous country with 44,361,150.

While Brazil, Argentina, and Colombia maintain the largest populations, large city populations are not restricted to those nations. The largest cities in South America, by far, are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Santiago, Lima, and Bogotá. These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million, and three of five in the Americas. Next in size are Caracas, Belo Horizonte, Medellin and Salvador.

Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 4 million and include the São Paulo metropolitan area, Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, and Belo Horizonte metropolitan area. Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil, Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America: the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants.

South America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. In Brazil four megaregions exist including the Expanded Metropolitan Complex of São Paulo with more than 32 million inhabitants. The others are the Greater Rio, Greater Belo Horizonte and Greater Porto Alegre. Colombia also has four megaregions which comprise 72% of its population, followed by Venezuela, Argentina and Peru which are also homes of megaregions.

The top ten largest South American metropolitan areas by population as of 2015, based on national census numbers from each country:

Metro Area Population Area Country
São Paulo 21,090,792 7,947 km2 (3,068 sq mi) Brazil
Buenos Aires 13,693,657 3,830 km2 (1,480 sq mi) Argentina
Rio de Janeiro 13,131,431 6,744 km2 (2,604 sq mi) Brazil
Lima 9,904,727 2,819 km2 (1,088 sq mi) Peru
Bogotá 9,800,225 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi) Colombia
Santiago 6,683,852 15,403 km2 (5,947 sq mi) Chile
Belo Horizonte 5,829,923 9,467 km2 (3,655 sq mi) Brazil
Caracas 5,322,310 4,715 km2 (1,820 sq mi) Venezuela
Porto Alegre 4,258,926 10,232 km2 (3,951 sq mi) Brazil
Brasilia 4,201,737 56,433 km2 (21,789 sq mi) Brazil

2015 Census figures.


This section needs to be updated. Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.(March 2017)
Trading panel of the São Paulo Stock Exchange is the second biggest in the Americas and 13th in the world.
Financial center of Santiago, Chile
Refinery of Brazilian state-owned Petrobras in Cochabamba, Bolivia
Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world, near the city of Calama in Chile.
KC-390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer.

South America relies less on the export of both manufactured goods and natural resources than the world average; merchandise exports from the continent were 16% of GDP on an exchange rate basis, compared to 25% for the world as a whole. Brazil (the seventh largest economy in the world and the largest in South America) leads in terms of merchandise exports at $251 billion, followed by Venezuela at $93 billion, Chile at $86 billion, and Argentina at $84 billion.

Since 1930, the continent has experienced remarkable growth and diversification in most economic sectors. Most agricultural and livestock products are destined for the domestic market and local consumption. However, the export of agricultural products is essential for the balance of trade in most countries.

The main agrarian crops are export crops, such as soy and wheat. The production of staple foods such as vegetables, corn or beans is large, but focused on domestic consumption. Livestock raising for meat exports is important in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay and Colombia. In tropical regions the most important crops are coffee, cocoa and bananas, mainly in Brazil, Colombia and Ecuador. Traditionally, the countries producing sugar for export are Peru, Guyana and Suriname, and in Brazil, sugar cane is also used to make ethanol. On the coast of Peru, northeast and south of Brazil, cotton is grown. 50.5% of the South America's land surface is covered by forest, but timber industries are small and directed to domestic markets. In recent years, however, transnational companies have been settling in the Amazon to exploit noble timber destined for export. The Pacific coastal waters of South America are the most important for commercial fishing. The anchovy catch reaches thousands of tonnes, and tuna is also abundant (Peru is a major exporter). The capture of crustaceans is remarkable, particularly in northeastern Brazil and Chile.

Only Brazil and Argentina are part of the G20 (industrial countries), while only Brazil is part of the G8+5 (the most powerful and influential nations in the world). In the tourism sector, a series of negotiations began in 2005 to promote tourism and increase air connections within the region. Punta del Este, Florianópolis and Mar del Plata are among the most important resorts in South America.

The most industrialized countries in South America are Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Venezuela and Uruguay respectively. These countries alone account for more than 75 percent of the region's economy and add up to a GDP of more than US$3.0 trillion. Industries in South America began to take on the economies of the region from the 1930s when the Great Depression in the United States and other countries of the world boosted industrial production in the continent. From that period the region left the agricultural side behind and began to achieve high rates of economic growth that remained until the early 1990s when they slowed due to political instabilities, economic crises and neoliberal policies.

Since the end of the economic crisis in Brazil and Argentina that occurred in the period from 1998 to 2002, which has led to economic recession, rising unemployment and falling population income, the industrial and service sectors have been recovering rapidly. Chile, Argentina and Brazil have recovered fastest, growing at an average of 5% per year. All of South America after this period has been recovering and showing good signs of economic stability, with controlled inflation and exchange rates, continuous growth, a decrease in social inequality and unemployment–factors that favor industry.

The main industries are: electronics, textiles, food, automotive, metallurgy, aviation, naval, clothing, beverage, steel, tobacco, timber, chemical, among others. Exports reach almost US$400 billion annually, with Brazil accounting for half of this.

The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is larger than on most other continents. The richest 10% receive over 40% of the nation's income in Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, and Paraguay, while the poorest 20% receive 4% or less in Bolivia, Brazil, and Colombia. This wide gap can be seen in many large South American cities where makeshift shacks and slums lie in the vicinity of skyscrapers and upper-class luxury apartments; nearly one in nine South Americans live on less than $2 per day (on a purchasing power parity basis).

Country GDP (nominal)
in 2017 (in millions of dollars)
GDP (PPP)
in 2017 (in millions of dollars)
GDP (PPP)
per capita
in 2017
Merchandise
exports

($bn), 2011
HDI
in 2017

(rank)
Percent with
less than
$2 (PPP)
per person
per day[citation needed]
Argentina 628,935 912,816 20,707 83.7 0.825 2.6
Bolivia 39,267 83,608 7,552 9.1 0.693 24.9
Brazil 2,140,940 3,216,031 15,485 250.8 0.759 10.8
Chile 251,220 455,941 24,796 86.1 0.845 2.7
Colombia 306,439 720,151 14,609 56.5 0.747 15.8
Ecuador 97,362 184,629 11,004 22.3 0.752 10.6
Falkland Islands (UK) 206.4 206.4 70,800 0.26
French Guiana (France) 4,456 4,456 19,728 1.3
Guyana 3,591 6,398 8,306 0.9 0.654 18.0
Paraguay 28,743 68,005 9,779 9.8 0.702 13.2
Peru 207,072 429,711 13,501 46.3 0.750 12.7
Suriname 3,641 7,961 13,934 1.6 0.720 27.2
Uruguay 58,123 77,800 22,271 8.0 0.804 2.2
Venezuela 251,589 404,109 12,856 92.6 0.761 12.9
Total 3,836,569 6,642,623 17,852 669.1 0.772 11.3

Economically largest cities as of 2014

Rank City Country GDP in Int$ bn Population (mil) GDP per capita
1 São Paulo Brazil $430 20,847,500 $20,650
2 Buenos Aires Argentina $315 13,381,800 $23,606
3 Lima Peru $176 10,674,100 $16,530
4 Rio de Janeiro Brazil $176 12,460,200 $14,176
5 Santiago Chile $171 7,164,400 $32,929
6 Bogotá Colombia $160 9,135,800 $17,497
7 Brasília Brazil $141 3,976,500 $35,689
8 Belo Horizonte Brazil $84 5,595,800 $15,134
9 Porto Alegre Brazil $62 4,120,900 $15,078
10 Campinas Brazil $59 2,854,200 $20,759
Sugarcane plantation in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 746 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's sugarcane.
Soy plantation in Mato Grosso. In 2020, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 130 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's soybeans.
Coffee in Minas Gerais. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 3.5 million tonnes. South America produces half of the world's coffee.
Orange in São Paulo. In 2018, Brazil was the world's largest producer, with 17 million tonnes. South America produces 25% of the world's orange.

The four countries with the strongest agriculture are Brazil, Argentina, Chile and Colombia. Currently:

Truck of a meat company in Brazil. South America produces 20% of the world's beef and chicken meat.

Brazil is the world's largest exporter of chicken meat: 3.77 million tonnes in 2019. The country is the holder of the second largest herd of cattle in the world, 22.2% of the world herd. The country was the second largest producer of beef in 2019, responsible for 15.4% of global production. It was also the 3rd largest world producer of milk in 2018. This year, the country produced 35.1 billion liters. In 2019, Brazil was the 4th largest pork producer in the world, with almost 4 million tonnes.

In 2018, Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world, with a production of 3 million tonnes (behind only USA, Brazil and China). Uruguay is also a major meat producer. In 2018, it produced 589 thousand tonnes of beef.

In chicken meat production, Argentina ranks among the 15 largest producers in the world, and Peru and Colombia among the 20 biggest producers. In beef production, Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers in the world. In honey production, Argentina ranks among the 5 largest producers in the world, and Brazil among the 15 largest. In terms of production of cow's milk, Argentina ranks among the 20 largest producers in the world.

EMS, the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry
Braskem, the largest Brazilian chemical industry

The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value. According to the 2019 list, Brazil has the thirteenth most valuable industry in the world (US$173.6 billion), Venezuela the thirtieth largest (US$58.2 billion, however, it depends on oil to obtain this value), Argentina the 31st largest (US$57.7 billion), Colombia the 46th largest (US$35.4 billion), Peru the 50th largest (US$28.7 billion) and Chile the 51st largest (US$28.3 billion).

Brazil has the third-largest manufacturing sector in the Americas. Accounting for 28.5 percent of GDP, Brazil's industries range from automobiles, steel, and petrochemicals to computers, aircraft (Embraer), food, pharmaceutical, footwear, metallurgy and consumer durables. In the food industry, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. In 2016, the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper. In the footwear industry, in 2019, Brazil ranked 4th among world producers. In 2019, the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world. In 2018, the chemical industry of Brazil was the 8th in the world. In textile industry, Brazil, although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013, is very little integrated in world trade.

Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, still a major silver mine
Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul. South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst, topaz, emerald, aquamarine and tourmaline
Iron mine in Minas Gerais. Brazil is the world's second largest iron ore exporter.

Mining is one of the most important economic sectors in South America, especially for Chile, Peru and Bolivia, whose economies are highly dependent on this sector. The continent has large productions of gold (mainly in Peru, Brazil and Argentina); silver (mainly in Peru, Chile, Bolivia and Argentina); copper (mainly in Chile, Peru and Brazil); iron ore (Brazil, Peru and Chile); zinc (Peru, Bolivia and Brazil); molybdenum (Chile and Peru); lithium (Chile, Argentina and Brazil); lead (Peru and Bolivia); bauxite (Brazil); tin (Peru, Bolivia and Brazil); manganese (Brazil); antimony (Bolivia and Ecuador); nickel (Brazil); niobium (Brazil); rhenium (Chile); iodine (Chile), among others.

Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore (where it is the 2nd largest producer and exporter in the world - iron ore is usually one of the 3 export products that generate the greatest value in the country's trade balance), copper, gold, bauxite (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), manganese (one of the 5 largest producers in the world), tin (one of the largest producers in the world), niobium (concentrates 98% of reserves known to the world) and nickel. In terms of gemstones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst, topaz, agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline, emerald, aquamarine, garnet and opal.

Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production. In addition to copper, Chile was, in 2019, the world's largest producer of iodine and rhenium, the second largest producer of lithium and molybdenum, the sixth largest producer of silver, the seventh largest producer of salt, the eighth largest producer of potash, the thirteenth producer of sulfur and the thirteenth producer of iron ore in the world.

In 2019, Peru was the 2nd largest world producer of copper and silver, 8th largest world producer of gold, 3rd largest world producer of lead, 2nd largest world producer of zinc, 4th largest world producer of tin, 5th largest world producer of boron and 4th largest world producer of molybdenum.

In 2019, Bolivia was the 8th largest world producer of silver; 4th largest world producer of boron; 5th largest world producer of antimony; 5th largest world producer of tin; 6th largest world producer of tungsten; 7th largest producer of zinc, and the 8th largest producer of lead.

In 2019, Argentina was the 4th largest world producer of lithium, the 9th largest world producer of silver, the 17th largest world producer of gold and the 7th largest world producer of boron.

Colombia is the world's largest producer of emeralds. In the production of gold, among 2006 and 2017, the country produced 15 tons per year until 2007, when its production increased significantly, breaking a record of 66.1 tons extracted in 2012. In 2017, it extracted 52.2 tons. The country is among the 25 largest gold producers in the world. In the production of silver, in 2017 the country extracted 15,5 tons.

In the production of oil, Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019, with 2.8 million barrels / day. Venezuela was the 21st largest, with 877 thousand barrels / day, Colombia in 22nd with 886 thousand barrels / day, Ecuador in 28th with 531 thousand barrels / day and Argentina 29th with 507 thousand barrels / day. As Venezuela and Ecuador consume little oil and export most of their production, they are part of OPEC. Venezuela had a big drop in production after 2015 (where it produced 2.5 million barrels / day), falling in 2016 to 2.2 million, in 2017 to 2 million, in 2018 to 1.4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand, due to lack of investments.

In the production of natural gas, in 2018, Argentina produced 1524 bcf (billion cubic feet), Venezuela 946, Brazil 877, Bolivia 617, Peru 451, Colombia 379.

In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, Brazil exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. In January 2021, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted.

In the production of coal, the continent had 2 of the 30 largest world producers in 2018: Colombia (12th) and Brazil (27th).

  • Grape plantation in Argentina. Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest.

  • Maize in Dourados. Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers

  • Salmon farming in Chile. One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country.

  • Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio. South America specializes in food processing

  • Steel-maker CSN, in Volta Redonda. Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world, and Argentina is one of the 30 largest

  • Klabin industrial complex, in Ortigueira. Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world

  • Portico of the Democrata men's shoe factory, in Franca. Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world.

  • Hering, in Santa Catarina, Brazil. The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world

  • General Motors plant in Rosario. Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest.

  • Copper mine in Chile. Latin America produces more than half of the world's copper

  • Colombian emerald. The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world, and Brazil is one of the largest producers

  • Copacabana Palace, the best hotel in South America, in Rio de Janeiro. Tourism brings important currencies to the continent.

  • Honey production in Argentina. The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world.

  • Sunflower plantation in Argentina. The country is the world's third largest producer of sunflower seed.

  • Chilean cherries. Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world.

  • Chilean kiwi. The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world.

  • Palm plantation in Magdalena. Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world.

  • Pineapple in Brazil. The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world. South America produces close to 20% of the world's pineapple.

Tourism

Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries.

Historical relics, architectural and natural wonders, a diverse range of foods and culture, vibrant and colorful cities, and stunning landscapes attract millions of tourists every year to South America. Some of the most visited places in the region are Iguazu Falls, Recife, Olinda, Machu Picchu, Bariloche, the Amazon rainforest, Rio de Janeiro, São Luís, Salvador, Fortaleza, Maceió, Buenos Aires, Florianópolis, San Ignacio Miní, Isla Margarita, Natal, Lima, São Paulo, Angel Falls, Brasília, Nazca Lines, Cuzco, Belo Horizonte, Lake Titicaca, Salar de Uyuni, La Paz, Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos, Los Roques archipelago, Gran Sabana, Patagonia, Tayrona National Natural Park, Santa Marta, Bogotá, Cali, Medellín, Cartagena, Perito Moreno Glacier and the Galápagos Islands. In 2016 Brazil hosted the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Panorama of Cartagena (2008), a major port on the northern coast of Colombia and one of the country's main tourist destinations.


Teatro Solis, Uruguay.

South Americans are culturally influenced by their indigenous peoples, the historic connection with the Iberian Peninsula and Africa, and waves of immigrants from around the globe.

South American nations have a rich variety of music. Some of the most famous genres include vallenato and cumbia from Colombia, pasillo from Colombia and Ecuador, samba, bossa nova and música sertaneja from Brazil, and tango from Argentina and Uruguay. Also well known is the non-commercial folk genre Nueva Canción movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America.

Tango show in Buenos Aires, typical Argentine dance.
Carmen Miranda, Portuguese Brazilian singer helped popularize samba internationally.

People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo (mixed) of South American rhythms such as the Marinera (from Lima), the Tondero (from Piura), the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse, the soulful Arequipan Yaravi, and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania. In the late 20th century, Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock. Brazil has a Portuguese-language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres. In the central and western regions of Bolivia, Andean and folklore music like Diablada, Caporales and Morenada are the most representative of the country, which were originated by European, Aymara and Quechua influences.

The literature of South America has attracted considerable critical and popular acclaim, especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s, and the rise of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa, Gabriel García Márquez in novels and Jorge Luis Borges and Pablo Neruda in other genres. The Brazilians Machado de Assis and João Guimarães Rosa are widely regarded as the greatest Brazilian writers.

Food and drink

Because of South America's broad ethnic mix, South American cuisine has African, Mestizo, South Asian, East Asian, and European influences. Bahia, Brazil, is especially well known for its West African–influenced cuisine. Argentines, Chileans, Uruguayans, Brazilians, Bolivians, and Venezuelans regularly consume wine. People in Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay, southern Chile, Bolivia and Southern Brazil drink mate, an herb which is brewed. The Paraguayan version, terere, differs from other forms of mate in that it is served cold. Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapes in Peru and Chile. Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from Chinese, Japanese, Spanish, Italian, African, Arab, Andean, and Amazonic food.

Plastic arts

Bird (UOB Plaza, Singapore), sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero

The artist Oswaldo Guayasamín (1919–1999) from Ecuador, represented with his painting style the feeling of the peoples of Latin America highlighting social injustices in various parts of the world. The Colombian Fernando Botero (1932) is one of the greatest exponents of painting and sculpture that continues still active and has been able to develop a recognizable style of his own. For his part, the Venezuelan Carlos Cruz-Diez has contributed significantly to contemporary art, with the presence of works around the world.

Currently several emerging South American artists are recognized by international art critics: Guillermo Lorca – Chilean painter, Teddy Cobeña – Ecuadorian sculptor and recipient of international sculpture award in France) and Argentine artist Adrián Villar Rojas – winner of the Zurich Museum Art Award among many others.

Sport

Panorama of the interior of the Maracanã stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup

A wide range of sports are played in the continent of South America, with football being the most popular overall, while baseball is the most popular in Venezuela.

Other sports include basketball, cycling, polo, volleyball, futsal, motorsports, rugby (mostly in Argentina and Uruguay), handball, tennis, golf, field hockey, boxing, and cricket.

South America hosted its first Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in 2016, and has hosted the Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires, Argentina, in 2018.

South America shares with Europe supremacy over the sport of football as all winners in FIFA World Cup history and all winning teams in the FIFA Club World Cup have come from these two continents. Brazil holds the record at the FIFA World Cup with five titles in total of all countries. Argentina and Uruguay have two titles each. So far five South American nations have hosted the tournament including the first edition in Uruguay (1930). Two were from Brazil (1950, 2014), Chile (1962), and Argentina (1978).

South America is home to the longest-running international football tournament, the Copa América, which has been contested since 1916. Argentina and Uruguay have won the Copa América 15 times each, the most among all countries.

Also, in South America, a multi-sport event, the South American Games, are held every four years. The first edition was held in La Paz in 1978 and the most recent took place in Santiago in 2014.

South American Cricket Championship is an international one-day cricket tournament played since 1995 featuring national teams from South America and certain other invited sides including teams from North America, currently played annually but until 2013 was usually played every two seasons.

Jepírachi wind farm in the Guajira Peninsula.

Energy

Due to the diversity of topography and pluviometric precipitation conditions, the region's water resources vary enormously in different areas. In the Andes, navigation possibilities are limited, except for the Magdalena River, Lake Titicaca and the lakes of the southern regions of Chile and Argentina. Irrigation is an important factor for agriculture from northwestern Peru to Patagonia. Less than 10% of the known electrical potential of the Andes had been used until the mid-1960s.

The Brazilian Highlands have a much higher hydroelectric potential than the Andean region and its possibilities of exploitation are greater due to the existence of several large rivers with high margins and the occurrence of great differences forming huge cataracts, such as those of Paulo Afonso, Iguaçu and others. The Amazon River system has about 13,000 km of waterways, but its possibilities for hydroelectric use are still unknown.

Most of the continent's energy is generated through hydroelectric power plants, but there is also an important share of thermoelectric and wind energy. Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries that generate nuclear power, each with two nuclear power plants. In 1991 these countries signed a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement.

Panoramic view of the Itaipu Dam, the second largest of the world in energy production.
Pirapora Solar Complex, the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW.

The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Imports previously accounted for more than 70% of the country's oil needs but Brazil became self-sufficient in oil in 2006–2007. Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019, with 2.8 million barrels / day. Production manages to supply the country's demand. In the beginning of 2020, in the production of oil and natural gas, the country exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day, for the first time. In January this year, 3.168 million barrels of oil per day and 138.753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted.

Brazil is one of the main world producers of hydroelectric power. In 2019, Brazil had 217 hydroelectric plants in operation, with an installed capacity of 98,581 MW, 60.16% of the country's energy generation. In the total generation of electricity, in 2019 Brazil reached 170,000 megawatts of installed capacity, more than 75% from renewable sources (the majority, hydroelectric).

In 2013, the Southeast Region used about 50% of the load of the National Integrated System (SIN), being the main energy consuming region in the country. The region's installed electricity generation capacity totaled almost 42,500 MW, which represented about a third of Brazil's generation capacity. The hydroelectric generation represented 58% of the region's installed capacity, with the remaining 42% corresponding basically to the thermoelectric generation. São Paulo accounted for 40% of this capacity; Minas Gerais by about 25%; Rio de Janeiro by 13.3%; and Espírito Santo accounted for the rest. The South Region owns the Itaipu Dam, which was the largest hydroelectric plant in the world for several years, until the inauguration of Three Gorges Dam in China. It remains the second largest operating hydroelectric in the world. Brazil is the co-owner of the Itaipu Plant with Paraguay: the dam is located on the Paraná River, located on the border between countries. It has an installed generation capacity of 14 GW for 20 generating units of 700 MW each. North Region has large hydroelectric plants, such as Belo Monte Dam and Tucuruí Dam, which produce much of the national energy. Brazil's hydroelectric potential has not yet been fully exploited, so the country still has the capacity to build several renewable energy plants in its territory.

As of February 2021,[ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of wind power was 19.1 GW, with average capacity factor of 58%. While the world average wind production capacity factors is 24.7%, there are areas in Northern Brazil, specially in Bahia State, where some wind farms record with average capacity factors over 60%; the average capacity factor in the Northeast Region is 45% in the coast and 49% in the interior. In 2019, wind energy represented 9% of the energy generated in the country. In 2019, it was estimated that the country had an estimated wind power generation potential of around 522 GW (this, only onshore), enough energy to meet three times the country's current demand. In 2020 Brazil was the 8th country in the world in terms of installed wind power (17.2 GW).

Nuclear energy accounts for about 4% of Brazil's electricity. The nuclear power generation monopoly is owned by Eletronuclear (Eletrobrás Eletronuclear S/A), a wholly owned subsidiary of Eletrobrás. Nuclear energy is produced by two reactors at Angra. It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) on the Praia de Itaorna in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro. It consists of two pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with capacity of 657 MW, connected to the power grid in 1982, and Angra II, with capacity of 1,350 MW, connected in 2000. A third reactor, Angra III, with a projected output of 1,350 MW, is planned to be finished.

As of July 2021,[ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of photovoltaic solar was 10.3 GW, with average capacity factor of 23%. Some of the most irradiated Brazilian States are MG ("Minas Gerais"), BA ("Bahia") and GO (Goiás), which have indeed world irradiation level records. In 2019, solar power represented 1.27% of the energy generated in the country. In 2020, Brazil was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed solar power (7.8 GW).

In 2020, Brazil was the 2nd largest country in the world in the production of energy through biomass (energy production from solid biofuels and renewable waste), with 15,2 GW installed.

After Brazil, Colombia is the country in South America that most stands out in energy production. In 2020, the country was the 20th largest petroleum producer in the world, and in 2015 it was the 19th largest exporter. In natural gas, the country was, in 2015, the 40th largest producer in the world. Colombia's biggest highlight is in coal, where the country was, in 2018, the world's 12th largest producer and the 5th largest exporter. In renewable energies, in 2020, the country ranked 45th in the world in terms of installed wind energy (0.5 GW), 76th in the world in terms of installed solar energy (0.1 GW) and 20th in the world in terms of installed hydroelectric power (12.6 GW). Venezuela, which was one of the world's largest oil producers (about 2.5 million barrels/day in 2015) and one of the largest exporters, due to its political problems, has had its production drastically reduced in recent years: in 2016, it dropped to 2.2 million, in 2017 to 2 million, in 2018 to 1.4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand, reaching only 300,000 barrels/day at a given point. The country also stands out in hydroelectricity, where it was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed capacity in 2020 (16,5 GW). Argentina was, in 2017, the 18th largest producer in the world, and the largest producer in Latin America, of natural gas, in addition to being the 28th largest oil producer; although the country has the Vaca Muerta field, which holds close to 16 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil, and is the second largest shale natural gas deposit in the world, the country lacks the capacity to exploit the deposit: it is necessary capital, technology and knowledge that can only come from offshore energy companies, who view Argentina and its erratic economic policies with considerable suspicion, not wanting to invest in the country. In renewable energies, in 2020, the country ranked 27th in the world in terms of installed wind energy (2.6 GW), 42nd in the world in terms of installed solar energy (0.7 GW) and 21st in the world in terms of installed hydroelectric power (11.3 GW). The country has great future potential for the production of wind energy in the Patagonia region. Chile, although currently not a major energy producer, has great future potential for solar energy production in the Atacama Desert region. Paraguay stands out today in hydroelectric production thanks to the Itaipu Power Plant. Bolivia stand out in the production of natural gas, where it was the 31st largest in the world in 2015. Ecuador, because it consumes little energy, is part of OPEC and was the 27th largest oil producer in the world in 2020, being the 22nd largest exporter in 2014.

Transport

Ruta 9 / 14, in Zarate, Argentina
Port of Itajaí, Santa Catarina, Brazil
Stretch of the Pan-American Highway in Argentina
The Port of Callao in Lima
The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world

Transport in South America is basically carried out using the road mode, the most developed in the region. There is also a considerable infrastructure of ports and airports. The railway and fluvial sector, although it has potential, is usually treated in a secondary way.

Brazil has more than 1.7 million km of roads, of which 215,000 km are paved, and about 14,000 km are divided highways. The two most important highways in the country are BR-101 and BR-116. Argentina has more than 600,000 km of roads, of which about 70,000 km are paved, and about 2,500 km are divided highways. The three most important highways in the country are Route 9, Route 7 and Route 14. Colombia has about 210,000 km of roads, and about 2,300 km are divided highways. Chile has about 82,000 km of roads, 20,000 km of which are paved, and about 2,000 km are divided highways. The most important highway in the country is the Route 5 (Pan-American Highway) These 4 countries are the ones with the best road infrastructure and with the largest number of double-lane highways.

Due to the Andes Mountains, Amazon River and Amazon Forest, there have always been difficulties in implementing transcontinental or bioceanic highways. Practically the only route that existed was the one that connected Brazil to Buenos Aires, in Argentina and later to Santiago, in Chile. However, in recent years, with the combined effort of countries, new routes have started to emerge, such as Brazil-Peru (Interoceanic Highway), and a new highway between Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina and northern Chile (Bioceanic Corridor).

There are more than 2,000 airports in Brazil. The country has the second largest number of airports in the world, behind only the United States. São Paulo International Airport, located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, is the largest and busiest in the country - the airport connects São Paulo to practically all major cities around the world. Brazil has 44 international airports, such as those in Rio de Janeiro, Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Porto Alegre, Florianópolis, Cuiabá, Salvador, Recife, Fortaleza, Belém and Manaus, among others. Argentina has important international airports such as Buenos Aires, Cordoba, Bariloche, Mendoza, Salta, Puerto Iguazú, Neuquén and Usuhaia, among others. Chile has important international airports such as Santiago, Antofagasta, Puerto Montt, Punta Arenas and Iquique, among others. Colombia has important international airports such as Bogotá, Medellín, Cartagena, Cali and Barranquilla, among others. Other important airports are those in the capitals of Uruguay (Montevideo), Paraguay (Asunción), Peru (Lima), Bolivia (La Paz) and Ecuador (Quito). The 10 busiest airports in South America in 2017 were: São Paulo-Guarulhos (Brazil), Bogotá (Colombia), São Paulo-Congonhas (Brazil), Santiago (Chile), Lima (Peru), Brasília (Brazil), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), Buenos Aires-Aeroparque (Argentina), Buenos Aires-Ezeiza (Argentina), and Minas Gerais (Brazil).

About ports, Brazil has some of the busiest ports in South America, such as Port of Santos, Port of Rio de Janeiro, Port of Paranaguá, Port of Itajaí, Port of Rio Grande, Port of São Francisco do Sul and Suape Port. Argentina has ports such as Port of Buenos Aires and Port of Rosario. Chile has important ports in Valparaíso, Caldera, Mejillones, Antofagasta, Iquique, Arica and Puerto Montt. Colombia has important ports such as Buenaventura, Cartagena Container Terminal and Puerto Bolivar. Peru has important ports in Callao, Ilo and Matarani. The 15 busiest ports in South America are: Port of Santos (Brazil), Port of Bahia de Cartagena (Colombia), Callao (Peru), Guayaquil (Ecuador), Buenos Aires (Argentina), San Antonio (Chile), Buenaventura (Colombia), Itajaí (Brazil), Valparaíso (Chile), Montevideo (Uruguay), Paranaguá (Brazil), Rio Grande (Brazil), São Francisco do Sul (Brazil), Manaus (Brazil) and Coronel (Chile).

The Brazilian railway network has an extension of about 30,000 kilometers. It's basically used for transporting ores. The Argentine rail network, with 47,000 km of tracks, was one of the largest in the world and continues to be the most extensive in Latin America. It came to have about 100,000 km of rails, but the lifting of tracks and the emphasis placed on motor transport gradually reduced it. It has four different trails and international connections with Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay. Chile has almost 7,000 km of railways, with connections to Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Colombia has only about 3,500 km of railways.

Among the main Brazilian waterways, two stand out: Hidrovia Tietê-Paraná (which has a length of 2,400 km, 1,600 on the Paraná River and 800 km on the Tietê River, draining agricultural production from the states of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás and part of Rondônia, Tocantins and Minas Gerais) and Hidrovia do Solimões-Amazonas (it has two sections: Solimões, which extends from Tabatinga to Manaus, with approximately 1600 km, and Amazonas, which extends from Manaus to Belém, with 1650 km. Almost entirely passenger transport from the Amazon plain is done by this waterway, in addition to practically all cargo transportation that is directed to the major regional centers of Belém and Manaus). In Brazil, this transport is still underutilized: the most important waterway stretches, from an economic point of view, are found in the Southeast and South of the country. Its full use still depends on the construction of locks, major dredging works and, mainly, of ports that allow intermodal integration. In Argentina, the waterway network is made up of the La Plata, Paraná, Paraguay and Uruguay rivers. The main river ports are Zárate and Campana. The port of Buenos Aires is historically the first in individual importance, but the area known as Up-River, which stretches along 67 km of the Santa Fé portion of the Paraná River, brings together 17 ports that concentrate 50% of the total exports of the country.

Only two railroads are continental: the Transandina, which connects Buenos Aires, in Argentina to Valparaíso, in Chile, and the Brazil–Bolivia Railroad, which makes it the connection between the port of Santos in Brazil and the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra, in Bolivia. In addition, there is the Pan-American Highway, which crosses Argentina and the Andean countries from north to south, although some stretches are unfinished.

Two areas of greater density occur in the railway sector: the platinum network, which develops around the Platine region, largely belonging to Argentina, with more than 45,000 km in length; And the Southeast Brazil network, which mainly serves the state of São Paulo, state of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. Brazil and Argentina also stand out in the road sector. In addition to the modern roads that extend through northern Argentina and south-east and south of Brazil, a vast road complex aims to link Brasília, the federal capital, to the South, Southeast, Northeast and Northern regions of Brazil.

South America has one of the largest bays of navigable inland waterways in the world, represented mainly by the Amazon basin, the Platine basin, the São Francisco and the Orinoco basins, Brazil having about 54,000 km navigable, while Argentina has 6,500 km and Venezuela, 1,200 km.

The two main merchant fleets also belong to Brazil and Argentina. The following are those of Chile, Venezuela, Peru and Colombia. The largest ports in commercial movement are those of Buenos Aires, Santos, Rio de Janeiro, Bahía Blanca, Rosario, Valparaíso, Recife, Salvador, Montevideo, Paranaguá, Rio Grande, Fortaleza, Belém and Maracaibo.

In South America, commercial aviation has a magnificent expansion field, which has one of the largest traffic density lines in the world, Rio de Janeiro–São Paulo, and large airports, such as Congonhas, São Paulo–Guarulhos International and Viracopos (São Paulo), Rio de Janeiro International and Santos Dumont (Rio de Janeiro), El Dorado (Bogotá), Ezeiza (Buenos Aires), Tancredo Neves International Airport (Belo Horizonte), Curitiba International Airport (Curitiba), Brasilia, Caracas, Montevideo, Lima, Viru Viru International Airport (Santa Cruz de la Sierra), Recife, Salvador, Salgado Filho International Airport (Porto Alegre), Fortaleza, Manaus and Belém.

The main public transport in major cities is the bus. Many cities also have a diverse system of metro and subway trains, the first of which was the Buenos Aires subte, opened 1913. The Santiago subway is the largest network in South America, with 103 km, while the São Paulo subway is the largest in transportation, with more than 4.6 million passengers per day and was voted the best in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro installed the first railroad of the continent in 1854. Today the city has a vast and diversified system of metropolitan trains, integrated with buses and subway. Recently it was also inaugurated in the city a Light Rail System called VLT, a small electrical trams at low speed, while São Paulo inaugurated its monorail, the first of South America.[citation needed] In Brazil, an express bus system called Bus Rapid Transit (BRT), which operates in several cities, has also been developed. Mi Teleférico, also known as Teleférico La PazEl Alto (La Paz–El Alto Cable Car), is an aerial cable car urban transit system serving the La Paz–El Alto metropolitan area in Bolivia.

  1. Sometimes included. Depending on the definition of North America-South America boundary, Panama could be classified as a transcontinental country.
  2. Occasionally included. Physiographically a part of South America, but geopolitically a part of North America.
  3. Occasionally included. An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate, Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America, but geopolitically a part of Africa.
  4. Occasionally included. An isolated volcanic island near the boundary between the African Plate and the Antarctic Plate, Bouvet Island is biogeographically and geologically associated with Antarctica. Despite being closer to Antarctica and Africa geographically, the United Nations geoscheme has included Bouvet Island in South America instead.
  5. Geologically, South Georgia Island and the southernmost portion of mainland South America are both on the Scotia Plate while the South Sandwich Islands is on the nearby Sandwich Plate. Biogeographically and hydrologically, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is associated with Antarctica. The United Nations geoscheme has included the disputed territory in South America.
  6. Except Bouvet Island, which has occasionally been included as a part of South America.
  7. Both administered as British Overseas Territories under the Crown, claimed by Argentina.
  8. A overseas region/department of France.
  9. La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia; Sucre is the constitutional and judicial capital of Bolivia.
  10. Bouvet Island is commonly associated with Antarctica (due to proximity), but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead.
  11. Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean, a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania. Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile; Valparaíso is the site of legislative meetings.
  12. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean has no permanent population, only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors.

Citations

  1. ""World Population prospects – Population division"". population.un.org. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved9 November 2019.
  2. ""Overall total population" – World Population Prospects: The 2019 Revision"(xslx). population.un.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved9 November 2019.
  3. "GDP PPP, current prices". International Monetary Fund. 2021. Retrieved16 January 2021.
  4. "GDP Nominal, current prices". International Monetary Fund. 2021. Retrieved16 January 2021.
  5. "Nominal GDP per capita". International Monetary Fund. 2021. Retrieved16 January 2021.
  6. Schenoni, Luis L. (1 January 1970). "Unveiling the South American Balance". Estudos Internacionais 2(2): 215–232. Retrieved8 December 2016.
  7. Holsti 1996, p. 155
  8. Cohen, Saul Bernard. 2003. "North and Middle America" (Ch. 5). Geopolitics of the World System, ISBN 0847699072
  9. "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
  10. "North America". Atlas of Canada. 14 November 2003. Archived from the original on 3 March 2008. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  11. North America Atlas National Geographic
  12. "Panama". Britannica.com. 31 December 1999. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  13. "Panama". The World Factbook. Cia.gov. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  14. "Parts of Chile's Atacama Desert haven't seen a drop of rain since recordkeeping began. Somehow, more than a million people squeeze life from this parched land". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  15. "Driest Place | Driest Desert Atacama Desert". Extremescience.com. 25 January 2007. Archived from the original on 8 April 2009. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  16. McKay, C.P. (May–June 2002). "Two dry for life: The Atacama Desert and Mars"(PDF). Ad Astra. 14 (3): 30. Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 August 2009.
  17. "Bacc Travel brazilian Vacation Experts". www.bacctravel.com.
  18. Society, National Geographic (4 January 2012). "South America: Physical Geography". National Geographic Society. Retrieved19 February 2021.
  19. South America Atlas National Geographic
  20. "United Nations Statistics Division – Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49)". Unstats.un.org. 20 September 2011. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  21. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. p. 2017.
  22. "Ascension Island Geology". mcee.ou.edu.
  23. Beck, Hylke E.; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; McVicar, Tim R.; Vergopolan, Noemi; Berg, Alexis; Wood, Eric F. (30 October 2018). "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution". Scientific Data. 5: 180214. Bibcode:2018NatSD...580214B. doi:10.1038/sdata.2018.214. PMC6207062. PMID 30375988.
  24. O CLIMA. In: Atlas Mundial. São Paulo: Cia. Melhoramentos de São Paulo, 1999, pp. 20–21 ISBN 85-06-02889-2
  25. Landsea, Chris (13 July 2005). "Why doesn't the South Atlantic Ocean experience tropical cyclones?". Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorlogical Laboratory. National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved9 June 2018.
  26. "Wettest Places On Earth By Annual Rainfall". World Atlas. Retrieved12 May 2019.
  27. "Apresentação da Corrente do Golfo" [Presentation of the Gulf Stream]. knoow.net (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 11 April 2015. Retrieved26 January 2017.
  28. O'Brien, Patrick. (General Editor). Oxford Atlas of World History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005. p. 25
  29. Horst Pietschmann, Atlantic history : history of the Atlantic System 1580-1830, Göttingen : Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2002, p. 239
  30. C.R. Boxer (1990). The Dutch Seaborne Empire. Penguin. pp. 271–272. ISBN 9780140136180.
  31. Anstey, Roger: The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition, 1760–1810. London: Macmillan, 1975, p. 5.
  32. "Vergonha Ainda Maior: Novas informações disponíveis em um enorme banco de dados mostram que a escravidão no Brasil foi muito pior do que se sabia antes (". Veja (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 13 March 2015. Retrieved16 March 2015.
  33. Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W.E.B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 978-0-465-00071-5.
  34. Yeager, Timothy J. (December 1995). "Encomienda or Slavery? The Spanish Crown's Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth-Century Spanish America". The Journal of Economic History. 55 (4): 842–859. doi:10.1017/S0022050700042182.
  35. "The "Golden Law" Abolishing Slavery in Brazil". Encyclopedia of emancipation and abolition in the Transatlantic world. London, United Kingdom: Routledge. 2007.
  36. "Caudilhismo". Brasil Escola.
  37. Day, Peter (17 December 1997). "Ragamuffin War". Brasil Escola. Archived from the original on 3 March 2007. Retrieved27 March 2007.
  38. Souza, Rainer (20 January 2002). "Ragamuffin Revolution". RioGrande. Retrieved27 March 2007.
  39. Holsti 1996, p. 153
  40. Scheina, Robert L. (31 January 2003). Latin America's Wars. Potomac Books, Inc. ISBN 978-1597974776 – via Google Books.
  41. Borges, Fernando Tadeu de Miranda. "A Guerra do Paraguai – História – Resumo". Historiadobrasil.net (in Portuguese).
  42. Rossi, Carlos (9 July 2007). "América Latina – Guerra do Pacífico" (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 4 March 2009.
  43. Woodard, James P. "A Place in Politics: São Paulo, Brazil; From Seigneurial Republicanism to Regionalist Revolt" Duke University Press 2009 Chapter 3 "War and the Health of the State" especially pp. 77–81 visualization on Google Books
  44. Conniff, Michael L. and McCann, Frank D. "Modern Brazil, Elites and Masses in Historical Perspective" University of Nebraska Press 1991 ISBN 0803263481 p. 168 visualization on Google Books
  45. "Peru". Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Uppsala Universitet.
  46. Smyers, Richard P. (1990). "Review: PANZERSCHIFF "ADMIRAL GRAF SPEE" by Siegfried Breyer". Warship International. 27 (1): 44. JSTOR 44891302.; Landsborough, Gordon (2016). The Battle of the River Plate: the First Naval Battle of the Second World War. Frontline Books. ISBN 978-1473878952.
  47. Maximiano, Cesar. with Bonalume, Ricardo N. & Bujeiro, Ramiro. Brazilian Expeditionary Force in World War II. Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2011. ISBN 9781849084833 (Print version).
  48. Frank D. MacCann – 'Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe', vol. 6, No. 2, 1995.
  49. Richard Hough, The Big Battleship (London: Michael Joseph, 1966), 19. OCLC 8898108.
  50. Robert Scheina, Latin America: A Naval History, 1810–1987 (Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1987), 86. ISBN 0-87021-295-8. OCLC 15696006.
  51. "June 14, 1982: Falklands War comes to an end as Britain accepts Argentina's surrender". BT Group. Retrieved6 December 2020.
  52. "The Cambridge History of Latin America", edited by Leslie Bethell, Cambridge University Press (1995) ISBN 0-521-39525-9
  53. Leslie Bethell (1995). Bibliographical Essays. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39525-0.
  54. Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2007 data, unless otherwise noted.
  55. "UNSD — Methodology". unstats.un.org.
  56. Lira, Heitor (1977). História de Dom Pedro II (1825–1891): Fastígio (1870–1880) (in Portuguese). 2. Belo Horizonte: Itatiaia.
  57. Tungodden, Bertil; Stern, Nicholas Herbert; Stern, Nicholas; Kolstad, Ivar (2004). Toward Pro-poor Policies: Aid, Institutions, and Globalization. World Bank Publications. p. 219. ISBN 978-0821353882.
  58. "Globalpolicy.org". Globalpolicy.org. 29 October 2008. Retrieved24 October 2010.
  59. "The Languages spoken in Guyana". Studylands. Retrieved12 April 2016.
  60. Karam, John Tofik (2013). "On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora: Mapping South America in the Arab–Israeli Conflict, 1967–1972". Journal of Latin American Studies. 45 (4): 751–777. doi:10.1017/S0022216X13001156. S2CID 145423526.
  61. "Christians". Pewforum.org. 18 December 2012. Retrieved11 November 2017.
  62. "Guyana - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved4 January 2021.
  63. "Suriname - The World Factbook". www.cia.gov. Retrieved4 January 2021.
  64. "Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco" (in Spanish). Latinobarómetro. April 2014. p. 7. Archived from the original(PDF) on 10 May 2015. Retrieved4 April 2015.
  65. Salzano, FM; Sans, M (2014). "Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations". Genet. Mol. Biol. 37 (1 Suppl): 151–170. doi:10.1590/s1415-47572014000200003. PMC3983580. PMID 24764751.
  66. "Your Regional Ancestry: Reference Populations". Genographic.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved31 December 2016.
  67. Dean, Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society, Cosmology, and History in Peruvian Amazonia, Gainesville: University Press of Florida ISBN 978-0-8130-3378-5 [1]
  68. "Peru". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  69. "Bolivia". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  70. "Argentina". World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  71. "Argentina y Uruguay, su población está formada casi exclusivamente por una población blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa, más del 90% E. García Zarza, 1992, 19". Geografia.fflch.usp.br. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  72. Cruz-Coke, R; Moreno, RS (1994). "Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile". Journal of Medical Genetics. 31 (9): 702–706. doi:10.1136/jmg.31.9.702. PMC1050080. PMID 7815439.
  73. "População residente por situação, sexo e grupos de idade". Sidra.ibge.gov.br. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  74. "Latinoamerica"(PDF). Revistas.ucm.es. Archived from the original(PDF) on 18 March 2009. Retrieved24 October 2010.
  75. "The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95.4% of its population having native European ancestors". Studentsgoabroad.com. 11 September 1973. Archived from the original on 7 January 2011. Retrieved24 October 2010.
  76. "Calendario de Publicaciones del Censo 2011"(PDF). Ine.gov.ve. Retrieved11 November 2017.
  77. Bushnell, David & Rex A. Hudson (2010) "The Society and Its Environment"; Colombia: a country study: 87. Washington, DC: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress.
  78. Schwartzman, Simon (27 January 2008). "Étnia, condiciones de vida y discriminación"(PDF) (in Spanish).
  79. "Peru - An Overview of the Market". Fppmedia.com. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011.
  80. Nakamura, Akemi (15 January 2008). "Japan, Brazil mark a century of settlement, family ties". Japan Times. Archived from the original on 4 December 2008.
  81. "The World Factbook". Cia.gov. Retrieved11 November 2017.
  82. Lizcano Fernández, Francisco (May–August 2005). "Composición Étnica de las Tres Áreas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI"(PDF). Convergencia (in Spanish). 38: 185–232, table on p. 218. ISSN 1405-1435. Archived from the original(PDF) on 20 September 2008.
  83. "Compendium 2: Population Composition"(PDF). Bureau of Statistics, Guyana. July 2016. Retrieved28 September 2021.
  84. Indigenous peoples of South America. Astromonos.org. Retrieved on 20 October 2015.
  85. "Country Comparison:Exports". The World Factbook. CIA. 2011.
  86. O Sistema Econômico / América do Sul. In: Atlas Mundial. São Paulo: Cia. Melhoramentos de São Paulo, 1999, pp. 26–27, 88–107 ISBN 85-06-02889-2
  87. "Chapter 43. Tropical South America". www.fao.org. Retrieved1 March 2021.
  88. "Income share held by highest 10%". The World Bank. 2011.
  89. "Income share held by lowest 20%". The World Bank. 2017. Retrieved29 May 2019.
  90. "Poverty headcount ratio at $2 a day (PPP) (% of population)". The World Bank. 2011.
  91. "World Economic Outlook Database". IMF. April 2017. Retrieved18 April 2016.
  92. "Human Development Report 2014. Human development indices"(PDF). The United Nations. p. 23. Retrieved24 May 2011.
  93. Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas). The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.
  94. "Guyane"(PDF) (in French). IEDOM. 2009.
  95. "Global Metro Monitor". Brookings Institution. 22 January 2015. Retrieved29 May 2019.
  96. "FAOSTAT". www.fao.org.
  97. "Conheça os 3 países que desafiam o Brasil nas exportações de frango". Avicultura Industrial.
  98. Formigoni, Ivan (30 May 2019). "Maiores exportadores de carne de frango entre 2015 e 2019".
  99. "IBGE: rebanho de bovinos tinha 218,23 milhões de cabeças em 2016 | BeefPoint". www.beefpoint.com.br.
  100. "Brasil é o 3º maior produtor de leite do mundo, superando o padrão Europeu em alguns municípios". Archived from the original on 17 September 2020. Retrieved4 December 2020.
  101. Formigoni, Ivan (23 July 2019). "Principais países produtores de carne suína entre 2017 e 2019".
  102. "FAOSTAT". www.fao.org.
  103. "FAOSTAT". www.fao.org.
  104. "Manufacturing, value added (current US$) | Data". data.worldbank.org.
  105. "Alimentos Processados | A indústria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual". alimentosprocessados.com.br.
  106. "Faturamento da indústria de alimentos cresceu 6,7% em 2019". G1.
  107. "Indústria de alimentos e bebidas faturou R$ 699,9 bi em 2019". Agência Brasil. 18 February 2020.
  108. "Produção nacional de celulose cai 6,6% em 2019, aponta Ibá". Valor Econômico.
  109. "Sabe qual é o estado brasileiro que mais produz Madeira?". 9 October 2017.
  110. "São Mateus é o 6º maior produtor de madeira em tora para papel e celulose no país, diz IBGE". G1.
  111. "Indústrias calçadistas em Franca, SP registram queda de 40% nas vagas de trabalho em 6 anos". G1.
  112. Digital, Agência Maya: Criação de Sites e Marketing. "Fenac - Centro de Eventos e Negócios | Produção de calçados deve crescer 3% em 2019". fenac.com.br.
  113. "Abicalçados apresenta Relatório Setorial 2019". abicalcados.com.br.
  114. "Exportação de Calçados: Saiba mais". 27 February 2020.
  115. Comércio, Diário do (24 January 2020). "Minas Gerais produz 32,3% do aço nacional em 2019".
  116. "O novo mapa das montadoras, que agora rumam para o interior do País". 8 March 2019.
  117. "Indústria automobilística do Sul do Rio impulsiona superavit na economia". G1.
  118. "Indústria Química no Brasil"(PDF).
  119. "Estudo de 2018"(PDF).
  120. "Produção nacional da indústria de químicos cai 5,7% em 2019, diz Abiquim". economia.uol.com.br.
  121. "Industria Textil no Brasil".
  122. "USGS Online Publications Directory". pubs.usgs.gov.
  123. "Production statistics of USGS Silver"(PDF).
  124. "Copper production statistics for the USGS"(PDF).
  125. "Production statistics of USGS iron ore"(PDF).
  126. "Zinc production statistics from USGS"(PDF).
  127. "USGS Molybdenum Production Statistics"(PDF).
  128. "USGS lithium production statistics"(PDF).
  129. "USGS Lead Production Statistics"(PDF).
  130. "USGS Bauxite Production Statistics"(PDF).
  131. "USGS tin production statistics"(PDF).
  132. "Manganese production statistics from the USGS"(PDF).
  133. "USGS antimony production statistics"(PDF).
  134. "USGS Nickel Production Statistics"(PDF).
  135. "USGS Niobium Production Statistics"(PDF).
  136. "USGS rhenium production statistics"(PDF).
  137. "USGS iodine production statistics"(PDF).
  138. "ANM". gov.br Agência Nacional de Mineração.
  139. "Brasil extrai cerca de 2 gramas de ouro por habitante em 5 anos". R7.com. 29 June 2019.
  140. "G1 > Economia e Negócios – NOTÍCIAS – Votorantim Metais adquire reservas de zinco da Masa". g1.globo.com.
  141. "Nióbio: G1 visita em MG complexo industrial do maior produtor do mundo". G1.
  142. "Serviço Geológico do Brasil". cprm.gov.br.
  143. "Rio Grande do Sul: o maior exportador de pedras preciosas do Brasil". Band.com.br.
  144. "Copper production in 2019 by USGS"(PDF).
  145. "USGS Iodine Production Statistics"(PDF).
  146. "USGS Rhenium Production Statistics"(PDF).
  147. "USGS Lithium Production Statistics"(PDF).
  148. "USGS Molybdenum Production Statistics"(PDF).
  149. "USGS Silver Production Statistics"(PDF).
  150. "USGS Salt Production Statistics"(PDF).
  151. "USGS Potash Product ion Statistics"(PDF).
  152. "USGS Sulfur Production Statistics"(PDF).
  153. "USGS Iron Ore Production Statistics"(PDF).
  154. "USGS Copper Production Statistics"(PDF).
  155. "USGS Gold Production Statistics"(PDF).
  156. "USGS Lead Production Statistics"(PDF).
  157. "USGS Zinc Production Statistics"(PDF).
  158. "USGS Tin Production Statistics"(PDF).
  159. "USGS Boron Production Statistics"(PDF).
  160. "USGS Silver Production Statistics"(PDF).
  161. "USGS Boron Production Statistics"(PDF).
  162. "USGS Antimony Production Statistics"(PDF).
  163. "USGS Tin Production Statistics"(PDF).
  164. "USGS Tungsten Production Statistics"(PDF).
  165. "USGS ZincProduction Statistics"(PDF).
  166. [2]
  167. "ANM". Agência Nacional de Mineração.
  168. "BBC Brasil - Notícias - Região colombiana vive 'febre das esmeraldas'". www.bbc.com.
  169. "Colombia Gold Production, 1990 – 2021 | CEIC Data". www.ceicdata.com.
  170. "Colombia Silver Production, 1990 – 2021 | CEIC Data". www.ceicdata.com.
  171. Campbell, Keith. "The state of mining in South America – an overview". Mining Weekly. Retrieved1 March 2021.
  172. "ANM". Agência Nacional de Mineração.
  173. "International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov.
  174. "International - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov.
  175. "Produção de petróleo e gás no Brasil ultrapassa 4 milhões de boe/d pela primeira vez". anp.gov.br.
  176. "Statistical Review of World Energy | Energy economics | Home". bp global.
  177. "Latin & South America Tourism Statistics & Visitor Numbers". Bigtravelweb.com. 13 October 2008. Retrieved21 May 2012.
  178. Juan Luis Eugenio-Martín, Noelia Martín Morales, Riccardo Scarpa (February 2004) Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries: A Panel Data Approach. FEEM Working Paper No. 26.2004
  179. "Top attractions". Gosouthamerica.about.com. 4 December 2007. Retrieved18 April 2009.
  180. "South America - Destination South America". vipbackpackers.com. 2005. Archived from the original on 4 August 2008.
  181. "Guayasamín, el pintor ecuatoriano que retrató los sufrimientos latinoamericanos". Andes, Agencia de Noticias.
  182. "Fenando Botero, Sala de Exposciones, Bilbao". Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao.
  183. "Carlos Cruz-Díez redefines colour with new work". Wallpaper*. 29 December 2015.
  184. "Museo de Bellas Artes de Chile"(PDF). Museo de Bellas Artes.
  185. Oda Marín, Loreto (11 June 2014). "Pintor Guillermo Lorca: "para un artista el miedo a que ignoren tu obra es terrible"". Life style (in Spanish). America Economia.
  186. "Las esculturas de Teddy Cobeña las favoritas del público". Europa Press. 19 December 2016. Retrieved22 April 2017.
  187. "Teddy Cobeña lleva sus esculturas a Paris". El Universo. Retrieved22 April 2017.
  188. "Las esculturas de Teddy Cobeña las favoritas en Francia". EFE. 19 December 2016.
  189. "Adrián Villar Rojas o cómo convertir las ruinas en un éxito planetario". La Nacion.
  190. "Tiempo-ficción de Adrián Villar Rojas". El Cultural. 14 January 2016.
South America Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from South American Southern America redirects here For the region of the United States see Southern United States For the botanical continent defined in the World Geographical Scheme for Recording Plant Distributions see Southern America WGSRPD This article needs additional citations for verification Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed Find sources South America news newspapers books scholar JSTOR October 2017 Learn how and when to remove this template message South America is a continent entirely in the Western Hemisphere note 6 and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere It can also be described as the southern subcontinent of a single continent America The reference to South America instead of other regions like Latin America or the Southern Cone has increased in recent decades due to changing geopolitical dynamics in particular the rise of Brazil 6 additional citation s needed South AmericaArea17 840 000 km2 6 890 000 sq mi 4th Population423 581 078 2018 5th 1 2 Population density21 4 km2 56 0 sq mi GDP PPP 6 53 trillion 2021 est 5th 3 GDP nominal 2 90 trillion 2021 est 4th 4 GDP per capita 6 720 2021 est 5th 5 DemonymSouth AmericanCountries12 14 Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Panama note 1 Paraguay Peru Suriname Trinidad and Tobago note 2 Uruguay VenezuelaDependenciesExternal 2 4 Ascension Island note 3 United Kingdom Bouvet Island note 4 Norway Falkland Islands United Kingdom South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands note 5 United Kingdom Internal 1 4 Aruba note 2 Netherlands Bonaire note 2 Netherlands Curacao note 2 Netherlands French Guiana France LanguagesSpanish Portuguese Guarani English French Dutch Quechua Aymara Mapudungun other languagesTime zonesUTC 2 to UTC 5Largest citiesList of cities in South America List Sao Paulo Lima Bogota Rio de Janeiro Santiago Caracas Buenos Aires Salvador Brasilia FortalezaUN M49 code005 South America 419 Latin America 019 Americas 001 WorldMap of South America showing physical political and population characteristics as per 2018 South America is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic Ocean North America and the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest The continent generally includes twelve sovereign states Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Guyana Paraguay Peru Suriname Uruguay and Venezuela two dependent territories the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands note 7 and one internal territory French Guiana note 8 In addition the ABC islands of the Kingdom of the Netherlands Ascension Island dependency of Saint Helena Ascension and Tristan da Cunha a British Overseas Territory Bouvet Island dependency of Norway Panama and Trinidad and Tobago may also be considered parts of South America South America has an area of 17 840 000 square kilometers 6 890 000 sq mi Its population as of 2018 update has been estimated at more than 423 million 1 2 South America ranks fourth in area after Asia Africa and North America and fifth in population after Asia Africa Europe and North America Brazil is by far the most populous South American country with more than half of the continent s population followed by Colombia Argentina Venezuela and Peru In recent decades Brazil has also generated half of the continent s GDP and has become the continent s first regional power 6 Most of the population lives near the continent s western or eastern coasts while the interior and the far south are sparsely populated The geography of western South America is dominated by the Andes mountains in contrast the eastern part contains both highland regions and vast lowlands where rivers such as the Amazon Orinoco and Parana flow Most of the continent lies in the tropics except for a large part of the Southern Cone located in the middle latitudes The continent s cultural and ethnic outlook has its origin with the interaction of indigenous peoples with European conquerors and immigrants and more locally with African slaves Given a long history of colonialism the overwhelming majority of South Americans speak Portuguese or Spanish and societies and states reflect Western traditions Relative to Europe Asia and Africa 20th century South America has been a peaceful continent with few wars 7 Contents 1 Geography 1 1 Outlying islands 1 1 1 Special cases 1 2 Climate 1 3 Fauna 2 History 2 1 Prehistory 2 2 Pre Columbian civilizations 2 3 European colonization 2 4 Slavery in South America 2 5 Independence from Spain and Portugal 2 6 Nation building and fragmentation 2 7 Wars and conflicts 2 8 Rise and fall of military dictatorships 3 Countries and territories 4 Government and politics 5 Demographics 5 1 Language 5 2 Religion 5 3 Ethnic demographics 5 3 1 Indigenous people 5 4 Populace 6 Economy 6 1 Economically largest cities as of 2014 7 Gallery 7 1 Tourism 8 Culture 8 1 Food and drink 8 2 Plastic arts 8 3 Sport 9 Infrastructure 9 1 Energy 9 2 Transport 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 12 1 Citations 12 2 Sources 13 External linksGeography EditMain article Geography of South America See also Category Environment of South America A composite relief image of South America Contemporary political map of South America South America occupies the southern portion of the Americas The continent is generally delimited on the northwest by the Darien watershed along the Colombia Panama border although some may consider the border instead to be the Panama Canal Geopolitically 8 and geographically all of Panama including the segment east of the Panama Canal in the isthmus is typically included in North America alone 9 10 11 and among the countries of Central America 12 13 Almost all of mainland South America sits on the South American Plate South America is home to the world s highest uninterrupted waterfall Angel Falls in Venezuela the highest single drop waterfall Kaieteur Falls in Guyana the largest river by volume the Amazon River the longest mountain range the Andes whose highest mountain is Aconcagua at 6 962 m or 22 841 ft the driest non polar place on earth the Atacama Desert 14 15 16 the wettest place on earth Lopez de Micay in Colombia the largest rainforest the Amazon rainforest the highest capital city La Paz Bolivia the highest commercially navigable lake in the world Lake Titicaca and excluding research stations in Antarctica the world s southernmost permanently inhabited community Puerto Toro Chile South America s major mineral resources are gold silver copper iron ore tin and petroleum These resources found in South America have brought high income to its countries especially in times of war or of rapid economic growth by industrialized countries elsewhere However the concentration in producing one major export commodity often has hindered the development of diversified economies The fluctuation in the price of commodities in the international markets has led historically to major highs and lows in the economies of South American states often causing extreme political instability This is leading to efforts to diversify production to drive away from staying as economies dedicated to one major export Brazil is the largest country in South America covering approx 47 3 of the continent s land area and encompassing around half of the continent s population 17 The remaining countries and territories are divided among four subregions the Andean states Caribbean South America The Guianas and the Southern Cone 18 Outlying islands Edit Los Roques Archipelago Venezuela Physiographically South America also includes some of the nearby islands The Dutch ABC islands Aruba Bonaire and Curacao the islands of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad Island and Tobago Island etc the State of Nueva Esparta and the Federal Dependencies of Venezuela sit on the northern portion of the South American continental shelf and are sometimes considered parts of the continent Geopolitically all the island countries and territories in the Caribbean have generally been grouped as a subregion of North America instead By contrast Aves Island administered by Venezuela and the Archipelago of San Andres Providencia and Santa Catalina San Andres Island Providencia Island and Santa Catalina Island etc which are administered by Colombia are politically parts of South American countries but physiographically parts of North America 11 19 20 Other islands often associated with South America are the Chiloe Archipelago and Robinson Crusoe Island both administered by Chile Easter Island generally considered a part of Oceania also administered by Chile the Galapagos Islands administered by Ecuador and Tierra del Fuego split between Argentina and Chile In the Atlantic Ocean Brazil administers Fernando de Noronha Trindade and Martim Vaz and the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Archipelago while the Falkland Islands Spanish Islas Malvinas and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica 21 have been administered as two British Overseas Territories under the Crown whose sovereignty over the islands is disputed by Argentina Special cases Edit An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America 22 Administered as a dependency of Saint Helena Ascension and Tristan da Cunha the island is geopolitically a part of Africa An uninhabited sub Antarctic volcanic island located in the South Atlantic Ocean Bouvet Island administered by Norway is geographically geologically biographically and hydrologically associated with Antarctica but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead Climate Edit Koppen Geiger climate classification map for South America 23 Map of all tropical cyclone tracks from 1945 to 2006 The distribution of the average temperatures in the region presents a constant regularity from the 30 of latitude south when the isotherms tend more and more to be confused with the degrees of latitude 24 In temperate latitudes winters and summers are milder than in North America This is because the most extensive part of the continent is in the equatorial zone the region has more areas of equatorial plains than any other region 24 therefore giving the Southern Cone more oceanic influence which moderates year round temperatures The average annual temperatures in the Amazon basin oscillate around 27 C 81 F with low thermal amplitudes and high rainfall indices Between the Maracaibo Lake and the mouth of the Orinoco predominates an equatorial climate of the type Congolese that also includes parts of the Brazilian territory 24 The east central Brazilian plateau has a humid and warm tropical climate The northern and eastern parts of the Argentine pampas have a humid subtropical climate with dry winters and humid summers of the Chinese type while the western and eastern ranges have a subtropical climate of the dinaric type At the highest points of the Andean region climates are colder than the ones occurring at the highest point of the Norwegian fjords In the Andean plateaus the warm climate prevails although it is tempered by the altitude while in the coastal strip there is an equatorial climate of the Guinean type From this point until the north of the Chilean coast appear successively Mediterranean oceanic climate temperate of the Breton type and already in Tierra del Fuego cold climate of the Siberian type 24 The distribution of rainfall is related to the regime of winds and air masses In most of the tropical region east of the Andes winds blowing from the northeast east and southeast carry moisture from the Atlantic causing abundant rainfall However due to a consistently strong wind shear and a weak Intertropical Convergence Zone South Atlantic tropical cyclones are rare 25 In the Orinoco Llanos and in the Guianas Plateau the precipitation levels go from moderate to high The Pacific coast of Colombia and northern Ecuador are rainy regions with Choco in Colombia being the rainiest place in the world along with the northern slopes of Indian Himalayas 26 The Atacama Desert along this stretch of coast is one of the driest regions in the world The central and southern parts of Chile are subject to extratropical cyclones and most of the Argentine Patagonia is desert In the Pampas of Argentina Uruguay and South of Brazil the rainfall is moderate with rains well distributed during the year The moderately dry conditions of the Chaco oppose the intense rainfall of the eastern region of Paraguay In the semiarid coast of the Brazilian Northeast the rains are linked to a monsoon regime 24 Important factors in the determination of climates are sea currents such as the current Humboldt and Falklands The equatorial current of the South Atlantic strikes the coast of the Northeast and there is divided into two others the current of Brazil and a coastal current that flows to the northwest towards the Antilles where there it moves towards northeast course thus forming the most Important and famous ocean current in the world the Gulf Stream 24 27 Fauna Edit Main article Fauna of South America South America is one of the most biodiverse continents on Earth South America is home to many unique species of animals including the llama anaconda piranha jaguar vicuna and tapir The Amazon rainforests possess high biodiversity containing a major proportion of Earth s species History EditMain article History of South America Prehistory Edit Further information History of South America Pre Columbian era The prehistoric Cueva de las Manos or Cave of the Hands in Argentina South America is believed to have been joined with Africa from the late Paleozoic Era to the early Mesozoic Era until the supercontinent Pangaea began to rift and break apart about 225 million years ago Therefore South America and Africa share similar fossils and rock layers South America is thought to have been first inhabited by humans when people were crossing the Bering Land Bridge now the Bering Strait at least 15 000 years ago from the territory that is present day Russia They migrated south through North America and eventually reached South America through the Isthmus of Panama The first evidence for the existence of the human race in South America dates back to about 9000 BC when squashes chili peppers and beans began to be cultivated for food in the highlands of the Amazon Basin Pottery evidence further suggests that manioc which remains a staple food today was being cultivated as early as 2000 BC 28 By 2000 BC many agrarian communities had been settled throughout the Andes and the surrounding regions Fishing became a widespread practice along the coast helping establish fish as a primary source of food Irrigation systems were also developed at this time which aided in the rise of an agrarian society 28 South American cultures began domesticating llamas vicunas guanacos and alpacas in the highlands of the Andes circa 3500 BC Besides their use as sources of meat and wool these animals were used for transportation of goods 28 Pre Columbian civilizations Edit Main article Pre Columbian era South America The Inca estate of Machu Picchu Peru is one of the New Seven Wonders of the World The rise of plant growing and the subsequent appearance of permanent human settlements allowed for the multiple and overlapping beginnings of civilizations in South America One of the earliest known South American civilizations was at Norte Chico on the central Peruvian coast Though a pre ceramic culture the monumental architecture of Norte Chico is contemporaneous with the pyramids of Ancient Egypt Norte Chico governing class established a trade network and developed agriculture then followed by Chavin by 900 BC according to some estimates and archaeological finds Artifacts were found at a site called Chavin de Huantar in modern Peru at an elevation of 3 177 meters 10 423 ft Chavin civilization spanned 900 BC to 300 BC In the central coast of Peru around the beginning of the 1st millennium AD Moche 100 BC 700 AD at the northern coast of Peru Paracas and Nazca 400 BC 800 AD Peru cultures flourished with centralized states with permanent militia improving agriculture through irrigation and new styles of ceramic art At the Altiplano Tiahuanaco or Tiwanaku 100 BC 1200 AD Bolivia managed a large commercial network based on religion Around the 7th century both Tiahuanaco and Wari or Huari Empire 600 1200 Central and northern Peru expanded its influence to all the Andean region imposing the Huari urbanism and Tiahuanaco religious iconography The Muisca were the main indigenous civilization in what is now Colombia They established the Muisca Confederation of many clans or cacicazgos that had a free trade network among themselves They were goldsmiths and farmers Other important Pre Columbian cultures include the Canaris in south central Ecuador Chimu Empire 1300 1470 Peruvian northern coast Chachapoyas and the Aymaran kingdoms 1000 1450 Western Bolivia and southern Peru Holding their capital at the great city of Cusco the Inca civilization dominated the Andes region from 1438 to 1533 Known as Tawantin suyu and the land of the four regions in Quechua the Inca Empire was highly distinct and developed Inca rule extended to nearly a hundred linguistic or ethnic communities some nine to fourteen million people connected by a 25 000 kilometer road system Cities were built with precise unmatched stonework constructed over many levels of mountain terrain Terrace farming was a useful form of agriculture The Mapuche in Central and Southern Chile resisted the European and Chilean settlers waging the Arauco War for more than 300 years European colonization Edit Main articles Spanish colonization of the Americas and Portuguese colonization of the Americas Woodcut depicting Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci s first voyage 1497 98 to the New World from the first known published edition of Vespucci s 1504 letter to Piero Soderini In 1494 Portugal and Spain the two great maritime European powers of that time on the expectation of new lands being discovered in the west signed the Treaty of Tordesillas by which they agreed with the support of the Pope that all the land outside Europe should be an exclusive duopoly between the two countries 29 The Inca Spanish confrontation in the Battle of Cajamarca left thousands of natives dead The treaty established an imaginary line along a north south meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde Islands roughly 46 37 W In terms of the treaty all land to the west of the line known to comprise most of the South American soil would belong to Spain and all land to the east to Portugal As accurate measurements of longitude were impossible at that time the line was not strictly enforced resulting in a Portuguese expansion of Brazil across the meridian Beginning in the 1530s the people and natural resources of South America were repeatedly exploited by foreign conquistadors first from Spain and later from Portugal These competing colonial nations claimed the land and resources as their own and divided it into colonies European infectious diseases smallpox influenza measles and typhus to which the native populations had no immune resistance caused large scale depopulation of the native population under Spanish control Systems of forced labor such as the haciendas and mining industry s mit a also contributed to the depopulation After this enslaved Africans who had developed immunities to these diseases were quickly brought in to replace them The Portuguese explorer Pedro Alvares Cabral landing in Brazil in 1500 Dutch colonial houses in Paramaribo Suriname A painting of the settlement of Pernambuco in colonial Brazil by Frans Post A map of the Spanish and Portuguese colonies in the Americas in 1790 The Spaniards were committed to converting their native subjects to Christianity and were quick to purge any native cultural practices that hindered this end however many initial attempts at this were only partially successful as native groups simply blended Catholicism with their established beliefs and practices Furthermore the Spaniards brought their language to the degree they did with their religion although the Roman Catholic Church s evangelization in Quechua Aymara and Guarani actually contributed to the continuous use of these native languages albeit only in the oral form Eventually the natives and the Spaniards interbred forming a mestizo class At the beginning many mestizos of the Andean region were offspring of Amerindian mothers and Spanish fathers After independence most mestizos had native fathers and European or mestizo mothers Many native artworks were considered pagan idols and destroyed by Spanish explorers this included many gold and silver sculptures and other artifacts found in South America which were melted down before their transport to Spain or Portugal Spaniards and Portuguese brought the western European architectural style to the continent and helped to improve infrastructures like bridges roads and the sewer system of the cities they discovered or conquered They also significantly increased economic and trade relations not just between the old and new world but between the different South American regions and peoples Finally with the expansion of the Portuguese and Spanish languages many cultures that were previously separated became united through that of Latin American Guyana was initially colonized by the Dutch before coming under British control though there was a brief period during the Napoleonic Wars when it was occupied by the French The region was initially partitioned between the Dutch French and British before fully coming under the control of Britain Suriname was first explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid 17th century It became a Dutch colony in 1667 30 Slavery in South America Edit See also Slavery among the indigenous peoples of the Americas and Atlantic slave trade Public flogging of a slave in 19th century Brazil The indigenous peoples of the Americas in various European colonies were forced to work in European plantations and mines along with enslaved Africans who were also introduced in the proceeding centuries via the slave trade European colonists were heavily dependent on indigenous labor during the initial phases of settlement to maintain the subsistence economy and natives were often captured by expeditions The importation of African slaves began midway through the 16th century but the enslavement of indigenous peoples continued well into the 17th and 18th centuries The Atlantic slave trade brought enslaved Africans primarily to South American colonies beginning with the Portuguese since 1502 31 The main destinations of this phase were the Caribbean colonies and Brazil as European nations built up economically slave dependent colonies in the New World Nearly 40 of all African slaves trafficked to the Americas went to Brazil An estimated 4 9 million slaves from Africa came to Brazil during the period from 1501 to 1866 32 33 In contrast to other European colonies in the Americas which mainly used the labor of African slaves Spanish colonists mainly enslaved indigenous Americans In 1750 the Portuguese Crown abolished the enslavement of indigenous peoples in colonial Brazil under the belief that they were unfit for labor and less effective than enslaved Africans Enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas on slave ships under inhuman conditions and ill treatment and those who survived were sold in slave markets 34 After independence all South American countries maintained slavery for some time The first South American country to abolish slavery was Chile in 1823 Uruguay in 1830 Bolivia in 1831 Colombia and Ecuador in 1851 Argentina in 1853 Peru and Venezuela in 1854 Suriname in 1863 Paraguay in 1869 and in 1888 Brazil was the last South American nation and the last country in western world to abolish slavery 35 Independence from Spain and Portugal Edit Main articles Spanish American wars of independence and Independence of Brazil The European Peninsular War 1807 1814 a theater of the Napoleonic Wars changed the political situation of both the Spanish and Portuguese colonies First Napoleon invaded Portugal but the House of Braganza avoided capture by escaping to Brazil Napoleon also captured King Ferdinand VII of Spain and appointed his own brother instead This appointment provoked severe popular resistance which created Juntas to rule in the name of the captured king The proclamation of the Independence of Brazil by Prince Pedro on 7 September 1822 The Guayaquil conference between Jose de San Martin and Simon Bolivar Coronation of Pedro I as 1st Emperor of Brazil Bernardo O Higgins swears officially the independence of Chile Many cities in the Spanish colonies however considered themselves equally authorized to appoint local Juntas like those of Spain This began the Spanish American wars of independence between the patriots who promoted such autonomy and the royalists who supported Spanish authority over the Americas The Juntas in both Spain and the Americas promoted the ideas of the Enlightenment Five years after the beginning of the war Ferdinand VII returned to the throne and began the Absolutist Restoration as the royalists got the upper hand in the conflict The independence of South America was secured by Simon Bolivar Venezuela and Jose de San Martin Argentina the two most important Libertadores Bolivar led a great uprising in the north then led his army southward towards Lima the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru Meanwhile San Martin led an army across the Andes Mountains along with Chilean expatriates and liberated Chile He organized a fleet to reach Peru by sea and sought the military support of various rebels from the Viceroyalty of Peru The two armies finally met in Guayaquil Ecuador where they cornered the Royal Army of the Spanish Crown and forced its surrender In the Portuguese Kingdom of Brazil Dom Pedro I also Pedro IV of Portugal son of the Portuguese King Dom Joao VI proclaimed the independent Kingdom of Brazil in 1822 which later became the Empire of Brazil Despite the Portuguese loyalties of garrisons in Bahia Cisplatina and Para independence was diplomatically accepted by the crown in Portugal in 1825 on condition of a high compensation paid by Brazil mediatized by the United Kingdom Nation building and fragmentation Edit The Thirty Three Orientals proclaimed the independence of Cisplatine Province Battle of Fanfa battle scene in Southern Brazil during the Ragamuffin War The newly independent nations began a process of fragmentation with several civil and international wars However it was not as strong as in Central America Some countries created from provinces of larger countries stayed as such up to modern times such as Paraguay or Uruguay while others were reconquered and reincorporated into their former countries such as the Republic of Entre Rios and the Riograndense Republic The first separatist attempt was in 1820 by the Argentine province of Entre Rios led by a caudillo 36 In spite of the Republic in its title General Ramirez its caudillo never really intended to declare an independent Entre Rios Rather he was making a political statement in opposition to the monarchist and centralist ideas that back then permeated Buenos Aires politics The country was reincorporated at the United Provinces in 1821 In 1825 the Cisplatine Province declared its independence from the Empire of Brazil which led to the Cisplatine War between the imperials and the Argentine from the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata to control the region Three years later the United Kingdom intervened in the question by proclaiming a tie and creating in the former Cisplatina a new independent country The Oriental Republic of Uruguay Later in 1836 while Brazil was experiencing the chaos of the regency Rio Grande do Sul proclaimed its independence motivated by a tax crisis With the anticipation of the coronation of Pedro II to the throne of Brazil the country could stabilize and fight the separatists which the province of Santa Catarina had joined in 1839 The Conflict came to an end by a process of compromise by which both Riograndense Republic and Juliana Republic were reincorporated as provinces in 1845 37 38 The Peru Bolivian Confederation a short lived union of Peru and Bolivia was blocked by Chile in the War of the Confederation 1836 1839 and again during the War of the Pacific 1879 1883 Paraguay was virtually destroyed by Argentina Brazil and Uruguay in the Paraguayan War Wars and conflicts Edit Imperial Brazilian Navy and army troops during the Siege of Paysandu 1865 The Uruguayan Army at the Battle of Sauce 1866 The Imperial Brazilian Army during a procession in Paraguay 1868 The Chilean Army in the battlefield of the Battle of Chorrillos 1883 A German submarine under attack by Brazilian Air Force PBY Catalina 31 July 1943 Despite the Spanish American wars of independence and the Brazilian War of Independence the new nations quickly began to suffer with internal conflicts and wars among themselves Most of the 1810 borders countries had initially accepted on the uti possidetis iuris principle had by 1848 either been altered by war or were constested 39 In 1825 the proclamation of independence of Cisplatina led to the Cisplatine War between historical rivals the Empire of Brazil and the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata Argentina s predecessor The result was a stalemate ending with the British government arranging for the independence of Uruguay Soon after another Brazilian province proclaimed its independence leading to the Ragamuffin War which Brazil won Between 1836 and 1839 the War of the Confederation broke out between the short lived Peru Bolivian Confederation and Chile with the support of the Argentine Confederation The war was fought mostly in the actual territory of Peru and ended with a Confederate defeat and the dissolution of the Confederacy and annexation of many territories by Argentina Meanwhile the Argentine Civil Wars plagued Argentina since its independence The conflict was mainly between those who defended the centralization of power in Buenos Aires and those who defended a confederation During this period it can be said that there were two Argentines the Argentine Confederation and the Argentine Republic At the same time the political instability in Uruguay led to the Uruguayan Civil War among the main political factions of the country All this instability in the platine region interfered with the goals of other countries such as Brazil which was soon forced to take sides In 1851 the Brazilian Empire supporting the centralizing unitarians and the Uruguayan government invaded Argentina and deposed the caudillo Juan Manuel Rosas who ruled the confederation with an iron hand Although the Platine War did not put an end to the political chaos and civil war in Argentina it brought temporary peace to Uruguay where the Colorados faction won supported by the Brazil Britain France and the Unitarian Party of Argentina 40 Peace lasted only a short time in 1864 the Uruguayan factions faced each other again in the Uruguayan War The Blancos supported by Paraguay started to attack Brazilian and Argentine farmers near the borders The Empire made an initial attempt to settle the dispute between Blancos and Colorados without success In 1864 after a Brazilian ultimatum was refused the imperial government declared that Brazil s military would begin reprisals Brazil declined to acknowledge a formal state of war and for most of its duration the Uruguayan Brazilian armed conflict was an undeclared war which led to the deposition of the Blancos and the rise of the pro Brazilian Colorados to power again This angered the Paraguayan government which even before the end of the war invaded Brazil beginning the biggest and deadliest war in both South American and Latin American histories the Paraguayan War citation needed The Paraguayan War began when the Paraguayan dictator Francisco Solano Lopez ordered the invasion of the Brazilian provinces of Mato Grosso and Rio Grande do Sul His attempt to cross Argentinian territory without Argentinian approval led the pro Brazilian Argentine government into the war The pro Brazilian Uruguayan government showed its support by sending troops In 1865 the three countries signed the Treaty of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay At the beginning of the war the Paraguayans took the lead with several victories until the Triple Alliance organized to repel the invaders and fight effectively This was the second total war experience in the world after the American Civil War It was deemed the greatest war effort in the history of all participating countries taking almost 6 years and ending with the complete devastation of Paraguay The country lost 40 of its territory to Brazil and Argentina and lost 60 of its population including 90 of the men The dictator Lopez was killed in battle and a new government was instituted in alliance with Brazil which maintained occupation forces in the country until 1876 41 The last South American war in the 19th century was the War of the Pacific with Bolivia and Peru on one side and Chile on the other In 1879 the war began with Chilean troops occupying Bolivian ports followed by Bolivia declaring war on Chile which activated an alliance treaty with Peru The Bolivians were completely defeated in 1880 and Lima was occupied in 1881 The peace was signed with Peru in 1883 while a truce was signed with Bolivia in 1884 Chile annexed territories of both countries leaving Bolivia with no path to the sea 42 In the new century as wars became less violent and less frequent Brazil entered into a small conflict with Bolivia for the possession of the Acre which was acquired by Brazil in 1902 In 1917 Brazil declared war on the Central Powers joined the allied side in the First World War and sent a small fleet to the Mediterranean Sea and some troops to be integrated with the British and French forces in the region Brazil was the only South American country that participated in the First World War 43 44 Later in 1932 Colombia and Peru entered a short armed conflict for territory in the Amazon In the same year Paraguay declared war on Bolivia for possession of the Chaco in a conflict that ended three years later with Paraguay s victory Between 1941 and 1942 Peru and Ecuador fought for territories claimed by both that were annexed by Peru usurping Ecuador s frontier with Brazil 45 Also in this period the first major naval battle of World War II took place in the South Atlantic close to the continental mainland the Battle of the River Plate between a British cruiser squadron and a German pocket batttleship 46 The Germans still made numerous attacks on Brazilian ships on the coast causing Brazil to declare war on the Axis powers in 1942 being the only South American country to fight in this war and in both World Wars Brazil sent naval and air forces to combat German and Italian submarines off the continent and throughout the South Atlantic in addition to sending an expeditionary force to fight in the Italian Campaign 47 48 A brief war was fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 following an Argentine invasion of the Falkland Islands which ended with an Argentine defeat The last international war to be fought on South American soil was the 1995 Cenepa War between Ecuador and the Peru along their mutual border Rise and fall of military dictatorships Edit Argentine soldiers during the Falklands War Wars became less frequent in the 20th century with Bolivia Paraguay and Peru Ecuador fighting the last inter state wars Early in the 20th century the three wealthiest South American countries engaged in a vastly expensive naval arms race which began after the introduction of a new warship type the dreadnought At one point the Argentine government was spending a fifth of its entire yearly budget for just two dreadnoughts a price that did not include later in service costs which for the Brazilian dreadnoughts was sixty percent of the initial purchase 49 50 The Brazilian Minas Geraes class kindled an Argentine Brazilian Chilean naval arms race The continent became a battlefield of the Cold War in the late 20th century Some democratically elected governments of Argentina Brazil Chile Uruguay and Paraguay were overthrown or displaced by military dictatorships in the 1960s and 1970s To curtail opposition their governments detained tens of thousands of political prisoners many of whom were tortured and or killed on inter state collaboration Economically they began a transition to neoliberal economic policies They placed their own actions within the US Cold War doctrine of National Security against internal subversion Throughout the 1980s and 1990s Peru suffered from an internal conflict In 1982 Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands a British dependent territory The Falklands War began and 74 days later Argentine forces surrendered 51 Colombia has had an ongoing though diminished internal conflict which started in 1964 with the creation of Marxist guerrillas FARC EP and then involved several illegal armed groups of leftist leaning ideology as well as the private armies of powerful drug lords Many of these are now defunct and only a small portion of the ELN remains along with the stronger though also greatly reduced FARC Revolutionary movements and right wing military dictatorships became common after World War II but since the 1980s a wave of democratization passed through the continent and democratic rule is widespread now 52 Nonetheless allegations of corruption are still very common and several countries have developed crises which have forced the resignation of their governments although on most occasions regular civilian succession has continued Presidents of UNASUR member states at the Second Brasilia Summit on 23 May 2008 International indebtedness turned into a severe problem in the late 1980s and some countries despite having strong democracies have not yet developed political institutions capable of handling such crises without resorting to unorthodox economic policies as most recently illustrated by Argentina s default in the early 21st century 53 neutrality is disputed The last twenty years have seen an increased push towards regional integration with the creation of uniquely South American institutions such as the Andean Community Mercosur and Unasur Notably starting with the election of Hugo Chavez in Venezuela in 1998 the region experienced what has been termed a pink tide citation needed the election of several leftist and center left administrations to most countries of the area except for the Guianas and Colombia Countries and territories EditSee also List of South American countries by population Arms Flag Country or territory Capital Area 54 Population 2018 1 2 Population density Argentina Buenos Aires 2 766 890 km2 1 068 300 sq mi 44 361 150 14 3 km2 37 sq mi Bolivia La Paz Sucre note 9 1 098 580 km2 424 160 sq mi 11 353 142 8 4 km2 22 sq mi Bouvet Island Norway note 10 49 km2 19 sq mi 0 0 km2 0 sq mi Brazil Brasilia 8 514 877 km2 3 287 612 sq mi 209 469 323 22 km2 57 sq mi Chile note 11 Santiago 756 950 km2 292 260 sq mi 18 729 160 22 km2 57 sq mi Colombia Bogota 1 141 748 km2 440 831 sq mi 49 661 048 40 km2 100 sq mi Ecuador Quito 283 560 km2 109 480 sq mi 17 084 358 53 8 km2 139 sq mi Falkland Islands United Kingdom Stanley 12 173 km2 4 700 sq mi 3 234 0 26 km2 0 67 sq mi French Guiana France Cayenne Prefecture 91 000 km2 35 000 sq mi 282 938 2 1 km2 5 4 sq mi Guyana Georgetown 214 999 km2 83 012 sq mi 779 006 3 5 km2 9 1 sq mi Paraguay Asuncion 406 750 km2 157 050 sq mi 6 956 066 15 6 km2 40 sq mi Peru Lima 1 285 220 km2 496 230 sq mi 31 989 260 22 km2 57 sq mi South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands United Kingdom note 12 King Edward Point 3 093 km2 1 194 sq mi 20 0 km2 0 sq mi Suriname Paramaribo 163 270 km2 63 040 sq mi 575 990 3 km2 7 8 sq mi Uruguay Montevideo 176 220 km2 68 040 sq mi 3 449 285 19 4 km2 50 sq mi Venezuela Caracas 916 445 km2 353 841 sq mi 28 887 118 27 8 km2 72 sq mi Total 17 824 513 km2 6 882 083 sq mi 423 581 078 21 5 km2 56 sq mi Government and politics Edit Headquarters of the UNASUR in Quito Ecuador Scheme for geographic regions and subregions used by the United Nations Statistics Division South American flags Historically the Hispanic countries were founded as Republican dictatorships led by caudillos Brazil was the only exception being a constitutional monarchy for its first 67 years of independence until a coup d etat proclaimed a republic In the late 19th century the most democratic countries were Brazil 56 Chile Argentina and Uruguay 57 All South American countries are presidential republics with the exception of Suriname a parliamentary republic French Guiana is a French overseas department while the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands are British overseas territories It is currently the only inhabited continent in the world without monarchies the Empire of Brazil existed during the 19th century and there was an unsuccessful attempt to establish a Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile Also in the twentieth century Suriname was established as a constituent kingdom of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and Guyana retained the British monarch as head of state for 4 years after its independence Recently an intergovernmental entity has been formed which aims to merge the two existing customs unions Mercosur and the Andean Community thus forming the third largest trade bloc in the world 58 This new political organization known as Union of South American Nations seeks to establish free movement of people economic development a common defense policy and the elimination of tariffs Demographics Edit Satellite view of South America at night from NASA South America has a population of over 428 million people There are several areas of sparse demographics such as tropical forests the Atacama Desert and the icy portions of Patagonia On the other hand the continent presents regions of high population density such as the great urban centers The population is formed by descendants of Europeans mainly Spaniards Portuguese and Italians Africans and Amerindians There is a high percentage of Mestizos that vary greatly in composition by place There is also a minor population of Asians further explanation needed especially in Brazil Peru and Argentina The two main languages are by far Spanish and Portuguese followed by English French and Dutch in smaller numbers Language Edit Official languages in South America Spanish and Portuguese are the most spoken languages in South America with approximately 200 million speakers each Spanish is the official language of most countries along with other native languages in some countries Portuguese is the official language of Brazil Dutch is the official language of Suriname English is the official language of Guyana although there are at least twelve other languages spoken in the country including Portuguese Chinese Hindustani and several native languages 59 English is also spoken in the Falkland Islands French is the official language of French Guiana and the second language in Amapa Brazil Indigenous languages of South America include Quechua in Peru Bolivia Ecuador Chile and Colombia Wayuunaiki in northern Colombia La Guajira and northwestern Venezuela Zulia Guarani in Paraguay and to a much lesser extent in Bolivia Aymara in Bolivia Peru and less often in Chile and Mapudungun is spoken in certain pockets of southern Chile At least three South American indigenous languages Quechua Aymara and Guarani are recognized along with Spanish as national languages Other languages found in South America include Hindustani and Javanese in Suriname Italian in Argentina Brazil Uruguay and Venezuela and German in certain pockets of Argentina and Brazil German is also spoken in many regions of the southern states of Brazil Riograndenser Hunsruckisch being the most widely spoken German dialect in the country among other Germanic dialects a Brazilian form of East Pomeranian is also well represented and is experiencing a revival Welsh remains spoken and written in the historic towns of Trelew and Rawson in the Argentine Patagonia There are also small clusters of Japanese speakers in Brazil Colombia and Peru Arabic speakers often of Lebanese Syrian or Palestinian descent can be found in Arab communities in Argentina Colombia Brazil Venezuela and in Paraguay 60 Religion Edit Las Lajas Sanctuary Ipiales Colombia Main articles Religion in South America and Religion in Latin America See also History of the Jews in Latin America and the Caribbean Buddhism in Brazil and Islam in Argentina An estimated 90 of South Americans are Christians 61 82 Roman Catholic 8 other Christian denominations mainly traditional Protestants and Evangelicals but also Orthodox accounting for c 19 of Christians worldwide African descendent religions and Indigenous religions are also common throughout all South America some examples of are Santo Daime Candomble Umbanda and Encantados Crypto Jews or Marranos conversos and Anusim were an important part of colonial life in Latin America Both Buenos Aires Argentina and Sao Paulo Brazil figure among the largest Jewish populations by urban area East Asian religions such as Japanese Buddhism Shintoism and Shinto derived Japanese New Religions are common in Brazil and Peru Korean Confucianism is especially found in Brazil while Chinese Buddhism and Chinese Confucianism have spread throughout the continent Kardecist Spiritism can be found in several countries Hindus form 25 of the Guyanese population and 22 of Suriname s 62 63 Muslims account for 6 8 of the Guyanese population and 13 9 of the Surinamese population 62 63 Almost all Muslims in Suriname are either Javanese or Indians and in Guyana most are Indian Part of Religions in South America 2013 64 Religion in South America Countries Christians Roman Catholics Other Christians No religion atheists and agnostics Argentina 88 77 11 11 Bolivia 96 74 22 4 Brazil 88 64 22 8 Chile 70 57 13 25 Colombia 92 80 12 7 Paraguay 96 87 9 2 Peru 94 81 13 3 Suriname 51 29 22 5 Uruguay 58 47 11 41 Venezuela 88 71 17 8 Ethnic demographics Edit This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia s quality standards The specific problem is Table seem to be original research OR and 48 is not more than half of the population Section seem plagued by OR and inconsistencies Please help improve this section if you can May 2020 Learn how and when to remove this template message Main article Ethnic groups in South America Afro Colombian fruit sellers in Cartagena A Japanese Brazilian Miko during a festival in Curitiba Former president of Brazil Lula and members of the Italian Brazilian community during the Grape Festival at Caxias do Sul Peruvian woman and her son Genetic admixture occurs at very high levels in South America In Argentina the European influence accounts for 65 79 of the genetic background Amerindian for 17 31 and sub Saharan African for 2 4 In Colombia the sub Saharan African genetic background varied from 1 to 89 while the European genetic background varied from 20 to 79 depending on the region In Peru European ancestries ranged from 1 to 31 while the African contribution was only 1 to 3 65 The Genographic Project determined the average Peruvian from Lima had about 28 European ancestry 68 Native American 2 Asian ancestry and 2 sub Saharan African 66 Descendants of indigenous peoples such as the Quechua and Aymara or the Urarina 67 of Amazonia make up the majority of the population in Bolivia 56 and Peru 44 68 69 In Ecuador Amerindians are a large minority that comprises two fifths of the population The native European population is also a significant element in most other former Portuguese colonies People who identify as of primarily or totally European descent or identify their phenotype as corresponding to such group are more of a majority in Argentina 70 and Uruguay 71 and more than half of the population of Chile 64 7 72 and 48 4 in Brazil 73 74 75 In Venezuela according to the national census 42 of the population is primarily native Spanish Italian and Portuguese descendants 76 In Colombia people who identify as European descendants are about 37 77 78 In Peru European descendants are the third group in number 15 79 Mestizos mixed European and Amerindian are the largest ethnic group in Bolivia Paraguay Venezuela Colombia 77 and Ecuador and the second group in Peru and Chile South America is also home to one of the largest populations of Africans This group is significantly present in Brazil Colombia Guyana Suriname French Guiana Venezuela and Ecuador Brazil followed by Peru have the largest Japanese Korean and Chinese communities in South America Lima has the largest ethnic Chinese community in Latin America 80 Guyana and Suriname have the largest ethnic East Indian community Ethnic distribution in South America 81 82 83 Country Amerindians White people Mestizos Pardos Mulatos Black people Zambos Asian peopleArgentina 1 85 14 0 0 0 0 Bolivia 48 12 37 2 0 lt 1 0 Brazil lt 1 48 43 0 8 0 2 Chile 6 57 37 0 0 0 0 Colombia 2 37 50 8 2 0 lt 1 Ecuador 39 10 41 5 5 0 0 Paraguay 3 20 75 4 0 0 0 Peru 45 15 35 2 0 0 3 Suriname 3 8 1 13 4 noted in Suriname as mixed regardless of race combination see Pardo 37 4 see Pardo 48 3 Uruguay 0 88 8 4 0 0 0 Venezuela 2 7 43 6 51 6 0 7 2 8 0 6 0 6 Guyana 10 5 0 36 19 9 noted in Guyana as mixed regardless of race combination see Pardo 29 2 see Pardo 39 98 Indigenous people Edit Main articles List of Indigenous peoples of South America and Indigenous peoples in South America In many places indigenous people still practice a traditional lifestyle based on subsistence agriculture or as hunter gatherers There are still some uncontacted tribes residing in the Amazon Rainforest 84 Aguarunas Alacalufe Arawaks Ashanincas Atacamenos Awa Aymara live in the Altiplano of Bolivia Chile and Peru Their language is co official in Bolivia and Peru Traditional lifestyle includes llama herding Banawa Canaris Caiapos Chibcha Cocama Chayahuita Diaguita Enxet Ge Guarani live in Paraguay where the Guarani language is co official with Spanish The ethnic group is also found in Bolivia Juris Kuna live on the Colombia Panama border Mapuche live mainly in southern Chile and southwestern Argentina see Araucanian Matses Pehuenche a branch of Mapuches that lived in the Andean valleys of southern see Araucanian Quechuas make up a large part of the population of Peru and Bolivia Are diverse as an ethnic group The Incas spoke Southern Quechua Selknam Shipibo Shuar see Jivaro Tupi Urarina Wai Wai Wayuu Xucuru Yaghan Yagua Yanomamo Zaparos Populace Edit South American cities Sao Paulo Buenos Aires Rio de Janeiro Lima The most populous country in South America is Brazil with 209 5 million people The second largest country is Colombia with a population of 49 661 048 Argentina is the third most populous country with 44 361 150 While Brazil Argentina and Colombia maintain the largest populations large city populations are not restricted to those nations The largest cities in South America by far are Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro Buenos Aires Santiago Lima and Bogota These cities are the only cities on the continent to exceed eight million and three of five in the Americas Next in size are Caracas Belo Horizonte Medellin and Salvador Five of the top ten metropolitan areas are in Brazil These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 4 million and include the Sao Paulo metropolitan area Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and Belo Horizonte metropolitan area Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within Brazil Argentina is host to the second largest metropolitan area by population in South America the Buenos Aires metropolitan region is above 13 million inhabitants South America has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas In Brazil four megaregions exist including the Expanded Metropolitan Complex of Sao Paulo with more than 32 million inhabitants The others are the Greater Rio Greater Belo Horizonte and Greater Porto Alegre Colombia also has four megaregions which comprise 72 of its population followed by Venezuela Argentina and Peru which are also homes of megaregions The top ten largest South American metropolitan areas by population as of 2015 based on national census numbers from each country Metro Area Population Area CountrySao Paulo 21 090 792 7 947 km2 3 068 sq mi BrazilBuenos Aires 13 693 657 3 830 km2 1 480 sq mi ArgentinaRio de Janeiro 13 131 431 6 744 km2 2 604 sq mi BrazilLima 9 904 727 2 819 km2 1 088 sq mi PeruBogota 9 800 225 4 200 km2 1 600 sq mi ColombiaSantiago 6 683 852 15 403 km2 5 947 sq mi ChileBelo Horizonte 5 829 923 9 467 km2 3 655 sq mi BrazilCaracas 5 322 310 4 715 km2 1 820 sq mi VenezuelaPorto Alegre 4 258 926 10 232 km2 3 951 sq mi BrazilBrasilia 4 201 737 56 433 km2 21 789 sq mi Brazil 2015 Census figures Economy EditMain articles Economy of South America List of Latin American and Caribbean countries by GDP nominal and List of South American countries by GDP PPP This section needs to be updated Please help update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information March 2017 Rafael Correa Evo Morales Nestor Kirchner Cristina Fernandez Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva Nicanor Duarte and Hugo Chavez signed the founding charter of the Bank of the South Trading panel of the Sao Paulo Stock Exchange is the second biggest in the Americas and 13th in the world Financial center of Santiago Chile Launch at the Kourou Space Centre in French Guiana Refinery of Brazilian state owned Petrobras in Cochabamba Bolivia Chuquicamata is the largest open pit mine in the world near the city of Calama in Chile KC 390 is the largest military transport aircraft produced in South America by the Brazilian company Embraer Vineyard in Lujan de Cuyo province of Mendoza Argentina South America relies less on the export of both manufactured goods and natural resources than the world average merchandise exports from the continent were 16 of GDP on an exchange rate basis compared to 25 for the world as a whole 85 Brazil the seventh largest economy in the world and the largest in South America leads in terms of merchandise exports at 251 billion followed by Venezuela at 93 billion Chile at 86 billion and Argentina at 84 billion 85 Since 1930 the continent has experienced remarkable growth and diversification in most economic sectors Most agricultural and livestock products are destined for the domestic market and local consumption However the export of agricultural products is essential for the balance of trade in most countries 86 The main agrarian crops are export crops such as soy and wheat The production of staple foods such as vegetables corn or beans is large but focused on domestic consumption Livestock raising for meat exports is important in Argentina Paraguay Uruguay and Colombia In tropical regions the most important crops are coffee cocoa and bananas mainly in Brazil Colombia and Ecuador Traditionally the countries producing sugar for export are Peru Guyana and Suriname and in Brazil sugar cane is also used to make ethanol On the coast of Peru northeast and south of Brazil cotton is grown 50 5 of the South America s land surface is covered by forest 87 but timber industries are small and directed to domestic markets In recent years however transnational companies have been settling in the Amazon to exploit noble timber destined for export The Pacific coastal waters of South America are the most important for commercial fishing The anchovy catch reaches thousands of tonnes and tuna is also abundant Peru is a major exporter The capture of crustaceans is remarkable particularly in northeastern Brazil and Chile 86 Only Brazil and Argentina are part of the G20 industrial countries while only Brazil is part of the G8 5 the most powerful and influential nations in the world In the tourism sector a series of negotiations began in 2005 to promote tourism and increase air connections within the region Punta del Este Florianopolis and Mar del Plata are among the most important resorts in South America 86 The most industrialized countries in South America are Brazil Argentina Chile Colombia Venezuela and Uruguay respectively These countries alone account for more than 75 percent of the region s economy and add up to a GDP of more than US 3 0 trillion Industries in South America began to take on the economies of the region from the 1930s when the Great Depression in the United States and other countries of the world boosted industrial production in the continent From that period the region left the agricultural side behind and began to achieve high rates of economic growth that remained until the early 1990s when they slowed due to political instabilities economic crises and neoliberal policies 86 Since the end of the economic crisis in Brazil and Argentina that occurred in the period from 1998 to 2002 which has led to economic recession rising unemployment and falling population income the industrial and service sectors have been recovering rapidly Chile Argentina and Brazil have recovered fastest growing at an average of 5 per year All of South America after this period has been recovering and showing good signs of economic stability with controlled inflation and exchange rates continuous growth a decrease in social inequality and unemployment factors that favor industry 86 The main industries are electronics textiles food automotive metallurgy aviation naval clothing beverage steel tobacco timber chemical among others Exports reach almost US 400 billion annually with Brazil accounting for half of this 86 The economic gap between the rich and poor in most South American nations is larger than on most other continents The richest 10 receive over 40 of the nation s income in Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia and Paraguay 88 while the poorest 20 receive 4 or less in Bolivia Brazil and Colombia 89 This wide gap can be seen in many large South American cities where makeshift shacks and slums lie in the vicinity of skyscrapers and upper class luxury apartments nearly one in nine South Americans live on less than 2 per day on a purchasing power parity basis 90 Country GDP nominal in 2017 in millions of dollars 91 GDP PPP in 2017 in millions of dollars 91 GDP PPP per capita in 2017 91 Merchandise exports bn 2011 85 HDI in 2017 rank 92 Percent with less than 2 PPP per person per day citation needed Argentina 628 935 912 816 20 707 83 7 0 825 2 6Bolivia 39 267 83 608 7 552 9 1 0 693 24 9Brazil 2 140 940 3 216 031 15 485 250 8 0 759 10 8Chile 251 220 455 941 24 796 86 1 0 845 2 7Colombia 306 439 720 151 14 609 56 5 0 747 15 8Ecuador 97 362 184 629 11 004 22 3 0 752 10 6Falkland Islands 93 UK 206 4 206 4 70 800 0 26French Guiana 94 France 4 456 4 456 19 728 1 3Guyana 3 591 6 398 8 306 0 9 0 654 18 0Paraguay 28 743 68 005 9 779 9 8 0 702 13 2Peru 207 072 429 711 13 501 46 3 0 750 12 7Suriname 3 641 7 961 13 934 1 6 0 720 27 2Uruguay 58 123 77 800 22 271 8 0 0 804 2 2Venezuela 251 589 404 109 12 856 92 6 0 761 12 9Total 3 836 569 6 642 623 17 852 669 1 0 772 11 3Economically largest cities as of 2014 Edit Rank City Country GDP in Int bn 95 Population mil 95 GDP per capita1 Sao Paulo Brazil 430 20 847 500 20 6502 Buenos Aires Argentina 315 13 381 800 23 6063 Lima Peru 176 10 674 100 16 5304 Rio de Janeiro Brazil 176 12 460 200 14 1765 Santiago Chile 171 7 164 400 32 9296 Bogota Colombia 160 9 135 800 17 4977 Brasilia Brazil 141 3 976 500 35 6898 Belo Horizonte Brazil 84 5 595 800 15 1349 Porto Alegre Brazil 62 4 120 900 15 07810 Campinas Brazil 59 2 854 200 20 759 Sugarcane plantation in Sao Paulo In 2018 Brazil was the world s largest producer with 746 million tonnes South America produces half of the world s sugarcane Soy plantation in Mato Grosso In 2020 Brazil was the world s largest producer with 130 million tonnes South America produces half of the world s soybeans Coffee in Minas Gerais In 2018 Brazil was the world s largest producer with 3 5 million tonnes South America produces half of the world s coffee Orange in Sao Paulo In 2018 Brazil was the world s largest producer with 17 million tonnes South America produces 25 of the world s orange The four countries with the strongest agriculture are Brazil Argentina Chile and Colombia Currently Brazil is the world s largest producer of sugarcane soy coffee orange guarana acai and Brazil nut is one of the top 5 producers of maize papaya tobacco pineapple banana cotton beans coconut watermelon lemon and yerba mate is one of the top 10 world producers of cocoa cashew avocado tangerine persimmon mango guava rice oat sorghum and tomato and is one of the top 15 world producers of grape apple melon peanut fig peach onion palm oil and natural rubber Argentina is the world s largest producer of yerba mate is one of the 5 largest producers in the world of soy maize sunflower seed lemon and pear one of the 10 largest producers in the world of barley grape artichoke tobacco and cotton and one of the 15 largest producers in the world of wheat oat chickpea sugarcane sorghum and grapefruit Chile is one of the 5 largest world producers of cherry and cranberry and one of the 10 largest world producers of grape apple kiwi peach plum and hazelnut focusing on exporting high value fruits Colombia is one of the 5 largest producers in the world of coffee avocado and palm oil and one of the 10 largest producers in the world of sugarcane banana pineapple and cocoa Peru is the world s largest producer of quinoa is one of the 5 largest producers of avocado blueberry artichoke and asparagus one of the 10 largest producers in the world of coffee and cocoa one of the 15 largest producers in the world of potato and pineapple and also has a considerable production of grape sugarcane rice banana maize and cassava its agriculture is considerably diversified Paraguay s agriculture is currently developing being currently the 6th largest producer of soy in the world and entering the list of the 20 largest producers of maize and sugarcane 96 Truck of a meat company in Brazil South America produces 20 of the world s beef and chicken meat Brazil is the world s largest exporter of chicken meat 3 77 million tonnes in 2019 97 98 The country is the holder of the second largest herd of cattle in the world 22 2 of the world herd The country was the second largest producer of beef in 2019 responsible for 15 4 of global production 99 It was also the 3rd largest world producer of milk in 2018 This year the country produced 35 1 billion liters 100 In 2019 Brazil was the 4th largest pork producer in the world with almost 4 million tonnes 101 In 2018 Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world with a production of 3 million tonnes behind only USA Brazil and China Uruguay is also a major meat producer In 2018 it produced 589 thousand tonnes of beef 102 In chicken meat production Argentina ranks among the 15 largest producers in the world and Peru and Colombia among the 20 biggest producers In beef production Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers in the world In honey production Argentina ranks among the 5 largest producers in the world and Brazil among the 15 largest In terms of production of cow s milk Argentina ranks among the 20 largest producers in the world 103 EMS the largest Brazilian pharmaceutical industry Braskem the largest Brazilian chemical industry The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value According to the 2019 list Brazil has the thirteenth most valuable industry in the world US 173 6 billion Venezuela the thirtieth largest US 58 2 billion however it depends on oil to obtain this value Argentina the 31st largest US 57 7 billion Colombia the 46th largest US 35 4 billion Peru the 50th largest US 28 7 billion and Chile the 51st largest US 28 3 billion 104 Brazil has the third largest manufacturing sector in the Americas Accounting for 28 5 percent of GDP Brazil s industries range from automobiles steel and petrochemicals to computers aircraft Embraer food pharmaceutical footwear metallurgy and consumer durables In the food industry in 2019 Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world 105 106 107 In 2016 the country was the 2nd largest producer of pulp in the world and the 8th producer of paper 108 109 110 In the footwear industry in 2019 Brazil ranked 4th among world producers 111 112 113 114 In 2019 the country was the 8th producer of vehicles and the 9th producer of steel in the world 115 116 117 In 2018 the chemical industry of Brazil was the 8th in the world 118 119 120 In textile industry Brazil although it was among the 5 largest world producers in 2013 is very little integrated in world trade 121 Cerro Rico Potosi Bolivia still a major silver mine Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul South America is a major producer of gems such as amethyst topaz emerald aquamarine and tourmaline Iron mine in Minas Gerais Brazil is the world s second largest iron ore exporter Mining is one of the most important economic sectors in South America especially for Chile Peru and Bolivia whose economies are highly dependent on this sector The continent has large productions of gold mainly in Peru Brazil and Argentina 122 silver mainly in Peru Chile Bolivia and Argentina 123 copper mainly in Chile Peru and Brazil 124 iron ore Brazil Peru and Chile 125 zinc Peru Bolivia and Brazil 126 molybdenum Chile and Peru 127 lithium Chile Argentina and Brazil 128 lead Peru and Bolivia 129 bauxite Brazil 130 tin Peru Bolivia and Brazil 131 manganese Brazil 132 antimony Bolivia and Ecuador 133 nickel Brazil 134 niobium Brazil 135 rhenium Chile 136 iodine Chile 137 among others Brazil stands out in the extraction of iron ore where it is the 2nd largest producer and exporter in the world iron ore is usually one of the 3 export products that generate the greatest value in the country s trade balance copper gold bauxite one of the 5 largest producers in the world manganese one of the 5 largest producers in the world tin one of the largest producers in the world niobium concentrates 98 of reserves known to the world and nickel In terms of gemstones Brazil is the world s largest producer of amethyst topaz agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline emerald aquamarine garnet and opal 138 139 140 141 142 143 Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production 144 In addition to copper Chile was in 2019 the world s largest producer of iodine 145 and rhenium 146 the second largest producer of lithium 147 and molybdenum 148 the sixth largest producer of silver 149 the seventh largest producer of salt 150 the eighth largest producer of potash 151 the thirteenth producer of sulfur 152 and the thirteenth producer of iron ore 153 in the world In 2019 Peru was the 2nd largest world producer of copper 154 and silver 149 8th largest world producer of gold 155 3rd largest world producer of lead 156 2nd largest world producer of zinc 157 4th largest world producer of tin 158 5th largest world producer of boron 159 and 4th largest world producer of molybdenum 148 In 2019 Bolivia was the 8th largest world producer of silver 160 4th largest world producer of boron 161 5th largest world producer of antimony 162 5th largest world producer of tin 163 6th largest world producer of tungsten 164 7th largest producer of zinc 165 and the 8th largest producer of lead 129 166 167 In 2019 Argentina was the 4th largest world producer of lithium 147 the 9th largest world producer of silver 149 the 17th largest world producer of gold 155 and the 7th largest world producer of boron 159 Colombia is the world s largest producer of emeralds 168 In the production of gold among 2006 and 2017 the country produced 15 tons per year until 2007 when its production increased significantly breaking a record of 66 1 tons extracted in 2012 In 2017 it extracted 52 2 tons The country is among the 25 largest gold producers in the world 169 In the production of silver in 2017 the country extracted 15 5 tons 170 171 172 In the production of oil Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019 with 2 8 million barrels day Venezuela was the 21st largest with 877 thousand barrels day Colombia in 22nd with 886 thousand barrels day Ecuador in 28th with 531 thousand barrels day and Argentina 29th with 507 thousand barrels day As Venezuela and Ecuador consume little oil and export most of their production they are part of OPEC Venezuela had a big drop in production after 2015 where it produced 2 5 million barrels day falling in 2016 to 2 2 million in 2017 to 2 million in 2018 to 1 4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand due to lack of investments 173 In the production of natural gas in 2018 Argentina produced 1524 bcf billion cubic feet Venezuela 946 Brazil 877 Bolivia 617 Peru 451 Colombia 379 174 In the beginning of 2020 in the production of oil and natural gas Brazil exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day for the first time In January 2021 3 168 million barrels of oil per day and 138 753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted 175 In the production of coal the continent had 2 of the 30 largest world producers in 2018 Colombia 12th and Brazil 27th 176 Gallery Edit Grape plantation in Argentina Argentina and Chile are among the 10 largest grape and wine producers in the world and Brazil among the 20 largest Maize in Dourados Brazil and Argentina are among the 5 largest world producers Salmon farming in Chile One third of all salmon sold in the world comes from the country Neugebauer Chocolate Factory in Arroio do Meio South America specializes in food processing Steel maker CSN in Volta Redonda Brazil is one of the 10 largest steel producers in the world and Argentina is one of the 30 largest Klabin industrial complex in Ortigueira Brazil is the second largest pulp producer and the eighth largest paper producer in the world Portico of the Democrata men s shoe factory in Franca Brazil is the fourth largest shoe manufacturer in the world Hering in Santa Catarina Brazil The country has one of the 5 largest textile industries in the world General Motors plant in Rosario Brazil is among the 10 largest vehicle manufacturers in the world and Argentina among the 30 largest Copper mine in Chile Latin America produces more than half of the world s copper Colombian emerald The country is the largest producer of emeralds in the world and Brazil is one of the largest producers Copacabana Palace the best hotel in South America in Rio de Janeiro Tourism brings important currencies to the continent Honey production in Argentina The country is the third largest producer of honey in the world Sunflower plantation in Argentina The country is the world s third largest producer of sunflower seed Chilean cherries Chile is one of the top 5 producers of sweet cherries in the world Chilean kiwi The country is one of the 10 largest kiwi producers in the world Palm plantation in Magdalena Colombia is one of the top 5 palm oil producers in the world Pineapple in Brazil The country is the 3rd largest producer in the world South America produces close to 20 of the world s pineapple Tourism Edit Tourism has increasingly become a significant source of income for many South American countries 177 178 Historical relics architectural and natural wonders a diverse range of foods and culture vibrant and colorful cities and stunning landscapes attract millions of tourists every year to South America Some of the most visited places in the region are Iguazu Falls Recife Olinda Machu Picchu Bariloche the Amazon rainforest Rio de Janeiro Sao Luis Salvador Fortaleza Maceio Buenos Aires Florianopolis San Ignacio Mini Isla Margarita Natal Lima Sao Paulo Angel Falls Brasilia Nazca Lines Cuzco Belo Horizonte Lake Titicaca Salar de Uyuni La Paz Jesuit Missions of Chiquitos Los Roques archipelago Gran Sabana Patagonia Tayrona National Natural Park Santa Marta Bogota Cali Medellin Cartagena Perito Moreno Glacier and the Galapagos Islands 179 180 In 2016 Brazil hosted the 2016 Summer Olympics Panorama of Cartagena 2008 a major port on the northern coast of Colombia and one of the country s main tourist destinations Culture Edit Teatro Solis Uruguay National Library Brazil Arya Dewaker Hindu temple Paramaribo Suriname South Americans are culturally influenced by their indigenous peoples the historic connection with the Iberian Peninsula and Africa and waves of immigrants from around the globe South American nations have a rich variety of music Some of the most famous genres include vallenato and cumbia from Colombia pasillo from Colombia and Ecuador samba bossa nova and musica sertaneja from Brazil and tango from Argentina and Uruguay Also well known is the non commercial folk genre Nueva Cancion movement which was founded in Argentina and Chile and quickly spread to the rest of the Latin America Tango show in Buenos Aires typical Argentine dance Carmen Miranda Portuguese Brazilian singer helped popularize samba internationally People on the Peruvian coast created the fine guitar and cajon duos or trios in the most mestizo mixed of South American rhythms such as the Marinera from Lima the Tondero from Piura the 19th century popular Creole Valse or Peruvian Valse the soulful Arequipan Yaravi and the early 20th century Paraguayan Guarania In the late 20th century Spanish rock emerged by young hipsters influenced by British pop and American rock Brazil has a Portuguese language pop rock industry as well a great variety of other music genres In the central and western regions of Bolivia Andean and folklore music like Diablada Caporales and Morenada are the most representative of the country which were originated by European Aymara and Quechua influences The literature of South America has attracted considerable critical and popular acclaim especially with the Latin American Boom of the 1960s and 1970s and the rise of authors such as Mario Vargas Llosa Gabriel Garcia Marquez in novels and Jorge Luis Borges and Pablo Neruda in other genres The Brazilians Machado de Assis and Joao Guimaraes Rosa are widely regarded as the greatest Brazilian writers Food and drink Edit Because of South America s broad ethnic mix South American cuisine has African Mestizo South Asian East Asian and European influences Bahia Brazil is especially well known for its West African influenced cuisine Argentines Chileans Uruguayans Brazilians Bolivians and Venezuelans regularly consume wine People in Argentina Paraguay Uruguay southern Chile Bolivia and Southern Brazil drink mate an herb which is brewed The Paraguayan version terere differs from other forms of mate in that it is served cold Pisco is a liquor distilled from grapes in Peru and Chile Peruvian cuisine mixes elements from Chinese Japanese Spanish Italian African Arab Andean and Amazonic food Plastic arts Edit Bird UOB Plaza Singapore sculpture of Colombian artist Fernando Botero The artist Oswaldo Guayasamin 1919 1999 from Ecuador represented with his painting style the feeling of the peoples of Latin America 181 highlighting social injustices in various parts of the world The Colombian Fernando Botero 1932 is one of the greatest exponents of painting and sculpture that continues still active and has been able to develop a recognizable style of his own 182 For his part the Venezuelan Carlos Cruz Diez has contributed significantly to contemporary art 183 with the presence of works around the world Currently several emerging South American artists are recognized by international art critics Guillermo Lorca Chilean painter 184 185 Teddy Cobena Ecuadorian sculptor and recipient of international sculpture award in France 186 187 188 and Argentine artist Adrian Villar Rojas 189 190 winner of the Zurich Museum Art Award among many others Sport Edit Main article Sport in South America Maracana Stadium in Rio de Janeiro Brazil Panorama of the interior of the Maracana stadium during the closing ceremony of the 2014 FIFA World Cup A wide range of sports are played in the continent of South America with football being the most popular overall while baseball is the most popular in Venezuela Other sports include basketball cycling polo volleyball futsal motorsports rugby mostly in Argentina and Uruguay handball tennis golf field hockey boxing and cricket South America hosted its first Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro Brazil in 2016 and has hosted the Youth Olympic Games in Buenos Aires Argentina in 2018 South America shares with Europe supremacy over the sport of football as all winners in FIFA World Cup history and all winning teams in the FIFA Club World Cup have come from these two continents Brazil holds the record at the FIFA World Cup with five titles in total of all countries 191 Argentina and Uruguay have two titles each So far five South American nations have hosted the tournament including the first edition in Uruguay 1930 Two were from Brazil 1950 2014 Chile 1962 and Argentina 1978 South America is home to the longest running international football tournament the Copa America which has been contested since 1916 Argentina and Uruguay have won the Copa America 15 times each the most among all countries Also in South America a multi sport event the South American Games are held every four years The first edition was held in La Paz in 1978 and the most recent took place in Santiago in 2014 South American Cricket Championship is an international one day cricket tournament played since 1995 featuring national teams from South America and certain other invited sides including teams from North America currently played annually but until 2013 was usually played every two seasons Infrastructure Edit Jepirachi wind farm in the Guajira Peninsula Energy Edit Due to the diversity of topography and pluviometric precipitation conditions the region s water resources vary enormously in different areas In the Andes navigation possibilities are limited except for the Magdalena River Lake Titicaca and the lakes of the southern regions of Chile and Argentina Irrigation is an important factor for agriculture from northwestern Peru to Patagonia Less than 10 of the known electrical potential of the Andes had been used until the mid 1960s The Brazilian Highlands have a much higher hydroelectric potential than the Andean region and its possibilities of exploitation are greater due to the existence of several large rivers with high margins and the occurrence of great differences forming huge cataracts such as those of Paulo Afonso Iguacu and others The Amazon River system has about 13 000 km of waterways but its possibilities for hydroelectric use are still unknown Most of the continent s energy is generated through hydroelectric power plants but there is also an important share of thermoelectric and wind energy Brazil and Argentina are the only South American countries that generate nuclear power each with two nuclear power plants In 1991 these countries signed a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement Panoramic view of the Itaipu Dam the second largest of the world in energy production Wind power in Parnaiba Angra Nuclear Power Plant in Angra dos Reis Rio de Janeiro Pirapora Solar Complex the largest in Brazil and Latin America with a capacity of 321 MW The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum Imports previously accounted for more than 70 of the country s oil needs but Brazil became self sufficient in oil in 2006 2007 Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in 2019 with 2 8 million barrels day Production manages to supply the country s demand 173 In the beginning of 2020 in the production of oil and natural gas the country exceeded 4 million barrels of oil equivalent per day for the first time In January this year 3 168 million barrels of oil per day and 138 753 million cubic meters of natural gas were extracted 175 Brazil is one of the main world producers of hydroelectric power In 2019 Brazil had 217 hydroelectric plants in operation with an installed capacity of 98 581 MW 60 16 of the country s energy generation 192 In the total generation of electricity in 2019 Brazil reached 170 000 megawatts of installed capacity more than 75 from renewable sources the majority hydroelectric 193 194 In 2013 the Southeast Region used about 50 of the load of the National Integrated System SIN being the main energy consuming region in the country The region s installed electricity generation capacity totaled almost 42 500 MW which represented about a third of Brazil s generation capacity The hydroelectric generation represented 58 of the region s installed capacity with the remaining 42 corresponding basically to the thermoelectric generation Sao Paulo accounted for 40 of this capacity Minas Gerais by about 25 Rio de Janeiro by 13 3 and Espirito Santo accounted for the rest The South Region owns the Itaipu Dam which was the largest hydroelectric plant in the world for several years until the inauguration of Three Gorges Dam in China It remains the second largest operating hydroelectric in the world Brazil is the co owner of the Itaipu Plant with Paraguay the dam is located on the Parana River located on the border between countries It has an installed generation capacity of 14 GW for 20 generating units of 700 MW each North Region has large hydroelectric plants such as Belo Monte Dam and Tucurui Dam which produce much of the national energy Brazil s hydroelectric potential has not yet been fully exploited so the country still has the capacity to build several renewable energy plants in its territory 195 196 As of February 2021 ref according to ONS total installed capacity of wind power was 19 1 GW with average capacity factor of 58 197 While the world average wind production capacity factors is 24 7 there are areas in Northern Brazil specially in Bahia State where some wind farms record with average capacity factors over 60 198 199 the average capacity factor in the Northeast Region is 45 in the coast and 49 in the interior 200 In 2019 wind energy represented 9 of the energy generated in the country 201 In 2019 it was estimated that the country had an estimated wind power generation potential of around 522 GW this only onshore enough energy to meet three times the country s current demand 202 203 In 2020 Brazil was the 8th country in the world in terms of installed wind power 17 2 GW 204 Nuclear energy accounts for about 4 of Brazil s electricity 205 The nuclear power generation monopoly is owned by Eletronuclear Eletrobras Eletronuclear S A a wholly owned subsidiary of Eletrobras Nuclear energy is produced by two reactors at Angra It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Alvaro Alberto CNAAA on the Praia de Itaorna in Angra dos Reis Rio de Janeiro It consists of two pressurized water reactors Angra I with capacity of 657 MW connected to the power grid in 1982 and Angra II with capacity of 1 350 MW connected in 2000 A third reactor Angra III with a projected output of 1 350 MW is planned to be finished 206 As of July 2021 ref according to ONS total installed capacity of photovoltaic solar was 10 3 GW with average capacity factor of 23 207 Some of the most irradiated Brazilian States are MG Minas Gerais BA Bahia and GO Goias which have indeed world irradiation level records 208 199 209 In 2019 solar power represented 1 27 of the energy generated in the country 201 In 2020 Brazil was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed solar power 7 8 GW 204 In 2020 Brazil was the 2nd largest country in the world in the production of energy through biomass energy production from solid biofuels and renewable waste with 15 2 GW installed 210 After Brazil Colombia is the country in South America that most stands out in energy production In 2020 the country was the 20th largest petroleum producer in the world and in 2015 it was the 19th largest exporter In natural gas the country was in 2015 the 40th largest producer in the world Colombia s biggest highlight is in coal where the country was in 2018 the world s 12th largest producer and the 5th largest exporter In renewable energies in 2020 the country ranked 45th in the world in terms of installed wind energy 0 5 GW 76th in the world in terms of installed solar energy 0 1 GW and 20th in the world in terms of installed hydroelectric power 12 6 GW Venezuela which was one of the world s largest oil producers about 2 5 million barrels day in 2015 and one of the largest exporters due to its political problems has had its production drastically reduced in recent years in 2016 it dropped to 2 2 million in 2017 to 2 million in 2018 to 1 4 million and in 2019 to 877 thousand reaching only 300 000 barrels day at a given point The country also stands out in hydroelectricity where it was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed capacity in 2020 16 5 GW Argentina was in 2017 the 18th largest producer in the world and the largest producer in Latin America of natural gas in addition to being the 28th largest oil producer although the country has the Vaca Muerta field which holds close to 16 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil and is the second largest shale natural gas deposit in the world the country lacks the capacity to exploit the deposit it is necessary capital technology and knowledge that can only come from offshore energy companies who view Argentina and its erratic economic policies with considerable suspicion not wanting to invest in the country In renewable energies in 2020 the country ranked 27th in the world in terms of installed wind energy 2 6 GW 42nd in the world in terms of installed solar energy 0 7 GW and 21st in the world in terms of installed hydroelectric power 11 3 GW The country has great future potential for the production of wind energy in the Patagonia region Chile although currently not a major energy producer has great future potential for solar energy production in the Atacama Desert region Paraguay stands out today in hydroelectric production thanks to the Itaipu Power Plant Bolivia stand out in the production of natural gas where it was the 31st largest in the world in 2015 Ecuador because it consumes little energy is part of OPEC and was the 27th largest oil producer in the world in 2020 being the 22nd largest exporter in 2014 211 212 213 176 204 Transport Edit Rodovia dos Bandeirantes Brazil Ruta 9 14 in Zarate Argentina Rio Niteroi Bridge Rio de Janeiro International Airport Port of Itajai Santa Catarina Brazil Stretch of the Pan American Highway in Argentina The Port of Callao in Lima The La Paz cable car system in Bolivia is home to both the longest and highest urban cable car network in the world Transport in South America is basically carried out using the road mode the most developed in the region There is also a considerable infrastructure of ports and airports The railway and fluvial sector although it has potential is usually treated in a secondary way Brazil has more than 1 7 million km of roads of which 215 000 km are paved and about 14 000 km are divided highways The two most important highways in the country are BR 101 and BR 116 214 Argentina has more than 600 000 km of roads of which about 70 000 km are paved and about 2 500 km are divided highways The three most important highways in the country are Route 9 Route 7 and Route 14 214 Colombia has about 210 000 km of roads and about 2 300 km are divided highways 215 Chile has about 82 000 km of roads 20 000 km of which are paved and about 2 000 km are divided highways The most important highway in the country is the Route 5 Pan American Highway 216 These 4 countries are the ones with the best road infrastructure and with the largest number of double lane highways Due to the Andes Mountains Amazon River and Amazon Forest there have always been difficulties in implementing transcontinental or bioceanic highways Practically the only route that existed was the one that connected Brazil to Buenos Aires in Argentina and later to Santiago in Chile However in recent years with the combined effort of countries new routes have started to emerge such as Brazil Peru Interoceanic Highway and a new highway between Brazil Paraguay northern Argentina and northern Chile Bioceanic Corridor There are more than 2 000 airports in Brazil The country has the second largest number of airports in the world behind only the United States Sao Paulo International Airport located in the Metropolitan Region of Sao Paulo is the largest and busiest in the country the airport connects Sao Paulo to practically all major cities around the world Brazil has 44 international airports such as those in Rio de Janeiro Brasilia Belo Horizonte Porto Alegre Florianopolis Cuiaba Salvador Recife Fortaleza Belem and Manaus among others Argentina has important international airports such as Buenos Aires Cordoba Bariloche Mendoza Salta Puerto Iguazu Neuquen and Usuhaia among others Chile has important international airports such as Santiago Antofagasta Puerto Montt Punta Arenas and Iquique among others Colombia has important international airports such as Bogota Medellin Cartagena Cali and Barranquilla among others Other important airports are those in the capitals of Uruguay Montevideo Paraguay Asuncion Peru Lima Bolivia La Paz and Ecuador Quito The 10 busiest airports in South America in 2017 were Sao Paulo Guarulhos Brazil Bogota Colombia Sao Paulo Congonhas Brazil Santiago Chile Lima Peru Brasilia Brazil Rio de Janeiro Brazil Buenos Aires Aeroparque Argentina Buenos Aires Ezeiza Argentina and Minas Gerais Brazil 217 About ports Brazil has some of the busiest ports in South America such as Port of Santos Port of Rio de Janeiro Port of Paranagua Port of Itajai Port of Rio Grande Port of Sao Francisco do Sul and Suape Port Argentina has ports such as Port of Buenos Aires and Port of Rosario Chile has important ports in Valparaiso Caldera Mejillones Antofagasta Iquique Arica and Puerto Montt Colombia has important ports such as Buenaventura Cartagena Container Terminal and Puerto Bolivar Peru has important ports in Callao Ilo and Matarani The 15 busiest ports in South America are Port of Santos Brazil Port of Bahia de Cartagena Colombia Callao Peru Guayaquil Ecuador Buenos Aires Argentina San Antonio Chile Buenaventura Colombia Itajai Brazil Valparaiso Chile Montevideo Uruguay Paranagua Brazil Rio Grande Brazil Sao Francisco do Sul Brazil Manaus Brazil and Coronel Chile 218 The Brazilian railway network has an extension of about 30 000 kilometers It s basically used for transporting ores 219 The Argentine rail network with 47 000 km of tracks was one of the largest in the world and continues to be the most extensive in Latin America It came to have about 100 000 km of rails but the lifting of tracks and the emphasis placed on motor transport gradually reduced it It has four different trails and international connections with Paraguay Bolivia Chile Brazil and Uruguay Chile has almost 7 000 km of railways with connections to Argentina Bolivia and Peru Colombia has only about 3 500 km of railways 220 Among the main Brazilian waterways two stand out Hidrovia Tiete Parana which has a length of 2 400 km 1 600 on the Parana River and 800 km on the Tiete River draining agricultural production from the states of Mato Grosso Mato Grosso do Sul Goias and part of Rondonia Tocantins and Minas Gerais and Hidrovia do Solimoes Amazonas it has two sections Solimoes which extends from Tabatinga to Manaus with approximately 1600 km and Amazonas which extends from Manaus to Belem with 1650 km Almost entirely passenger transport from the Amazon plain is done by this waterway in addition to practically all cargo transportation that is directed to the major regional centers of Belem and Manaus In Brazil this transport is still underutilized the most important waterway stretches from an economic point of view are found in the Southeast and South of the country Its full use still depends on the construction of locks major dredging works and mainly of ports that allow intermodal integration In Argentina the waterway network is made up of the La Plata Parana Paraguay and Uruguay rivers The main river ports are Zarate and Campana The port of Buenos Aires is historically the first in individual importance but the area known as Up River which stretches along 67 km of the Santa Fe portion of the Parana River brings together 17 ports that concentrate 50 of the total exports of the country Only two railroads are continental the Transandina which connects Buenos Aires in Argentina to Valparaiso in Chile and the Brazil Bolivia Railroad which makes it the connection between the port of Santos in Brazil and the city of Santa Cruz de la Sierra in Bolivia In addition there is the Pan American Highway which crosses Argentina and the Andean countries from north to south although some stretches are unfinished 221 Two areas of greater density occur in the railway sector the platinum network which develops around the Platine region largely belonging to Argentina with more than 45 000 km in length And the Southeast Brazil network which mainly serves the state of Sao Paulo state of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais Brazil and Argentina also stand out in the road sector In addition to the modern roads that extend through northern Argentina and south east and south of Brazil a vast road complex aims to link Brasilia the federal capital to the South Southeast Northeast and Northern regions of Brazil South America has one of the largest bays of navigable inland waterways in the world represented mainly by the Amazon basin the Platine basin the Sao Francisco and the Orinoco basins Brazil having about 54 000 km navigable while Argentina has 6 500 km and Venezuela 1 200 km The two main merchant fleets also belong to Brazil and Argentina The following are those of Chile Venezuela Peru and Colombia The largest ports in commercial movement are those of Buenos Aires Santos Rio de Janeiro Bahia Blanca Rosario Valparaiso Recife Salvador Montevideo Paranagua Rio Grande Fortaleza Belem and Maracaibo In South America commercial aviation has a magnificent expansion field which has one of the largest traffic density lines in the world Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo and large airports such as Congonhas Sao Paulo Guarulhos International and Viracopos Sao Paulo Rio de Janeiro International and Santos Dumont Rio de Janeiro El Dorado Bogota Ezeiza Buenos Aires Tancredo Neves International Airport Belo Horizonte Curitiba International Airport Curitiba Brasilia Caracas Montevideo Lima Viru Viru International Airport Santa Cruz de la Sierra Recife Salvador Salgado Filho International Airport Porto Alegre Fortaleza Manaus and Belem The main public transport in major cities is the bus Many cities also have a diverse system of metro and subway trains the first of which was the Buenos Aires subte opened 1913 222 The Santiago subway 223 is the largest network in South America with 103 km while the Sao Paulo subway is the largest in transportation with more than 4 6 million passengers per day 224 and was voted the best in the Americas Rio de Janeiro installed the first railroad of the continent in 1854 Today the city has a vast and diversified system of metropolitan trains integrated with buses and subway Recently it was also inaugurated in the city a Light Rail System called VLT a small electrical trams at low speed while Sao Paulo inaugurated its monorail the first of South America citation needed In Brazil an express bus system called Bus Rapid Transit BRT which operates in several cities has also been developed Mi Teleferico also known as Teleferico La Paz El Alto La Paz El Alto Cable Car is an aerial cable car urban transit system serving the La Paz El Alto metropolitan area in Bolivia See also Edit South America portal Geography portal Flags of South America Wikipedia list article List of World Heritage Sites in South America Outline of South America Hierarchical outline list of articles related to South America South American GamesNotes Edit Sometimes included Depending on the definition of North America South America boundary Panama could be classified as a transcontinental country a b c d Occasionally included Physiographically a part of South America but geopolitically a part of North America Occasionally included An isolated volcanic island on the South American Plate Ascension Island is geologically a part of South America but geopolitically a part of Africa Occasionally included An isolated volcanic island near the boundary between the African Plate and the Antarctic Plate Bouvet Island is biogeographically and geologically associated with Antarctica Despite being closer to Antarctica and Africa geographically the United Nations geoscheme has included Bouvet Island in South America instead Geologically South Georgia Island and the southernmost portion of mainland South America are both on the Scotia Plate while the South Sandwich Islands is on the nearby Sandwich Plate Biogeographically and hydrologically South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands is associated with Antarctica The United Nations geoscheme has included the disputed territory in South America Except Bouvet Island which has occasionally been included as a part of South America Both administered as British Overseas Territories under the Crown claimed by Argentina A overseas region department of France La Paz is the administrative capital of Bolivia Sucre is the constitutional and judicial capital of Bolivia Bouvet Island is commonly associated with Antarctica due to proximity but the United Nations geoscheme has included the territory in South America instead 55 Includes Easter Island in the Pacific Ocean a Chilean territory frequently reckoned in Oceania Santiago is the administrative capital of Chile Valparaiso is the site of legislative meetings South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands in the South Atlantic Ocean has no permanent population only hosting a periodic contingent of about 100 researchers and visitors Continent model In some parts of the world for example Latin America Latin Europe and Iran South America is viewed as a subcontinent of the Americas a single continent named America 225 In most of the countries with English as an official language however it is considered a continent see Americas terminology References EditCitations Edit a b c World Population prospects Population division population un org United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 a b c Overall total population World Population Prospects The 2019 Revision xslx population un org custom data acquired via website United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 GDP PPP current prices International Monetary Fund 2021 Retrieved 16 January 2021 GDP Nominal current prices International Monetary Fund 2021 Retrieved 16 January 2021 Nominal GDP per capita International Monetary Fund 2021 Retrieved 16 January 2021 a b Schenoni Luis L 1 January 1970 Unveiling the South American Balance Estudos Internacionais 2 2 215 232 Retrieved 8 December 2016 Holsti 1996 p 155 Cohen Saul Bernard 2003 North and Middle America Ch 5 Geopolitics of the World System ISBN 0847699072 Americas Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications M49 United Nations Statistics Division North America Atlas of Canada 14 November 2003 Archived from the original on 3 March 2008 Retrieved 21 May 2012 a b North America Atlas National Geographic Panama Britannica com 31 December 1999 Retrieved 21 May 2012 Panama The World Factbook Cia gov Retrieved 21 May 2012 Parts of Chile s Atacama Desert haven t seen a drop of rain since recordkeeping began Somehow more than a million people squeeze life from this parched land National Geographic Magazine Retrieved 18 April 2009 Driest Place Driest Desert Atacama Desert Extremescience com 25 January 2007 Archived from the original on 8 April 2009 Retrieved 18 April 2009 McKay C P May June 2002 Two dry for life The Atacama Desert and Mars PDF Ad Astra 14 3 30 Archived from the original PDF on 26 August 2009 Bacc Travel brazilian Vacation Experts www bacctravel com Society National Geographic 4 January 2012 South America Physical Geography National Geographic Society Retrieved 19 February 2021 South America Atlas National Geographic United Nations Statistics Division Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications M49 Unstats un org 20 September 2011 Retrieved 21 May 2012 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands p 2017 Ascension Island Geology mcee ou edu Beck Hylke E Zimmermann Niklaus E McVicar Tim R Vergopolan Noemi Berg Alexis Wood Eric F 30 October 2018 Present and future Koppen Geiger climate classification maps at 1 km resolution Scientific Data 5 180214 Bibcode 2018NatSD 580214B doi 10 1038 sdata 2018 214 PMC 6207062 PMID 30375988 a b c d e f O CLIMA In Atlas Mundial Sao Paulo Cia Melhoramentos de Sao Paulo 1999 pp 20 21 ISBN 85 06 02889 2 Landsea Chris 13 July 2005 Why doesn t the South Atlantic Ocean experience tropical cyclones Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorlogical Laboratory National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved 9 June 2018 Wettest Places On Earth By Annual Rainfall World Atlas Retrieved 12 May 2019 Apresentacao da Corrente do Golfo Presentation of the Gulf Stream knoow net in Portuguese Archived from the original on 11 April 2015 Retrieved 26 January 2017 a b c O Brien Patrick General Editor Oxford Atlas of World History New York Oxford University Press 2005 p 25 Horst Pietschmann Atlantic history history of the Atlantic System 1580 1830 Gottingen Vandenhoeck amp Ruprecht 2002 p 239 C R Boxer 1990 The Dutch Seaborne Empire Penguin pp 271 272 ISBN 9780140136180 Anstey Roger The Atlantic Slave Trade and British abolition 1760 1810 London Macmillan 1975 p 5 Vergonha Ainda Maior Novas informacoes disponiveis em um enorme banco de dados mostram que a escravidao no Brasil foi muito pior do que se sabia antes Veja in Portuguese Archived from the original on 13 March 2015 Retrieved 16 March 2015 Stephen D Behrendt David Richardson and David Eltis W E B Du Bois Institute for African and African American Research Harvard University Based on records for 27 233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas Stephen Behrendt 1999 Transatlantic Slave Trade Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience New York Basic Civitas Books ISBN 978 0 465 00071 5 Yeager Timothy J December 1995 Encomienda or Slavery The Spanish Crown s Choice of Labor Organization in Sixteenth Century Spanish America The Journal of Economic History 55 4 842 859 doi 10 1017 S0022050700042182 The Golden Law Abolishing Slavery in Brazil Encyclopedia of emancipation and abolition in the Transatlantic world London United Kingdom Routledge 2007 Caudilhismo Brasil Escola Day Peter 17 December 1997 Ragamuffin War Brasil Escola Archived from the original on 3 March 2007 Retrieved 27 March 2007 Souza Rainer 20 January 2002 Ragamuffin Revolution RioGrande Retrieved 27 March 2007 Holsti 1996 p 153 Scheina Robert L 31 January 2003 Latin America s Wars Potomac Books Inc ISBN 978 1597974776 via Google Books Borges Fernando Tadeu de Miranda A Guerra do Paraguai Historia Resumo Historiadobrasil net in Portuguese Rossi Carlos 9 July 2007 America Latina Guerra do Pacifico in Portuguese Archived from the original on 4 March 2009 Woodard James P A Place in Politics Sao Paulo Brazil From Seigneurial Republicanism to Regionalist Revolt Duke University Press 2009 Chapter 3 War and the Health of the State especially pp 77 81 visualization on Google Books Conniff Michael L and McCann Frank D Modern Brazil Elites and Masses in Historical Perspective University of Nebraska Press 1991 ISBN 0803263481 p 168 visualization on Google Books Peru Uppsala Conflict Data Program Uppsala Universitet Smyers Richard P 1990 Review PANZERSCHIFF ADMIRAL GRAF SPEE by Siegfried Breyer Warship International 27 1 44 JSTOR 44891302 Landsborough Gordon 2016 The Battle of the River Plate the First Naval Battle of the Second World War Frontline Books ISBN 978 1473878952 Maximiano Cesar with Bonalume Ricardo N amp Bujeiro Ramiro Brazilian Expeditionary Force in World War II Osprey Publishing Ltd 2011 ISBN 9781849084833 Print version Frank D MacCann Estudios Interdisciplinarios de America Latina y el Caribe vol 6 No 2 1995 Richard Hough The Big Battleship London Michael Joseph 1966 19 OCLC 8898108 Robert Scheina Latin America A Naval History 1810 1987 Annapolis MD Naval Institute Press 1987 86 ISBN 0 87021 295 8 OCLC 15696006 June 14 1982 Falklands War comes to an end as Britain accepts Argentina s surrender BT Group Retrieved 6 December 2020 The Cambridge History of Latin America edited by Leslie Bethell Cambridge University Press 1995 ISBN 0 521 39525 9 Leslie Bethell 1995 Bibliographical Essays Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 39525 0 Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2007 data unless otherwise noted UNSD Methodology unstats un org Lira Heitor 1977 Historia de Dom Pedro II 1825 1891 Fastigio 1870 1880 in Portuguese 2 Belo Horizonte Itatiaia Tungodden Bertil Stern Nicholas Herbert Stern Nicholas Kolstad Ivar 2004 Toward Pro poor Policies Aid Institutions and Globalization World Bank Publications p 219 ISBN 978 0821353882 Globalpolicy org Globalpolicy org 29 October 2008 Retrieved 24 October 2010 The Languages spoken in Guyana Studylands Retrieved 12 April 2016 Karam John Tofik 2013 On the Trail and Trial of a Palestinian Diaspora Mapping South America in the Arab Israeli Conflict 1967 1972 Journal of Latin American Studies 45 4 751 777 doi 10 1017 S0022216X13001156 S2CID 145423526 Christians Pewforum org 18 December 2012 Retrieved 11 November 2017 a b Guyana The World Factbook www cia gov Retrieved 4 January 2021 a b Suriname The World Factbook www cia gov Retrieved 4 January 2021 Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco in Spanish Latinobarometro April 2014 p 7 Archived from the original PDF on 10 May 2015 Retrieved 4 April 2015 Salzano FM Sans M 2014 Interethnic admixture and the evolution of Latin American populations Genet Mol Biol 37 1 Suppl 151 170 doi 10 1590 s1415 47572014000200003 PMC 3983580 PMID 24764751 Your Regional Ancestry Reference Populations Genographic nationalgeographic com Retrieved 31 December 2016 Dean Bartholomew 2009 Urarina Society Cosmology and History in Peruvian Amazonia Gainesville University Press of Florida ISBN 978 0 8130 3378 5 1 Peru World Factbook CIA Retrieved 18 April 2009 Bolivia World Factbook CIA Retrieved 18 April 2009 Argentina World Factbook CIA Retrieved 18 April 2009 Argentina y Uruguay su poblacion esta formada casi exclusivamente por una poblacion blanca e blanca mestiza procedente del sur de Europa mas del 90 E Garcia Zarza 1992 19 Geografia fflch usp br Retrieved 18 April 2009 Cruz Coke R Moreno RS 1994 Genetic epidemiology of single gene defects in Chile Journal of Medical Genetics 31 9 702 706 doi 10 1136 jmg 31 9 702 PMC 1050080 PMID 7815439 Populacao residente por situacao sexo e grupos de idade Sidra ibge gov br Retrieved 21 May 2012 Latinoamerica PDF Revistas ucm es Archived from the original PDF on 18 March 2009 Retrieved 24 October 2010 The Chilean population is rather homogeneous with 95 4 of its population having native European ancestors Studentsgoabroad com 11 September 1973 Archived from the original on 7 January 2011 Retrieved 24 October 2010 Calendario de Publicaciones del Censo 2011 PDF Ine gov ve Retrieved 11 November 2017 a b Bushnell David amp Rex A Hudson 2010 The Society and Its Environment Colombia a country study 87 Washington DC Federal Research Division Library of Congress Schwartzman Simon 27 January 2008 Etnia condiciones de vida y discriminacion PDF in Spanish Peru An Overview of the Market Fppmedia com Archived from the original on 11 July 2011 Nakamura Akemi 15 January 2008 Japan Brazil mark a century of settlement family ties Japan Times Archived from the original on 4 December 2008 The World Factbook Cia gov Retrieved 11 November 2017 Lizcano Fernandez Francisco May August 2005 Composicion Etnica de las Tres Areas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI PDF Convergencia in Spanish 38 185 232 table on p 218 ISSN 1405 1435 Archived from the original PDF on 20 September 2008 Compendium 2 Population Composition PDF Bureau of Statistics Guyana July 2016 Retrieved 28 September 2021 Indigenous peoples of South America Astromonos org Retrieved on 20 October 2015 a b c Country Comparison Exports The World Factbook CIA 2011 a b c d e f O Sistema Economico America do Sul In Atlas Mundial Sao Paulo Cia Melhoramentos de Sao Paulo 1999 pp 26 27 88 107 ISBN 85 06 02889 2 Chapter 43 Tropical South America www fao org Retrieved 1 March 2021 Income share held by highest 10 The World Bank 2011 Income share held by lowest 20 The World Bank 2017 Retrieved 29 May 2019 Poverty headcount ratio at 2 a day PPP of population The World Bank 2011 a b c World Economic Outlook Database IMF April 2017 Retrieved 18 April 2016 Human Development Report 2014 Human development indices PDF The United Nations p 23 Retrieved 24 May 2011 Falkland Islands Islas Malvinas The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Guyane PDF in French IEDOM 2009 a b Global Metro Monitor Brookings Institution 22 January 2015 Retrieved 29 May 2019 FAOSTAT www fao org Conheca os 3 paises que desafiam o Brasil nas exportacoes de frango Avicultura Industrial Formigoni Ivan 30 May 2019 Maiores exportadores de carne de frango entre 2015 e 2019 IBGE rebanho de bovinos tinha 218 23 milhoes de cabecas em 2016 BeefPoint www beefpoint com br Brasil e o 3º maior produtor de leite do mundo superando o padrao Europeu em alguns municipios Archived from the original on 17 September 2020 Retrieved 4 December 2020 Formigoni Ivan 23 July 2019 Principais paises produtores de carne suina entre 2017 e 2019 FAOSTAT www fao org FAOSTAT www fao org Manufacturing value added current US Data data worldbank org Alimentos Processados A industria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual alimentosprocessados com br Faturamento da industria de alimentos cresceu 6 7 em 2019 G1 Industria de alimentos e bebidas faturou R 699 9 bi em 2019 Agencia Brasil 18 February 2020 Producao nacional de celulose cai 6 6 em 2019 aponta Iba Valor Economico Sabe qual e o estado brasileiro que mais produz Madeira 9 October 2017 Sao Mateus e o 6º maior produtor de madeira em tora para papel e celulose no pais diz IBGE G1 Industrias calcadistas em Franca SP registram queda de 40 nas vagas de trabalho em 6 anos G1 Digital Agencia Maya Criacao de Sites e Marketing Fenac Centro de Eventos e Negocios Producao de calcados deve crescer 3 em 2019 fenac com br Abicalcados apresenta Relatorio Setorial 2019 abicalcados com br Exportacao de Calcados Saiba mais 27 February 2020 Comercio Diario do 24 January 2020 Minas Gerais produz 32 3 do aco nacional em 2019 O novo mapa das montadoras que agora rumam para o interior do Pais 8 March 2019 Industria automobilistica do Sul do Rio impulsiona superavit na economia G1 Industria Quimica no Brasil PDF Estudo de 2018 PDF Producao nacional da industria de quimicos cai 5 7 em 2019 diz Abiquim economia uol com br Industria Textil no Brasil USGS Online Publications Directory pubs usgs gov Production statistics of USGS Silver PDF Copper production statistics for the USGS PDF Production statistics of USGS iron ore PDF Zinc production statistics from USGS PDF USGS Molybdenum Production Statistics PDF USGS lithium production statistics PDF a b USGS Lead Production Statistics PDF USGS Bauxite Production Statistics PDF USGS tin production statistics PDF Manganese production statistics from the USGS PDF USGS antimony production statistics PDF USGS Nickel Production Statistics PDF USGS Niobium Production Statistics PDF USGS rhenium production statistics PDF USGS iodine production statistics PDF ANM gov br Agencia Nacional de Mineracao Brasil extrai cerca de 2 gramas de ouro por habitante em 5 anos R7 com 29 June 2019 G1 gt Economia e Negocios NOTICIAS Votorantim Metais adquire reservas de zinco da Masa g1 globo com Niobio G1 visita em MG complexo industrial do maior produtor do mundo G1 Servico Geologico do Brasil cprm gov br Rio Grande do Sul o maior exportador de pedras preciosas do Brasil Band com br Copper production in 2019 by USGS PDF USGS Iodine Production Statistics PDF USGS Rhenium Production Statistics PDF a b USGS Lithium Production Statistics PDF a b USGS Molybdenum Production Statistics PDF a b c USGS Silver Production Statistics PDF USGS Salt Production Statistics PDF USGS Potash Product ion Statistics PDF USGS Sulfur Production Statistics PDF USGS Iron Ore Production Statistics PDF USGS Copper Production Statistics PDF a b USGS Gold Production Statistics PDF USGS Lead Production Statistics PDF USGS Zinc Production Statistics PDF USGS Tin Production Statistics PDF a b USGS Boron Production Statistics PDF USGS Silver Production Statistics PDF USGS Boron Production Statistics PDF USGS Antimony Production Statistics PDF USGS Tin Production Statistics PDF USGS Tungsten Production Statistics PDF USGS ZincProduction Statistics PDF 2 ANM Agencia Nacional de Mineracao BBC Brasil Noticias Regiao colombiana vive febre das esmeraldas www bbc com Colombia Gold Production 1990 2021 CEIC Data www ceicdata com Colombia Silver Production 1990 2021 CEIC Data www ceicdata com Campbell Keith The state of mining in South America an overview Mining Weekly Retrieved 1 March 2021 ANM Agencia Nacional de Mineracao a b International U S Energy Information Administration EIA www eia gov International U S Energy Information Administration EIA www eia gov a b Producao de petroleo e gas no Brasil ultrapassa 4 milhoes de boe d pela primeira vez anp gov br a b Statistical Review of World Energy Energy economics Home bp global Latin amp South America Tourism Statistics amp Visitor Numbers Bigtravelweb com 13 October 2008 Retrieved 21 May 2012 Juan Luis Eugenio Martin Noelia Martin Morales Riccardo Scarpa February 2004 Tourism and Economic Growth in Latin American Countries A Panel Data Approach FEEM Working Paper No 26 2004 Top attractions Gosouthamerica about com 4 December 2007 Retrieved 18 April 2009 South America Destination South America vipbackpackers com 2005 Archived from the original on 4 August 2008 Guayasamin el pintor ecuatoriano que retrato los sufrimientos latinoamericanos Andes Agencia de Noticias Fenando Botero Sala de Exposciones Bilbao Museo de Bellas Artes de Bilbao Carlos Cruz Diez redefines colour with new work Wallpaper 29 December 2015 Museo de Bellas Artes de Chile PDF Museo de Bellas Artes Oda Marin Loreto 11 June 2014 Pintor Guillermo Lorca para un artista el miedo a que ignoren tu obra es terrible Life style in Spanish America Economia Las esculturas de Teddy Cobena las favoritas del publico Europa Press 19 December 2016 Retrieved 22 April 2017 Teddy Cobena lleva sus esculturas a Paris El Universo Retrieved 22 April 2017 Las esculturas de Teddy Cobena las favoritas en Francia EFE 19 December 2016 Adrian Villar Rojas o como convertir las ruinas en un exito planetario La Nacion Tiempo ficcion de Adrian Villar Rojas El Cultural 14 January 2016 a, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.