fbpx
Wikipedia

South Asia

South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geographical and ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Topographically, it is dominated by the Indian Plate and defined largely by the Indian Ocean on the south, and the Himalayas, Karakoram, and Pamir mountains on the north. The Amu Darya, which rises north of the Hindu Kush, forms part of the northwestern border. On land (clockwise), South Asia is bounded by Western Asia, Central Asia, East Asia, and Southeast Asia.

South Asia
Area5,134,641 km2 (1,982,496 sq mi)
Population1.94 billion (2020)
Population density362.3/km2 (938/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$12.752 trillion (2018)
GDP (nominal)$3.326 trillion (2020)
GDP per capita$1,707 (nominal)
HDI0.642 (medium)
Ethnic groupsIndo-Aryan, Iranian, Dravidian, Sino-Tibetan, Austroasiatic, Turkic etc.
ReligionsHinduism, Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Sikhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Irreligion
DemonymSouth Asian
Countries
DependenciesBritish Indian Ocean Territory
Languages
Time zones
Internet TLD.af, .bd, .bt, .in, .io, .lk, .mv, .np, .pk
Calling codeZone 8 & 9
Largest cities
UN M49 code034 – Southern Asia
142Asia
001World

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is an economic cooperation organisation in the region which was established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia. South Asia covers about 5.2 million km2 (2.0 million sq mi), which is 11.71% of the Asian continent or 3.5% of the world's land surface area. The population of South Asia is about 1.891 billion or about one-fourth of the world's population, making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. Overall, it accounts for about 39.49% of Asia's population, over 24% of the world's population, and is home to a vast array of people.

In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest populations of Hindus, Muslims, Sikhs, Jains and Zoroastrians. South Asia alone accounts for 98.47% of Hindus, 90.5% of Sikhs, and 31% of Muslims worldwide, as well as 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists.

Contents

See also: Indology
Various definitions of South Asia, including the definition by UNSD which was created for "statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories."

Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and Maldives as the constituent countries. Afghanistan is, however, considered by some to be a part of Central Asia, Western Asia, or the Middle East. After the Second Anglo-Afghan War, it was a British protectorate until 1919. On the other hand, Myanmar (formerly Burma), administered as part of the British Raj between 1886 and 1937 and now largely considered a part of Southeast Asia as a member state of ASEAN, is also sometimes included. But the Aden Colony, British Somaliland and Singapore, though administered at various times under the British Raj, have never been proposed as any part of South Asia. The region may also include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin, which was part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang but also claimed by India.

However, the total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical. Beyond the core territories of the British Raj or the British Indian Empire, there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia. The confusion existed also because of the lack of a clear boundary – geographically, geopolitical, socio-culturally, economically or historically – between South Asia and other parts of Asia, especially the Middle East and Southeast Asia.

The common definition of South Asia is largely inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj, with several exceptions. The current territories of Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan which were the core territories of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947 also form the core territories of South Asia. The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan, two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj, and the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are generally included. By various definitions based on substantially different reasons, the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well. The 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the British Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining India or Pakistan.

United Nations cartographic map of South Asia. However, the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries.

The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), a contiguous block of countries, started in 1985 with seven countries – Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka – and admitted Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007. China and Myanmar have also applied for the status of full members of SAARC. The South Asia Free Trade Agreement admitted Afghanistan in 2011.

The World Bank and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) recognizes the eight SAARC countries as South Asia, The Hirschman–Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region excludes Afghanistan from South Asia. Population Information Network (POPIN) excludes Maldives which is included as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network. The United Nations Statistics Division's scheme of sub-regions, for statistical purpose, includes Iran along with all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia.

The boundaries of South Asia vary based on how the region is defined. South Asia's northern, eastern, and western boundaries vary based on definitions used, while the Indian Ocean is the southern periphery. Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by mountain barriers. Much of the region consists of a peninsula in south-central Asia, rather resembling a diamond which is delineated by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Kush in the west, and the Arakanese in the east, and which extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast.

While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region, it has a distinct geographical identity

The terms "Indian subcontinent" and "South Asia" are sometimes used interchangeably. The Indian subcontinent is largely a geological term referring to the land mass that drifted northeastwards from ancient Gondwana, colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago, towards the end of Palaeocene. This geological region largely includes Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Historians Catherine Asher and Cynthia Talbot state that the term "Indian subcontinent" describes a natural physical landmass in South Asia that has been relatively isolated from the rest of Eurasia.

The use of the term Indian subcontinent began in the British Empire, and has been a term particularly common in its successors. South Asia as the preferred term is particularly common when scholars or officials seek to differentiate this region from East Asia. According to historians Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal, the Indian subcontinent has come to be known as South Asia "in more recent and neutral parlance." This "neutral" notion refers to the concerns of Pakistan and Bangladesh, particularly given the recurring conflicts between India and Pakistan, wherein the dominant placement of "India" as a prefix before the subcontinent might offend some political sentiments. However, in Pakistan, the term "South Asia" is considered too India-centric and was banned until 1989 after the death of Zia ul Haq. This region has also been labelled as "India" (in its classical and pre-modern sense) and "Greater India".

According to Robert M. Cutler – a scholar of Political Science at Carleton University, the terms South Asia, Southwest Asia, and Central Asia are distinct, but the confusion and disagreements have arisen due to the geopolitical movement to enlarge these regions into Greater South Asia, Greater Southwest Asia, and Greater Central Asia. The frontier of Greater South Asia, states Cutler, between 2001 and 2006 has been geopolitically extended to eastern Iran and western Afghanistan in the west, and in the north to northeastern Iran, northern Afghanistan, and southern Uzbekistan.

The definitions are also varied across South Asian Study programmes. The Centre for South Asian Studies at the University of Cambridge was established, in 1964, it promoted the study of India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, the Himalayan Kingdoms (Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim), and Burma (now Myanmar). It has since included Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Indonesia, the Philippines and Hong Kong. The Centres for South Asian Studies at both the University of Michigan and the University of Virginia include Tibet along with the eight members of SAARC in their research programs, but exclude the Maldives. The South Asian Studies Program of Rutgers University and the University of California, Berkeley Centre for South Asia Studies also include the Maldives.

The South Asian Studies Program of Brandeis University defines the region as comprising "India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and in certain contexts Afghanistan, Burma, Maldives and Tibet". The similar program of Columbia University includes Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka in their study and excludes Burma. In the past, a lack of a coherent definition for South Asia resulted in a lack of academic studies, along with a lack of interest for such studies. Identification with a South Asian identity was also found to be significantly low among respondents in an older two-year survey across Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka.

Pre-history

The history of core South Asia begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens, as long as 75,000 years ago, or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500,000 years ago. The earliest prehistoric culture have roots in the mesolithic sites as evidenced by the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters dating to a period of 30,000 BCE or older, as well as neolithic times.

Ancient era

Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600-1900 BCE, the mature phase

The Indus Valley Civilization, which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of South Asia from c. 3300 to 1300 BCE in present-day Northern India, Pakistan and Afghanistan, was the first major civilization in South Asia. A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period, from 2600 to 1900 BCE. According to anthropologist Possehl, the Indus Valley Civilization provides a logical, if somewhat arbitrary, starting point for South Asian religions, but these links from the Indus religion to later-day South Asian traditions are subject to scholarly dispute.

The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism, typically Brahma the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Shiva the destroyer

The Vedic period, named after the Vedic religion of the Indo-Aryans, lasted from c. 1900 to 500 BCE. The Indo-Aryans were pastoralists who migrated into north-western India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization, Linguistic and archaeological data show a cultural change after 1500 BCE, with the linguistic and religious data clearly showing links with Indo-European languages and religion. By about 1200 BCE, the Vedic culture and agrarian lifestyle was established in the northwest and northern Gangetic plain of South Asia. Rudimentary state-forms appeared, of which the Kuru-Pañcāla union was the most influential. The first recorded state-level society in South Asia existed around 1000 BCE. In this period, states Samuel, emerged the Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of Vedic texts, which merged into the earliest Upanishads. These texts began to ask the meaning of a ritual, adding increasing levels of philosophical and metaphysical speculation, or "Hindu synthesis".

Increasing urbanisation of India between 800 and 400 BCE, and possibly the spread of urban diseases, contributed to the rise of ascetic movements and of new ideas which challenged the orthodox Brahmanism.[failed verification] These ideas led to Sramana movements, of which Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), proponent of Jainism, and Buddha (c. 563–483), founder of Buddhism, were the most prominent icons.

The Greek army led by Alexander the Great stayed in the Hindu Kush region of South Asia for several years and then later moved into the Indus valley region. Later, the Maurya Empire extended over much of South Asia in the 3rd century BCE. Buddhism spread beyond south Asia, through northwest into Central Asia. The Bamiyan Buddhas of Afghanistan and the edicts of Aśoka suggest that the Buddhist monks spread Buddhism (Dharma) in eastern provinces of the Seleucid Empire, and possibly even farther into Western Asia. The Theravada school spread south from India in the 3rd century BCE, to Sri Lanka, later to Southeast Asia. Buddhism, by the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE, was prominent in the Himalayan region, Gandhara, Hindu Kush region and Bactria.

From about 500 BCE through about 300 CE, the Vedic-Brahmanic synthesis or "Hindu synthesis" continued. Classical Hindu and Sramanic (particularly Buddhist) ideas spread within South Asia, as well outside South Asia. The Gupta Empire ruled over a large part of the region between 4th and 7th centuries, a period that saw the construction of major temples, monasteries and universities such as the Nalanda. During this era, and through the 10th century, numerous cave monasteries and temples such as the Ajanta Caves, Badami cave temples and Ellora Caves were built in South Asia.

Medieval era

Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty

Islam came as a political power in the fringe of South Asia in 8th century CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh, and Multan in Southern Punjab, in modern-day Pakistan. By 962 CE, Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia. Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni, who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030. Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time, only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab.

Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi, Nasir-u Din Mehmud, in the winter of 1397–1398

The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni, plundering and looting these kingdoms. The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms. The Ghurid Sultan Mu'izz al-Din Muhammad began a systematic war of expansion into North India in 1173. He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world. Mu'izz sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river, and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom that became the Delhi Sultanate. Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Mu'izz al-Din in South Asia by that time.

The Delhi Sultanate covered varying parts of South Asia and was ruled by a series of dynasties, called Mamluk, Khalji, Tughlaq, Sayyid and Lodi dynasties. Muhammad bin Tughlaq came to power in 1325, launched a war of expansion and the Delhi Sultanate reached it largest geographical reach over the South Asian region during his 26-year rule. A Sunni Sultan, Muhammad bin Tughlaq persecuted non-Muslims such as Hindus, as well as non-Sunni Muslims such as Shia and Mahdi sects.

Revolts against the Delhi Sultanate sprang up in many parts of South Asia during the 14th century. After the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq, the Bengal Sultanate came to power in 1352 CE, as the Delhi Sultanate began disintegrating. The Bengal Sultanate remained in power through the early 16th century. It was reconquered by the armies of the Mughal Empire. The state religion of the Bengal Sultanate was Islam, and the region under its rule, a region that ultimately emerged as the modern nation of Bangladesh, saw a growth of a syncretic form of Islam. In the Deccan region, the Hindu kingdom Vijayanagara Empire came to power in 1336 and remained in power through the 16th century, after which it too was reconquered and absorbed into the Mughal Empire.

About 1526, the Punjab governor Dawlat Khan Lodī reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate. Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526. The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate, and the Mughal Empire replaced it.

Modern era

Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court, 1650

The modern history period of South Asia, that is 16th-century onwards, witnessed the start of the Central Asian dynasty named the Mughals, with Turkish-Mongol roots and Sunni Islam theology. The first ruler was Babur, whose empire extended the northwest and Indo-Gangetic Plain regions of South Asia. The Deccan and northeastern region of South Asia was largely under Hindu kings such as those of Vijayanagara Empire and Ahom kingdom, with some regions such as parts of modern Telangana and Andhra Pradesh under local Sultanates such as the Shia Islamic rulers of Golconda Sultanate.

The Mughal Empire continued its wars of expansion after Babur's death. With the fall of the Rajput kingdoms and Vijayanagara, its boundaries encompassed almost the entirety of the Indian subcontinent. The Mughal Empire was marked by a period of artistic exchanges and a Central Asian and South Asian architecture synthesis, with remarkable buildings such as the Taj Mahal. At its height, the empire was the world's largest economy, worth almost 25% of global GDP, more than the entirety of Western Europe.

However, this time also marked an extended period of religious persecution. Two of the religious leaders of Sikhism, Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur were arrested under orders of the Mughal emperors and were asked to convert to Islam, and were executed when they refused. Religious taxes on non-Muslims called jizya were imposed. Buddhist, Hindu and Sikh temples were desecrated. However, not all Muslim rulers persecuted non-Muslims. Akbar, a Mughal ruler for example, sought religious tolerance and abolished jizya.

British Indian Empire in 1909. British India is shaded pink, the princely states yellow.

In Aurangzeb's time, almost all of South Asia was claimed by the Mughal Empire. Under Aurangzeb's rule, South Asia reached its zenith, becoming the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, estimated over 25% of world GDP, a value higher than China's and entire Western Europe's one. The economic developments on South Asia waved the period of proto-industrialization.

After the death of Aurangzeb and the collapse of the Mughal Empire, which marks the beginning of modern India, in the early 18th century, it provided opportunities for the Marathas, Sikhs, Mysoreans and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent.

Maritime trading between South Asia and European merchants began after the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama returned to Europe. British, French, Portuguese colonial interests struck treaties with these rulers and established their trading ports. In northwest South Asia, a large region was consolidated into the Sikh Empire by Ranjit Singh. After the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal and Tipu Sultan and his French allies, the British Empire expanded their interests till the Hindu Kush region.

Contemporary era

In 1905, the Government of India initiated the partition of Bengal, a decision which was eventually reversed after Indian opposition. However, during the partition of India, Bengal was partitioned into East Bengal (Pakistan) and West Bengal (India). East Bengal became the People's Republic of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971.

According to Saul Cohen, early colonial era strategists treated South Asia with East Asia, but in reality, the South Asia region excluding Afghanistan is a distinct geopolitical region separated from other nearby geostrategic realms, one that is geographically diverse. The region is home to a variety of geographical features, such as glaciers, rainforests, valleys, deserts, and grasslands that are typical of much larger continents. It is surrounded by three water bodies – the Bay of Bengal, the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea – and has acutely varied climate zones. The tip of the Indian Peninsula had the highest quality pearls.

Indian plate

Main article: Indian plate

Most of this region is resting on the Indian Plate, the northerly portion of the Indo-Australian Plate, separated from the rest of the Eurasian Plate. The Indian Plate includes most of South Asia, forming a land mass which extends from the Himalayas into a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean, including parts of South China and Eastern Indonesia, as well as Kunlun and Karakoram ranges, and extending up to but not including Ladakh, Kohistan, the Hindu Kush range and Balochistan. It may be noted that geophysically the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet is situated at the outside of the border of the regional structure, while the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan are situated inside that border.

The Indian subcontinent formerly formed part of the supercontinent Gondwana, before rifting away during the Cretaceous period and colliding with the Eurasian Plate about 50–55 million years ago and giving birth to the Himalayan range and the Tibetan plateau. It is the peninsular region south of the Himalayas and Kuen Lun mountain ranges and east of the Indus River and the Iranian Plateau, extending southward into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea (to the southwest) and the Bay of Bengal (to the southeast).

Climate

The climate of this vast region varies considerably from area to area from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north. The variety is influenced by not only the altitude but also by factors such as proximity to the seacoast and the seasonal impact of the monsoons. Southern parts are mostly hot in summers and receive rain during monsoon periods. The northern belt of Indo-Gangetic plains also is hot in summer, but cooler in winter. The mountainous north is colder and receives snowfall at higher altitudes of Himalayan ranges.

As the Himalayas block the north-Asian bitter cold winds, the temperatures are considerably moderate in the plains down below. For the most part, the climate of the region is called the Monsoon climate, which keeps the region humid during summer and dry during winter, and favours the cultivation of jute, tea, rice, and various vegetables in this region.

South Asia is largely divided into four broad climate zones:

Maximum relative humidity of over 80% has been recorded in Khasi and Jaintia Hills and Sri Lanka, while the area adjustment to Pakistan and western India records lower than 20%–30%. Climate of South Asia is largely characterized by monsoons. South Asia depends critically on monsoon rainfall. Two monsoon systems exist in the region:

  • The summer monsoon: Wind blows from the southwest to most parts of the region. It accounts for 70%–90% of the annual precipitation.
  • The winter monsoon: Wind blows from the northeast. Dominant in Sri Lanka and Maldives.

The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season (March to mid June). In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus-Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center. The monsoons are the second coolest season of the year because of high humidity and cloud covering. But, at the beginning of June, the jetstreams vanish above the Tibetan Plateau, low pressure over the Indus Valley deepens and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) moves in. The change is violent. Moderately vigorous monsoon depressions form in the Bay of Bengal and make landfall from June to September.

Climate change in South Asia is causing a range of challenges including sea level rise, cyclonic activity, and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns.

Land and water area

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states (including uninhabited territories), but does not include claims on Antarctica. EEZ+TIA is exclusive economic zone (EEZ) plus total internal area (TIA) which includes land and internal waters.

Country Area EEZ Shelf EEZ+TIA
Afghanistan 652,864 0 0 652,864
Bangladesh 148,460 86,392 66,438 230,390
Bhutan 38,394 0 0 38,394
India 3,287,263 2,305,143 402,996 5,592,406
Nepal 147,181 0 0 147,181
Maldives 298 923,322 34,538 923,622
Pakistan 881,913 290,000 51,383 1,117,911
Sri Lanka 65,610 532,619 32,453 598,229
Total 5,221,093 4,137,476 587,808 9,300,997

Population

The population of South Asia is about 1.749 billion which makes it the most populated region in the world. It is socially very mixed, consisting of many language groups and religions, and social practices in one region that are vastly different from those in another.

Country Population in thousands

(2019) (%Share)

Density (per km2) % of world Population growth rate Population projection (in thousands)
2005-10 2010-15 2015-20 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100
Afghanistan 38,042 (2.07%) 46 0.420% 2.78 3.16 2.41 7,752 12,689 20,779 43,531 64,682 76,199 75,974
Bangladesh 163,046 (8.88%) 1106.8 2.17% 1.18 1.16 1.04 37,895 70,066 127,658 170,937 192,568 181,282 151,393
Bhutan 763 (0.04%) 165.8 0.00957% 2.05 1.58 1.18 177 348 591 811 905 845 686
India 1,366,418 (74.45%) 138.3 17.5% 1.46 1.23 1.10 376,325 623,103 1,056,576 1,445,012 1,639,176 1,609,041 1,450,421
Maldives 531 (0.03%) 225 0.00490% 2.68 2.76 1.85 74 136 279 522 586 564 490
Nepal 28,609 (1.56%) 781.8 0.383% 1.05 1.17 1.09 8,483 13,420 23,941 31,757 35,324 31,818 23,708
Pakistan 216,565 (11.8%) 1,104.8 2.82% 2.05 2.09 1.91 37,542 66,817 142,344 242,234 338,013 394,265 403,103
Sri Lanka 21,324 (1.62%) 194.4 0.279% 0.68 0.50 0.35 7,971 13,755 18,778 21,780 21,814 19,194 15,275
South Asia 1,835,297 (100%) 357.4 23.586% - - - 476,220 800,335 1,390,946 1,958,046 2,293,069 2,313,208 2,120,014
Population of South Asian countries in 1950, 1975, 2000, 2025, 2050, 2075 and 2100 projection from the United Nations has been displayed in table. The given population projections are based on medium fertility index. With India and Bangladesh approaching replacement rates fast, population growth in South Asia is facing steep decline and may turn negative in mid 21st century.

Languages

Ethno-linguistic distribution map of South Asia

There are numerous languages in South Asia. The spoken languages of the region are largely based on geography and shared across religious boundaries, but the written script is sharply divided by religious boundaries. In particular, Muslims of South Asia such as in Afghanistan and Pakistan use the Arabic alphabet and Persian Nastaliq. Till 1952, Muslim-majority Bangladesh (then known as East Pakistan) also mandated only the Nastaliq script, but after that adopted regional scripts and particularly Bengali, after the Language Movement for the adoption of Bengali as the official language of the then East Pakistan. Non-Muslims of South Asia, and some Muslims in India, on the other hand, use their traditional ancient heritage scripts such as those derived from Brahmi script for Indo-European languages and non-Brahmi scripts for Dravidian languages and others.

The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts. The Devanagari script is used for over 120 South Asian languages, including Hindi, Marathi, Nepali, Pali, Konkani, Bodo, Sindhi and Maithili among other languages and dialects, making it one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world. The Devanagari script is also used for classical Sanskrit texts.

The largest spoken language in this region is Hindustani language, followed by Bengali, Telugu, Tamil, Marathi, Gujarati, Kannada, and Punjabi. In the modern era, new syncretic languages developed in the region such as Urdu that are used by the Muslim community of northern South Asia (particularly Pakistan and northern states of India). The Punjabi language spans three religions: Islam, Hinduism, and Sikhism. The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts. The Sikh use Gurmukhi alphabet, Muslim Punjabis in Pakistan use the Nastaliq script, while Hindu Punjabis in India use the Gurmukhi or Nāgarī script. The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure, but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different.

English, with British spelling, is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia.

Religions

Worldwide Importance of Religion, 2015

In 2010, South Asia had the world's largest population of Hindus, Jains and Sikhs, about 510 million Muslims, as well as over 25 million Buddhists and 35 million Christians. Hindus make up about 68 percent or about 900 million and Muslims at 31 percent or 510 million of the overall South Asia population, while Buddhists, Jains, Christians and Sikhs constitute most of the rest. The Hindus, Buddhists, Jains, Sikhs and Christians are concentrated in India, Nepal, Sri Lanka and Bhutan, while the Muslims are concentrated in Afghanistan (99%), Bangladesh (90%), Pakistan (96%) and Maldives (100%).

Indian religions are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism. The Indian religions are distinct yet share terminology, concepts, goals and ideas, and from South Asia spread into East Asia and southeast Asia. Early Christianity and Islam were introduced into coastal regions of South Asia by merchants who settled among the local populations. Later Sindh, Balochistan, and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia. Subsequently, under the influence of Muslim rulers of the Islamic sultanates and the Mughal Empire, Islam spread in South Asia. About one-third of the world's Muslims are from South Asia.

Religion in British India in the 1871-1872 Census (data includes modern-day India, Bangladesh, most of Pakistan (including Sindh, Punjab, and Balochistan), Kashmir, and coastal Myanmar))

Hinduism (73.07%)
Islam (21.45%)
Sikhism (0.62%)
Christianity (0.47%)
Others (2.68%)
Religion not known (0.22%)
Country State religion Religious population as a percentage of total population
Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Kiratism Sikhism Others Year reported
Afghanistan Islam - - - 99.7% - - 0.3% 2019
Bangladesh Islam 0.6% 0.4% 9.5% 89.5% - - - 2011
Bhutan Vajrayana Buddhism 74.8% 0.5% 22.6% 0.1% - - 2% 2010
India None 0.7% 2.3% 79.8% 14.2% - 1.7% 1.3% 2011
Maldives Sunni Islam - - - 100% - - -
Nepal None 9% 1.3% 81.3% 4.4% 3% - 0.8% 2013
Pakistan Islam - 1.59% 1.85% 96.28% - - 0.07% 2010
Sri Lanka Theravada Buddhism 70.2% 6.2% 12.6% 9.7% - - 1.4% 2011

Largest urban areas

South Asia is home to some of the most populated urban areas in the world. According to the 2020 edition of Demographia World Urban Areas, the region contains 8 of the world's 35 megacities (urban areas over 10 million population):

Rank Urban Area State/Province Country Population Area (km2) Density (/km2)
1 Delhi National Capital Region India 29,617,000 2,232 13,266
2 Mumbai Maharashtra India 23,355,000 944 24,773
3 Kolkata West Bengal India 17,560,000 1,351 12,988
4 Dhaka Dhaka Division Bangladesh 21,741,000 2161.17 10,060
5 Karachi Sindh Pakistan 14,835,000 1,044 14,213
6 Bangalore Karnataka India 13,707,000 1,205 11,381
7 Chennai Tamil Nadu India 11,324,000 1,049 10,795
8 Lahore Punjab Pakistan 11,021,000 853 12,934

Sports

Main category: Sport in South Asia

Cricket is the most popular sport in South Asia, with 90% of the sport's fans in the Indian subcontinent.

Countries under the South Asian Free Trade Area

India is the largest economy in the region (US$2.957 trillion) and makes up almost 80% of the South Asian economy; it is the world's 5th largest in nominal terms and 3rd largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates (US$10.385 trillion). India is the only member of powerful G-20 major economies and BRICS from the region. It is the fastest-growing major economy in the world and one of the world's fastest registering a growth of 7.3% in FY 2014–15.

India is followed by Bangladesh, which has a GDP of ($378.656 billion) and a GDP per capita of $2214, which is 3rd in the region. It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia. It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also listed among the Next Eleven countries. It is also one of the fastest-growing middle-income countries. It has the world's 33rd largest GDP in nominal terms and is the 27th largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates ($1.015 trillion). Bangladesh's economic growth crossed 7% in fiscal 2015–2016 after almost a decade in holding a growth rate of 6%, and is expected to grow by 8.13% in 2019–2020. Pakistan has an economy of ($314 billion) and ranks 5th in GDP per capita in the region. Next is Sri Lanka, which has the 2nd highest GDP per capita and the 4th largest economy in the region. According to a World Bank report in 2015, driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices, from the last quarter of 2014 South Asia became the fastest-growing region in the world

Country
GDP Inflation

(2017)

HDI
Nominal GDP
(in millions) (2019) (%Share)
GDP per capita

(2019)

GDP (PPP)
(in millions) (2019) (%Share)
GDP (PPP) per capita (2019) GDP growth

(2017)

HDI

(2018)

Inequality-adjusted HDI (2019)
Afghanistan $18,734 (0.51%) $513 $76,714 (0.55%) $2,101 3% 6% 0.511 (low) No data
Bangladesh $318,465 (8.93%) $2,104 $1,029,270 (9.00%) $4,992 4.5% 5.44% 0.632 (medium) 0.465 (low)
Bhutan $2,842 (0.08%) $3,423 $9,310 (0.066%) $10,193 5.9% 4.1% 0.654 (medium) 0.450 (low)
India $2,835,570 (77.16%) $2,172 $9,092,697 (76.68%) $7,584 7.0% 4.8% 0.645 (medium) 0.538 (low)
Maldives $5,786 (0.16%) $15,563 $6,708 (0.048%) $21,320 4.1% 2.5% 0.740 (high) 0.568 (medium)
Nepal $29,813 (0.81%) $1,048 $87,472 (0.62%) $2,984 7.7% 6.2% 0.602 (medium) 0.430 (low)
Pakistan $314,214 (8.76%) $1,568 $1,125,663 (11.82%) $5,839 2.1% 4.3% 0.557 (medium) 0.386 (low)
Sri Lanka $86,566 (2.36%) $3,947 $319,791 (2.28%) $14,680 3.0% 5.8% 0.782 (high) 0.686 (medium)
South Asia $3,562,255 (100%) $2,064 $14,001, 625 (100%) $7,629 - - 0.640 (medium) -

According to the World Bank's 2011 report, based on 2005 ICP PPP, about 24.6% of the South Asian population falls below the international poverty line of $1.25/day. Afghanistan and Bangladesh rank the highest, with 30.6% and 43.3% of their respective populations below the poverty line. Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2.4%, 1.5% and 4.1% respectively. India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between 2008 and 2011, with around 140 million being raised from the poverty line. As of 2011, 21.9% of India's population lives below the poverty line, compared to 41.6% in 2005.

Country
Population below poverty line (at $1.9/day) Population under-nourished (2015) Life expectancy (2018) (global rank) Global wealth report (2019)
World Bank (year) Multidimensional Poverty Index (2017) Population in Extreme poverty (2017) CIA Factbook (2015) Total national wealth in billion USD (global rank) Wealth per adult in USD Median wealth per adult in USD (golabl rank)
Afghanistan 54.5% (2016) 55.9% 24.9% 35.8% 26.8% 64.5 (151st) 25 (116th) 1,463 640 (156th)
Bangladesh 24.3% (2016) 41.7% 16.7% 7.5% 16.4% 72.3 (108th) 697 (44th) 6,643 2,787 (117th)
Bhutan 8.2% (2017) 37.3% 14.7% 12% No data 71.5 (115th) No Data No Data No Data
India 21.9% (2011) 27.9% 8.8% 21.2% 15.2% 69.4 (130th) 12,614 (7th) 14,569 3,042 (115th)
Maldives 8.2% (2016) 0.8% 0.0% 16% 5.2% No data 7 (142nd) 23,297 8,555 (74th)
Nepal 25.2% (2010) 34% 11.6% 25.2% 7.8% 70.5 (124th) 68 (94th) 3,870 1,510 (136th)
Pakistan 24.3% (2015) 38.3% 21.5% 24.3% 22% 67.1 (140th) 465 (49th) 4,096 1,766 (128th)
Sri Lanka 4.1% (2016) No data No data 8.9% 22% 76.8 (56th) 297 (60th) 20,628 8,283 (77th)

The major stock exchanges in the region are Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) with market Capitalization of $2.298 trillion (11th largest in the world), National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) with market capitalization of $2.273 trillion (12th largest in the world), Dhaka Stock Exchange (DSE), Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE), and Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSX) with market capitalization of $72 billion. Economic data is sourced from the International Monetary Fund, current as of April 2017, and is given in US dollars.

Durbar High School, oldest secondary school of Nepal, established in 1854 CE
Lower class school in Sri Lanka
College of Natural Resources, Royal University of Bhutan

One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region, complicating any attempt to compare between countries. In 2018, 11.3 million children at the primary level and 20.6 million children at the lower secondary level were out-of-school in South Asia, while millions of children completed primary education without mastering the foundational skills of basic numeracy and literacy.

According to UNESCO, 241 million children between six and fourteen years or 81 percent of the total were not learning in Southern and Central Asia in 2017. Only sub-Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning. Two-thirds of these children were in school, sitting in classrooms. Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics. According to a citizen-led assessment, only 48% in Indian public schools and 46% of children in Pakistan public schools could read a class two level text by the time they reached class five. This poor quality of education in turn has contributed to the some of the highest drop-out rates in the world. While over half of the students complete secondary school with acquiring requisite skills.

In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination. Different South Asian countries have different education structures. While by 2018 India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems, Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system, and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system. In most South Asian countries children's education is theoretically free; the exceptions being the Maldives, where there is no constitutionally guaranteed free education, as well as Bhutan and Nepal where fees are charged by primary schools. But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands, including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system.

The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools. Their capacity to deliver inclusive and equitable quality education is limited by low levels of public finance for education, while the smaller emerging middle-income countries like Sri Lanka, Maldives and Bhutan have been able to achieve universal primary school completion, and are in a better position to focus on quality of education.

Children's education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services. Afghanistan and India are among the top ten countries with the highest number of reported disasters due to natural hazards and conflict. The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale.

According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region, while UNESCO estimated in 2005 that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education. Between 1900 and 2005, most of the countries in the region had shown progress in girls' education with Sri Lanka and the Maldives significantly ahead of the others, while the gender gap in education has widened in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Bangladesh made the greatest progress in the region in the period increasing girls’ secondary school enrolment from 13 percent to 56 percent in ten years.

With about 21 million students in 700 universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in 2011, accounting for 86 percent of all higher-level students in South Asia. Bangladesh (two million) and Pakistan (1.8 million) stood at distant second and third positions in the region. In Nepal (390 thousand) and Sri Lanka (230 thousand) the numbers were much smaller. Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about 7000 students in higher education in 2011. The gross enrolment ratio in 2011 ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.

Parameters Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
Primary School Enrollment 29% 90% 85% 92% 94% 96% 73% 98%
Secondary School Enrollment 49% 54% 78% 68% N/A 72% 38% 96%
Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI)

According to World Health Organization (WHO), South Asia is home to two out of the three countries in the world still affected by polio, Pakistan and Afghanistan, with 306 & 28 polio cases registered in 2014 respectively. Attempts to eradicate polio have been badly hit by opposition from militants in both countries, who say the program is cover to spy on their operations. Their attacks on immunization teams have claimed 78 lives since December 2012.

The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition. The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility, mortality, productivity, and economic growth.

A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah, Afghanistan

According to the World Bank, 70% of the South Asian population and about 75% of South Asia's poor live in rural areas and most rely on agriculture for their livelihood according to the UN's Food and Agricultural Organisation. In 2015, approximately 281 million people in the region were malnourished. The report says that Nepal reached both the WFS target as well as MDG and is moving towards bringing down the number of undernourished people to less than 5% of the population. Bangladesh reached the MDG target with the National Food Policy framework – with only 16.5% of the population undernourished. In India, the malnourished comprise just over 15 percent of the population. While the number of malnourished people in the neighborhood has shown a decline over the last 25 years, the number of under-nourished in Pakistan displays an upward trend. There were 28.7 million hungry in Pakistan in the 1990s – a number that has steadily increased to 41.3 million in 2015 with 22% of the population malnourished. Approximately 194.6 million people are undernourished in India, which accounts for the highest number of people suffering from hunger in any single country.

The 2006 report stated, "the low status of women in South Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinants of high prevalence of underweight children in the region". Corruption and the lack of initiative on the part of the government has been one of the major problems associated with nutrition in India. Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention. The report mentioned that although there has been a reduction in malnutrition due to the Green Revolution in South Asia, there is concern that South Asia has "inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children".

Systems of government

Country Capital Forms of government Head of state Head of government Legislature Official language Currency Coat of arms / National Emblems
Afghanistan Kabul Unitary Deobandi Islamic emirate
Head
House of Elders,

House of the People

Pashto, Dari ؋ Afghani
Bangladesh Dhaka Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister Jatiya Sangsad Bengali, English Taka
Bhutan Thimphu Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy King Prime Minister National Council,

National Assembly

Dzongkha Nu. Ngultrum
India New Delhi Federal parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister Rajya Sabha,

Lok Sabha

Hindi, English Indian rupee
Maldives Malé Unitary presidential constitutional republic
President
People's Majlis Maldivian ރ Rufiyaa
Nepal Kathmandu Federal parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister National Assembly,

House of Representatives

Nepali रु Nepalese rupee
Pakistan Islamabad Federal parliamentary Islamic republic President Prime Minister Senate,

National Assembly

Urdu, English Pakistani rupee
Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic President Prime Minister Parliament Sinhala, Tamil, English රු/ரூ Sri Lankan rupee

India is a secular federative parliamentary republic with premier as head of government. With most populous functional democracy in world and world's longest written constitution, India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in 1950 with no regime change except that by a democratic election. India's sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world's newer establishments. Since the formation of its republic abolishing British law, it has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press. India leads region in democracy index. It has a multi-party system in its internal regional politics whereas alternative transfer of powers to alliances of Indian left-wing and right-wing political parties in national government provide it with characteristics of a two-party state. India has been facing notable internal religious conflicts and separatism however consistently becoming more and more stable with time.

Foundation of Pakistan lies in Pakistan movement started in colonial India based on Islamic nationalism. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world's first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956. Pakistan's governance is one of the most conflicted in the world. The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan has become a concern for the South Asian region. Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers, none has been able to complete a full term in office. The nature of Pakistani politics can be characterized as a multi-party system. Pakistan's governance is one of the most conflicted in the region. The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region. In Nepal, the government has struggled to come in the side of democracy, and it only showed signs in the recent past, basically in the 21st century, to support the democratic system.

Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic. Law of Bangladesh defines it as both Islamic as well as secular. The nature of Bangladeshi politics can be characterized as a multi-party system. Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy. Bangladesh also stands out as one of the few Muslim-majority democracies. "It is a moderate and generally secular and tolerant — though sometimes this is getting stretched at the moment — alternative to violent extremism in a very troubled part of the world", said Dan Mozena, the U.S. ambassador to Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh's legal code is secular, more citizens are embracing a conservative version of Islam, with some pushing for sharia law, analysts say. Experts say that the rise in conservatism reflects the influence of foreign-financed Islamic charities and the more austere version of Islam brought home by migrant workers in Persian Gulf countries.

Afghanistan has been a unitary presidential Islamic republic since 2004. Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions, civil wars, revolutions and terrorist groups. Persisting instability for decades have left country's economy stagnated and torn and Afghanistan remains one of most poor and least developed countries on the planet, leading to the influx of Afghan refugees to neighboring countries like Iran.

The unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic of Sri Lanka is oldest sustained democracy in Asia. Tensions between Sinhalese and Tamils led to Sri Lankan civil war that undermined the country's stability for more than two and a half decades. Sri Lanka however, has been leading region in HDI with per capita GDP well ahead of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. The political situation in Sri Lanka has been dominated by an increasingly assertive Sinhalese nationalism, and the emergence of a Tamil separatist movement under LTTE, which was suppressed in May 2009.

Nepal was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in 2008. The country has been ranked among world's poorest in terms of GDP per capita but has made considerable progress in development indicators outpacing many other South Asian states.

Bhutan is a Buddhist state with a constitutional monarchy. The country has been ranked as the least corrupt and peaceful with most economic freedom in the region in 2016. Myanmar's politics is dominated by a military Junta, which has sidelined the democratic forces led by Aung San Suu Kyi. Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion.

Governance and stability
Parameters Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka
Fragile States Index 102.9 85.7 69.5 75.3 66.2 82.6 92.1 81.8
Corruption Perceptions Index (2019) (Global rank out of 179 countries) 16 (173rd) 26 (146th) 68 (25th) 41 (80th) 29 (130th) 34 (113th) 32 (120th) 38 (93rd)
The Worldwide Governance
Indicators (2015)
Government Effectiveness 8% 24% 68% 56% 41% 13% 27% 53%
Political stability and absence
of violence/terrorism
1% 11% 89% 17% 61% 16% 1% 47%
Rule of law 2% 27% 70% 56% 35% 27% 24% 60%
Voice and accountability 16% 31% 46% 61% 30% 33% 27% 36%

Regional politics

India has been dominant geopolitical power in the region and alone accounts for most part of the landmass, population, economy and military expenditure in the region. India is a major economy, member of G4, has world's third highest military budget and exerts strong cultural and political influence over the region. Sometimes referred as a great power or emerging superpower primarily attributed to its large and expanding economic and military abilities, India acts as fulcrum of South Asia.

Bangladesh, Pakistan and Sri Lanka are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics.

Partition of India in 1947, subsequent violence and territorial disputes left relations between India and Pakistan sour and very hostile and various confrontations and wars which largely shaped the politics of the region and led to the creation of Bangladesh. With Yugoslavia, India found Non-Aligned Movement but later entered an agreement with former Soviet Union following western support for Pakistan. Amid the Indo-Pakistani war of 1971, US sent its USS Enterprise to the Indian Ocean what was perceived as a nuclear threat by India. India's nuclear test in 1974 pushed Pakistan's nuclear program who conducted nuclear tests in Chagai-I in 1998, just 18 days after India's series of nuclear tests for thermonuclear weapons.

Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 accelerated efforts to form a union to restrengthen deteriorating regional security. After agreements, the union was finally established in Dhaka in December 1985. However, deterioration of India-Pakistan ties have led India to emphasize more on sub-regional groups SASEC and BBIN.

South Asia continues to remain least integrated region in the world. Meanwhile, in East Asia, regional trade accounts for 50% of total trade, it accounts for only a little more than 5% in South Asia.

Populism is a general characteristic of internal politics of India.

Regional groups of countries

Name of country/region, with flag Area
(km2)
Population Population density
(per km2)
Capital or Secretariat Currency Countries included Official languages Coat of Arms
Core Definition (above) of South Asia 5,220,460 1,726,907,000 330.79 N/A N/A Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka N/A N/A
UNSD of South Asia 6,778,083 1,702,000,000 270.77 N/A N/A Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Iran, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka N/A N/A
SAARC 4,637,469 1,626,000,000 350.6 Kathmandu N/A Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka English N/A
BBIN 3,499,559 1,465,236,000 418.69 N/A N/A Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal N/A N/A
SASEC 3,565,467 1,485,909,931 416.75 N/A N/A Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Maldives N/A N/A
  1. Among the top 100 urban areas of the world by population.
  2. Afghanistan is sometimes considered to be part of Central Asia. The Islamic Republic regarded Afghanistan as a link between Central Asia and South Asia.
  3. According to the UN cartographic section website disclaimers, "DESIGNATIONS USED: The depiction and use of boundaries, geographic names and related data shown on maps and included in lists, tables, documents, and databases on this web site are not warranted to be error free nor do they necessarily imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations."
  4. Doniger 2010, p. 66: "Much of what we now call Hinduism may have had roots in cultures that thrived in South Asia long before the creation of textual evidence that we can decipher with any confidence. Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c. 30,000 BCE in Bhimbetka, near present-day Bhopal, in the Vindhya Mountains in the province of Madhya Pradesh."
  5. Jones & Ryan 2006, p. xvii: "Some practices of Hinduism must have originated in Neolithic times (c. 4000 BCE). The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred, for instance, could very likely have very great antiquity. The worship of goddesses, too, a part of Hinduism today, maybe a feature that originated in the Neolithic."
  6. Michaels: "They called themselves arya ("Aryans," literally "the hospitable," from the Vedic arya, "homey, the hospitable") but even in the Rgveda, arya denotes a cultural and linguistic boundary and not only a racial one."

Citations

  1. "Overall total population"(xlsx). United Nations. Retrieved16 July 2019.
  2. "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". imf.org. IMF. Outlook Database, October 2018
  3. "World Economic Outlook Database". International Monetary Fund. October 2020. Retrieved10 November 2020.
  4. "Human Development Report 2019 – "Human Development Indices and Indicators""(PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. pp. 22–25. Retrieved10 December 2019.
  5. Saez 2012, p. 35.
  6. "Afghanistan". Regional and Country Profiles South Asia. Institute of Development Studies. Archived from the original on 20 May 2017. Retrieved28 February 2019.;
    "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings: Southern Asia". United Nations Statistics Division. Archived from the original on 17 April 2010. Retrieved31 January 2016.;
    Arnall, A (24 September 2010). "Adaptive Social Protection: Mapping the Evidence and Policy Context in the Agriculture Sector in South Asia". Institute of Development Studies (345). Archived from the original on 15 June 2016. Retrieved31 January 2016.;
    "The World Bank". Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.;
    "Institute of Development Studies: Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved28 February 2019.;
    "Harvard South Asia Institute: "Afghanistan"". Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.;
    "Afghanistan". BBC News. 31 January 2018. Archived from the original on 29 July 2018. Retrieved21 July 2018.;
    "The Brookings Institution". 30 November 2001. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.;
    "South Asia". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved4 March 2015.
  7. SAARC Summit. "SAARC". SAARC Summit. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved17 December 2013.
  8. "South Asia Regional Overview". South Asian Regional Development Gateway. Archived from the original on 21 November 2008.
  9. Desai, Praful B. (2002). "Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent". Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 32 (Supplement 1): S13–S16. doi:10.1093/jjco/hye139. PMID 11959872. Archived from the original(PDF) on 23 February 2021. The Indian subcontinent in South Asia occupies 2.4% of the world landmass and is home to 16.5% of the world population....
  10. "Asia" > Overview Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The Indian subcontinent is home to a vast diversity of peoples, most of whom speak languages from the Indo-Aryan subgroup of the Indo-European family."
  11. "Indian Subcontinent Archived 21 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine". Encyclopedia of Modern Asia. Macmillan Reference USA (Gale Group), 2006: "The area is divided between five major nation-states, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka, and includes as well the two small nations of Bhutan and the Maldives Republic... The total area can be estimated at 4.4 million square kilometres or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia... In 2000, the total population was about 22 percent of the world's population and 34 percent of the population of Asia."
  12. Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The. "How South Asia Will Save Global Islam". The Diplomat. Retrieved7 February 2017.
  13. "Religion population totals in 2010 by Country". Pew Research Center. 2012. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016.
  14. Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 193. ISBN 978-0-415-44851-2.
  15. "Region: Asia-Pacific". Pew Research Center. 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved13 March 2016.
  16. "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 4 May 2017. Retrieved7 February 2017.
  17. "Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use". Millenniumindicators.un.org. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved25 August 2012. Quote: "The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories by the United Nations."
  18. "Afghanistan Country Profile". BBC News. Archived from the original on 29 July 2018. Retrieved21 July 2018.
  19. "The Brookings Institution". 30 November 2001. Archived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  20. "CIA "The World Factbook"". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved4 March 2015.
  21. Ghosh, Partha Sarathy (1989). Cooperation and Conflict in South Asia. Technical Publications. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-81-85054-68-1. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved12 August 2015.
  22. Razzaque, Jona (2004). Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh. Kluwer Law International. pp. 3 with footnotes 1 and 2. ISBN 978-90-411-2214-8. Archived from the original on 7 October 2017. Retrieved11 December 2016.
  23. Robbins, Keith (2012). Transforming the World: Global Political History since World War II. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 386. ISBN 978-1-137-29656-6., Quote: "Some thought that Afghanistan was part of the Middle East and not South Asian at all".
  24. Saez 2012, p. 58: "Afghanistan is considered to be part of Central Asia. It regards itself as a link between Central Asia and South Asia."
  25. Margulies, Phillip (2008). Nuclear Nonproliferation. Infobase Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 978-1-4381-0902-2., Quote: "Afghanistan, which lies to the northwest, is not technically a part of South Asia but is an important neighbor with close links and historical ties to Pakistan."
  26. "Harvard South Asia Institute: "Afghanistan"". Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  27. Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 287. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.
  28. Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby, Religions of South Asia: An Introduction, page 3, Routledge, 2006, ISBN 978-1-134-59322-4
  29. United Nations, Yearbook of the United Nations, pages 297, Office of Public Information, 1947, United Nations
  30. Dale Hoiberg and Indu Ramchandani, Students' Britannica India (vol. 1), page 45, Popular Prakashan, 2000, ISBN 978-0-85229-760-5
  31. Bertram Hughes Farmer, An Introduction to South Asia, pages 1, Routledge, 1993, ISBN 0-415-05695-0
  32. Mann, Michael (2014). South Asia's Modern History: Thematic Perspectives. Taylor & Francis. pp. 13–15. ISBN 978-1-317-62445-5.
  33. Anderson, Ewan W.; Anderson, Liam D. (2013). An Atlas of Middle Eastern Affairs. Routledge. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-136-64862-5., Quote: "To the east, Iran, as a Gulf state, offers a generally accepted limit to the Middle East. However, Afghanistan, also a Muslim state, is then left in isolation. It is not accepted as a part of Central Asia and it is clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent".
  34. Dallen J. Timothy and Gyan P. Nyaupane, Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World: A Regional Perspective, page 127, Routledge, 2009, ISBN 978-1-134-00228-3
  35. Navnita Chadha Behera, International Relations in South Asia: Search for an Alternative Paradigm, page 129, SAGE Publications India, 2008, ISBN 978-81-7829-870-2
  36. "The World Bank". Archived from the original on 10 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  37. "Institute of Development Studies: Afghanistan". Archived from the original on 1 June 2017. Retrieved28 February 2019.
  38. Saul Bernard Cohen (2008). Geopolitics: The Geography of International Relations (2 ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 329. ISBN 978-0-7425-8154-8.
  39. McLeod, John (2002). The History of India. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-313-31459-9. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved19 July 2015.
  40. Arthur Berriedale Keith, A Constitutional History of India: 1600–1935, pages 440–444, Methuen & Co, 1936
  41. N.D. Arora, Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination, page 42:1, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010, 9780070090941
  42. Stephen Adolphe Wurm, Peter Mühlhäusler & Darrell T. Tryon, Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas, pages 787, International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1996, ISBN 3-11-013417-9
  43. "Indian subcontinent" > Geology and Geography Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
  44. Haggett, Peter (2001). Encyclopedia of World Geography (Vol. 1). Marshall Cavendish. p. 2710. ISBN 978-0-7614-7289-6.
  45. Territories (British Indian Ocean Territory), Jane's Information Group
  46. Encyclopædia Britannica: A New Survey of Universal Knowledge (volume 4), pages 177, Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 1947
  47. Ian Copland, The Princes of pre-India in the Endgame of the British Empire: 1917–1947, pages 263, Cambridge University Press, 2002, ISBN 0-521-89436-0
  48. United Nations Cartographic Centre Archived 30 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 18 June 2015
  49. Sarkar, Sudeshna (16 May 2007). "SAARC: Afghanistan comes in from the cold". Current Affairs – Security Watch. Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved6 April 2011.
  50. "South Asian Organisation for Regional Cooperation (official website)". SAARC Secretariat, Kathmandu, Nepal. Archived from the original on 16 December 2013. Retrieved6 April 2011.
  51. Chatterjee Aneek, International Relations Today: Concepts and Applications, page 166, Pearson Education India, ISBN 978-81-317-3375-2
  52. "SAARC Membership: India blocks China's entry for the time being". The Economic Times. 2 December 2014. Archived from the original on 18 December 2018. Retrieved17 March 2015.
  53. Global Summitry Project, SAARC
  54. South Asia: Data, Projects and Research Archived 16 July 2012 at archive.today, The World Bank
  55. "SAFTA Protocol". Archived from the original on 15 March 2015. Retrieved20 March 2015.
  56. "South Asia". Unicef.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved16 December 2016.
  57. "UNICEF ROSA". Unicef.org. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved16 December 2016.
  58. Mapping and Analysis of Agricultural Trade Liberalization in South Asia Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Trade and Investment Division (TID), United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
  59. Asia-Pacific POPIN Consultative Workshop Report Archived 25 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Asia-Pacific POPIN Bulletin, Vol. 7, No. 2 (1995), pages 7–11
  60. Geographical region and composition Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, United Nations
  61. "Asia" > Geology and Geography Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "Asia can be divided into six regions, each possessing distinctive physical, cultural, economic, and political characteristics... South Asia (Afghanistan and the nations of the Indian Peninsula) is isolated from the rest of Asia by great mountain barriers."
  62. "Asia" > Geologic history – Tectonic framework Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online, 2009: "The paleotectonic evolution of Asia terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasia. Asia's subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continent's preexisting fabric. The first-order neotectonic units of Asia are Stable Asia, the Arabian and Indian cratons, the Alpide plate boundary zone (along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate), and the island arcs and marginal basins."
  63. Chapman, Graham P. & Baker, Kathleen M., eds. The changing geography of Asia. (ISBN 0-203-03862-2) New York: Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2002; p. 10: "This greater India is well defined in terms of topography; it is the Indian peninsula, hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north, the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east."
  64. "Indian subcontinent". New Oxford Dictionary of English (ISBN 0-19-860441-6) New York: Oxford University Press, 2001; p. 929: "the part of Asia south of the Himalayas which forms a peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean, between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Historically forming the whole territory of greater India, the region is now divided between India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh."
  65. Kathleen M. Baker and Graham P. Chapman, The Changing Geography of Asia, page 10, Routledge, 2002, ISBN 978-1-134-93384-6
  66. John McLeod, The history of India Archived 17 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine, page 1, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, ISBN 0-313-31459-4
    Milton Walter Meyer, South Asia: A Short History of the Subcontinent, pages 1, Adams Littlefield, 1976, ISBN 0-8226-0034-X
    Jim Norwine & Alfonso González, The Third World: states of mind and being, pages 209, Taylor & Francis, 1988, ISBN 0-04-910121-8
    Boniface, Brian G.; Cooper, Christopher P. (2005). Worldwide Destinations: The Geography of Travel and Tourism. Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-5997-0. Archived from the original on 19 September 2015. Retrieved19 July 2015.
    Judith Schott & Alix Henley, Culture, Religion, and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society, pages 274, Elsevier Health Sciences, 1996, ISBN 0-7506-2050-1
    Raj S. Bhopal, Ethnicity, race, and health in multicultural societies, pages 33, Oxford University Press, 2007, ISBN 0-19-856817-7
    Lucian W. Pye & Mary W. Pye, Asian Power and Politics, pages 133, Harvard University Press, 1985, ISBN 0-674-04979-9
    Mark Juergensmeyer, The Oxford handbook of global religions, pages 465, Oxford University Press US, 2006, ISBN 0-19-513798-1
    Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2
  67. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Columbia University Press, 2003: "region, S central Asia, comprising the countries of Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal, and Bhutan. Sri Lanka, an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula, is often considered a part of the subcontinent."
  68. Robert Wynn Jones (2011). Applications of Palaeontology: Techniques and Case Studies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 267–271. ISBN 978-1-139-49920-0.
  69. Asher, Catherine B.; Talbot, Cynthia (16 March 2006), India Before Europe, Cambridge University Press, pp. 5–8, 12–14, 51, 78–80, ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7, archived from the original on 24 April 2016, retrieved9 December 2016
  70. Ronald B. Inden, Imagining India, page 51, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2000, ISBN 1-85065-520-0, Quote:"It is very common today in academic and official circles to speak of the Indian subcontinent as 'South Asia', thereby distinguishing it from an 'East Asia'."
  71. Sugata Bose & Ayesha Jalal, Modern South Asia, pages 3, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 0-415-30787-2, Quote:"Indian subcontinent – or South Asia – as it has come to be known in more recent and neutral parlance"
  72. International Relations Theory and South Asia (OIP): Volume II: Security, Political Economy, Domestic Politics, Identities, and Images. Oxford University Press. 13 November 2014. ISBN 978-0-19-908940-6.
  73. Cutler, Robert M. (2007). Amineh, Mehdi (ed.). The Greater Middle East in Global Politics: Social Science Perspectives on the Changing Geography of the World Politics. BRILL. pp. xv, 112. ISBN 978-90-474-2209-9.
  74. "Cambridge University: Centre of South Asian Studies". Archived from the original on 1 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  75. "Cambridge Centre of South Asian Studies: Links to South And Southeast Asian resources". Archived from the original on 12 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  76. "Cambridge South Asian Archive: Afghanistan"(PDF).
  77. "Cambridge Centre of South Asian Studies: Library". Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved5 November 2015.
  78. Grolier Incorporated, The Encyclopedia Americana (volume 14), pages 201, Grolier, 1988, ISBN 0-7172-0119-8
  79. About Us Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Cambridge
  80. CSAS Archived 11 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Michigan
  81. About Us Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for South Asian Studies, University of Virginia
  82. South Asian Studies Program Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Rutgers University
  83. "Center for South Asia Studies: University of California, Berkeley". Southasia.berkeley.edu. Archived from the original on 13 July 2012. Retrieved19 August 2012.
  84. South Asian Studies Archived 3 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Brandeis University
  85. South Asia Institute Archived 11 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Columbia University
  86. Vernon Marston Hewitt, The international politics of South Asia, page xi, Manchester University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7190-3392-6
  87. Kishore C. Dash, Regionalism in South Asia, pages 172–175, Routledge, 2008, ISBN 0-415-43117-4
  88. G. Bongard-Levin, A History of India (Progress Publishers: Moscow, 1979) p. 11.
  89. Romila Thapar, A History of India (Penguin Books: New York, 1966) p. 23.
  90. Romila Thapar, A History of India, p. 24.
  91. Possehl 2002, p. 141–156.
  92. Michaels 2004, p. 33.
  93. Michaels 2004, p. 32.
  94. Witzel 1995, p. 3-4.
  95. Witzel 1995.
  96. Flood 1996, p. 30-35.
  97. Flood 1996, p. 33.
  98. Samuel 2010, p. 41-48.
  99. Stein 2010, p. 48-49.
  100. Witzel 1995, p. 6.
  101. Samuel 2010, p. 51-53.
  102. Samuel 2010, p. 25.
  103. Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 12.
  104. Flood 1996, pp. 81–82.
  105. Neusner, Jacob (2009). World Religions in America: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. ISBN 978-0-664-23320-4. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  106. Gombrich 2006, p. 135.
  107. Trainor 2004, pp. 103, 119.
  108. Neelis, Jason (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 102–106. ISBN 978-90-04-18159-5. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  109. Guy, John (2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu-Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 9–11, 14–15, 19–20. ISBN 978-1-58839-524-5. Archived from the original on 23 December 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  110. Neelis, Jason (2010). Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks: Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia. BRILL Academic. pp. 114–115, 144, 160–163, 170–176, 249–250. ISBN 978-90-04-18159-5. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  111. Deborah Klimburg-Salter (1989), The Kingdom of Bamiyan: Buddhist art and culture of the Hindu Kush, Naples – Rome: Istituto Universitario Orientale & Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente, ISBN 978-0-87773-765-0 (Reprinted by Shambala)
  112. Crossette, Barbara (1996). So Close to Heaven: The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas. Vintage. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-0-679-74363-7.
  113. Klimkeit, HJ; Meserve, R; Karimov, EE; Shackle, C (2000). "Religions and religious movements". In Boxworth, CE; Asimov, MS (eds.). History of Civilizations of Central Asia. UNESCO. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-92-3-103654-5.
  114. Samuel 2010, pp. 193–228, 339–353, specifically pp. 76–79 and 194–199.
  115. Guy, John; Baptiste, Pierre; Becker, Lawrence; Bellina, Bérénice; Brown, Robert L.; Carò, Federico (2014). Lost Kingdoms: Hindu-Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia. Yale University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-300-20437-7. Archived from the original on 18 April 2017. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  116. Michell 1977, p. 18, 40.
  117. Scharfe, Hartmut (2002). Handbook of Oriental Studies. BRILL Academic. pp. 144–153. ISBN 978-90-04-12556-8. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  118. Lockard, Craig (2007). Societies, Networks, and Transitions: Volume I: A Global History. Houghton Mifflin. p. 188. ISBN 978-0-618-38612-3. Archived from the original on 26 November 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  119. Spink, Walter M. (2005). Ajanta: History and Development, Volume 5: Cave by Cave. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–9, 15–16. ISBN 978-90-04-15644-9. Archived from the original on 29 June 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  120. "Ellora Caves – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 9 December 2016. Retrieved26 December 2016., Quote:"Ellora, with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A.D. 600 to 1000, brings the civilization of ancient India to life. Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but, with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India."
  121. Owen, Lisa (2012). Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora. BRILL Academic. pp. 1–10. ISBN 978-90-04-20629-8. Archived from the original on 5 February 2017. Retrieved26 December 2016.
  122. "History in Chronological Order". Government of Pakistan. Archived from the original on 23 July 2010. Retrieved9 January 2008.
  123. See:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-90-04-17758-1, Brill
    • The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91–109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar – Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-90-04-08341-7, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
  124. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-54329-3, pp 3–30
  125. T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600–1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5–7
  126. Lionel Barnett (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan, p. 1, at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
  127. Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293–317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
  128. Muhammad B. Sam Mu'izz Al-Din, T. W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C. E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W. P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  129. C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161–170
  130. History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Columbia University (2010)
  131. Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica
  132. Firoz Shah Tughlak, Futuhat-i Firoz Shahi – Autobiographical memoirs Archived 19 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson, Volume 3 – The History of India, Cornell University Archives, pp 377–381
  133. Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911, p. 217, at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp. 249–251, Oxford University Press
  134. Annemarie Schimmel, Islam in the South Asian region, ISBN 978-90-04-06117-0, Brill Academic, pp 20–23
  135. Lewis, David (31 October 2011). Bangladesh: Politics, Economy and Civil Society. Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-139-50257-3. In 1346 ... what became known as the Bengal Sultanate began and continued for almost two centuries.
  136. Syed Ejaz Hussain (2003). The Bengal Sultanate: Politics, Economy and Coins, A.D. 1205–1576. Manohar. ISBN 978-81-7304-482-3.
  137. Kulke and Rothermund, Hermann and Dietmar (2004) [2004].A History of India. Routledge (4th edition). pp. 187–188. ISBN 978-0-415-32919-4.
  138. Nilakanta Sastri, K. A. (1955) [reissued 2002]. A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar. New Delhi: Indian Branch, Oxford University Press. pp. 216, 239–250. ISBN 978-0-19-560686-7.
  139. Lodi Dynasty Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopædia Britannica (2009)
  140. Pathak, Guptajit (2008). Assam's history and its graphics. Mittal. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-8324-251-6.
  141. C. E. Bosworth (2014). New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 179–180. ISBN 978-0-7486-9648-2.
  142. Böröcz, József (10 September 2009). The European Union and Global Social Change. Routledge. p. 21. ISBN 978-1-135-25580-0. Retrieved26 June 2017.
  143. Catherine Blanshard Asher (1992). Architecture of Mughal India. Cambridge University Press. pp. 1–2. ISBN 978-0-521-26728-1. Archived from the original on 18 May 2016. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  144. Maddison, Angus (2003): Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, OECD Publishing, ISBN 92-64-10414-3, pages 259–261
  145. Lawrence E. Harrison, Peter L. Berger (2006). Developing cultures: case studies. Routledge. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-415-95279-8. Archived from the original on 28 March 2019. Retrieved28 March 2019.
  146. Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 97–101. ISBN 978-0-521-56603-2. Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  147. Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29–62; Quote (p. 29): "most of the Sikh scholars have vehemently presented this event as the first of the long series of religious persecutions that Sikhs suffered at the hands of Mughal authorities.";
    Singh, Pashaura (2006). Life and Work of Guru Arjan: History, Memory, and Biography in the Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 217–218. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2. Archived from the original on 30 March 2017. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  148. Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
  149. Singh, Pashaura; Fenech, Louis (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238, 442–445. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
  150. Schimmel, Annemarie; Waghmar, Burzine K. (2004).The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture. Reaktion. pp. 35, 115–121. ISBN 978-1-86189-185-3. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  151. White, Matthew (2011). The Great Big Book of Horrible Things. W. W. Norton. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-393-08192-3. The Mughals traditionally had been tolerant of Hinduism ... Aurangzeb, however ... prohibited Hindus from riding horses or litters. He reintroduced the head tax non-Muslims had to pay. Aurangzeb relentlessly destroyed Hindu temples all across India.
  152. The Oxford History of India Archived 26 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine, Oxford University Press, page 437
  153. Bowman, John (2005). Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture. Columbia University Press. pp. 282–284. ISBN 978-0-231-50004-3.
  154. Lex Heerma van Voss; Hiemstra-Kuperus, Els; Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk (2010). "The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India". The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers, 1650–2000. Ashgate Publishing. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-7546-6428-4.
  155. Copland, Ian; Mabbett, Ian; Roy, Asim; et al. (2012). A History of State and Religion in India. Routledge. p. 161.
  156. History of Mysore Under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan by Joseph Michaud p. 143
  157. J. S. Grewal (1990). The Sikhs of the Punjab. The New Cambridge History of India. II.3. Cambridge University Press. pp. 99, 103. ISBN 978-0-521-26884-4. In 1799, a process of unification was started by Ranjit Singh virtually to establish an empire ... Before his death in 1839 Rajit Singh's authority over all the conquered and subordinated territories between the river Satlej and the mountain ranges of Ladakh, Karakoram, Hindukush and Sulaiman was recognized.
  158. Singh, Patwant (2008). Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen. pp. 113–124. ISBN 978-0-7206-1323-0.
  159. Sengupta, Debjani (2015). The Partition of Bengal: Fragile Borders and New Identities. Cambridge University Press. pp. 16–19. ISBN 978-1-316-67387-4.
  160. Fraser, Bashabi (2008). Bengal Partition Stories: An Unclosed Chapter. Anthem Press. pp. 7–10. ISBN 978-1-84331-299-4.
  161. Saul Bernard Cohen, Geopolitics of the world system, pages 304–305, Rowman & Littlefield, 2003, ISBN 0-8476-9907-2
  162. Xinru, Liu, "The Silk Road in World History" (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010), 40.
  163. Sinvhal, Understanding Earthquake Disasters, page 52, Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010, ISBN 978-0-07-014456-9
  164. Harsh K. Gupta, Disaster management, page 85, Universities Press, 2003, ISBN 978-81-7371-456-6
  165. M. Asif Khan, Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis and the Western Himalaya, page 375, Geological Society of London, 2000, ISBN 978-1-86239-061-4
  166. Srikrishna Prapnnachari, Concepts in Frame Design, page 152, Srikrishna Prapnnachari, ISBN 978-99929-52-21-4
  167. A. M. Celâl Şengör, Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan Region, Springer, 1989, ISBN 978-0-7923-0067-0
  168. Valentin Semenovich Burtman & Peter Hale Molnar, Geological and Geophysical Evidence for Deep Subduction of Continental Crust Beneath the Pamir, page 10, Geological Society of America, 1993, ISBN 0-8137-2281-0
  169. Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606. Archived from the original on 10 February 2017. Retrieved18 November 2015. (direct: Final Revised Paper Archived 3 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine)
  170. John E. Olive, The Encyclopedia of World Climatology, page 115-117, Springer, 2005, ISBN 978-1-4020-3264-6
  171. Peter D. Tyson, Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System, page 83, Springer, 2002, ISBN 978-3-540-42403-1
  172. Peter D. Tyson, Global-Regional Linkages in the Earth System, page 76, Springer, 2002, ISBN 978-3-540-42403-1
  173. Kreft, Sönke; David Eckstein, David; Melchior, Inga (November 2016). Global Climate Risk Index 2017(PDF). Bonn: Germanwatch e.V. ISBN 978-3-943704-49-5. Archived from the original(PDF) on 25 September 2017. Retrieved10 July 2017.
  174. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, custom data acquired via website. http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/population.htm Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  175. Baten, Jörg (2016). A History of the Global Economy. From 1500 to the Present. Cambridge University Press. p. 249. ISBN 978-1-107-50718-0.
  176. "World Population prospects – Population division". United Nations. Archived from the original on 5 February 2019. Retrieved16 July 2019.
  177. "World Population Prospects 2017 Key Findings"(PDF). esa.un.org. Archived from the original(PDF) on 16 December 2017. Retrieved29 October 2019.
  178. "United Nations Population Div, World Population Prospects 2017, File: Population Growth Rate, retrieved 5/20/18". Archived from the original on 27 September 2016.
  179. Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; S. N. Sridhar (2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 122–127, 419–423. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  180. Cardona, George; Jain, Dhanesh (2003). The Indo-Aryan Languages. Routledge. pp. 75–77. ISBN 978-0-415-77294-5.
  181. Devanagari (Nagari) Archived 2 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Script Features and Description, SIL International (2013), United States
  182. Hindi Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Omniglot Encyclopedia of Writing Systems and Languages
  183. Templin, David. "Devanagari script". Omniglot. Archived from the original on 1 April 2015. Retrieved5 April 2015.
  184. Shamsur Rahman Faruqi (2008), Urdu Literary Culture: The Syncretic Tradition Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Shibli Academy, Azamgarh
  185. Daniels, Peter T.; Bright, William (1996). The World's Writing Systems. Oxford University Press. p. 395. ISBN 978-0-19-507993-7.
  186. Kachru, Braj B.; Kachru, Yamuna; S. N. Sridhar (2008). Language in South Asia. Cambridge University Press. pp. 391–394. ISBN 978-1-139-46550-2. Archived from the original on 18 January 2017. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  187. Pew Research Center
  188. "Region: South Asia". 27 January 2011. Archived from the original on 29 December 2016. Retrieved1 January 2017.
  189. Adams, C. J., Classification of religions: Geographical Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2007. Accessed: 15 July 2010; Quote: "Indian religions, including early Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, and Sikhism, and sometimes also Theravāda Buddhism and the Hindu- and Buddhist-inspired religions of South and Southeast Asia".
  190. Alberts, Irving, T., . D. R. M. (2013). Intercultural Exchange in Southeast Asia: History and Society in the Early Modern World (International Library of Historical Studies). I.B. Tauris.
  191. Balabanlilar, Lisa (2012). Imperial Identity in Mughal Empire: Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern Central Asia. I.B. Tauris. pp. 1–2, 7–10. ISBN 978-1-84885-726-1. Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved27 December 2016.
  192. Pechilis, Karen; Raj, Selva J. (1 January 2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-44851-2.
  193. "10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations, 2010 and 2050". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 2 April 2015. Archived from the original on 7 February 2017. Retrieved7 February 2017.
  194. Diplomat, Akhilesh Pillalamarri, The. "How South Asia Will Save Global Islam". The Diplomat. Archived from the original on 8 February 2017. Retrieved7 February 2017.
  195. "The Census of British India of 1871-72". Journal of the Statistical Society of London. Journal of the Statistical Society of London Vol. 39, No. 2. 39 (2): 413. June 1876. JSTOR 2339124.
  196. "CIA – The World Factbook – Afghanistan". CIA. Retrieved27 March 2012.
  197. "Archived copy" জানুন [Bangladesh](PDF) (in Bengali). US department of States. Retrieved16 October 2019.
  198. "CIA – The World Factbook". CIA. Retrieved27 March 2012.
  199. Pew Research Center – Global Religious Landscape 2010 – religious composition by country Archived 13 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
  200. "C −1 Population by religious community – 2011". Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner. Archived from the original on 25 August 2015. Retrieved25 August 2015.
  201. Ahmadiyyas are considered a sect of Islam in India. Other minorities are 0.4 Jains and 0.23% irreligious population.
  202. "religion". Maldives. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved23 August 2010.
  203. "Maldives". Law.emory.edu. 21 February 1920. Archived from the original on 11 February 2013. Retrieved23 August 2010.
  204. Maldives – Religion Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine, countrystudies.us
  205. Statistical Yearbook of Nepal - 2013. Kathmandu: Central Bureau of Statistics. 2013. p. 23. Retrieved16 October 2019.
  206. "POPULATION BY RELIGION"(PDF). Pakistan Burau of Statistics, Government of Pakistan: 1.
  207. "Census of Population and Housing 2011". Department of Census and Statistic. Retrieved16 October 2019.
  208. Cox, Wendell (June 2020). "Demographia World Urban Areas"(PDF). Demographia. Retrieved28 March 2021.
  209. "South Asia's cricket obsession". 21 December 2006. Retrieved1 December 2020.
  210. "India constitutes 90 percent of one billion cricket fans: ICC research". The Economic Times. Retrieved1 December 2020.
  211. "Welcome to WorldBank Group". World Bank. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved23 August 2010.
  212. "South Asia, now the fastest-growing region in the world, could take greater advantage of cheap oil to reform energy pricing". Archived from the original on 17 April 2015. Retrieved16 April 2015.
  213. "Field Listing :: Names". CIA. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved28 July 2011.
  214. "UNGEGN List of Country Names"(PDF). United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. 2007. Archived(PDF) from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved28 July 2011.
  215. "List of countries, territories and currencies". Europa. 9 August 2011. Archived from the original on 7 August 2011. Retrieved10 August 2011.
  216. "World Economic Outlook (April 2017) – Inflation rate, average consumer prices". IMF. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved26 August 2017.
  217. "World Economic Outlook - GDP current prices, in billions of dollars". International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved9 January 2020.
  218. "World Economic Outlook - GDP current prices, per capita". International Monetary Fund. October 2019. Retrieved9 January 2020.
  219. "World Economic Outlook (April 2017) – Real GDP growth". IMF. Archived from the original on 26 August 2017. Retrieved26 August 2017.
  220. "Inequality-adjusted HDI (IHDI)". hdr.undp.org. UNDP. Retrieved23 September 2020.
  221. "Poverty & Equity Data Portal". povertydata.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. Retrieved6 June 2015.
  222. Chakravarty, Manas (13 October 2014). "The World Bank on India's poverty". Live Mint. Archived from the original on 23 June 2015. Retrieved6 June 2015.
  223. "India – Data". data.worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 19 June 2015. Retrieved6 June 2015.
  224. "UN"(PDF). Archived(PDF) from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved3 June 2015.
  225. "Human Development Report 2019"(PDF). United Nations Development Programme.
  226. "Global wealth report". www.credit-suisse.com. Credit Suisse. Retrieved25 October 2019.
  227. "Global wealth report 2019"(PDF). Credit Suisse. Retrieved25 October 2019.

    South Asia
South Asia Language Watch Edit South Asia is the southern region of Asia which is defined in both geographical and ethno cultural terms The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan note 2 Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka and the Maldives 6 Topographically it is dominated by the Indian Plate and defined largely by the Indian Ocean on the south and the Himalayas Karakoram and Pamir mountains on the north The Amu Darya which rises north of the Hindu Kush forms part of the northwestern border On land clockwise South Asia is bounded by Western Asia Central Asia East Asia and Southeast Asia South AsiaArea5 134 641 km2 1 982 496 sq mi Population1 94 billion 2020 1 Population density362 3 km2 938 sq mi GDP PPP 12 752 trillion 2018 2 GDP nominal 3 326 trillion 2020 3 GDP per capita 1 707 nominal 3 HDI0 642 medium 4 Ethnic groupsIndo Aryan Iranian Dravidian Sino Tibetan Austroasiatic Turkic etc ReligionsHinduism Islam Christianity Buddhism Sikhism Jainism Zoroastrianism IrreligionDemonymSouth AsianCountries8 states Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri LankaDependencies British Indian Ocean TerritoryLanguagesOfficial languages BengaliPashtoDari Persian DzongkhaDhivehiEnglishHindiNepaliSinhalaTamilUrdu Other languages Afro Asiatic ArabicAustroasiatic KhasiSantaliAustronesian Sri Lanka MalayDravidian BearyBrahuiGondiKodavaMalayalamKannadaTeluguTuluIndo European AsamiyaBalochiBhiliDogriGarhwaliGujaratiHindustani dialectsHindkoKashmiriKonkaniKumaoniKutchiLahndaMaithiliMarathiMarwariOdiaPunjabiRangpuriRohingyaSanskritSaraikiSatgaiyaSindhiSylhetiSino Tibetan BaltiBoro GaroGurungLadakhiLimbuMizoManangMeiteiSikkimeseTamangThakaliTibetanTurkic TurkmenUzbekTime zones5 time zones UTC 04 30 AfghanistanUTC 05 00 MaldivesPakistanUTC 05 30 IndiaSri LankaUTC 05 45 NepalUTC 06 00 BangladeshBhutanInternet TLD af bd bt in io lk mv np pkCalling codeZone 8 amp 9Largest citiesList AhmedabadBangaloreChennaiColomboChittagongNew DelhiDhakaHyderabadKarachiKolkataMumbaiLahore note 1 UN M49 code034 Southern Asia 142 Asia 001 World The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC is an economic cooperation organisation in the region which was established in 1985 and includes all eight nations comprising South Asia 7 South Asia covers about 5 2 million km2 2 0 million sq mi which is 11 71 of the Asian continent or 3 5 of the world s land surface area 6 The population of South Asia is about 1 891 billion or about one fourth of the world s population making it both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world 8 Overall it accounts for about 39 49 of Asia s population over 24 of the world s population and is home to a vast array of people 9 10 11 In 2010 South Asia had the world s largest populations of Hindus Muslims Sikhs Jains and Zoroastrians 12 South Asia alone accounts for 98 47 of Hindus 90 5 of Sikhs and 31 of Muslims worldwide as well as 35 million Christians and 25 million Buddhists 13 14 15 16 Contents 1 Definition 2 History 2 1 Pre history 2 2 Ancient era 2 3 Medieval era 2 4 Modern era 2 5 Contemporary era 3 Geography 3 1 Indian plate 3 2 Climate 3 3 Land and water area 4 Society 4 1 Population 4 2 Languages 4 3 Religions 4 4 Largest urban areas 4 5 Sports 5 Economy 6 Education 7 Health and nutrition 8 Governance and politics 8 1 Systems of government 8 2 Regional politics 8 2 1 Regional groups of countries 9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 11 1 Citations 11 2 Sources 12 Further reading 13 External linksDefinition EditSee also Indology Various definitions of South Asia including the definition by UNSD which was created for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories 17 Modern definitions of South Asia are consistent in including Afghanistan India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Bhutan and Maldives as the constituent countries 18 19 20 Afghanistan is however considered by some to be a part of Central Asia Western Asia or the Middle East 21 22 23 24 25 After the Second Anglo Afghan War it was a British protectorate until 1919 26 18 20 On the other hand Myanmar formerly Burma administered as part of the British Raj between 1886 and 1937 27 and now largely considered a part of Southeast Asia as a member state of ASEAN is also sometimes included 21 22 28 But the Aden Colony British Somaliland and Singapore though administered at various times under the British Raj have never been proposed as any part of South Asia 29 The region may also include the disputed territory of Aksai Chin which was part of the British Indian princely state of Jammu and Kashmir now administered as part of the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang but also claimed by India 30 However the total area of South Asia and its geographical extent is not clear cut as systemic and foreign policy orientations of its constituents are quite asymmetrical 21 Beyond the core territories of the British Raj or the British Indian Empire there is a high degree of variation as to which other countries are included in South Asia 31 22 32 33 The confusion existed also because of the lack of a clear boundary geographically geopolitical socio culturally economically or historically between South Asia and other parts of Asia especially the Middle East and Southeast Asia 34 The common definition of South Asia is largely inherited from the administrative boundaries of the British Raj 35 with several exceptions The current territories of Bangladesh India and Pakistan which were the core territories of the British Empire from 1857 to 1947 also form the core territories of South Asia 36 37 19 20 The mountain countries of Nepal and Bhutan two independent countries that were not part of the British Raj 38 and the island countries of Sri Lanka and Maldives are generally included By various definitions based on substantially different reasons the British Indian Ocean Territory and the Tibet Autonomous Region are included as well 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 The 562 princely states that were protected by but not directly ruled by the British Raj became administrative parts of South Asia upon joining India or Pakistan 46 47 United Nations cartographic map of South Asia 48 However the United Nations does not endorse any definitions or area boundaries note 3 The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAARC a contiguous block of countries started in 1985 with seven countries Bangladesh Bhutan India the Maldives Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka and admitted Afghanistan as an eighth member in 2007 49 50 China and Myanmar have also applied for the status of full members of SAARC 51 52 The South Asia Free Trade Agreement admitted Afghanistan in 2011 53 The World Bank and United Nations Children s Fund UNICEF recognizes the eight SAARC countries as South Asia 54 55 56 57 The Hirschman Herfindahl index of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific for the region excludes Afghanistan from South Asia 58 Population Information Network POPIN excludes Maldives which is included as a member Pacific POPIN subregional network 59 The United Nations Statistics Division s scheme of sub regions for statistical purpose 17 includes Iran along with all eight members of the SAARC as part of Southern Asia 60 The boundaries of South Asia vary based on how the region is defined South Asia s northern eastern and western boundaries vary based on definitions used while the Indian Ocean is the southern periphery Most of this region rests on the Indian Plate and is isolated from the rest of Asia by mountain barriers 61 62 Much of the region consists of a peninsula in south central Asia rather resembling a diamond which is delineated by the Himalayas on the north the Hindu Kush in the west and the Arakanese in the east 63 and which extends southward into the Indian Ocean with the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast 39 64 While South Asia had never been a coherent geopolitical region it has a distinct geographical identity 28 65 The terms Indian subcontinent and South Asia are sometimes used interchangeably 39 66 64 67 The Indian subcontinent is largely a geological term referring to the land mass that drifted northeastwards from ancient Gondwana colliding with the Eurasian plate nearly 55 million years ago towards the end of Palaeocene This geological region largely includes Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka 68 Historians Catherine Asher and Cynthia Talbot state that the term Indian subcontinent describes a natural physical landmass in South Asia that has been relatively isolated from the rest of Eurasia 69 The use of the term Indian subcontinent began in the British Empire and has been a term particularly common in its successors 66 South Asia as the preferred term is particularly common when scholars or officials seek to differentiate this region from East Asia 70 According to historians Sugata Bose and Ayesha Jalal the Indian subcontinent has come to be known as South Asia in more recent and neutral parlance 71 This neutral notion refers to the concerns of Pakistan and Bangladesh particularly given the recurring conflicts between India and Pakistan wherein the dominant placement of India as a prefix before the subcontinent might offend some political sentiments 28 However in Pakistan the term South Asia is considered too India centric and was banned until 1989 after the death of Zia ul Haq 72 This region has also been labelled as India in its classical and pre modern sense and Greater India 28 65 According to Robert M Cutler a scholar of Political Science at Carleton University 73 the terms South Asia Southwest Asia and Central Asia are distinct but the confusion and disagreements have arisen due to the geopolitical movement to enlarge these regions into Greater South Asia Greater Southwest Asia and Greater Central Asia The frontier of Greater South Asia states Cutler between 2001 and 2006 has been geopolitically extended to eastern Iran and western Afghanistan in the west and in the north to northeastern Iran northern Afghanistan and southern Uzbekistan 73 The definitions are also varied across South Asian Study programmes The Centre for South Asian Studies at the University of Cambridge was established in 1964 it promoted the study of India Pakistan Sri Lanka Bangladesh Afghanistan 74 75 76 77 the Himalayan Kingdoms Nepal Bhutan and Sikkim 78 and Burma now Myanmar It has since included Thailand Malaysia Singapore Vietnam Cambodia Laos Indonesia the Philippines and Hong Kong 79 The Centres for South Asian Studies at both the University of Michigan and the University of Virginia include Tibet along with the eight members of SAARC in their research programs but exclude the Maldives 80 81 The South Asian Studies Program of Rutgers University and the University of California Berkeley Centre for South Asia Studies also include the Maldives 82 83 The South Asian Studies Program of Brandeis University defines the region as comprising India Pakistan Bangladesh Sri Lanka Nepal Bhutan and in certain contexts Afghanistan Burma Maldives and Tibet 84 The similar program of Columbia University includes Afghanistan Bangladesh India the Maldives Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka in their study and excludes Burma 85 In the past a lack of a coherent definition for South Asia resulted in a lack of academic studies along with a lack of interest for such studies 86 Identification with a South Asian identity was also found to be significantly low among respondents in an older two year survey across Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka 87 History EditSee also Outline of South Asian history History of Afghanistan History of Bangladesh History of Bhutan History of India History of Nepal History of the Maldives History of Pakistan and History of Sri Lanka Pre history Edit The history of core South Asia begins with evidence of human activity of Homo sapiens as long as 75 000 years ago or with earlier hominids including Homo erectus from about 500 000 years ago 88 The earliest prehistoric culture have roots in the mesolithic sites as evidenced by the rock paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters dating to a period of 30 000 BCE or older note 4 as well as neolithic times note 5 Ancient era Edit Bahapur Gujarra Saru Maru Udegolam Nittur Maski Siddapur Brahmagiri Jatinga Pakilgundu Rajula Mandagiri Yerragudi Sasaram Rupnath Bairat Bhabru Ahraura Barabar Taxila Aramaic Laghman Aramaic Maski Palkigundu Gavimath Jatinga Rameshwara Rajula Mandagiri Brahmagiri Udegolam Siddapur Nittur Ahraura Sasaram Kandahar Greek and Aramaic Kandahar Yerragudi Girnar Dhauli Khalsi Sopara Jaugada Shahbazgarhi Mansehra Sannati Sarnath Sanchi Lumbini Nigali Sagar Nigali Sagar Nandangarh Kosambi Topra Meerut Araraj Araraj Rampurva Rampurva Ai Khanoum Greek city Pataliputra UjjainEdicts of Ashoka Location of the Minor Rock Edicts Edicts 1 2 amp 3 Other inscriptions often classified as Minor Rock Edicts Location of the Major Rock Edicts Location of the Minor Pillar Edicts Original location of the Major Pillar Edicts Capital cities Indus Valley Civilisation during 2600 1900 BCE the mature phase The Indus Valley Civilization which spread and flourished in the northwestern part of South Asia from c 3300 to 1300 BCE in present day Northern India Pakistan and Afghanistan was the first major civilization in South Asia 89 A sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture developed in the Mature Harappan period from 2600 to 1900 BCE 90 According to anthropologist Possehl the Indus Valley Civilization provides a logical if somewhat arbitrary starting point for South Asian religions but these links from the Indus religion to later day South Asian traditions are subject to scholarly dispute 91 The Trimurti is the trinity of supreme divinity in Hinduism typically Brahma the creator Vishnu the preserver and Shiva the destroyer The Vedic period named after the Vedic religion of the Indo Aryans note 6 lasted from c 1900 to 500 BCE 93 94 The Indo Aryans were pastoralists 95 who migrated into north western India after the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilization 92 96 Linguistic and archaeological data show a cultural change after 1500 BCE 92 with the linguistic and religious data clearly showing links with Indo European languages and religion 97 By about 1200 BCE the Vedic culture and agrarian lifestyle was established in the northwest and northern Gangetic plain of South Asia 95 98 99 Rudimentary state forms appeared of which the Kuru Pancala union was the most influential 100 101 The first recorded state level society in South Asia existed around 1000 BCE 95 In this period states Samuel emerged the Brahmana and Aranyaka layers of Vedic texts which merged into the earliest Upanishads 102 These texts began to ask the meaning of a ritual adding increasing levels of philosophical and metaphysical speculation 102 or Hindu synthesis 103 Increasing urbanisation of India between 800 and 400 BCE and possibly the spread of urban diseases contributed to the rise of ascetic movements and of new ideas which challenged the orthodox Brahmanism 104 failed verification These ideas led to Sramana movements of which Mahavira c 549 477 BCE proponent of Jainism and Buddha c 563 483 founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons 105 The Greek army led by Alexander the Great stayed in the Hindu Kush region of South Asia for several years and then later moved into the Indus valley region Later the Maurya Empire extended over much of South Asia in the 3rd century BCE Buddhism spread beyond south Asia through northwest into Central Asia The Bamiyan Buddhas of Afghanistan and the edicts of Asoka suggest that the Buddhist monks spread Buddhism Dharma in eastern provinces of the Seleucid Empire and possibly even farther into Western Asia 106 107 108 The Theravada school spread south from India in the 3rd century BCE to Sri Lanka later to Southeast Asia 109 Buddhism by the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE was prominent in the Himalayan region Gandhara Hindu Kush region and Bactria 110 111 112 From about 500 BCE through about 300 CE the Vedic Brahmanic synthesis or Hindu synthesis continued 103 Classical Hindu and Sramanic particularly Buddhist ideas spread within South Asia as well outside South Asia 113 114 115 The Gupta Empire ruled over a large part of the region between 4th and 7th centuries a period that saw the construction of major temples monasteries and universities such as the Nalanda 116 117 118 During this era and through the 10th century numerous cave monasteries and temples such as the Ajanta Caves Badami cave temples and Ellora Caves were built in South Asia 119 120 121 Medieval era Edit Outreach of influence of early medieval Chola dynasty Islam came as a political power in the fringe of South Asia in 8th century CE when the Arab general Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and Multan in Southern Punjab in modern day Pakistan 122 By 962 CE Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in South Asia were under a wave of raids from Muslim armies from Central Asia 123 Among them was Mahmud of Ghazni who raided and plundered kingdoms in north India from east of the Indus river to west of Yamuna river seventeen times between 997 and 1030 124 Mahmud of Ghazni raided the treasuries but retracted each time only extending Islamic rule into western Punjab 125 126 Timur defeats the Sultan of Delhi Nasir u Din Mehmud in the winter of 1397 1398 The wave of raids on north Indian and western Indian kingdoms by Muslim warlords continued after Mahmud of Ghazni plundering and looting these kingdoms 127 The raids did not establish or extend permanent boundaries of their Islamic kingdoms The Ghurid Sultan Mu izz al Din Muhammad began a systematic war of expansion into North India in 1173 128 He sought to carve out a principality for himself by expanding the Islamic world 124 129 Mu izz sought a Sunni Islamic kingdom of his own extending east of the Indus river and he thus laid the foundation for the Muslim kingdom that became the Delhi Sultanate 124 Some historians chronicle the Delhi Sultanate from 1192 due to the presence and geographical claims of Mu izz al Din in South Asia by that time 130 The Delhi Sultanate covered varying parts of South Asia and was ruled by a series of dynasties called Mamluk Khalji Tughlaq Sayyid and Lodi dynasties Muhammad bin Tughlaq came to power in 1325 launched a war of expansion and the Delhi Sultanate reached it largest geographical reach over the South Asian region during his 26 year rule 131 A Sunni Sultan Muhammad bin Tughlaq persecuted non Muslims such as Hindus as well as non Sunni Muslims such as Shia and Mahdi sects 132 133 134 Revolts against the Delhi Sultanate sprang up in many parts of South Asia during the 14th century After the death of Muhammad bin Tughlaq the Bengal Sultanate came to power in 1352 CE as the Delhi Sultanate began disintegrating The Bengal Sultanate remained in power through the early 16th century It was reconquered by the armies of the Mughal Empire The state religion of the Bengal Sultanate was Islam and the region under its rule a region that ultimately emerged as the modern nation of Bangladesh saw a growth of a syncretic form of Islam 135 136 In the Deccan region the Hindu kingdom Vijayanagara Empire came to power in 1336 and remained in power through the 16th century after which it too was reconquered and absorbed into the Mughal Empire 137 138 About 1526 the Punjab governor Dawlat Khan Lodi reached out to the Mughal Babur and invited him to attack Delhi Sultanate Babur defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the Battle of Panipat in 1526 The death of Ibrahim Lodi ended the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal Empire replaced it 139 Modern era Edit Emperor Shah Jahan and his son Prince Aurangzeb in Mughal Court 1650 The modern history period of South Asia that is 16th century onwards witnessed the start of the Central Asian dynasty named the Mughals with Turkish Mongol roots and Sunni Islam theology The first ruler was Babur whose empire extended the northwest and Indo Gangetic Plain regions of South Asia The Deccan and northeastern region of South Asia was largely under Hindu kings such as those of Vijayanagara Empire and Ahom kingdom 140 with some regions such as parts of modern Telangana and Andhra Pradesh under local Sultanates such as the Shia Islamic rulers of Golconda Sultanate 141 The Mughal Empire continued its wars of expansion after Babur s death With the fall of the Rajput kingdoms and Vijayanagara its boundaries encompassed almost the entirety of the Indian subcontinent 142 The Mughal Empire was marked by a period of artistic exchanges and a Central Asian and South Asian architecture synthesis with remarkable buildings such as the Taj Mahal 143 At its height the empire was the world s largest economy worth almost 25 of global GDP more than the entirety of Western Europe 144 145 However this time also marked an extended period of religious persecution 146 Two of the religious leaders of Sikhism Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur were arrested under orders of the Mughal emperors and were asked to convert to Islam and were executed when they refused 147 148 149 Religious taxes on non Muslims called jizya were imposed Buddhist Hindu and Sikh temples were desecrated However not all Muslim rulers persecuted non Muslims Akbar a Mughal ruler for example sought religious tolerance and abolished jizya 150 151 152 153 British Indian Empire in 1909 British India is shaded pink the princely states yellow In Aurangzeb s time almost all of South Asia was claimed by the Mughal Empire Under Aurangzeb s rule South Asia reached its zenith becoming the world s largest economy and biggest manufacturing power estimated over 25 of world GDP a value higher than China s and entire Western Europe s one 144 145 The economic developments on South Asia waved the period of proto industrialization 154 After the death of Aurangzeb and the collapse of the Mughal Empire which marks the beginning of modern India in the early 18th century it provided opportunities for the Marathas Sikhs Mysoreans and Nawabs of Bengal to exercise control over large regions of the Indian subcontinent 155 156 Maritime trading between South Asia and European merchants began after the Portuguese explorer Vasco de Gama returned to Europe British French Portuguese colonial interests struck treaties with these rulers and established their trading ports In northwest South Asia a large region was consolidated into the Sikh Empire by Ranjit Singh 157 158 After the defeat of the Nawab of Bengal and Tipu Sultan and his French allies the British Empire expanded their interests till the Hindu Kush region Contemporary era Edit In 1905 the Government of India initiated the partition of Bengal a decision which was eventually reversed after Indian opposition However during the partition of India Bengal was partitioned into East Bengal Pakistan and West Bengal India East Bengal became the People s Republic of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War in 1971 159 160 Further information War in Afghanistan 2001 present and Indo Pakistani wars and conflictsGeography EditFurther information Geography of India Geography of Pakistan Geography of Afghanistan Geography of Bangladesh Geography of Bhutan Geography of Sri Lanka Geography of Nepal and Geography of the Maldives According to Saul Cohen early colonial era strategists treated South Asia with East Asia but in reality the South Asia region excluding Afghanistan is a distinct geopolitical region separated from other nearby geostrategic realms one that is geographically diverse 161 The region is home to a variety of geographical features such as glaciers rainforests valleys deserts and grasslands that are typical of much larger continents It is surrounded by three water bodies the Bay of Bengal the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea and has acutely varied climate zones The tip of the Indian Peninsula had the highest quality pearls 162 Indian plate Edit Main article Indian plate Most of this region is resting on the Indian Plate the northerly portion of the Indo Australian Plate separated from the rest of the Eurasian Plate The Indian Plate includes most of South Asia forming a land mass which extends from the Himalayas into a portion of the basin under the Indian Ocean including parts of South China and Eastern Indonesia as well as Kunlun and Karakoram ranges 163 164 and extending up to but not including Ladakh Kohistan the Hindu Kush range and Balochistan 165 166 167 It may be noted that geophysically the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet is situated at the outside of the border of the regional structure while the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan are situated inside that border 168 The Indian subcontinent formerly formed part of the supercontinent Gondwana before rifting away during the Cretaceous period and colliding with the Eurasian Plate about 50 55 million years ago and giving birth to the Himalayan range and the Tibetan plateau It is the peninsular region south of the Himalayas and Kuen Lun mountain ranges and east of the Indus River and the Iranian Plateau extending southward into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea to the southwest and the Bay of Bengal to the southeast Climate Edit South Asia s Koppen climate classification map 169 is based on native vegetation temperature precipitation and their seasonality Af Tropical rainforest Am Tropical monsoon Aw Tropical savanna wet amp dry BWh Hot desert BWk Cold desert BSh Hot semi arid BSk Cold semi arid Csa Mediterranean dry hot summer Cfa Subtropical humid Cwa Subtropical humid summer dry winter Cwb Subtropical highland dry winter Dsa Continental hot summer Dsb Continental warm summer Dwb Continental dry winter Dwc Continental Subarctic dry winter The climate of this vast region varies considerably from area to area from tropical monsoon in the south to temperate in the north The variety is influenced by not only the altitude but also by factors such as proximity to the seacoast and the seasonal impact of the monsoons Southern parts are mostly hot in summers and receive rain during monsoon periods The northern belt of Indo Gangetic plains also is hot in summer but cooler in winter The mountainous north is colder and receives snowfall at higher altitudes of Himalayan ranges As the Himalayas block the north Asian bitter cold winds the temperatures are considerably moderate in the plains down below For the most part the climate of the region is called the Monsoon climate which keeps the region humid during summer and dry during winter and favours the cultivation of jute tea rice and various vegetables in this region South Asia is largely divided into four broad climate zones 170 The northern Indian edge and northern Pakistani uplands have a dry subtropical continental climate The far south of India and southwest Sri Lanka have an equatorial climate Most of the peninsula has a tropical climate with variations Hot subtropical climate in northwest India Cool winter hot tropical climate in Bangladesh Tropical semi arid climate in the center The Himalayas and most of the Hindu Kush have an Alpine climate Maximum relative humidity of over 80 has been recorded in Khasi and Jaintia Hills and Sri Lanka while the area adjustment to Pakistan and western India records lower than 20 30 170 Climate of South Asia is largely characterized by monsoons South Asia depends critically on monsoon rainfall 171 Two monsoon systems exist in the region 172 The summer monsoon Wind blows from the southwest to most parts of the region It accounts for 70 90 of the annual precipitation The winter monsoon Wind blows from the northeast Dominant in Sri Lanka and Maldives The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season March to mid June In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center The monsoons are the second coolest season of the year because of high humidity and cloud covering But at the beginning of June the jetstreams vanish above the Tibetan Plateau low pressure over the Indus Valley deepens and the Intertropical Convergence Zone ITCZ moves in The change is violent Moderately vigorous monsoon depressions form in the Bay of Bengal and make landfall from June to September 170 Climate change in South Asia is causing a range of challenges including sea level rise cyclonic activity and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns 173 Land and water area Edit See also Exclusive economic zone and Indian Ocean This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states including uninhabited territories but does not include claims on Antarctica EEZ TIA is exclusive economic zone EEZ plus total internal area TIA which includes land and internal waters Country Area EEZ Shelf EEZ TIA Afghanistan 652 864 0 0 652 864 Bangladesh 148 460 86 392 66 438 230 390 Bhutan 38 394 0 0 38 394 India 3 287 263 2 305 143 402 996 5 592 406 Nepal 147 181 0 0 147 181 Maldives 298 923 322 34 538 923 622 Pakistan 881 913 290 000 51 383 1 117 911 Sri Lanka 65 610 532 619 32 453 598 229Total 5 221 093 4 137 476 587 808 9 300 997Society EditSee also South Asian ethnic groups Population Edit The population of South Asia is about 1 749 billion which makes it the most populated region in the world 174 It is socially very mixed consisting of many language groups and religions and social practices in one region that are vastly different from those in another 175 Country Population in thousands 2019 Share 176 1 Density per km2 of world 177 Population growth rate 178 Population projection in thousands 176 1 2005 10 2010 15 2015 20 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 2100 Afghanistan 38 042 2 07 46 0 420 2 78 3 16 2 41 7 752 12 689 20 779 43 531 64 682 76 199 75 974 Bangladesh 163 046 8 88 1106 8 2 17 1 18 1 16 1 04 37 895 70 066 127 658 170 937 192 568 181 282 151 393 Bhutan 763 0 04 165 8 0 00957 2 05 1 58 1 18 177 348 591 811 905 845 686 India 1 366 418 74 45 138 3 17 5 1 46 1 23 1 10 376 325 623 103 1 056 576 1 445 012 1 639 176 1 609 041 1 450 421 Maldives 531 0 03 225 0 00490 2 68 2 76 1 85 74 136 279 522 586 564 490 Nepal 28 609 1 56 781 8 0 383 1 05 1 17 1 09 8 483 13 420 23 941 31 757 35 324 31 818 23 708 Pakistan 216 565 11 8 1 104 8 2 82 2 05 2 09 1 91 37 542 66 817 142 344 242 234 338 013 394 265 403 103 Sri Lanka 21 324 1 62 194 4 0 279 0 68 0 50 0 35 7 971 13 755 18 778 21 780 21 814 19 194 15 275South Asia 1 835 297 100 357 4 23 586 476 220 800 335 1 390 946 1 958 046 2 293 069 2 313 208 2 120 014Population of South Asian countries in 1950 1975 2000 2025 2050 2075 and 2100 projection from the United Nations has been displayed in table The given population projections are based on medium fertility index With India and Bangladesh approaching replacement rates fast population growth in South Asia is facing steep decline and may turn negative in mid 21st century 176 1 Languages Edit Main article Languages of South Asia Ethno linguistic distribution map of South Asia There are numerous languages in South Asia The spoken languages of the region are largely based on geography and shared across religious boundaries but the written script is sharply divided by religious boundaries In particular Muslims of South Asia such as in Afghanistan and Pakistan use the Arabic alphabet and Persian Nastaliq Till 1952 Muslim majority Bangladesh then known as East Pakistan also mandated only the Nastaliq script but after that adopted regional scripts and particularly Bengali after the Language Movement for the adoption of Bengali as the official language of the then East Pakistan Non Muslims of South Asia and some Muslims in India on the other hand use their traditional ancient heritage scripts such as those derived from Brahmi script for Indo European languages and non Brahmi scripts for Dravidian languages and others 179 The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts 180 The Devanagari script is used for over 120 South Asian languages 181 including Hindi 182 Marathi Nepali Pali Konkani Bodo Sindhi and Maithili among other languages and dialects making it one of the most used and adopted writing systems in the world 183 The Devanagari script is also used for classical Sanskrit texts 181 The largest spoken language in this region is Hindustani language followed by Bengali Telugu Tamil Marathi Gujarati Kannada and Punjabi 179 In the modern era new syncretic languages developed in the region such as Urdu that are used by the Muslim community of northern South Asia particularly Pakistan and northern states of India 184 The Punjabi language spans three religions Islam Hinduism and Sikhism The spoken language is similar but it is written in three scripts The Sikh use Gurmukhi alphabet Muslim Punjabis in Pakistan use the Nastaliq script while Hindu Punjabis in India use the Gurmukhi or Nagari script The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different 185 English with British spelling is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia 186 Religions Edit Further information Religion in Bangladesh Religion in Bhutan Religion in India Religion in Nepal Religion in Pakistan and Religion in Sri Lanka A map of major denominations and religions of the world Worldwide Importance of Religion 2015 187 In 2010 South Asia had the world s largest population of Hindus Jains and Sikhs 15 about 510 million Muslims 15 as well as over 25 million Buddhists and 35 million Christians 13 Hindus make up about 68 percent or about 900 million and Muslims at 31 percent or 510 million of the overall South Asia population 188 while Buddhists Jains Christians and Sikhs constitute most of the rest The Hindus Buddhists Jains Sikhs and Christians are concentrated in India Nepal Sri Lanka and Bhutan while the Muslims are concentrated in Afghanistan 99 Bangladesh 90 Pakistan 96 and Maldives 100 15 Indian religions are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent namely Hinduism Jainism Buddhism and Sikhism 189 The Indian religions are distinct yet share terminology concepts goals and ideas and from South Asia spread into East Asia and southeast Asia 189 Early Christianity and Islam were introduced into coastal regions of South Asia by merchants who settled among the local populations Later Sindh Balochistan and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia Subsequently under the influence of Muslim rulers of the Islamic sultanates and the Mughal Empire Islam spread in South Asia 190 191 About one third of the world s Muslims are from South Asia 192 193 194 Religion in British India in the 1871 1872 Census data includes modern day India Bangladesh most of Pakistan including Sindh Punjab and Balochistan Kashmir and coastal Myanmar 195 Hinduism 73 07 Islam 21 45 Buddhism and Jainism 1 49 Sikhism 0 62 Christianity 0 47 Others 2 68 Religion not known 0 22 Country State religion Religious population as a percentage of total populationBuddhism Christianity Hinduism Islam Kiratism Sikhism Others Year reported Afghanistan Islam 99 7 0 3 2019 196 Bangladesh Islam 0 6 0 4 9 5 89 5 2011 197 Bhutan Vajrayana Buddhism 74 8 0 5 22 6 0 1 2 2010 198 199 India None 0 7 2 3 79 8 14 2 1 7 1 3 2011 200 201 Maldives Sunni Islam 100 202 203 204 Nepal None 9 1 3 81 3 4 4 3 0 8 2013 205 Pakistan Islam 1 59 1 85 96 28 0 07 2010 206 Sri Lanka Theravada Buddhism 70 2 6 2 12 6 9 7 1 4 2011 207 Largest urban areas Edit South Asia is home to some of the most populated urban areas in the world According to the 2020 edition of Demographia World Urban Areas the region contains 8 of the world s 35 megacities urban areas over 10 million population 208 Rank Urban Area State Province Country Population 208 Area km2 208 Density km2 208 1 Delhi National Capital Region India 29 617 000 2 232 13 2662 Mumbai Maharashtra India 23 355 000 944 24 7733 Kolkata West Bengal India 17 560 000 1 351 12 9884 Dhaka Dhaka Division Bangladesh 21 741 000 2161 17 10 0605 Karachi Sindh Pakistan 14 835 000 1 044 14 2136 Bangalore Karnataka India 13 707 000 1 205 11 3817 Chennai Tamil Nadu India 11 324 000 1 049 10 7958 Lahore Punjab Pakistan 11 021 000 853 12 934Sports Edit Main category Sport in South Asia Cricket is the most popular sport in South Asia 209 with 90 of the sport s fans in the Indian subcontinent 210 Economy EditFurther information Economy of Afghanistan Economy of Bangladesh Economy of India Economy of Nepal Economy of Pakistan and Economy of Sri Lanka Countries under the South Asian Free Trade Area India is the largest economy in the region US 2 957 trillion and makes up almost 80 of the South Asian economy it is the world s 5th largest in nominal terms and 3rd largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates US 10 385 trillion 2 India is the only member of powerful G 20 major economies and BRICS from the region It is the fastest growing major economy in the world and one of the world s fastest registering a growth of 7 3 in FY 2014 15 India is followed by Bangladesh which has a GDP of 378 656 billion and a GDP per capita of 2214 which is 3rd in the region It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia It is one of the emerging and growth leading economies of the world and is also listed among the Next Eleven countries It is also one of the fastest growing middle income countries It has the world s 33rd largest GDP in nominal terms and is the 27th largest by purchasing power adjusted exchange rates 1 015 trillion Bangladesh s economic growth crossed 7 in fiscal 2015 2016 after almost a decade in holding a growth rate of 6 and is expected to grow by 8 13 in 2019 2020 Pakistan has an economy of 314 billion and ranks 5th in GDP per capita in the region 211 Next is Sri Lanka which has the 2nd highest GDP per capita and the 4th largest economy in the region According to a World Bank report in 2015 driven by a strong expansion in India coupled with favorable oil prices from the last quarter of 2014 South Asia became the fastest growing region in the world 212 Country 213 214 215 GDP Inflation 2017 216 HDINominal GDP in millions 2019 Share 217 GDP per capita 2019 218 GDP PPP in millions 2019 Share GDP PPP per capita 2019 GDP growth 2017 219 HDI 2018 4 Inequality adjusted HDI 2019 220 Afghanistan 18 734 0 51 513 76 714 0 55 2 101 3 6 0 511 low No data Bangladesh 318 465 8 93 2 104 1 029 270 9 00 4 992 4 5 5 44 0 632 medium 0 465 low Bhutan 2 842 0 08 3 423 9 310 0 066 10 193 5 9 4 1 0 654 medium 0 450 low India 2 835 570 77 16 2 172 9 092 697 76 68 7 584 7 0 4 8 0 645 medium 0 538 low Maldives 5 786 0 16 15 563 6 708 0 048 21 320 4 1 2 5 0 740 high 0 568 medium Nepal 29 813 0 81 1 048 87 472 0 62 2 984 7 7 6 2 0 602 medium 0 430 low Pakistan 314 214 8 76 1 568 1 125 663 11 82 5 839 2 1 4 3 0 557 medium 0 386 low Sri Lanka 86 566 2 36 3 947 319 791 2 28 14 680 3 0 5 8 0 782 high 0 686 medium South Asia 3 562 255 100 2 064 14 001 625 100 7 629 0 640 medium According to the World Bank s 2011 report based on 2005 ICP PPP about 24 6 of the South Asian population falls below the international poverty line of 1 25 day 221 Afghanistan and Bangladesh rank the highest with 30 6 and 43 3 of their respective populations below the poverty line Bhutan Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line with 2 4 1 5 and 4 1 respectively India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between 2008 and 2011 with around 140 million being raised from the poverty line As of 2011 21 9 of India s population lives below the poverty line compared to 41 6 in 2005 222 223 Country 213 214 215 Population below poverty line at 1 9 day Population under nourished 2015 224 Life expectancy 2018 225 global rank Global wealth report 2019 226 227 228 World Bank 229 year Multidimensional Poverty Index 2017 230 Population in Extreme poverty 2017 CIA Factbook 2015 231 Total national wealth in billion USD global rank Wealth per adult in USD Median wealth per adult in USD golabl rank Afghanistan 54 5 2016 55 9 24 9 35 8 26 8 64 5 151st 25 116th 1 463 640 156th Bangladesh 24 3 2016 41 7 16 7 7 5 16 4 72 3 108th 697 44th 6 643 2 787 117th Bhutan 8 2 2017 37 3 14 7 12 No data 71 5 115th No Data No Data No Data India 21 9 2011 27 9 8 8 21 2 15 2 69 4 130th 12 614 7th 14 569 3 042 115th Maldives 8 2 2016 0 8 0 0 16 5 2 No data 7 142nd 23 297 8 555 74th Nepal 25 2 2010 34 11 6 25 2 7 8 70 5 124th 68 94th 3 870 1 510 136th Pakistan 24 3 2015 38 3 21 5 24 3 22 67 1 140th 465 49th 4 096 1 766 128th Sri Lanka 4 1 2016 No data No data 8 9 22 76 8 56th 297 60th 20 628 8 283 77th The major stock exchanges in the region are Bombay Stock Exchange BSE with market Capitalization of 2 298 trillion 11th largest in the world National Stock Exchange of India NSE with market capitalization of 2 273 trillion 12th largest in the world Dhaka Stock Exchange DSE Colombo Stock Exchange CSE and Pakistan Stock Exchange PSX with market capitalization of 72 billion 232 Economic data is sourced from the International Monetary Fund current as of April 2017 and is given in US dollars 233 Education Edit Durbar High School oldest secondary school of Nepal established in 1854 CE Lower class school in Sri Lanka College of Natural Resources Royal University of Bhutan One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region complicating any attempt to compare between countries 234 In 2018 11 3 million children at the primary level and 20 6 million children at the lower secondary level were out of school in South Asia while millions of children completed primary education without mastering the foundational skills of basic numeracy and literacy 235 According to UNESCO 241 million children between six and fourteen years or 81 percent of the total were not learning in Southern and Central Asia in 2017 Only sub Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning Two thirds of these children were in school sitting in classrooms Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics 236 237 According to a citizen led assessment only 48 in Indian public schools and 46 of children in Pakistan public schools could read a class two level text by the time they reached class five 238 237 This poor quality of education in turn has contributed to the some of the highest drop out rates in the world While over half of the students complete secondary school with acquiring requisite skills 237 In South Asia classrooms are teacher centred and rote based while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination 235 Different South Asian countries have different education structures While by 2018 India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system 234 In most South Asian countries children s education is theoretically free the exceptions being the Maldives where there is no constitutionally guaranteed free education as well as Bhutan and Nepal where fees are charged by primary schools But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system 239 The larger and poorer countries in the region like India and Bangladesh struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out of school children enrolled into schools 234 Their capacity to deliver inclusive and equitable quality education is limited by low levels of public finance for education 235 while the smaller emerging middle income countries like Sri Lanka Maldives and Bhutan have been able to achieve universal primary school completion and are in a better position to focus on quality of education 234 Children s education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human made crises including natural hazards political instability rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services 235 Afghanistan and India are among the top ten countries with the highest number of reported disasters due to natural hazards and conflict The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale 234 According to UNICEF girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region 235 while UNESCO estimated in 2005 that 24 million girls of primary school age in the region were not receiving any formal education 240 241 Between 1900 and 2005 most of the countries in the region had shown progress in girls education with Sri Lanka and the Maldives significantly ahead of the others while the gender gap in education has widened in Pakistan and Afghanistan Bangladesh made the greatest progress in the region in the period increasing girls secondary school enrolment from 13 percent to 56 percent in ten years 242 243 With about 21 million students in 700 universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in 2011 accounting for 86 percent of all higher level students in South Asia Bangladesh two million and Pakistan 1 8 million stood at distant second and third positions in the region In Nepal 390 thousand and Sri Lanka 230 thousand the numbers were much smaller Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about 7000 students in higher education in 2011 The gross enrolment ratio in 2011 ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India much below the global average of 31 percent 244 IInstitute of Engineering Pulchowk Campus Nepal Parameters Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri LankaPrimary School Enrollment 245 29 90 85 92 94 96 73 98 Secondary School Enrollment 246 49 54 78 68 N A 72 38 96 Health and nutrition Edit Child getting vaccine in Bangladesh under the Expanded Programme on Immunization EPI According to World Health Organization WHO South Asia is home to two out of the three countries in the world still affected by polio Pakistan and Afghanistan with 306 amp 28 polio cases registered in 2014 respectively 247 Attempts to eradicate polio have been badly hit by opposition from militants in both countries who say the program is cover to spy on their operations Their attacks on immunization teams have claimed 78 lives since December 2012 248 The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility mortality productivity and economic growth 249 A weekly child examination performed at a hospital in Farah Afghanistan According to the World Bank 70 of the South Asian population and about 75 of South Asia s poor live in rural areas and most rely on agriculture for their livelihood 250 according to the UN s Food and Agricultural Organisation In 2015 approximately 281 million people in the region were malnourished The report says that Nepal reached both the WFS target as well as MDG and is moving towards bringing down the number of undernourished people to less than 5 of the population 224 Bangladesh reached the MDG target with the National Food Policy framework with only 16 5 of the population undernourished In India the malnourished comprise just over 15 percent of the population While the number of malnourished people in the neighborhood has shown a decline over the last 25 years the number of under nourished in Pakistan displays an upward trend There were 28 7 million hungry in Pakistan in the 1990s a number that has steadily increased to 41 3 million in 2015 with 22 of the population malnourished Approximately 194 6 million people are undernourished in India which accounts for the highest number of people suffering from hunger in any single country 224 251 The 2006 report stated the low status of women in South Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinants of high prevalence of underweight children in the region Corruption and the lack of initiative on the part of the government has been one of the major problems associated with nutrition in India Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention The report mentioned that although there has been a reduction in malnutrition due to the Green Revolution in South Asia there is concern that South Asia has inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children 252 Governance and politics EditSystems of government Edit See also List of legislatures in South Asia and List of countries by system of government Country Capital Forms of government Head of state Head of government Legislature Official language Currency Coat of arms National Emblems Afghanistan Kabul Unitary Deobandi Islamic emirate Head House of Elders House of the People Pashto Dari Afghani Bangladesh Dhaka Unitary parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister Jatiya Sangsad Bengali English Taka Bhutan Thimphu Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy King Prime Minister National Council National Assembly Dzongkha Nu Ngultrum India New Delhi Federal parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister Rajya Sabha Lok Sabha Hindi English Indian rupee Maldives Male Unitary presidential constitutional republic President People s Majlis Maldivian ރ Rufiyaa Nepal Kathmandu Federal parliamentary constitutional republic President Prime Minister National Assembly House of Representatives Nepali र Nepalese rupee Pakistan Islamabad Federal parliamentary Islamic republic President Prime Minister Senate National Assembly Urdu English Pakistani rupee Sri Lanka Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte Unitary semi presidential constitutional republic President Prime Minister Parliament Sinhala Tamil English ර ர Sri Lankan rupee Sansad Bhavan New Delhi India Parliament House Islamabad Pakistan Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban Dhaka Bangladesh Sri Lankan Parliament Building Sri Jayawardenapura Kotte Sri Lanka India is a secular federative parliamentary republic with premier as head of government With most populous functional democracy in world 253 and world s longest written constitution 254 255 256 India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in 1950 with no regime change except that by a democratic election India s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world s newer establishments Since the formation of its republic abolishing British law it has remained a democracy with civil liberties an active Supreme Court and a largely independent press 257 India leads region in democracy index It has a multi party system in its internal regional politics 258 whereas alternative transfer of powers to alliances of Indian left wing and right wing political parties in national government provide it with characteristics of a two party state 259 India has been facing notable internal religious conflicts and separatism however consistently becoming more and more stable with time Foundation of Pakistan lies in Pakistan movement started in colonial India based on Islamic nationalism Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world s first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in 1956 Pakistan s governance is one of the most conflicted in the world The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan has become a concern for the South Asian region Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers none has been able to complete a full term in office 260 The nature of Pakistani politics can be characterized as a multi party system Pakistan s governance is one of the most conflicted in the region The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region In Nepal the government has struggled to come in the side of democracy and it only showed signs in the recent past basically in the 21st century to support the democratic system Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic Law of Bangladesh defines it as both Islamic 261 as well as secular 262 The nature of Bangladeshi politics can be characterized as a multi party system Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy 263 Bangladesh also stands out as one of the few Muslim majority democracies It is a moderate and generally secular and tolerant though sometimes this is getting stretched at the moment alternative to violent extremism in a very troubled part of the world said Dan Mozena the U S ambassador to Bangladesh Although Bangladesh s legal code is secular more citizens are embracing a conservative version of Islam with some pushing for sharia law analysts say Experts say that the rise in conservatism reflects the influence of foreign financed Islamic charities and the more austere version of Islam brought home by migrant workers in Persian Gulf countries 264 Afghanistan has been a unitary presidential Islamic republic since 2004 Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions civil wars revolutions and terrorist groups Persisting instability for decades have left country s economy stagnated and torn and Afghanistan remains one of most poor and least developed countries on the planet leading to the influx of Afghan refugees to neighboring countries like Iran 196 The unitary semi presidential constitutional republic of Sri Lanka is oldest sustained democracy in Asia Tensions between Sinhalese and Tamils led to Sri Lankan civil war that undermined the country s stability for more than two and a half decades 265 Sri Lanka however has been leading region in HDI with per capita GDP well ahead of India Pakistan and Bangladesh The political situation in Sri Lanka has been dominated by an increasingly assertive Sinhalese nationalism and the emergence of a Tamil separatist movement under LTTE which was suppressed in May 2009 Nepal was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in 2008 The country has been ranked among world s poorest in terms of GDP per capita but has made considerable progress in development indicators outpacing many other South Asian states Bhutan is a Buddhist state with a constitutional monarchy The country has been ranked as the least corrupt and peaceful with most economic freedom in the region in 2016 Myanmar s politics is dominated by a military Junta which has sidelined the democratic forces led by Aung San Suu Kyi Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion Governance and stability Parameters Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri LankaFragile States Index 266 102 9 85 7 69 5 75 3 66 2 82 6 92 1 81 8Corruption Perceptions Index 2019 267 Global rank out of 179 countries 16 173rd 26 146th 68 25th 41 80th 29 130th 34 113th 32 120th 38 93rd The Worldwide Governance Indicators 2015 268 Government Effectiveness 8 24 68 56 41 13 27 53 Political stability and absence of violence terrorism 1 11 89 17 61 16 1 47 Rule of law 2 27 70 56 35 27 24 60 Voice and accountability 16 31 46 61 30 33 27 36 Regional politics Edit See also War in Afghanistan 2001 present Indo Pakistani wars and conflicts and SAARC India has been dominant geopolitical power in the region 269 270 271 and alone accounts for most part of the landmass population economy and military expenditure in the region 272 India is a major economy member of G4 has world s third highest military budget 273 and exerts strong cultural and political influence over the region 274 275 Sometimes referred as a great power or emerging superpower primarily attributed to its large and expanding economic and military abilities India acts as fulcrum of South Asia 276 277 Bangladesh Pakistan and Sri Lanka are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics 278 279 Partition of India in 1947 subsequent violence and territorial disputes left relations between India and Pakistan sour and very hostile 280 and various confrontations and wars which largely shaped the politics of the region and led to the creation of Bangladesh 281 With Yugoslavia India found Non Aligned Movement but later entered an agreement with former Soviet Union following western support for Pakistan 282 Amid the Indo Pakistani war of 1971 US sent its USS Enterprise to the Indian Ocean what was perceived as a nuclear threat by India 283 India s nuclear test in 1974 pushed Pakistan s nuclear program 284 who conducted nuclear tests in Chagai I in 1998 just 18 days after India s series of nuclear tests for thermonuclear weapons 285 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 accelerated efforts to form a union to restrengthen deteriorating regional security 286 After agreements the union was finally established in Dhaka in December 1985 287 However deterioration of India Pakistan ties have led India to emphasize more on sub regional groups SASEC and BBIN South Asia continues to remain least integrated region in the world Meanwhile in East Asia regional trade accounts for 50 of total trade it accounts for only a little more than 5 in South Asia 288 Populism is a general characteristic of internal politics of India 289 Regional groups of countries Edit Name of country region with flag Area km2 Population Population density per km2 Capital or Secretariat Currency Countries included Official languages Coat of ArmsCore Definition above of South Asia 5 220 460 1 726 907 000 330 79 N A N A Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka N A N AUNSD of South Asia 6 778 083 1 702 000 000 270 77 N A N A Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Iran Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka N A N ASAARC 4 637 469 1 626 000 000 350 6 Kathmandu N A Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka English N ABBIN 3 499 559 1 465 236 000 418 69 N A N A Bangladesh Bhutan India Nepal N A N ASASEC 3 565 467 1 485 909 931 416 75 N A N A Bangladesh Bhutan India Myanmar Nepal Sri Lanka Maldives N A N ASee also Edit Asia portal Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia South Asian cuisine South Asian Games South Asia Olympic Council South Asian Football Federation List of tallest buildings and structures in South Asia Indian subcontinentNotes Edit Among the top 100 urban areas of the world by population Afghanistan is sometimes considered to be part of Central Asia The Islamic Republic regarded Afghanistan as a link between Central Asia and South Asia 5 According to the UN cartographic section website disclaimers DESIGNATIONS USED The depiction and use of boundaries geographic names and related data shown on maps and included in lists tables documents and databases on this web site are not warranted to be error free nor do they necessarily imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations 48 Doniger 2010 p 66 Much of what we now call Hinduism may have had roots in cultures that thrived in South Asia long before the creation of textual evidence that we can decipher with any confidence Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c 30 000 BCE in Bhimbetka near present day Bhopal in the Vindhya Mountains in the province of Madhya Pradesh Jones amp Ryan 2006 p xvii Some practices of Hinduism must have originated in Neolithic times c 4000 BCE The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred for instance could very likely have very great antiquity The worship of goddesses too a part of Hinduism today maybe a feature that originated in the Neolithic Michaels They called themselves arya Aryans literally the hospitable from the Vedic arya homey the hospitable but even in the Rgveda arya denotes a cultural and linguistic boundary and not only a racial one 92 References EditCitations Edit a b c d Overall total population xlsx United Nations Retrieved 16 July 2019 a b Report for Selected Countries and Subjects imf org IMF Outlook Database October 2018 a b World Economic Outlook Database International Monetary Fund October 2020 Retrieved 10 November 2020 a b Human Development Report 2019 Human Development Indices and Indicators PDF HDRO Human Development Report Office United Nations Development Programme pp 22 25 Retrieved 10 December 2019 Saez 2012 p 35 a b Afghanistan Regional and Country Profiles South Asia Institute of Development Studies Archived from the original on 20 May 2017 Retrieved 28 February 2019 Composition of macro geographical continental regions geographical sub regions and selected economic and other groupings Southern Asia United Nations Statistics Division Archived from the original on 17 April 2010 Retrieved 31 January 2016 Arnall A 24 September 2010 Adaptive Social Protection Mapping the Evidence and Policy Context in the Agriculture Sector in South Asia Institute of Development Studies 345 Archived from the original on 15 June 2016 Retrieved 31 January 2016 The World Bank Archived from the original on 10 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Institute of Development Studies Afghanistan Archived from the original on 1 June 2017 Retrieved 28 February 2019 Harvard South Asia Institute Afghanistan Archived from the original on 17 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Afghanistan BBC News 31 January 2018 Archived from the original on 29 July 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2018 The Brookings Institution 30 November 2001 Archived from the original on 5 September 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 South Asia The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 4 March 2015 SAARC Summit SAARC SAARC Summit Archived from the original on 16 December 2013 Retrieved 17 December 2013 South Asia Regional Overview South Asian Regional Development Gateway Archived from the original on 21 November 2008 Desai Praful B 2002 Cancer control efforts in the Indian subcontinent Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology 32 Supplement 1 S13 S16 doi 10 1093 jjco hye139 PMID 11959872 Archived from the original PDF on 23 February 2021 The Indian subcontinent in South Asia occupies 2 4 of the world landmass and is home to 16 5 of the world population Asia gt Overview Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2009 The Indian subcontinent is home to a vast diversity of peoples most of whom speak languages from the Indo Aryan subgroup of the Indo European family Indian Subcontinent Archived 21 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopedia of Modern Asia Macmillan Reference USA Gale Group 2006 The area is divided between five major nation states Bangladesh India Nepal Pakistan and Sri Lanka and includes as well the two small nations of Bhutan and the Maldives Republic The total area can be estimated at 4 4 million square kilometres or exactly 10 percent of the land surface of Asia In 2000 the total population was about 22 percent of the world s population and 34 percent of the population of Asia Diplomat Akhilesh Pillalamarri The How South Asia Will Save Global Islam The Diplomat Retrieved 7 February 2017 a b Religion population totals in 2010 by Country Pew Research Center 2012 Archived from the original on 9 December 2016 Pechilis Karen Raj Selva J 2013 South Asian Religions Tradition and Today Routledge p 193 ISBN 978 0 415 44851 2 a b c d Region Asia Pacific Pew Research Center 27 January 2011 Archived from the original on 10 October 2017 Retrieved 13 March 2016 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations 2010 and 2050 Pew Research Center s Religion amp Public Life Project 2 April 2015 Archived from the original on 4 May 2017 Retrieved 7 February 2017 a b Standard Country or Area Codes for Statistical Use Millenniumindicators un org Archived from the original on 11 July 2017 Retrieved 25 August 2012 Quote The assignment of countries or areas to specific groupings is for statistical convenience and does not imply any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories by the United Nations a b Afghanistan Country Profile BBC News Archived from the original on 29 July 2018 Retrieved 21 July 2018 a b The Brookings Institution 30 November 2001 Archived from the original on 5 September 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 a b c CIA The World Factbook Archived from the original on 2 April 2015 Retrieved 4 March 2015 a b c Ghosh Partha Sarathy 1989 Cooperation and Conflict in South Asia Technical Publications pp 4 5 ISBN 978 81 85054 68 1 Archived from the original on 16 May 2016 Retrieved 12 August 2015 a b c Razzaque Jona 2004 Public Interest Environmental Litigation in India Pakistan and Bangladesh Kluwer Law International pp 3 with footnotes 1 and 2 ISBN 978 90 411 2214 8 Archived from the original on 7 October 2017 Retrieved 11 December 2016 Robbins Keith 2012 Transforming the World Global Political History since World War II Palgrave Macmillan p 386 ISBN 978 1 137 29656 6 Quote Some thought that Afghanistan was part of the Middle East and not South Asian at all Saez 2012 p 58 Afghanistan is considered to be part of Central Asia It regards itself as a link between Central Asia and South Asia Margulies Phillip 2008 Nuclear Nonproliferation Infobase Publishing p 63 ISBN 978 1 4381 0902 2 Quote Afghanistan which lies to the northwest is not technically a part of South Asia but is an important neighbor with close links and historical ties to Pakistan Harvard South Asia Institute Afghanistan Archived from the original on 17 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Baten Jorg 2016 A History of the Global Economy From 1500 to the Present Cambridge University Press p 287 ISBN 978 1 107 50718 0 a b c d Sushil Mittal and Gene Thursby Religions of South Asia An Introduction page 3 Routledge 2006 ISBN 978 1 134 59322 4 United Nations Yearbook of the United Nations pages 297 Office of Public Information 1947 United Nations Dale Hoiberg and Indu Ramchandani Students Britannica India vol 1 page 45 Popular Prakashan 2000 ISBN 978 0 85229 760 5 Bertram Hughes Farmer An Introduction to South Asia pages 1 Routledge 1993 ISBN 0 415 05695 0 Mann Michael 2014 South Asia s Modern History Thematic Perspectives Taylor amp Francis pp 13 15 ISBN 978 1 317 62445 5 Anderson Ewan W Anderson Liam D 2013 An Atlas of Middle Eastern Affairs Routledge p 5 ISBN 978 1 136 64862 5 Quote To the east Iran as a Gulf state offers a generally accepted limit to the Middle East However Afghanistan also a Muslim state is then left in isolation It is not accepted as a part of Central Asia and it is clearly not part of the Indian subcontinent Dallen J Timothy and Gyan P Nyaupane Cultural Heritage and Tourism in the Developing World A Regional Perspective page 127 Routledge 2009 ISBN 978 1 134 00228 3 Navnita Chadha Behera International Relations in South Asia Search for an Alternative Paradigm page 129 SAGE Publications India 2008 ISBN 978 81 7829 870 2 The World Bank Archived from the original on 10 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Institute of Development Studies Afghanistan Archived from the original on 1 June 2017 Retrieved 28 February 2019 Saul Bernard Cohen 2008 Geopolitics The Geography of International Relations 2 ed Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers p 329 ISBN 978 0 7425 8154 8 a b c McLeod John 2002 The History of India Greenwood Publishing Group p 1 ISBN 978 0 313 31459 9 Archived from the original on 17 May 2016 Retrieved 19 July 2015 Arthur Berriedale Keith A Constitutional History of India 1600 1935 pages 440 444 Methuen amp Co 1936 N D Arora Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination page 42 1 Tata McGraw Hill Education 2010 9780070090941 Stephen Adolphe Wurm Peter Muhlhausler amp Darrell T Tryon Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific Asia and the Americas pages 787 International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies Published by Walter de Gruyter 1996 ISBN 3 11 013417 9 Indian subcontinent gt Geology and Geography Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine Haggett Peter 2001 Encyclopedia of World Geography Vol 1 Marshall Cavendish p 2710 ISBN 978 0 7614 7289 6 Territories British Indian Ocean Territory Jane s Information Group Encyclopaedia Britannica A New Survey of Universal Knowledge volume 4 pages 177 Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc 1947 Ian Copland The Princes of pre India in the Endgame of the British Empire 1917 1947 pages 263 Cambridge University Press 2002 ISBN 0 521 89436 0 a b United Nations Cartographic Centre Archived 30 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 18 June 2015 Sarkar Sudeshna 16 May 2007 SAARC Afghanistan comes in from the cold Current Affairs Security Watch Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich Archived from the original on 14 June 2011 Retrieved 6 April 2011 South Asian Organisation for Regional Cooperation official website SAARC Secretariat Kathmandu Nepal Archived from the original on 16 December 2013 Retrieved 6 April 2011 Chatterjee Aneek International Relations Today Concepts and Applications page 166 Pearson Education India ISBN 978 81 317 3375 2 SAARC Membership India blocks China s entry for the time being The Economic Times 2 December 2014 Archived from the original on 18 December 2018 Retrieved 17 March 2015 Global Summitry Project SAARC South Asia Data Projects and Research Archived 16 July 2012 at archive today The World Bank SAFTA Protocol Archived from the original on 15 March 2015 Retrieved 20 March 2015 South Asia Unicef org Archived from the original on 20 December 2016 Retrieved 16 December 2016 UNICEF ROSA Unicef org Archived from the original on 20 December 2016 Retrieved 16 December 2016 Mapping and Analysis of Agricultural Trade Liberalization in South Asia Archived 19 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine Trade and Investment Division TID United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific Asia Pacific POPIN Consultative Workshop Report Archived 25 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Asia Pacific POPIN Bulletin Vol 7 No 2 1995 pages 7 11 Geographical region and composition Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Composition of macro geographical continental regions geographical sub regions and selected economic and other groupings United Nations Asia gt Geology and Geography Archived 23 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed Columbia University Press 2003 Asia can be divided into six regions each possessing distinctive physical cultural economic and political characteristics South Asia Afghanistan and the nations of the Indian Peninsula is isolated from the rest of Asia by great mountain barriers Asia gt Geologic history Tectonic framework Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Britannica Encyclopaedia Britannica Online 2009 The paleotectonic evolution of Asia terminated some 50 million years ago as a result of the collision of the Indian Plate with Eurasia Asia s subsequent neotectonic development has largely disrupted the continent s preexisting fabric The first order neotectonic units of Asia are Stable Asia the Arabian and Indian cratons the Alpide plate boundary zone along which the Arabian and Indian platforms have collided with the Eurasian continental plate and the island arcs and marginal basins Chapman Graham P amp Baker Kathleen M eds The changing geography of Asia ISBN 0 203 03862 2 New York Taylor amp Francis e Library 2002 p 10 This greater India is well defined in terms of topography it is the Indian peninsula hemmed in by the Himalayas on the north the Hindu Khush in the west and the Arakanese in the east a b Indian subcontinent New Oxford Dictionary of English ISBN 0 19 860441 6 New York Oxford University Press 2001 p 929 the part of Asia south of the Himalayas which forms a peninsula extending into the Indian Ocean between the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal Historically forming the whole territory of greater India the region is now divided between India Pakistan and Bangladesh a b Kathleen M Baker and Graham P Chapman The Changing Geography of Asia page 10 Routledge 2002 ISBN 978 1 134 93384 6 a b John McLeod The history of India Archived 17 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine page 1 Greenwood Publishing Group 2002 ISBN 0 313 31459 4 Milton Walter Meyer South Asia A Short History of the Subcontinent pages 1 Adams Littlefield 1976 ISBN 0 8226 0034 X Jim Norwine amp Alfonso Gonzalez The Third World states of mind and being pages 209 Taylor amp Francis 1988 ISBN 0 04 910121 8 Boniface Brian G Cooper Christopher P 2005 Worldwide Destinations The Geography of Travel and Tourism Butterworth Heinemann ISBN 978 0 7506 5997 0 Archived from the original on 19 September 2015 Retrieved 19 July 2015 Judith Schott amp Alix Henley Culture Religion and Childbearing in a Multiracial Society pages 274 Elsevier Health Sciences 1996 ISBN 0 7506 2050 1 Raj S Bhopal Ethnicity race and health in multicultural societies pages 33 Oxford University Press 2007 ISBN 0 19 856817 7 Lucian W Pye amp Mary W Pye Asian Power and Politics pages 133 Harvard University Press 1985 ISBN 0 674 04979 9 Mark Juergensmeyer The Oxford handbook of global religions pages 465 Oxford University Press US 2006 ISBN 0 19 513798 1 Sugata Bose amp Ayesha Jalal Modern South Asia pages 3 Routledge 2004 ISBN 0 415 30787 2 The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia 6th ed Columbia University Press 2003 region S central Asia comprising the countries of Pakistan India and Bangladesh and the Himalayan states of Nepal and Bhutan Sri Lanka an island off the southeastern tip of the Indian peninsula is often considered a part of the subcontinent Robert Wynn Jones 2011 Applications of Palaeontology Techniques and Case Studies Cambridge University Press pp 267 271 ISBN 978 1 139 49920 0 Asher Catherine B Talbot Cynthia 16 March 2006 India Before Europe Cambridge University Press pp 5 8 12 14 51 78 80 ISBN 978 0 521 80904 7 archived from the original on 24 April 2016 retrieved 9 December 2016 Ronald B Inden Imagining India page 51 C Hurst amp Co Publishers 2000 ISBN 1 85065 520 0 Quote It is very common today in academic and official circles to speak of the Indian subcontinent as South Asia thereby distinguishing it from an East Asia Sugata Bose amp Ayesha Jalal Modern South Asia pages 3 Routledge 2004 ISBN 0 415 30787 2 Quote Indian subcontinent or South Asia as it has come to be known in more recent and neutral parlance International Relations Theory and South Asia OIP Volume II Security Political Economy Domestic Politics Identities and Images Oxford University Press 13 November 2014 ISBN 978 0 19 908940 6 a b Cutler Robert M 2007 Amineh Mehdi ed The Greater Middle East in Global Politics Social Science Perspectives on the Changing Geography of the World Politics BRILL pp xv 112 ISBN 978 90 474 2209 9 Cambridge University Centre of South Asian Studies Archived from the original on 1 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Cambridge Centre of South Asian Studies Links to South And Southeast Asian resources Archived from the original on 12 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Cambridge South Asian Archive Afghanistan PDF Cambridge Centre of South Asian Studies Library Archived from the original on 13 November 2015 Retrieved 5 November 2015 Grolier Incorporated The Encyclopedia Americana volume 14 pages 201 Grolier 1988 ISBN 0 7172 0119 8 About Us Archived 26 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine Centre for South Asian Studies University of Cambridge CSAS Archived 11 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Centre for South Asian Studies University of Michigan About Us Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Centre for South Asian Studies University of Virginia South Asian Studies Program Archived 12 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Rutgers University Center for South Asia Studies University of California Berkeley Southasia berkeley edu Archived from the original on 13 July 2012 Retrieved 19 August 2012 South Asian Studies Archived 3 May 2007 at the Wayback Machine Brandeis University South Asia Institute Archived 11 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine Columbia University Vernon Marston Hewitt The international politics of South Asia page xi Manchester University Press 1992 ISBN 0 7190 3392 6 Kishore C Dash Regionalism in South Asia pages 172 175 Routledge 2008 ISBN 0 415 43117 4 G Bongard Levin A History of India Progress Publishers Moscow 1979 p 11 Romila Thapar A History of India Penguin Books New York 1966 p 23 Romila Thapar A History of India p 24 Possehl 2002 p 141 156 a b c Michaels 2004 p 33 Michaels 2004 p 32 Witzel 1995 p 3 4 a b c Witzel 1995 Flood 1996 p 30 35 Flood 1996 p 33 Samuel 2010 p 41 48 Stein 2010 p 48 49 Witzel 1995 p 6 Samuel 2010 p 51 53 a b Samuel 2010 p 25 a b Hiltebeitel 2007 p 12 Flood 1996 pp 81 82 Neusner Jacob 2009 World Religions in America An Introduction Westminster John Knox Press ISBN 978 0 664 23320 4 Archived from the original on 18 April 2017 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Gombrich 2006 p 135 Trainor 2004 pp 103 119 Neelis Jason 2010 Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia BRILL Academic pp 102 106 ISBN 978 90 04 18159 5 Archived from the original on 26 November 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Guy John 2014 Lost Kingdoms Hindu Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia Metropolitan Museum of Art pp 9 11 14 15 19 20 ISBN 978 1 58839 524 5 Archived from the original on 23 December 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Neelis Jason 2010 Early Buddhist Transmission and Trade Networks Mobility and Exchange Within and Beyond the Northwestern Borderlands of South Asia BRILL Academic pp 114 115 144 160 163 170 176 249 250 ISBN 978 90 04 18159 5 Archived from the original on 26 November 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Deborah Klimburg Salter 1989 The Kingdom of Bamiyan Buddhist art and culture of the Hindu Kush Naples Rome Istituto Universitario Orientale amp Istituto Italiano per il Medio ed Estremo Oriente ISBN 978 0 87773 765 0 Reprinted by Shambala Crossette Barbara 1996 So Close to Heaven The Vanishing Buddhist Kingdoms of the Himalayas Vintage pp 84 85 ISBN 978 0 679 74363 7 Klimkeit HJ Meserve R Karimov EE Shackle C 2000 Religions and religious movements In Boxworth CE Asimov MS eds History of Civilizations of Central Asia UNESCO pp 79 80 ISBN 978 92 3 103654 5 Samuel 2010 pp 193 228 339 353 specifically pp 76 79 and 194 199 Guy John Baptiste Pierre Becker Lawrence Bellina Berenice Brown Robert L Caro Federico 2014 Lost Kingdoms Hindu Buddhist Sculpture of Early Southeast Asia Yale University Press pp 10 11 ISBN 978 0 300 20437 7 Archived from the original on 18 April 2017 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Michell 1977 p 18 40 Scharfe Hartmut 2002 Handbook of Oriental Studies BRILL Academic pp 144 153 ISBN 978 90 04 12556 8 Archived from the original on 26 November 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Lockard Craig 2007 Societies Networks and Transitions Volume I A Global History Houghton Mifflin p 188 ISBN 978 0 618 38612 3 Archived from the original on 26 November 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Spink Walter M 2005 Ajanta History and Development Volume 5 Cave by Cave BRILL Academic pp 1 9 15 16 ISBN 978 90 04 15644 9 Archived from the original on 29 June 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Ellora Caves UNESCO World Heritage Centre Whc unesco org Archived from the original on 9 December 2016 Retrieved 26 December 2016 Quote Ellora with its uninterrupted sequence of monuments dating from A D 600 to 1000 brings the civilization of ancient India to life Not only is the Ellora complex a unique artistic creation and a technological exploit but with its sanctuaries devoted to Buddhism Hinduism and Jainism it illustrates the spirit of tolerance that was characteristic of ancient India Owen Lisa 2012 Carving Devotion in the Jain Caves at Ellora BRILL Academic pp 1 10 ISBN 978 90 04 20629 8 Archived from the original on 5 February 2017 Retrieved 26 December 2016 History in Chronological Order Government of Pakistan Archived from the original on 23 July 2010 Retrieved 9 January 2008 See M Reza Pirbha Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context ISBN 978 90 04 17758 1 Brill The Islamic frontier in the east Expansion into South Asia Journal of South Asian Studies 4 1 pp 91 109 Sookoohy M Bhadreswar Oldest Islamic Monuments in India ISBN 978 90 04 08341 7 Brill Academic see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat a b c Peter Jackson 2003 The Delhi Sultanate A Political and Military History Cambridge University Press ISBN 978 0 521 54329 3 pp 3 30 T A Heathcote The Military in British India The Development of British Forces in South Asia 1600 1947 Manchester University Press 1995 pp 5 7 Lionel Barnett 1999 Antiquities of India An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan p 1 at Google Books Atlantic pp 73 79 Richard Davis 1994 Three styles in looting India History and Anthropology 6 4 pp 293 317 doi 10 1080 02757206 1994 9960832 Muhammad B Sam Mu izz Al Din T W Haig Encyclopaedia of Islam Vol VII ed C E Bosworth E van Donzel W P Heinrichs and C Pellat Brill 1993 C E Bosworth The Cambridge History of Iran Vol 5 ed J A Boyle John Andrew Boyle Cambridge University Press 1968 pp 161 170 History of South Asia A Chronological Outline Archived 11 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine Columbia University 2010 Muḥammad ibn Tughluq Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Britannica Firoz Shah Tughlak Futuhat i Firoz Shahi Autobiographical memoirs Archived 19 October 2016 at the Wayback Machine Translated in 1871 by Elliot and Dawson Volume 3 The History of India Cornell University Archives pp 377 381 Vincent A Smith The Oxford History of India From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911 p 217 at Google Books Chapter 2 pp 249 251 Oxford University Press Annemarie Schimmel Islam in the South Asian region ISBN 978 90 04 06117 0 Brill Academic pp 20 23 Lewis David 31 October 2011 Bangladesh Politics Economy and Civil Society Cambridge University Press p 44 ISBN 978 1 139 50257 3 In 1346 what became known as the Bengal Sultanate began and continued for almost two centuries Syed Ejaz Hussain 2003 The Bengal Sultanate Politics Economy and Coins A D 1205 1576 Manohar ISBN 978 81 7304 482 3 Kulke and Rothermund Hermann and Dietmar 2004 2004 A History of India Routledge 4th edition pp 187 188 ISBN 978 0 415 32919 4 Nilakanta Sastri K A 1955 reissued 2002 A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar New Delhi Indian Branch Oxford University Press pp 216 239 250 ISBN 978 0 19 560686 7 Lodi Dynasty Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Britannica 2009 Pathak Guptajit 2008 Assam s history and its graphics Mittal p 124 ISBN 978 81 8324 251 6 C E Bosworth 2014 New Islamic Dynasties Edinburgh University Press pp 179 180 ISBN 978 0 7486 9648 2 Borocz Jozsef 10 September 2009 The European Union and Global Social Change Routledge p 21 ISBN 978 1 135 25580 0 Retrieved 26 June 2017 Catherine Blanshard Asher 1992 Architecture of Mughal India Cambridge University Press pp 1 2 ISBN 978 0 521 26728 1 Archived from the original on 18 May 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 a b Maddison Angus 2003 Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics Historical Statistics OECD Publishing ISBN 92 64 10414 3 pages 259 261 a b Lawrence E Harrison Peter L Berger 2006 Developing cultures case studies Routledge p 158 ISBN 978 0 415 95279 8 Archived from the original on 28 March 2019 Retrieved 28 March 2019 Richards John F 1995 The Mughal Empire Cambridge University Press pp 97 101 ISBN 978 0 521 56603 2 Archived from the original on 29 May 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Pashaura Singh 2005 Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan Archived 3 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Journal of Punjab Studies 12 1 pages 29 62 Quote p 29 most of the Sikh scholars have vehemently presented this event as the first of the long series of religious persecutions that Sikhs suffered at the hands of Mughal authorities Singh Pashaura 2006 Life and Work of Guru Arjan History Memory and Biography in the Sikh Tradition Oxford University Press pp 23 217 218 ISBN 978 0 19 567921 2 Archived from the original on 30 March 2017 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Seiple Chris 2013 The Routledge handbook of religion and security New York Routledge p 96 ISBN 978 0 415 66744 9 Singh Pashaura Fenech Louis 2014 The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies Oxford UK Oxford University Press pp 236 238 442 445 ISBN 978 0 19 969930 8 Schimmel Annemarie Waghmar Burzine K 2004 The Empire of the Great Mughals History Art and Culture Reaktion pp 35 115 121 ISBN 978 1 86189 185 3 Retrieved 27 December 2016 White Matthew 2011 The Great Big Book of Horrible Things W W Norton p 234 ISBN 978 0 393 08192 3 The Mughals traditionally had been tolerant of Hinduism Aurangzeb however prohibited Hindus from riding horses or litters He reintroduced the head tax non Muslims had to pay Aurangzeb relentlessly destroyed Hindu temples all across India The Oxford History of India Archived 26 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine Oxford University Press page 437 Bowman John 2005 Columbia Chronologies of Asian History and Culture Columbia University Press pp 282 284 ISBN 978 0 231 50004 3 Lex Heerma van Voss Hiemstra Kuperus Els Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk 2010 The Long Globalization and Textile Producers in India The Ashgate Companion to the History of Textile Workers 1650 2000 Ashgate Publishing p 255 ISBN 978 0 7546 6428 4 Copland Ian Mabbett Ian Roy Asim et al 2012 A History of State and Religion in India Routledge p 161 History of Mysore Under Hyder Ali and Tippoo Sultan by Joseph Michaud p 143 J S Grewal 1990 The Sikhs of the Punjab The New Cambridge History of India II 3 Cambridge University Press pp 99 103 ISBN 978 0 521 26884 4 In 1799 a process of unification was started by Ranjit Singh virtually to establish an empire Before his death in 1839 Rajit Singh s authority over all the conquered and subordinated territories between the river Satlej and the mountain ranges of Ladakh Karakoram Hindukush and Sulaiman was recognized Singh Patwant 2008 Empire of the Sikhs The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh Peter Owen pp 113 124 ISBN 978 0 7206 1323 0 Sengupta Debjani 2015 The Partition of Bengal Fragile Borders and New Identities Cambridge University Press pp 16 19 ISBN 978 1 316 67387 4 Fraser Bashabi 2008 Bengal Partition Stories An Unclosed Chapter Anthem Press pp 7 10 ISBN 978 1 84331 299 4 Saul Bernard Cohen Geopolitics of the world system pages 304 305 Rowman amp Littlefield 2003 ISBN 0 8476 9907 2 Xinru Liu The Silk Road in World History New York Oxford University Press 2010 40 Sinvhal Understanding Earthquake Disasters page 52 Tata McGraw Hill Education 2010 ISBN 978 0 07 014456 9 Harsh K Gupta Disaster management page 85 Universities Press 2003 ISBN 978 81 7371 456 6 M Asif Khan Tectonics of the Nanga Parbat syntaxis and the Western Himalaya page 375 Geological Society of London 2000 ISBN 978 1 86239 061 4 Srikrishna Prapnnachari Concepts in Frame Design page 152 Srikrishna Prapnnachari ISBN 978 99929 52 21 4 A M Celal Sengor Tectonic evolution of the Tethyan Region Springer 1989 ISBN 978 0 7923 0067 0 Valentin Semenovich Burtman amp Peter Hale Molnar Geological and Geophysical Evidence for Deep Subduction of Continental Crust Beneath the Pamir page 10 Geological Society of America 1993 ISBN 0 8137 2281 0 Peel M C Finlayson B L McMahon T A 2007 Updated world map of the Koppen Geiger climate classification Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11 5 1633 1644 Bibcode 2007HESS 11 1633P doi 10 5194 hess 11 1633 2007 ISSN 1027 5606 Archived from the original on 10 February 2017 Retrieved 18 November 2015 direct Final Revised Paper Archived 3 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine a b c John E Olive The Encyclopedia of World Climatology page 115 117 Springer 2005 ISBN 978 1 4020 3264 6 Peter D Tyson Global Regional Linkages in the Earth System page 83 Springer 2002 ISBN 978 3 540 42403 1 Peter D Tyson Global Regional Linkages in the Earth System page 76 Springer 2002 ISBN 978 3 540 42403 1 Kreft Sonke David Eckstein David Melchior Inga November 2016 Global Climate Risk Index 2017 PDF Bonn Germanwatch e V ISBN 978 3 943704 49 5 Archived from the original PDF on 25 September 2017 Retrieved 10 July 2017 United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division 2014 World Urbanization Prospects The 2014 Revision custom data acquired via website http esa un org unpd wpp Excel Data population htm Archived 4 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine Baten Jorg 2016 A History of the Global Economy From 1500 to the Present Cambridge University Press p 249 ISBN 978 1 107 50718 0 a b c World Population prospects Population division United Nations Archived from the original on 5 February 2019 Retrieved 16 July 2019 World Population Prospects 2017 Key Findings PDF esa un org Archived from the original PDF on 16 December 2017 Retrieved 29 October 2019 United Nations Population Div World Population Prospects 2017 File Population Growth Rate retrieved 5 20 18 Archived from the original on 27 September 2016 a b Kachru Braj B Kachru Yamuna S N Sridhar 2008 Language in South Asia Cambridge University Press pp 122 127 419 423 ISBN 978 1 139 46550 2 Archived from the original on 18 January 2017 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Cardona George Jain Dhanesh 2003 The Indo Aryan Languages Routledge pp 75 77 ISBN 978 0 415 77294 5 a b Devanagari Nagari Archived 2 July 2017 at the Wayback Machine Script Features and Description SIL International 2013 United States Hindi Archived 28 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine Omniglot Encyclopedia of Writing Systems and Languages Templin David Devanagari script Omniglot Archived from the original on 1 April 2015 Retrieved 5 April 2015 Shamsur Rahman Faruqi 2008 Urdu Literary Culture The Syncretic Tradition Archived 26 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine Shibli Academy Azamgarh Daniels Peter T Bright William 1996 The World s Writing Systems Oxford University Press p 395 ISBN 978 0 19 507993 7 Kachru Braj B Kachru Yamuna S N Sridhar 2008 Language in South Asia Cambridge University Press pp 391 394 ISBN 978 1 139 46550 2 Archived from the original on 18 January 2017 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Pew Research Center Region South Asia 27 January 2011 Archived from the original on 29 December 2016 Retrieved 1 January 2017 a b Adams C J Classification of religions Geographical Archived 14 December 2007 at the Wayback Machine Encyclopaedia Britannica 2007 Accessed 15 July 2010 Quote Indian religions including early Buddhism Hinduism Jainism and Sikhism and sometimes also Theravada Buddhism and the Hindu and Buddhist inspired religions of South and Southeast Asia Alberts Irving T D R M 2013 Intercultural Exchange in Southeast Asia History and Society in the Early Modern World International Library of Historical Studies I B Tauris Balabanlilar Lisa 2012 Imperial Identity in Mughal Empire Memory and Dynastic Politics in Early Modern Central Asia I B Tauris pp 1 2 7 10 ISBN 978 1 84885 726 1 Archived from the original on 10 June 2016 Retrieved 27 December 2016 Pechilis Karen Raj Selva J 1 January 2013 South Asian Religions Tradition and Today Routledge ISBN 978 0 415 44851 2 10 Countries With the Largest Muslim Populations 2010 and 2050 Pew Research Center s Religion amp Public Life Project 2 April 2015 Archived from the original on 7 February 2017 Retrieved 7 February 2017 Diplomat Akhilesh Pillalamarri The How South Asia Will Save Global Islam The Diplomat Archived from the original on 8 February 2017 Retrieved 7 February 2017 The Census of British India of 1871 72 Journal of the Statistical Society of London Journal of the Statistical Society of London Vol 39 No 2 39 2 413 June 1876 JSTOR 2339124 a b CIA The World Factbook Afghanistan CIA Retrieved 27 March 2012 Archived copy জ ন ন Bangladesh PDF in Bengali US department of States Retrieved 16 October 2019 CIA The World Factbook CIA Retrieved 27 March 2012 Pew Research Center Global Religious Landscape 2010 religious composition by country Archived 13 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine C 1 Population by religious community 2011 Office of the Registrar General amp Census Commissioner Archived from the original on 25 August 2015 Retrieved 25 August 2015 Ahmadiyyas are considered a sect of Islam in India Other minorities are 0 4 Jains and 0 23 irreligious population religion Maldives Archived from the original on 28 September 2007 Retrieved 23 August 2010 Maldives Law emory edu 21 February 1920 Archived from the original on 11 February 2013 Retrieved 23 August 2010 Maldives Religion Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine countrystudies us Statistical Yearbook of Nepal 2013 Kathmandu Central Bureau of Statistics 2013 p 23 Retrieved 16 October 2019 POPULATION BY RELIGION PDF Pakistan Burau of Statistics Government of Pakistan 1 Census of Population and Housing 2011 Department of Census and Statistic Retrieved 16 October 2019 a b c d Cox Wendell June 2020 Demographia World Urban Areas PDF Demographia Retrieved 28 March 2021 South Asia s cricket obsession 21 December 2006 Retrieved 1 December 2020 India constitutes 90 percent of one billion cricket fans ICC research The Economic Times Retrieved 1 December 2020 Welcome to WorldBank Group World Bank Archived from the original on 16 July 2012 Retrieved 23 August 2010 South Asia now the fastest growing region in the world could take greater advantage of cheap oil to reform energy pricing Archived from the original on 17 April 2015 Retrieved 16 April 2015 a b Field Listing Names CIA Archived from the original on 1 July 2017 Retrieved 28 July 2011 a b UNGEGN List of Country Names PDF United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names 2007 Archived PDF from the original on 28 July 2011 Retrieved 28 July 2011 a b List of countries territories and currencies Europa 9 August 2011 Archived from the original on 7 August 2011 Retrieved 10 August 2011 World Economic Outlook April 2017 Inflation rate average consumer prices IMF Archived from the original on 26 August 2017 Retrieved 26 August 2017 World Economic Outlook GDP current prices in billions of dollars International Monetary Fund October 2019 Retrieved 9 January 2020 World Economic Outlook GDP current prices per capita International Monetary Fund October 2019 Retrieved 9 January 2020 World Economic Outlook April 2017 Real GDP growth IMF Archived from the original on 26 August 2017 Retrieved 26 August 2017 Inequality adjusted HDI IHDI hdr undp org UNDP Retrieved 23 September 2020 Poverty amp Equity Data Portal povertydata worldbank org Archived from the original on 15 February 2015 Retrieved 6 June 2015 Chakravarty Manas 13 October 2014 The World Bank on India s poverty Live Mint Archived from the original on 23 June 2015 Retrieved 6 June 2015 India Data data worldbank org Archived from the original on 19 June 2015 Retrieved 6 June 2015 a b c UN PDF Archived PDF from the original on 24 September 2015 Retrieved 3 June 2015 Human Development Report 2019 PDF United Nations Development Programme Global wealth report www credit suisse com Credit Suisse Retrieved 25 October 2019 Global wealth report 2019 PDF Credit Suisse Retrieved 25 October 2019 span, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

, library,

article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.