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South Region, Brazil

The South Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Sul do Brasil;) is one of the five regions of Brazil. It includes the states of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576,409.6 square kilometres (222,553.0 sq mi), being the smallest portion of the country, occupying only about 6.76% of the territory of Brazil. Its whole area is smaller than that of the state of Minas Gerais, in Southeast Brazil, for example.

South Region

Contents

Pre-Columbian history

São Miguel das Missões, where Jesuits lived with local Indians.

By the time the first European explorers arrived, all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi-nomadic hunter-gatherer Indian tribes. They subsisted on a combination of hunting, fishing, and gathering.

Portuguese colonization

European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Portuguese and Spanish Jesuit missionaries. They lived among the Indians and converted them to Catholicism. Colonists from São Paulo (Bandeirantes) arrived in the same period. For decades, the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region.

Due to this conflict, the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil, in an attempt to build up a Portuguese population. Between 1748 and 1756, six thousand Azoreans arrived. They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century.

German settlement

Areas of German settlement in Southern Brazil (pink), in 1905
Pomerode, A Pomeranian-German colony in Santa Catarina

The first German immigrants came to Brazil soon after it gained independence in 1822 from Portugal. They were recruited to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without sufficient workers. To attract the immigrants, the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region. The first immigrants arrived in 1824, settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo. Over the next four decades, another 27,256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country. By 1904, it is estimated that 50,000 Germans had settled in this state.

In Santa Catarina, most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas, such as the Hamburg Colonization Society. These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants, many of which developed into large cities, such as Blumenau and Joinville, the largest city in Santa Catarina.

Considerable numbers[clarification needed] of immigrants from Germany arrived at Paraná during the civil war, most of them coming from Santa Catarina; others were Volga Germans from Russia.

Ragamuffin War

Main article: Ragamuffin War

The Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil (Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina) in 1835. The rebels, led by generals Bento Gonçalves da Silva and Antônio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi, surrendered to imperial forces in 1845. This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul, the state's main product, the charque (dried and salted beef), suffered stiff competition from charque from Uruguay and Argentina. The imports had free access to the Brazilian market while gaúchos had to pay high taxes to sell their product inside Brazil. The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839. With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina, in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul. After many conflicts, in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war.

Italian settlement

Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875. They were mostly peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy (but also from Trentino and Lombardia) attracted to Southern Brazil for economic opportunities and the chance to acquire their own lands. Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers, mainly cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaúcha. Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914, with a total of 100,000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period, and many others in Santa Catarina and Paraná.

In 1898, there were a total of 300,000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul; 50,000 in Santa Catarina; and 30,000 in Paraná. Today their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9.7 million and comprise 35.9% of Southern Brazil's population.

As noted, the region received numerous European immigrants during the 19th century, who have had a large influence on its demography and culture. The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese, Italian, German, Austrian, Luxembourger, Polish, Ukrainian, Spanish, Dutch and Russian. Smaller numbers that follow are French, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Black, Swiss, Croat, Lebanese, Lithuanian and Latvian, Japanese, Finnish and Estonian, Belarusian, Slovene, Ashkenazi Jew, Caboclo, British, Czech, Slovak, Belgian and Hungarian

Racial composition

Skin color/Race (2014)
White 75.92%
Mixed 18.96%
Black 4.28%
Asian 0.57%
Indigenous 0.26%
Undeclared 0%
Climate types of Southern Brazil.

Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12 °C (53.6 °F) and 22 °C (71.6 °F). It snows in the mountain ranges.

The region is highly urbanized (82%) and many cities are famous for their urban planning, like Curitiba and Maringá, both in Paraná State. It has a relatively high standard of living, with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil, 0.859 (2007), and the second highest per capita income of the country, $13.396, behind only the Southeast Region. The region also has a 98.3% literacy rate.

Portuguese, the official language of Brazil, is spoken by the entire population. In the south countryside, dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken. The predominant dialects are Hunsrückisch and Venetian (or Talian). In Rio Grande do Sul and Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers. In the northern region of Paraná there are some Japanese speakers. In the region around Ponta Grossa there are also some Dutch speakers. There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Paraná as well. Indigenous languages still spoken in some villages include Guarani and Kaingang.

Agriculture

Winery in Rio Grande do Sul.
Wheat in Paraná.
Tobacco in Rio Grande do Sul .

The main agricultural products grown are:

  • soy (35% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer);
  • maize (35% of the country's production, which is the 3rd world producer);
  • tobacco (almost all the production of the country, which is the second largest producer in the world and the largest exporter);
  • rice (80% of the country's production, which is the ninth largest producer in the world);
  • grape (almost all the production of the country, which is the eleventh largest producer in the world);
  • apple (almost all the production of the country, which is the thirteenth world producer);
  • wheat (almost all the country's production);
  • oat (almost all the country's production);
  • sugar cane (8% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer);
  • cassava (25% of the country's production, which is the fifth largest producer in the world);
  • yerba mate (almost all the production of the country, which is one of the largest producers in the world);
  • bean (26% of the country's production, which is the third largest producer in the world);

in addition to producing relevant quantities of:

  • orange (6% of the country's production, which is the world's largest producer);
  • tangerine (30% of the country's production, which is the sixth largest producer in the world);
  • persimmon (20% of the country's production, which is the sixth largest producer in the world);
  • barley, peach, fig and onion (most of the country's production);
  • strawberry.

Livestock

Cattle in Rio Grande do Sul.
Sheep in Rio Grande do Sul.
Swine in Santa Catarina
Poultry in Santa Catarina

In 2017, the southern region gathered around 12% of Brazil's cattle (27 million head of cattle).

In sheep farming, in 2017, the South Region was the second largest in the country, with 4.2 million head. Sheep shearing activity continued to be predominant in the South, which is responsible for 99% of wool production in the country. Rio Grande do Sul continued to be the state with the highest national participation, representing 94.1% of the total. The municipalities of Santana do Livramento, Alegrete and Quaraí led the activity. Currently, meat production has become the main objective of sheep farming in the State, due to the increase in prices paid to the producer that made the activity more attractive and profitable.

Intensive livestock farming is also highly developed in the South, which ranks first in the ranking of Brazilian milk production. Some of the milk produced in the South benefits from the dairy industries. The South has 35.7% of the Brazilian milk production, competing with the Southeast (which was the largest producer until 2014), which has 34.2%. The southeast has the largest herd of cows milked: 30.4% of the total of 17.1 million existing in Brazil. The highest productivity, however, is that of the Southern Region, with an average of 3,284 liters per cow per year, which is why it has led the ranking of milk production since 2015. The municipality of Castro, in Paraná, was the largest producer in 2017, with 264 million liters of milk. Paraná is already the second largest national producer with 4.7 billion liters, only surpassed by Minas Gerais.

In pork, the 3 southern states are the largest producers in the country. Santa Catarina is the largest producer in Brazil. The State is responsible for 28.38% of the country's slaughter and 40.28% of Brazilian pork exports. Paraná, for its part, has a breeding stock of 667 thousand inhabited dwellings, with a herd representing 17.85% of the Brazilian total. Paraná occupies the second position in the country's productive ranking, with 21.01%, and the third place among exporting states, with 14.22%. In third place in Brazil is Rio Grande do Sul, with almost 15% participation.

Poultry farming is strong in the South. In 2018, the South region, with an emphasis on the creation of chickens for slaughter, was responsible for almost half of the Brazilian total (46.9%). Paraná only represented 26.2%. Paraná occupies the Brazilian leadership in the ranking of chicken producing and exporting states. Rio Grande do Sul ranks third in national production, with 11%.

In egg production, the South Region is the 2nd largest in Brazil, with 24.1% of the country's production. Paraná ranks 2nd in the Brazilian ranking, with 9.6% of the national participation.

In fish farming, western Paraná, in municipalities close to Toledo and Cascavel, has become the largest fishing region in the country, with tilapia as the main cultivated species. The west represents 69% of all the production of Paraná, the largest national producer, with 112 thousand tons. Of this amount, 91% refers to tilapia farming.

The South region was the main producer of honey in the country in 2017, representing 39.7% of the national total. Rio Grande do Sul was the first with 15.2%, Paraná in second place with 14.3%, Santa Catarina in fifth place with 10.2%.

Mining

Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul, in Rio Grande do Sul.

Santa Catarina is the largest producer of coal in Brazil, mainly in the city of Criciúma and its surroundings. Crude mineral coal production in Brazil was 13.6 million tons in 2007. Santa Catarina produced 8.7 Mt (million tons); Rio Grande do Sul, 4.5 Mt; and Paraná, 0.4 Mt. Despite the extraction of mineral coal in Brazil, the country still needs to import around 50% of the coal consumed, since the coal produced in the country is of low quality, since it has a lower concentration of carbon. Countries supplying mineral coal to Brazil include South Africa, the United States and Australia. Mineral coal in Brazil supplies, in particular, thermoelectric plants that consume around 85% of production. The cement industry in the country, on the other hand, is supplied with approximately 6% of this coal, leaving 4% for the production of cellulose paper and only 5% in the food, ceramic and grain industries. Brazil has reserves of peat, lignite and hard coal. Coal totals 32 billion tons of reserves and is mainly located in Rio Grande do Sul (89.25% of the total), followed by Santa Catarina (10.41%). The Candiota (RS) deposit only has 38% of all the national coal. As it is an inferior quality coal, it is used only in thermoelectric power generation and at the deposit site. The oil crisis in the 1970s led the Brazilian government to create the Energy Mobilization Plan, with intense research to discover new coal reserves. The Geological Survey of Brazil, through works carried out in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, greatly increased previously known coal reserves between 1970 and 1986 (mainly between 1978 and 1983). Then good quality coal, suitable for use in metallurgy and in large volumes (seven billion tons), was discovered in several deposits in Rio Grande do Sul (Morungava, Chico Lomã, Santa Teresinha), but at relatively great depths (up to 1,200 m), which has prevented its use until now. In 2011, coal represented only 5.6% of the energy consumed in Brazil, but it is an important strategic source, which can be activated when, for example, the water levels in the dams are very low, reducing the excess supply of water. hydroelectric power. This happened in 2013, when several thermoelectric plants were closed, thus maintaining the necessary supply, although at a higher cost.

Paraná is the largest producer of oil shale in Brazil. In the city of São Mateus do Sul, there is a plant Petrobras specialized in the production of the material. Approximately 7,800 tons are processed daily.

Rio Grande do Sul is an important producer of gemstones. Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst and agate, and Rio Grande do Sul is the country's largest producer. Agate has had local extraction since 1830. The largest producer of amethyst in Brazil is the city of Ametista do Sul. This stone was very rare and expensive throughout the world, until the discovery of large deposits in Brazil, which caused a considerable drop in its value.

Industry

BRF meat factory in Santa Catarina.
Hering textile industry in Santa Catarina.
Salton winery in Rio Grande do Sul
Klabin pulp and paper mill in Paraná
Beira Rio shoe factory, Rio Grande do Sul
Neugebauer Chocolate Factory, Rio Grande do Sul

The region concentrates 20% of the industrial GDP of the country.

In 2019, Paraná was the second largest vehicle producer in the country (Brazil is one of the 10 largest vehicle producers in the world). Paraná has in its territory the Volkswagen, Renault, Audi, Volvo and DAF factories; Santa Catarina has GM and BMW plants and Rio Grande do Sul, a GM plant.

In the food industry, in 2019, Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world, with a value of US $ 34.1 billion in exports. Regarding the creation of national or multinational companies, Rio Grande do Sul created companies such as Neugebauer, Camil Alimentos, Fruki, Cervejaria Polar, Vinícola Aurora and Vinícola Salton. Santa Catarina created companies such as Sadia and Perdigão (which later merged into BRF), Seara Alimentos (which today belongs to JBS), Aurora, Gomes da Costa, Cervejaria Eisenbahn and Hemmer Alimentos. Paraná created companies such as: Frimesa, C.Vale, Nutrimental, Copacol, Coopavel and Matte Leão.

In the footwear industry, in 2019 Brazil produced 972 million pairs, being the fourth largest producer in the world, behind China, India and Vietnam, and ranks 11th among the largest exporters. The Brazilian state that most exports the product is Rio Grande do Sul: in 2019 it exported US $ 448.35 million. Most of the product goes to the United States, Argentina and France. Santa Catarina also has a shoe production center in São João Batista.

In the textile industry, Brazil, despite being among the 5 largest producers in the world in 2013, and being representative in the consumption of textiles and clothing, had very little insertion in world trade. In 2015, Brazilian imports ranked 25th (US $ 5.5 billion). And in exports, it only ranked 40th in the world ranking. Brazil's participation in the world trade of textiles and clothing is only 0.3%, due to the difficulty of competing in price with producers in India and mainly in China. The South had 32.65% of the country's textile production. Santa Catarina is the second largest textile and clothing employer in Brazil. It held the national leadership in the manufacture of pillows and is the largest producer in Latin America and the second in the world in woven labels. It's the nation's largest exporter of toilet / kitchen linen, cotton terry fabrics and cotton knit shirts. Some of the most famous companies in the region are Hering, Malwee, Karsten and Haco.

In the electronics industry, the industry turnover in Brazil reached R $ 153.0 billion in 2019, around 3% of the national GDP. The number of employees in the sector was 234,500 people. Brazil has two large electroelectronic production poles, located in Campinas, in the State of São Paulo, and in the Manaus Free Zone, in the State of Amazonas. The country also has other smaller centers, one of which is Curitiba, the capital of Paraná. The Curitiba technology center has companies such as Siemens and Positivo Informática. In total, 87 companies and 16 thousand employees work in Tecnoparque, an area of 127 thousand square meters created by state law in 2007. Tecnoparque can grow to 400 thousand square meters and receive up to four times the number of workers it has today, reaching 68 thousand people.

In the home appliance industry, sales of so-called "white line" equipment were 12.9 million units in 2017. The sector had its sales peak in 2012, with 18.9 million units. The brands that sold the most were Brastemp, Electrolux, Consul and Philips. Consul is originally from Santa Catarina, merged with Brastemp and today is part of the multinational Whirlpool Corporation. Another famous brand from the South was Prosdócimo, founded in Curitiba, which was sold to Electrolux. In the small electrical appliances sector, the Britânia company is originally from Curitiba.

In the metallurgical sector, the South has one of the most famous companies in the country, Tramontina, which employs more than 8,500 employees and has 10 production units. Other famous companies in the South are Marcopolo, a bus body manufacturer, which had a market value of R $ 2.782 billion in 2015, and Randon, a group of 9 companies specialized in transport solutions, which groups together vehicle manufacturers, auto parts, and road equipment - employs around 11 thousand people and recorded gross sales in 2017 of R $ 4.2 billion.

In Santa Catarina, the machinery and equipment industry stands out in the manufacture of compressors, being a leader in exports of this product among the states of the country, in addition to being an important producer of forestry equipment. In metallurgy, the state has the largest national manufacturer of sinks, vats and stainless steel tanks, trophies and medals, fasteners (screws, nuts, etc.), jacketed tanks for fuels, industrial pressure vessels and malleable iron connections. It's the world leader in engine blocks and iron heads, being the largest exporter of this product in Brazil.

In the pulp and paper sector, Brazilian pulp production was 19,691 million tons in 2019. The country exported US $ 7.48 billion in pulp this year, US $ 3.25 billion to China alone. Exports of the Brazilian forest industry totaled US $ 9.7 billion (US $ 7.48 billion in pulp, US $ 2 billion in paper, and US $ 265 million in wood panels). Paper production was 10,535 million tons in 2019. The country exported 2,163 million tons. In 2016, the pulp and paper industry in the south of the country represented 33% of the national total. This year, Paraná was the national leader in the production of roundwood (mainly eucalyptus) for the pulp and paper industry (15.9 million m³); Brazil was the second country that produced the most pulp in the world and the eighth in the production of paper. The city that produced the most these woods in Brazil was Telêmaco Borba (PR), and the fifth largest was Ortigueira (PR).

Rio Grande do Sul has a great potential for palaeontological tourism, with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota. There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic. Here lived Rhynchosaur, thecodonts, exaeretodons, Staurikosaurus, Guaibasaurus, Saturnalia tupiniquim, Sacisaurus, Unaysaurus and many others.

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  27. PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  28. Produção de leite cai 0,5% e totaliza 33,5 bilhões de litros em 2017
  29. REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL É O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEÍNA ANIMAL DO MUNDO
  30. PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  31. REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL É O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEÍNA ANIMAL DO MUNDO
  32. PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  33. PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  34. REGIÃO SUL DO BRASIL É O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEÍNA ANIMAL DO MUNDO
  35. PPM 2017: Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro-Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados
  36. Carvão Mineral
  37. Carvão mineral no Brasil e no mundo
  38. A maior usina de xisto do País
  39. Algumas Gemas Clássicas
  40. Rio Grande do Sul: o maior exportador de pedras preciosas do Brasil
  41. Os alemães e as pedras preciosas gaúchas
  42. Maior pedra de água-marinha é brasileira e ficará exposta nos EUA
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  44. Perfil de la industria de Paraná
  45. Perfil de la industria de Rio Grande del Sur
  46. Perfil de la industria de Santa Catarina
  47. O novo mapa das montadoras
  48. A indústria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual
  49. Faturamento da indústria de alimentos cresceu 6,7% em 2019
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  52. Exportação de Calçados: Saiba mais
  53. A indústria eletroeletrônica do Brasil - Levantamento de dados
  54. Um setor em recuperação
  55. Produção nacional de celulose cai 6,6% em 2019, aponta Ibá
  56. Sabe qual é o estado brasileiro que mais produz Madeira? Não é São Paulo
  57. São Mateus é o 6º maior produtor de madeira em tora para papel e celulose no país, diz IBGE
  58. Made in Espírito Santo: celulose capixaba é usada em papel até do outro lado do mundo

South Region, Brazil
South Region Brazil Article Talk Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from South Brazil The South Region of Brazil Portuguese Regiao Sul do Brasil ʁeʒiˈɐ w suw du bɾaˈziw is one of the five regions of Brazil It includes the states of Parana Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul and covers 576 409 6 square kilometres 222 553 0 sq mi being the smallest portion of the country occupying only about 6 76 of the territory of Brazil Its whole area is smaller than that of the state of Minas Gerais in Southeast Brazil for example South Region Regiao SulRegionCoordinates 25 26 S 49 16 W 25 433 S 49 267 W 25 433 49 267 Coordinates 25 26 S 49 16 W 25 433 S 49 267 W 25 433 49 267Country BrazilStatesParana Rio Grande do Sul Santa CatarinaArea Region576 409 6 km2 222 553 0 sq mi Area rank5thPopulation Region30 192 315 Rank3rd Density52 km2 140 sq mi Density rank2nd Urban82 GDP Year2008 1 TotalR 676 billion 2nd Per capitaR 24 382 2nd HDI Year2017 Category0 798 high 1st Life expectancy77 2 years 1st Infant mortality7 7 per 1 000 5th Literacy98 3 1st Time zoneUTC 03 BRT Summer DST UTC 02 BRST It is a tourist economic and cultural pole It borders Uruguay Argentina and Paraguay as well as the Centre West and Southeast regions and the Atlantic Ocean The region is considered the safest in Brazil to visit having a lower crime rate than other regions in the country 2 Contents 1 History 1 1 Pre Columbian history 1 2 Portuguese colonization 1 3 German settlement 1 4 Ragamuffin War 1 5 Italian settlement 2 Demographics 2 1 Racial composition 3 Climate 4 Characteristics 5 Languages 6 Economy 6 1 Agriculture 6 2 Livestock 6 3 Mining 6 4 Industry 7 Palaeontological tourism 8 See also 9 References 10 External linksHistory EditPre Columbian history Edit Main article Indigenous peoples of Brazil Sao Miguel das Missoes where Jesuits lived with local Indians By the time the first European explorers arrived all parts of the territory were inhabited by semi nomadic hunter gatherer Indian tribes They subsisted on a combination of hunting fishing and gathering Portuguese colonization Edit European colonization in Southern Brazil started with the arrival of Portuguese and Spanish Jesuit missionaries They lived among the Indians and converted them to Catholicism Colonists from Sao Paulo Bandeirantes arrived in the same period 3 For decades the Portuguese and Spanish crowns disputed over this region Due to this conflict the King of Portugal encouraged the immigration of settlers from the Azores Islands to Southern Brazil in an attempt to build up a Portuguese population Between 1748 and 1756 six thousand Azoreans arrived They composed over half of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina by the late 18th century 4 German settlement Edit Areas of German settlement in Southern Brazil pink in 1905 Pomerode A Pomeranian German colony in Santa Catarina The first German immigrants came to Brazil soon after it gained independence in 1822 from Portugal They were recruited to work as small farmers because there were many land holdings without sufficient workers To attract the immigrants the Brazilian government had promised them large tracts where they could settle with their families and colonize the region The first immigrants arrived in 1824 settling in the city of Sao Leopoldo Over the next four decades another 27 256 Germans were brought to Rio Grande do Sul to work as smallholders in the country 5 By 1904 it is estimated that 50 000 Germans had settled in this state In Santa Catarina most German immigrants were not brought by the Brazilian government but by private groups that promoted the immigration of Europeans to the Americas such as the Hamburg Colonization Society These groups created rural communities or colonies for immigrants many of which developed into large cities such as Blumenau and Joinville the largest city in Santa Catarina Considerable numbers clarification needed of immigrants from Germany arrived at Parana during the civil war most of them coming from Santa Catarina others were Volga Germans from Russia 6 Ragamuffin War Edit Main article Ragamuffin War The Ragamuffin War was a Republican uprising that began in Southern Brazil Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in 1835 The rebels led by generals Bento Goncalves da Silva and Antonio de Souza Netto with the support of the Italian warrior Giuseppe Garibaldi surrendered to imperial forces in 1845 This conflict occurred because in Rio Grande do Sul the state s main product the charque dried and salted beef suffered stiff competition from charque from Uruguay and Argentina The imports had free access to the Brazilian market while gauchos had to pay high taxes to sell their product inside Brazil The Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the rebels in 1839 With his help the revolution spread through Santa Catarina in the northern border of Rio Grande do Sul After many conflicts in 1845 peace negotiations ended the war Italian settlement Edit Italian immigrants started arriving in Brazil in 1875 They were mostly peasants from the Veneto in Northern Italy but also from Trentino and Lombardia attracted to Southern Brazil for economic opportunities and the chance to acquire their own lands Most of the immigrants worked as small farmers mainly cultivating grapes in the Serra Gaucha Italian immigration to the region lasted until 1914 with a total of 100 000 Italians settling in Rio Grande do Sul in this period and many others in Santa Catarina and Parana 7 In 1898 there were a total of 300 000 people of Italian origin in Rio Grande do Sul 50 000 in Santa Catarina and 30 000 in Parana Today their Southern Brazilian descendants number 9 7 million and comprise 35 9 of Southern Brazil s population 8 9 Demographics EditAs noted the region received numerous European immigrants during the 19th century who have had a large influence on its demography and culture The main ethnic origins of Southern Brazil are Portuguese Italian German Austrian Luxembourger Polish Ukrainian Spanish Dutch and Russian Smaller numbers that follow are French Norwegian Swedish Danish Black Swiss Croat Lebanese Lithuanian and Latvian Japanese Finnish and Estonian Belarusian Slovene Ashkenazi Jew Caboclo British Czech Slovak Belgian and Hungarian 10 11 12 13 14 15 City State Population 2010 Curitiba 16 Parana 1 751 907Porto Alegre Rio Grande do Sul 1 409 351Joinville Santa Catarina 569 000Londrina 16 Parana 506 701Caxias do Sul Rio Grande do Sul 435 564Florianopolis Santa Catarina 421 240Maringa Parana 357 077Pelotas Rio Grande do Sul 328 275Canoas Rio Grande do Sul 323 827Ponta Grossa Parana 311 611Blumenau Santa Catarina 309 214Racial composition Edit Skin color Race 2014 White 75 92 17 Mixed 18 96 18 Black 4 28 19 Asian 0 57 20 Indigenous 0 26 21 Undeclared 0 22 Climate Edit Climate types of Southern Brazil Southern Brazil has subtropical or temperate climate The annual average temperatures vary between 12 C 53 6 F and 22 C 71 6 F It snows in the mountain ranges Characteristics EditThe region is highly urbanized 82 and many cities are famous for their urban planning like Curitiba and Maringa both in Parana State It has a relatively high standard of living with the highest Human Development Index of Brazil 0 859 2007 and the second highest per capita income of the country 13 396 behind only the Southeast Region The region also has a 98 3 literacy rate Languages EditPortuguese the official language of Brazil is spoken by the entire population In the south countryside dialects of German or Italian origins are also spoken The predominant dialects are Hunsruckisch and Venetian or Talian In Rio Grande do Sul and Curitiba there are some Yiddish speakers In the northern region of Parana there are some Japanese speakers In the region around Ponta Grossa there are also some Dutch speakers There are Polish language and Ukrainian language speakers in Parana as well 23 24 Indigenous languages still spoken in some villages include Guarani and Kaingang Economy EditAgriculture Edit Winery in Rio Grande do Sul Wheat in Parana Tobacco in Rio Grande do Sul The main agricultural products grown are soy 35 of the country s production which is the world s largest producer maize 35 of the country s production which is the 3rd world producer tobacco almost all the production of the country which is the second largest producer in the world and the largest exporter rice 80 of the country s production which is the ninth largest producer in the world grape almost all the production of the country which is the eleventh largest producer in the world apple almost all the production of the country which is the thirteenth world producer wheat almost all the country s production oat almost all the country s production sugar cane 8 of the country s production which is the world s largest producer cassava 25 of the country s production which is the fifth largest producer in the world yerba mate almost all the production of the country which is one of the largest producers in the world bean 26 of the country s production which is the third largest producer in the world in addition to producing relevant quantities of orange 6 of the country s production which is the world s largest producer tangerine 30 of the country s production which is the sixth largest producer in the world persimmon 20 of the country s production which is the sixth largest producer in the world barley peach fig and onion most of the country s production strawberry 25 Livestock Edit Cattle in Rio Grande do Sul Sheep in Rio Grande do Sul Swine in Santa Catarina Poultry in Santa Catarina In 2017 the southern region gathered around 12 of Brazil s cattle 27 million head of cattle 26 In sheep farming in 2017 the South Region was the second largest in the country with 4 2 million head Sheep shearing activity continued to be predominant in the South which is responsible for 99 of wool production in the country Rio Grande do Sul continued to be the state with the highest national participation representing 94 1 of the total The municipalities of Santana do Livramento Alegrete and Quarai led the activity Currently meat production has become the main objective of sheep farming in the State due to the increase in prices paid to the producer that made the activity more attractive and profitable 27 Intensive livestock farming is also highly developed in the South which ranks first in the ranking of Brazilian milk production Some of the milk produced in the South benefits from the dairy industries The South has 35 7 of the Brazilian milk production competing with the Southeast which was the largest producer until 2014 which has 34 2 The southeast has the largest herd of cows milked 30 4 of the total of 17 1 million existing in Brazil The highest productivity however is that of the Southern Region with an average of 3 284 liters per cow per year which is why it has led the ranking of milk production since 2015 The municipality of Castro in Parana was the largest producer in 2017 with 264 million liters of milk Parana is already the second largest national producer with 4 7 billion liters only surpassed by Minas Gerais 28 29 In pork the 3 southern states are the largest producers in the country Santa Catarina is the largest producer in Brazil The State is responsible for 28 38 of the country s slaughter and 40 28 of Brazilian pork exports Parana for its part has a breeding stock of 667 thousand inhabited dwellings with a herd representing 17 85 of the Brazilian total Parana occupies the second position in the country s productive ranking with 21 01 and the third place among exporting states with 14 22 In third place in Brazil is Rio Grande do Sul with almost 15 participation 30 31 Poultry farming is strong in the South In 2018 the South region with an emphasis on the creation of chickens for slaughter was responsible for almost half of the Brazilian total 46 9 Parana only represented 26 2 Parana occupies the Brazilian leadership in the ranking of chicken producing and exporting states Rio Grande do Sul ranks third in national production with 11 32 In egg production the South Region is the 2nd largest in Brazil with 24 1 of the country s production Parana ranks 2nd in the Brazilian ranking with 9 6 of the national participation 33 In fish farming western Parana in municipalities close to Toledo and Cascavel has become the largest fishing region in the country with tilapia as the main cultivated species The west represents 69 of all the production of Parana the largest national producer with 112 thousand tons Of this amount 91 refers to tilapia farming 34 The South region was the main producer of honey in the country in 2017 representing 39 7 of the national total Rio Grande do Sul was the first with 15 2 Parana in second place with 14 3 Santa Catarina in fifth place with 10 2 35 Mining Edit Amethyst mine in Ametista do Sul in Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina is the largest producer of coal in Brazil mainly in the city of Criciuma and its surroundings Crude mineral coal production in Brazil was 13 6 million tons in 2007 Santa Catarina produced 8 7 Mt million tons Rio Grande do Sul 4 5 Mt and Parana 0 4 Mt Despite the extraction of mineral coal in Brazil the country still needs to import around 50 of the coal consumed since the coal produced in the country is of low quality since it has a lower concentration of carbon Countries supplying mineral coal to Brazil include South Africa the United States and Australia Mineral coal in Brazil supplies in particular thermoelectric plants that consume around 85 of production The cement industry in the country on the other hand is supplied with approximately 6 of this coal leaving 4 for the production of cellulose paper and only 5 in the food ceramic and grain industries Brazil has reserves of peat lignite and hard coal Coal totals 32 billion tons of reserves and is mainly located in Rio Grande do Sul 89 25 of the total followed by Santa Catarina 10 41 The Candiota RS deposit only has 38 of all the national coal As it is an inferior quality coal it is used only in thermoelectric power generation and at the deposit site The oil crisis in the 1970s led the Brazilian government to create the Energy Mobilization Plan with intense research to discover new coal reserves The Geological Survey of Brazil through works carried out in Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina greatly increased previously known coal reserves between 1970 and 1986 mainly between 1978 and 1983 Then good quality coal suitable for use in metallurgy and in large volumes seven billion tons was discovered in several deposits in Rio Grande do Sul Morungava Chico Loma Santa Teresinha but at relatively great depths up to 1 200 m which has prevented its use until now In 2011 coal represented only 5 6 of the energy consumed in Brazil but it is an important strategic source which can be activated when for example the water levels in the dams are very low reducing the excess supply of water hydroelectric power This happened in 2013 when several thermoelectric plants were closed thus maintaining the necessary supply although at a higher cost 36 37 Parana is the largest producer of oil shale in Brazil In the city of Sao Mateus do Sul there is a plant Petrobras specialized in the production of the material Approximately 7 800 tons are processed daily 38 Rio Grande do Sul is an important producer of gemstones Brazil is the world s largest producer of amethyst and agate and Rio Grande do Sul is the country s largest producer Agate has had local extraction since 1830 The largest producer of amethyst in Brazil is the city of Ametista do Sul This stone was very rare and expensive throughout the world until the discovery of large deposits in Brazil which caused a considerable drop in its value 39 40 41 42 43 Industry Edit BRF meat factory in Santa Catarina Hering textile industry in Santa Catarina Salton winery in Rio Grande do Sul Klabin pulp and paper mill in Parana Beira Rio shoe factory Rio Grande do Sul Neugebauer Chocolate Factory Rio Grande do Sul The region concentrates 20 of the industrial GDP of the country 44 45 46 In 2019 Parana was the second largest vehicle producer in the country Brazil is one of the 10 largest vehicle producers in the world Parana has in its territory the Volkswagen Renault Audi Volvo and DAF factories Santa Catarina has GM and BMW plants and Rio Grande do Sul a GM plant 47 In the food industry in 2019 Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world with a value of US 34 1 billion in exports Regarding the creation of national or multinational companies Rio Grande do Sul created companies such as Neugebauer Camil Alimentos Fruki Cervejaria Polar Vinicola Aurora and Vinicola Salton Santa Catarina created companies such as Sadia and Perdigao which later merged into BRF Seara Alimentos which today belongs to JBS Aurora Gomes da Costa Cervejaria Eisenbahn and Hemmer Alimentos Parana created companies such as Frimesa C Vale Nutrimental Copacol Coopavel and Matte Leao 48 49 50 In the footwear industry in 2019 Brazil produced 972 million pairs being the fourth largest producer in the world behind China India and Vietnam and ranks 11th among the largest exporters The Brazilian state that most exports the product is Rio Grande do Sul in 2019 it exported US 448 35 million Most of the product goes to the United States Argentina and France Santa Catarina also has a shoe production center in Sao Joao Batista 51 52 In the textile industry Brazil despite being among the 5 largest producers in the world in 2013 and being representative in the consumption of textiles and clothing had very little insertion in world trade In 2015 Brazilian imports ranked 25th US 5 5 billion And in exports it only ranked 40th in the world ranking Brazil s participation in the world trade of textiles and clothing is only 0 3 due to the difficulty of competing in price with producers in India and mainly in China The South had 32 65 of the country s textile production Santa Catarina is the second largest textile and clothing employer in Brazil It held the national leadership in the manufacture of pillows and is the largest producer in Latin America and the second in the world in woven labels It s the nation s largest exporter of toilet kitchen linen cotton terry fabrics and cotton knit shirts Some of the most famous companies in the region are Hering Malwee Karsten and Haco In the electronics industry the industry turnover in Brazil reached R 153 0 billion in 2019 around 3 of the national GDP The number of employees in the sector was 234 500 people Brazil has two large electroelectronic production poles located in Campinas in the State of Sao Paulo and in the Manaus Free Zone in the State of Amazonas The country also has other smaller centers one of which is Curitiba the capital of Parana The Curitiba technology center has companies such as Siemens and Positivo Informatica In total 87 companies and 16 thousand employees work in Tecnoparque an area of 127 thousand square meters created by state law in 2007 Tecnoparque can grow to 400 thousand square meters and receive up to four times the number of workers it has today reaching 68 thousand people 53 In the home appliance industry sales of so called white line equipment were 12 9 million units in 2017 The sector had its sales peak in 2012 with 18 9 million units The brands that sold the most were Brastemp Electrolux Consul and Philips Consul is originally from Santa Catarina merged with Brastemp and today is part of the multinational Whirlpool Corporation Another famous brand from the South was Prosdocimo founded in Curitiba which was sold to Electrolux In the small electrical appliances sector the Britania company is originally from Curitiba 54 In the metallurgical sector the South has one of the most famous companies in the country Tramontina which employs more than 8 500 employees and has 10 production units Other famous companies in the South are Marcopolo a bus body manufacturer which had a market value of R 2 782 billion in 2015 and Randon a group of 9 companies specialized in transport solutions which groups together vehicle manufacturers auto parts and road equipment employs around 11 thousand people and recorded gross sales in 2017 of R 4 2 billion In Santa Catarina the machinery and equipment industry stands out in the manufacture of compressors being a leader in exports of this product among the states of the country in addition to being an important producer of forestry equipment In metallurgy the state has the largest national manufacturer of sinks vats and stainless steel tanks trophies and medals fasteners screws nuts etc jacketed tanks for fuels industrial pressure vessels and malleable iron connections It s the world leader in engine blocks and iron heads being the largest exporter of this product in Brazil In the pulp and paper sector Brazilian pulp production was 19 691 million tons in 2019 The country exported US 7 48 billion in pulp this year US 3 25 billion to China alone Exports of the Brazilian forest industry totaled US 9 7 billion US 7 48 billion in pulp US 2 billion in paper and US 265 million in wood panels Paper production was 10 535 million tons in 2019 The country exported 2 163 million tons In 2016 the pulp and paper industry in the south of the country represented 33 of the national total This year Parana was the national leader in the production of roundwood mainly eucalyptus for the pulp and paper industry 15 9 million m Brazil was the second country that produced the most pulp in the world and the eighth in the production of paper The city that produced the most these woods in Brazil was Telemaco Borba PR and the fifth largest was Ortigueira PR 55 56 57 58 Palaeontological tourism EditRio Grande do Sul has a great potential for palaeontological tourism with many paleontological sites and museums in Paleorrota There is a large area in the center of the state that belongs to the Triassic Here lived Rhynchosaur thecodonts exaeretodons Staurikosaurus Guaibasaurus Saturnalia tupiniquim Sacisaurus Unaysaurus and many others See also EditImmigration to Brazil German Brazilian Italian Brazilian Polish Brazilian Spanish immigration to Brazil Ukrainian Brazilian Gaucho Centro SulReferences Edit Contas Regionais PIB do Piaui cresce 8 8 maior alta de 2008 www ibge gov br in Portuguese Archived from the original on 2010 11 21 Jaragua do Sul e a cidade mais segura do Brasil Noticias R7 Domingo Espetacular noticias r7 com Retrieved 29 April 2018 RS VIRTUAL O Rio Grande do Sul na Internet Historia Missoes Como foi o surgimento dos Sete Povos das Missoes Archived 2007 09 05 at the Wayback Machine Imigrantes Acorianos Archived 2007 12 31 at the Wayback Machine Germans Archived 2007 07 16 at the Wayback Machine Archived copy Archived from the original on 2007 09 28 Retrieved 2006 08 30 CS1 maint archived copy as title link Italians Archived 2007 09 27 at the Wayback Machine Ciccone Romeu EmigracaoIt www angelfire com Archived from the original on 24 August 2008 Retrieved 29 April 2018 pt Imigracao italiana no Brasil Rio Grande do Sul Imigracao no Brasil Historico Italianos Espanhois Japoneses Judeus Portugueses Sirios e Libaneses Alemaes Archived 2004 10 10 at the Wayback Machine Marilia D Klaumann Canovas 2004 A GRANDE IMIGRACAO EUROPEIA PARA O BRASIL E O IMIGRANTE ESPANHOL NO CENARIO DA CAFEICULTURA PAULISTA ASPECTOS DE UMA IN VISIBILIDADE The great European immigration to Brazil and immigrants within the Spanish scenario of the Paulista coffee plantations one of the issues in visibility PDF in Portuguese cchla ufpb br Archived from the original PDF on 3 October 2009 Principais levas de imigracao para o Brasil Abril Archived from the original on 2 April 2016 Retrieved 6 April 2016 Brazil Modern Day Community www jewishvirtuallibrary org 2013 Archived from the original on 2013 11 04 Retrieved 2013 12 22 Entrada de estrangeiros no Brasil Retrieved 2014 01 23 Federacao Israelita do Rio Grande do Sul firgs org br 2009 Archived from the original on 2009 05 28 Retrieved 2013 12 25 a b Estimativas populacionais 2008 PDF Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatistica IBGE Archived PDF from the original on 2012 01 07 Retrieved 2008 09 01 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Branca Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Parda Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Preta Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Amarela Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Indigena Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 Tabela 262 Populacao residente por cor ou raca situacao e sexo Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics 2014 Populacao residente Percentual Sem declaracao Total Total 2014 Sul Archived from the original on 2011 06 14 O alemao lusitano do Sul do Brasil DW 20 04 2004 DW COM Archived from the original on 5 February 2012 Retrieved 29 April 2018 ELB www labeurb unicamp br Archived from the original on 15 September 2011 Retrieved 29 April 2018 Brazilian agriculture in 2018 by FAO PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados Producao de leite cai 0 5 e totaliza 33 5 bilhoes de litros em 2017 REGIAO SUL DO BRASIL E O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEINA ANIMAL DO MUNDO PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados REGIAO SUL DO BRASIL E O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEINA ANIMAL DO MUNDO PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados REGIAO SUL DO BRASIL E O MAIOR CENTRO PRODUTIVO DE PROTEINA ANIMAL DO MUNDO PPM 2017 Rebanho bovino predomina no Centro Oeste e Mato Grosso lidera entre os estados Carvao Mineral Carvao mineral no Brasil e no mundo A maior usina de xisto do Pais Algumas Gemas Classicas Rio Grande do Sul o maior exportador de pedras preciosas do Brasil Os alemaes e as pedras preciosas gauchas Maior pedra de agua marinha e brasileira e ficara exposta nos EUA http g1 globo com rs rio grande do sul nossa terra 2013 noticia 2013 07 pedras de ametista sao atrativos para turistas em cidade no norte do rs html Perfil de la industria de Parana Perfil de la industria de Rio Grande del Sur Perfil de la industria de Santa Catarina O novo mapa das montadoras A industria de alimentos e bebidas na sociedade brasileira atual Faturamento da industria de alimentos cresceu 6 7 em 2019 https agenciabrasil ebc com br economia noticia 2020 02 industria de alimentos e bebidas faturaram r 6999 bi em 2019 Abicalcados apresenta Relatorio Setorial 2019 Exportacao de Calcados Saiba mais A industria eletroeletronica do Brasil Levantamento de dados Um setor em recuperacao Producao nacional de celulose cai 6 6 em 2019 aponta Iba Sabe qual e o estado brasileiro que mais produz Madeira Nao e Sao Paulo Sao Mateus e o 6º maior produtor de madeira em tora para papel e celulose no pais diz IBGE Made in Espirito Santo celulose capixaba e usada em papel ate do outro lado do mundoExternal links EditPatria Sulista official website Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South Region Brazil amp oldid 1037812777, wikipedia, wiki, book,

books

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article

, read, download, free, free download, mp3, video, mp4, 3gp, jpg, jpeg, gif, png, picture, music, song, movie, book, game, games.