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Wikipedia

South Carolina

This article is about the State of South Carolina. For other uses, see South Carolina (disambiguation).

South Carolina (()) is a state in the coastal southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered to the north by North Carolina, to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River. South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U.S. state with a recorded population of 5,124,712 according to the 2020 census. In 2019, its GDP was $213.45 billion. South Carolina is composed of 46 counties. The capital is Columbia with a population of 133,273 in 2019; while its largest city is Charleston with a 2020 population of 150,277. The Greenville–Anderson–Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state, with a 2018 population estimate of 906,626.

South Carolina
State of South Carolina
Nickname(s):
The Palmetto State
Motto(s):
Dum spiro spero* (Latin, 'While I breathe, I hope')
Animis opibusque parati† (Latin, 'Prepared in mind and resources')
Anthem: "Carolina";
"South Carolina On My Mind"
Map of the United States with South Carolina highlighted
CountryUnited States
Before statehoodProvince of South Carolina
Admitted to the UnionMay 23, 1788 (8th)
CapitalColumbia
Largest cityCharleston
Largest metro and urban areasGreenville (combined and metro)
Columbia (urban)
Government
GovernorHenry McMaster (R)
Lieutenant GovernorPamela Evette (R)
LegislatureGeneral Assembly
Upper houseSenate
Lower houseHouse of Representatives
JudiciarySouth Carolina Supreme Court
U.S. senatorsLindsey Graham (R)
Tim Scott (R)
U.S. House delegation6 Republicans
1 Democrat (list)
Area
• Total32,020 sq mi (82,932 km2)
• Land30,109 sq mi (77,982 km2)
• Water1,911 sq mi (4,949 km2) 6%
Area rank40th
Dimensions
• Length260 mi (420 km)
• Width200 mi (320 km)
Elevation
350 ft (110 m)
Highest elevation3,560 ft (1,085 m)
Lowest elevation
(Atlantic Ocean)
0 ft (0 m)
Population
(2020)
• Total5,124,712
• Rank23rd
• Density157/sq mi (60.6/km2)
• Density rank19th
Median household income
$50,570
• Income rank
43rd
Demonym(s)South Carolinian
Language
Official languageEnglish
Time zoneUTC−05:00 (Eastern)
• Summer (DST)UTC−04:00 (EDT)
USPS abbreviation
SC
ISO 3166 codeUS-SC
Traditional abbreviationS.C.
Latitude32°2′ N to 35°13′ N
Longitude78°32′ W to 83°21′ W
Websitesc.gov

South Carolina was named in honor of King Charles I of England, who first formed the English colony, with Carolus being Latin for "Charles". In 1712 the Province of South Carolina was formed. One of the Thirteen Colonies, South Carolina became a royal colony in 1719. During the American Revolution, South Carolina became part of the United States in 1776. South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U.S. Constitution on May 23, 1788. It was the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20, 1860. After the American Civil War, it was readmitted into the United States on July 9, 1868. During the early to mid-20th century, the state started to see economic progress as many textile mills and factories were built across the state. South Carolina's economic diversification would continue into the early 21st century in industries such as aerospace, agribusiness, automotive manufacturing, and tourism.

Within South Carolina from east to west are three main geographic regions, the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwestern corner of Upstate South Carolina. South Carolina has primarily a humid subtropical climate, with hot humid summers and mild winters. Areas in the Upstate have a subtropical highland climate. Along South Carolina's eastern coastal plain are many salt marshes and estuaries. South Carolina's southeastern Lowcountry contains portions of the Sea Islands, a chain of barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean.

Precolonial period

Top left, the shores of Florida and the future Carolina explored in 1500 and showed in 1502 on the Cantino planisphere

There is evidence of human activity in the area dating to about 40,000 years ago. At the time Europeans arrived, marking the end of the Pre-Columbian era around 1600, there were many separate Native American tribes, the largest being the Cherokee and the Catawba, with the total population being up to 20,000.

Up the rivers of the eastern coastal plain lived about a dozen tribes of Siouan background. Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee, Yuchi, and the Yamasee. Further west were the Cherokee, and along the Catawba River, the Catawba. These tribes were village-dwellers, relying on agriculture as their primary food source. The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay, roofed with wood or thatched grass.

About a dozen or more separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish, and cultivating corn, peas and beans. Travelling inland as much as 50 miles (80 km) mostly by canoe, they wintered on the coastal plain, hunting deer and gathering nuts and fruit. The names of these tribes survive in place names like Edisto Island, Kiawah Island, and the Ashepoo River.

Exploration

Map of French Florida, which included modern-day South Carolina

The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area. From June 24 to July 14, 1521, they explored the land around Winyah Bay. On October 8, 1526, they founded San Miguel de Gualdape, near present-day Georgetown, South Carolina. It was the first European settlement in what is now the contiguous United States. Established with five hundred settlers, it was abandoned eight months later by one hundred and fifty survivors. In 1540, Hernando de Soto explored the region and the main town of Cofitachequi, where he captured the queen of the Maskoki (Muscogee) and the Chelaque (Cherokee) who had welcomed him.

In 1562 French Huguenots established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort-Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island. Many of these settlers preferred a natural life far from civilization and the atrocities of the Wars of Religion. The garrison lacked supplies, however, and the soldiers (as in the France Antarctique) soon ran away. The French returned two years later but settled in present-day Florida rather than South Carolina.

Colonization

The Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665

Sixty years later, in 1629, King of England Charles I established the Province of Carolina, an area covering what is now South and North Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee. In 1663, Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660. Anthony Ashley Cooper, one of the Lord Proprietors, planned the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina and wrote the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina, which laid the basis for the future colony. His utopia was inspired by John Locke, an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

The Carolina slave trade, which included both trading and direct raids by colonists,: 109 was the largest among the British colonies in North America.: 65 Between 1670 and 1715, between 24,000 and 51,000 captive Native Americans were exported from South Carolina — more than the number of Africans imported to the colonies of the future United States during the same period.: 237 Additional enslaved Native Americans were exported from South Carolina to other U.S. colonies. The historian Alan Gallay says, "the trade in Indian slaves was at the center of the English empire's development in the American South. The trade in Indian slaves was the most important factor affecting the South in the period 1670 to 1715".

In the 1670s, English planters from Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston. Settlers from all over Europe built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry, east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line. Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720. Another cash crop was the indigo plant, a plant source of blue dye, developed by Eliza Lucas.

Meanwhile, Upstate South Carolina, west of the Fall Line, was settled by small farmers and traders, who displaced Native American tribes westward. Colonists overthrew the proprietors' rule, seeking more direct representation. In 1712, the former Province of Carolina split in to North and South Carolina. In 1719, South Carolina was officially made a royal colony.

South Carolina prospered from the fertility of the lowcountry and the harbors, such as at Charleston. It allowed religious toleration, encouraging settlement, and trade in deerskin, lumber, and beef thrived. Rice cultivation was developed on a large scale on the back of slave labor.

By the second half of the 1700s, South Carolina was one of the richest of the Thirteen Colonies.

The American Revolution

On March 26, 1776, the colony adopted the Constitution of South Carolina, electing John Rutledge as the state's first president. In February, 1778, South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation, the initial governing document of the United States, and in May 1788, South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution, becoming the eighth state to enter the union.

During the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), about a third of combat action took place in South Carolina, more than in any other state. Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by British forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry. It is estimated 25,000 slaves (30% of those in South Carolina) fled, migrated or died during the war.

Antebellum

America's first census in 1790 put the state's population at nearly 250,000. By the 1800 census, the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340,000 of which 146,000 were slaves. At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the sixteen states of the United States, mostly based in Savannah and Charleston, the latter being the country's fifth largest city.

In the Antebellum period (before the Civil War) the state's economy and population grew. Cotton became an important crop after the invention of the cotton gin. While nominally democratic, from 1790 until 1865, wealthy landowners were in control of South Carolina. For example, a man was not eligible to sit in the State House of Representatives unless he possessed an estate of 500 acres of land and 10 Negroes, or at least 150 pounds sterling, diminishing the electorate. Further, the state maintained indirect election of electors by the state legislature until 1868, the last state to do so. Voters thus did not participate in presidential elections, other than through state-wide elections.

Columbia, the new state capital was founded in the center of the state, and the State Legislature first met there in 1790. The town grew after it was connected to Charleston by the Santee Canal in 1800, one of the first canals in the United States.

As dissatisfaction of the planters ruling class with the federal government grew, in the 1820s John C. Calhoun became a leading proponent of states' rights, limited government, nullification of the U.S. Constitution, and free trade. In 1832, the Ordinance of Nullification declared federal tariff laws unconstitutional and not to be enforced in the state, leading to the Nullification Crisis. The federal Force Bill was enacted to use whatever military force necessary to enforce federal law in the state, bringing South Carolina back into line.

In the United States presidential election of 1860, voting was sharply divided, with the south voting for the Southern Democrats and the north for Abraham Lincoln's Republican Party. Lincoln was anti-slavery, did not acknowledge the right to secession, and would not yield federal property in Southern states. Southern secessionists believed Lincoln's election meant long-term doom for their slavery-based agrarian economy and social system.

Lincoln was elected president on November 6, 1860. The state House of Representatives three days later passed the "Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U.S. President a Hostile Act", and within weeks South Carolina became the first state to secede.

Civil War 1861–1865

Charleston in ruins, 1865

On April 12, 1861, Confederate batteries began shelling the Union Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, and the American Civil War began. In November of that year the Union attacked Port Royal Sound and soon occupied Beaufort County and the neighboring Sea Islands. For the rest of the war this area served as a Union base and staging point for other operations. Whites abandoned their plantations, leaving behind about ten thousand enslaved people. Several Northern charities partnered with the federal government to help these people run the cotton farms themselves under the Port Royal Experiment. Workers were paid by the pound harvested and thus became the first enslaved people freed by the Union forces to earn wages.

Although the state was not a major battleground, the war ruined the economy. Under conscription, all white men aged 18–35 (later 45) were drafted for Confederate service. More than 60,000 served, and the state lost nearly one-third of the white male population of fighting age.

At the end of the war in early 1865, the troops of General William Tecumseh Sherman marched across the state devastating plantations and most of Columbia. South Carolina would be readmitted to the Union on July 9, 1868.

Reconstruction 1865–1877

Main article: Reconstruction era

After the war, South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction. Under presidential Reconstruction (1865–66), freedmen (former slaves) were given limited rights. Under Radical reconstruction (1867–1877), a Republican coalition of freedmen, carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control, supported by Union Army forces. They established public education, welfare institutions, and home rule for counties, expanding democracy.[citation needed]

In Texas vs. White (1869), the Supreme Court ruled the ordinances of secession (including that of South Carolina) were invalid, and thus those states had never left the Union. However, South Carolina did not regain representation in Congress until that date.

Until the 1868 presidential election, South Carolina's legislature, not the voters, chose the state's electors for the presidential election. South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner. On October 19, 1871, President Ulysses S. Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties under the authority of the Ku Klux Klan Act. Led by Grant's Attorney General Amos T. Akerman, hundreds of Klansmen were arrested while 2,000 Klansmen fled the state. This was done to suppress Klan violence against African-American and white voters in the South. In the mid to late 1870s, white Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters. They regained political control of the state under conservative white "Redeemers" and pro-business Bourbon Democrats. In 1877, the federal government withdrew its troops as part of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction.

Populist and agrarian movements

The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s. A Republican-Populist biracial coalition took power away from White Democrats temporarily. To prevent that from happening again, Democrats gained passage of a new constitution in 1895 which effectively disenfranchised almost all blacks and many poor whites by new requirements for poll taxes, residency, and literacy tests that dramatically reduced the voter rolls. By 1896, only 5,500 black voters remained on the voter registration rolls, although they constituted a majority of the state's population. The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disenfranchisement: the 782,509 African American citizens comprised more than 58% of the state's population, but they were essentially without any political representation in the Jim Crow society.

The 1895 constitution overturned local representative government, reducing the role of the counties to agents of state government, effectively ruled by the General Assembly, through the legislative delegations for each county. As each county had one state senator, that person had considerable power. The counties lacked representative government until home rule was passed in 1975.

Governor "Pitchfork Ben Tillman", a Populist, led the effort to disenfranchise the blacks and poor whites, although he controlled Democratic state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers. During the constitutional convention in 1895, he supported another man's proposal that the state adopt a one-drop rule, as well as prohibit marriage between whites and anyone with any known African ancestry.

Some members of the convention realized prominent white families with some African ancestry could be affected by such legislation. In terms similar to a debate in Virginia in 1853 on a similar proposal (which was dropped), George Dionysius Tillman said in opposition:

If the law is made as it now stands respectable families in Aiken, Barnwell, Colleton, and Orangeburg will be denied the right to intermarry among people with whom they are now associated and identified. At least one hundred families would be affected to my knowledge. They have sent good soldiers to the Confederate Army, and are now landowners and taxpayers. Those men served creditably, and it would be unjust and disgraceful to embarrass them in this way. It is a scientific fact that there is not one full-blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention. Every member has in him a certain mixture of... colored blood. The pure-blooded white has needed and received a certain infusion of darker blood to give him readiness and purpose. It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation, of scandal, horror, feud, and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote, perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood. The doors would be open to scandal, malice and greed; to statements on the witness stand that the father or grandfather or grandmother had said that A or B had Negro blood in their veins. Any man who is half a man would be ready to blow up half the world with dynamite to prevent or avenge attacks upon the honor of his mother in the legitimacy or purity of the blood of his father.

The state postponed such a one-drop law for years. Virginian legislators adopted a one-drop law in 1924, forgetting that their state had many people of mixed ancestry among those who identified as white.

20th century

Some children who worked in South Carolina textile mills went to school half a day and worked before and after school—and eight or nine hours on Saturday

Early in the 20th century, South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry. The state also converted its main agricultural base from cotton, to more profitable crops. It would attract large military bases during World War I, through its majority Democratic congressional delegation, part of the one-party Solid South following disfranchisement of blacks.

In the late 19th century, South Carolina would implement Jim Crow laws which enforced racial segregation policies until the 1960s. During the early-to-mid part of the 20th century, millions of African Americans left South Carolina and other southern states for jobs, opportunities, and relative freedom in U.S. cities outside the former Confederate states. In total from 1910 to 1970, 6.5 million blacks left the South in the Great Migration. By 1930, South Carolina had a white majority population for the first time since 1708. South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment (1920) giving women the right to vote. The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1, 1969.

The struggle of the civil rights movement took place in South Carolina, as they did in other Southern states and elsewhere within the country. South Carolina would experience a much less violent movement than other Deep South states. This tranquil transition from a Jim Crow society occurred because the state's white and black leaders were willing to accept slow change, rather than being utterly unwilling to accept change at all. Other South Carolina political figures, like Sen. Strom Thurmond, on the other hand, were among the nation's most radical and effective opponents of social equality and integration.

During the mid-to-late 20th century, South Carolina started to see economic progress first in the textile industry and then in manufacturing. Tourism also started to form into a major industry within the state during the 20th century, especially in areas such as Myrtle Beach and Charleston.

21st century

As of 2015, South Carolina had one of the lowest percentages among all states of women in state legislature, at 13.5% (only Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Wyoming had a lower percentage; the national average is 24.3%; with the highest percentage being in Colorado at 41%). In 2011, South Carolina ranked first in the country in the rate of women killed by men.

As the 21st century progresses, South Carolina has attracted new business by having a 5% corporate income tax rate, no state property tax, no local income tax, no inventory tax, no sales tax on manufacturing equipment, industrial power or materials for finished products; no wholesale tax, and no unitary tax on worldwide profits.

South Carolina was one of the first states to stop paying for 'early elective' deliveries of babies, under either Medicaid and private insurance. The term early elective is defined as a labor induction or Cesarean section between 37 and 39 weeks that is not medically based. This change is intended to result in healthier babies and fewer unnecessary costs for South Carolina.

On November 20, 2014, South Carolina became the 35th state to legalize same-sex marriages, when a federal court ordered the change.

Regions

The state can be divided into three natural geographic areas which then can be subdivided into five distinct cultural regions. The natural environment is divided from east to west by the Atlantic coastal plain, the Piedmont, and the Blue Ridge Mountains. Culturally, the coastal plain is split into the Lowcountry and the Pee Dee region. While, the upper Piedmont region is referred to as the Piedmont and the lower Piedmont region is referred to as the Midlands. The area surrounding the Blue Ridge Mountains is known as the Upstate. The Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two-thirds of the state. Its eastern border is the Sea Islands, a chain of tidal and barrier islands. The border between the lowcountry and the upcountry is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line, which marks the limit of navigable rivers.

Atlantic Coastal Plain

The Atlantic Coastal Plain consists of sediments and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Present. The terrain is relatively flat and the soil is composed predominantly of sand, silt, and clay. Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland, though some land is swampy. An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of low-relief topographic depressions named Carolina bays. The bays tend to be oval, lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation. The eastern portion of the coastal plain contains many salt marshes and estuaries, as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston. The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion.

The Sandhills or Carolina Sandhills is a 10–35 mi (16–56 km) wide region within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province, along the inland margin of this province. The Carolina Sandhills are interpreted as eolian (wind-blown) sand sheets and dunes that were mobilized episodically from approximately 75,000 to 6,000 years ago. Most of the published luminescence ages from the sand are coincident with the last glaciation, a time when the southeastern United States was characterized by colder air temperatures and stronger winds.

Piedmont

Much of Piedmont consists of Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks, and the landscape has relatively low relief. Due to the changing economics of farming, much of the land is now reforested in loblolly pine for the lumber industry. These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion. At the southeastern edge of Piedmont is the fall line, where rivers drop to the coastal plain. The fall line was an important early source of water power. Mills built to this resource encouraged the growth of several cities, including the capital, Columbia. The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line, providing a trade route for mill towns.

The northwestern part of Piedmont is also known as the Foothills. The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area. This is where Table Rock State Park is located.

Blue Ridge

The Blue Ridge consists primarily of Precambrian metamorphic rocks, and the landscape has relatively high relief. The Blue Ridge Region contains an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains that continues into North Carolina and Georgia as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains. Sassafras Mountain, South Carolina's highest point at 3,560 feet (1,090 m), is in this area. Also in this area is Caesars Head State Park. The environment here is that of the Appalachian-Blue Ridge forests ecoregion. The Chattooga River, on the border between South Carolina and Georgia, is a favorite whitewater rafting destination.

Lakes

South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles (1,770 km2). All major lakes in South Carolina are man-made. The following are the lakes listed by size.

Earthquakes

The Charleston area, along the central coastline of the state, demonstrates the greatest frequency of earthquakes in South Carolina. South Carolina averages 10–15 earthquakes a year below magnitude3 (FEMA). The Charleston earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake ever to hit the eastern United States. The 7.0–7.3 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city. Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them. Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries.

Climate

South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa), although high-elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline. In the summer, South Carolina is hot and humid, with daytime temperatures averaging between 86–93 °F (30–34 °C) in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70–75 °F (21–24 °C) on the coast and from 66–73 °F (19–23 °C) inland. Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina.

A map of the average annual precipitation in South Carolina

Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters, with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 °F (16 °C) and overnight lows around 40 °F (5–8 °C). Inland, the average January overnight low is around 32 °F (0 °C) in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate. While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state, the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer, while inland, the spring and autumn transitions tend to be the wettest periods and winter the driest season, with November being the driest month. The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) in Johnston and Columbia on June 29, 2012, and the lowest recorded temperature is −19 °F (−28 °C) at Caesars Head on January 21, 1985.

Snowfall in South Carolina is minimal in the lower elevation areas south and east of Columbia. It is not uncommon for areas along the southernmost coast to not receive measurable snowfall for several years. In the Piedmont and Foothills, especially along and north of Interstate 85, measurable snowfall occurs one to three times in most years. Annual average total amounts range from 2 to 6 inches. The Blue Ridge Escarpment receives the most average total measurable snowfall; amounts range from 7 to 12 inches.

South Carolina is also prone to tropical cyclones and tornadoes. Two of the strongest hurricanes to strike South Carolina in recent history were Hurricane Hazel (1954) and Hurricane Hugo (1989).

Hurricanes and tropical cyclones

Category 4 Hurricane Hugo in 1989

The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones. This is an annual concern during hurricane season, which lasts from June1 to November 30. The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October, during the Cape Verde hurricane season. Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel (1954), Florence (2018), and Hugo (1989), all Category 4 hurricanes.

South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year. This is less than some of the states further south, and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornadoes than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico. Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina, and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually. Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state, as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft.

Climate change

This section is an excerpt from Climate change in South Carolina.[edit]
Köppen climate types in South Carolina, showing a large majority of the state being humid subtropical, with smaller, outlier pockets of an oceanic climate in the Blue Ridge Mountains.

Climate change in South Carolina encompasses the effects of climate change, attributed to man-made increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide, in the U.S. state of South Carolina.

Studies show that South Carolina is among a string of "Deep South" states that will experience the worst effects of climate change. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency:

South Carolina's climate is changing. Most of the state has warmed by one-half to one degree (F) in the last century, and the sea is rising about one to one-and-a-half inches every decade. Higher water levels are eroding beaches, submerging low lands, and exacerbating coastal flooding. Like other southeastern states, South Carolina has warmed less than most of the nation. But in the coming decades, the region's changing climate is likely to reduce crop yields, harm livestock, increase the number of unpleasantly hot days, and increase the risk of heat stroke and other heat-related illnesses.

As of January 2020, "South Carolina’s failure to develop a comprehensive climate plan means the state has no overall effort to cut greenhouse gas pollution, limit sprawl or educate the public on how to adapt to the changing climate."

Federal lands in South Carolina

Flora and fauna

This section is empty. You can help by adding to it.(May 2021)

Population centers

Some Primary Statistical Areas of South Carolina overlap with neighbouring states of North Carolina and Georgia

The following table shows the major metropolitan areas of South Carolina.

In 2019, the U.S. Census Bureau released 2018 population estimates for South Carolina's most populous cities.

Historical population
Census Pop.
1790249,073
1800345,59138.8%
1810415,11520.1%
1820502,74121.1%
1830581,18515.6%
1840594,3982.3%
1850668,50712.5%
1860703,7085.3%
1870705,6060.3%
1880995,57741.1%
18901,151,14915.6%
19001,340,31616.4%
19101,515,40013.1%
19201,683,72411.1%
19301,738,7653.3%
19401,899,8049.3%
19502,117,02711.4%
19602,382,59412.5%
19702,590,5168.7%
19803,121,82020.5%
19903,486,70311.7%
20004,012,01215.1%
20104,625,36415.3%
20205,118,42510.7%
Source: 1910–2020
South Carolina racial breakdown of population
Racial composition 1990 2000 2010 2019 2020
White 69.0% 67.2% 66.2% 68.5% 63.4%
Black 29.8% 29.5% 27.9% 27.1% 25.0%
Asian 0.6% 0.9% 1.3% 1.8% 1.8%
Native American 0.2% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 0.5%
Native Hawaiian and
other Pacific Islander
0.1% 0.1% 0.1%
Two or more races 1.0% 1.7% 1.9% 5.8%
Population density of South Carolina

The 2020 census determined the state had a population of 5,118,425. The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of South Carolina was 5,148,714 on July 1, 2019, an 11.31 percentage increase since the 2010 census.

As of the 2017 census estimate, the racial make up of the state is 68.5% White (63.8% non-Hispanic white), 27.3% Black or African American, 0.5% American Indian and Alaska Native, 1.7% Asian, 0.1% Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander, 1.9% from two or more races. 5.7% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race.

According to the United States Census Bureau, as of 2019, South Carolina had an estimated population of 5,148,714, which is an increase of 64,587 from the prior year and an increase of 523,350, or 11.31%, since the year 2010. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36,401 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 115,084 people. According to the University of South Carolina's Arnold School of Public Health, Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies, South Carolina's foreign-born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005. South Carolina has banned sanctuary cities.

Legend
African American
European American
Other

Historical South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population

Religion

Religion in South Carolina

Historically Black Protestant (15%)
Catholic (10%)
Other Christian (2%)
Other (2%)
Unaffiliated ("none") (19%)
Don't Know (1%)

According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010, the largest religion is Christianity, of which the largest denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention with 913,763 adherents, the United Methodist Church with 274,111 adherents, and the Roman Catholic Church with 181,743 adherents. Fourth-largest is the African Methodist Episcopal Church with 564 congregations and 121,000 members and fifth-largest is the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 320 congregations and almost 100,000 members.

As of 2010, South Carolina is the American state with the highest per capita proportion of citizens who follow the Baháʼí Faith, with 17,559 adherents, making Baháʼí the second-largest religion in the state.

The Arthur Ravenel Jr. Bridge from Charleston Harbor
  • Total employment (2016): 1,716,496
  • Total employer establishments: 105,959

In 2019, South Carolina's GDP was $249.9 billion, making the state the 26th largest by GDP in the United States. According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, South Carolina's gross state product (GSP) in was $97 billion in 1997 and $153 billion in 2007. Its per-capita real gross domestic product (GDP) in chained 2000 dollars was $26,772 in 1997 and $28,894 in 2007; which represented 85% of the $31,619 per-capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997, and 76% of the $38,020 for the U.S. in 2007. The state debt in 2012 was calculated by one source to be $22.9bn, or $7,800 per taxpayer.

Industrial outputs include textile goods, chemical products, paper products, machinery, automobiles, automotive products and tourism. Major agricultural outputs of the state are tobacco, poultry, cotton, cattle, dairy products, soybeans, hay, rice, and swine. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, as of March 2012, South Carolina had 1,852,700 nonfarm jobs of which 12% are in manufacturing, 11.5% are in leisure and hospitality, 19% are in trade, transportation, and utilities, and 11.8% are in education and health services. The service sector accounts for 83.7% of the South Carolina economy.

Many large corporations have moved their locations to South Carolina. Boeing opened an aircraft manufacturing facility in Charleston in 2011, which serves as one of two final assembly sites for the 787 Dreamliner. South Carolina is a right-to-work state and many businesses utilize staffing agencies to temporarily fill positions. Domtar, in Rock Hill, used to be the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in South Carolina. The Fortune 1000 list includes SCANA, Sonoco Products and ScanSource.

South Carolina also benefits from foreign investment. There are 1,950 foreign-owned firms operating in South Carolina employing almost 135,000 people. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) brought 1.06 billion dollars to the state economy in 2010. Since 1994, BMW has had a production facility in Spartanburg County near Greer and since 1996 the Zapp Group operates in Summerville near Charleston.

Media

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.(March 2017)

There are 36 TV stations (including PBS affiliates) serving South Carolina with terrestrial, and some online streaming access. Markets in which the stations are located include Columbia, Florence, Allendale, Myrtle Beach, Greenville, Charleston, Conway, Beaufort, Hardeeville, Spartanburg, Greenwood, Anderson and Sumter.

Transportation

Roads

The state has the fourth largest state-maintained system in the country, consisting of 11 Interstates, numbered highways, state highways, and secondary roads, totalling approximately 41,500 miles.

On secondary roads, South Carolina uses a numbering system to keep track of all non-interstate and primary highways that the South Carolina Department of Transportation maintains. Secondary roads are numbered by the number of the county followed by a unique number for the particular road.

Rail

Passenger rail
Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina: the Crescent, the Palmetto, the Silver Meteor, and the Silver Star. The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities, the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities, and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the lowcountry cities.

Station stops

Freight
CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the only Class I railroad companies in South Carolina, as other freight companies in the state are short lines.

Major and regional airports

There are seven significant airports in South Carolina, all of which act as regional airport hubs. The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport. Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte/Douglas International Airport, the 30th busiest airport in the world, in terms of passengers.

As of 2010, South Carolina is one of three states that have not agreed to use competitive international math and language standards.

In 2014, the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled the state had failed to provide a "minimally adequate" education to children in all parts of the state as required by the state's constitution.

South Carolina has 1,144 K–12 schools in 85 school districts with an enrollment of 712,244 as of fall 2009. As of the 2008–2009 school year, South Carolina spent $9,450 per student which places it 31st in the country for per student spending.

In 2015, the national average SAT score was 1490 and the South Carolina average was 1442, 48 points lower than the national average.

South Carolina is the only state which owns and operates a statewide school bus system. As of December 2016, the state maintains a 5,582-bus fleet with the average vehicle in service being fifteen years old (the national average is six) having logged 236,000 miles. Half of the state's school buses are more than 15 years old and some are reportedly up to 30 years old. In 2017 in the budget proposal, Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman requested the state lease to purchase 1,000 buses to replace the most decrepit vehicles. An additional 175 buses could be purchased immediately through the State Treasurer's master lease program. On January 5, 2017, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency awarded South Carolina more than $1.1 million to replace 57 school buses with new cleaner models through its Diesel Emissions Reduction Act program.

Institutions of higher education

South Carolina has diverse institutions from large state-funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts, religious or military tradition.

  • Furman University is a private, coeducational, non-sectarian, liberal arts university in Greenville. Founded in 1826, Furman enrolls approximately 2,900 undergraduate and 500 graduate students. Furman is the largest private institution in South Carolina. The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education (only two departments, education and chemistry, offer graduate degrees).
  • Erskine College is a private, coeducational liberal arts college in Due West, South Carolina. The college was founded in 1839 and is affiliated with the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church, which maintains a theological seminary on the campus.
  • The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina is a state-supported, comprehensive college in Charleston. Founded in 1842, it is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women, which combines academics, physical challenges and military discipline. In addition to the cadet program, the Citadel Graduate College offers evening certificate, undergraduate and graduate programs to civilians. The Citadel has 2,200 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1,200 civilian students in the evening programs.
  • Wofford College is a small liberal arts college in Spartanburg. Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of $100,000 from the Rev. Benjamin Wofford (1780–1850), a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for "literary, classical, and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg". It is one of the few four-year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War that operates on its original campus.
  • Newberry College is a small liberal arts college in Newberry. Founded in 1856, Newberry is a co-educational, private liberal-arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) on a historic 90-acre (36 ha) campus in Newberry, South Carolina. It has roughly 1,110 students and a 14:1 student-teacher ratio. According to U.S. News & World Report's America's Best Colleges, Newberry College ranks among the nation's top colleges in the southern region.
  • Claflin University, founded in 1869 by the American Missionary Association, is the oldest historically black college in the state. After the Democratic-dominated legislature closed the university in 1877, before passing a law to restrict admission to whites, it designated Claflin as the only state college for blacks.
  • Lander University is a public liberal arts university in Greenwood. Lander was founded in 1872 as Willamston Female College. The school moved to Greenwood in 1904 and was renamed Lander College in honor of its founder, Samuel Lander. In 1973 Lander became part of the state's higher education system and is now a co-educational institution. The university is focused on undergraduate education and enrolls approximately 3,000 undergraduates.
  • Presbyterian College (PC) is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton. Presbyterian College enrolls around 1000 undergraduate students and around 200 graduate students in its pharmacy school. In 2007, Washington Monthly ranked PC as the No.1 Liberal Arts College in the nation.
  • Winthrop University, founded in 1886 as an all-female teaching school in Rock Hill, became a co-ed institution in 1974. It is now a public university with an enrollment of just over 6,100 students. It is one of the fastest growing universities in the state, with several new academic and recreational buildings being added to the main campus in the past five years, as well as several more planned for the near future. The Richard W. Riley College of Education is still the school's most well-known area of study.
  • Clemson University, founded in 1889, is a public, coeducational, land-grant research university in Clemson. It has more than 19,000 undergraduate students and 5,200 graduate students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries. Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Garden.
  • North Greenville University, founded in 1891, is a comprehensive university in Tigerville. It is affiliated with South Carolina Baptist Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention, and is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. It has an enrollment of around 2,500 undergraduates.
  • South Carolina State University, founded in 1896, is a historically black university in Orangeburg. SCSU has an enrollment of nearly 5,000, and offers undergraduate, graduate and post-graduate degrees. SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state.
  • Anderson University, founded in 1911, is a selective comprehensive university that offers bachelor's and master's degrees. It enrolls about 2,900 students.
  • Webster University, founded in 1915 in St. Louis, MO, with five extended campuses in SC, offers undergraduate and graduate degrees.
  • Bob Jones University, founded in 1927, is a private, non-denominational and conservative Christian liberal arts university with a 2019 total enrollment of 3,000. BJU offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and 70 graduate programs.
  • Coastal Carolina University, founded in 1954, became an independent state-supported liberal arts university in 1993. The university enrolls approximately 10,500 students on its 307-acre (1.24 km2) campus in Conway, part of the Myrtle Beach metropolitan area. Baccalaureate programs are offered in 51 major fields of study, along with graduate programs in education, business administration (MBA), and coastal marine and wetland studies.
  • Charleston Southern University, founded in 1969, is a liberal arts university, and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention. Charleston Southern (CSU) is on 300 acres, formerly the site of a rice and indigo plantation, in the City of North Charleston one of South Carolina's largest accredited, independent universities, enrolling approximately 3,400 students.
  • Francis Marion University,(formerly Francis Marion College), is a state-supported liberal arts university near Florence, South Carolina. It was founded in 1970 and achieved university status in 1992.

Universities and colleges ranked by endowment, 2010

State
Rank
National
Rank
Institution Location Public or
Private
Endowment Funds Percentage Change YOY
1 142 Furman University Greenville Private $650,000,000 7.8%
2 151 University of South Carolina Columbia &
regional campuses
Public $625,186,000 6.0%
3 153 Clemson University Clemson Public $623,200,000 9.5%
4 236 Medical University of South Carolina Charleston Public $272,319,000 13.7%
5 270 The Citadel Charleston Public $244,000,000 8.1%
6 324 Wofford College Spartanburg Private $166,619,000 10.2%
7 447 Presbyterian College Clinton Private $97,590,000 11.0%
8 530 Converse College Spartanburg Private $78,240,004 6.4%
9 782 Winthrop University Rock Hill Public $43,600,000 13.6%
10 658 Coker College Hartsville Private $37,660,000 4.9%

For overall health care, South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states, according to the Commonwealth Fund, a private health foundation working to improve the health care system.[needs update] The state's teen birth rate was 53 births per 1,000 teens, compared to the national average of 41.9 births, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation. The state's infant mortality rate was 9.4 deaths per 1,000 births compared to the national average of 6.9 deaths.

There were 2.6 physicians per 1,000 people compared to the national average of 3.2 physicians. There was $5,114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state, compared to the national average of $5,283. There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty in the state, compared to 23 percent and 13 percent, respectively, doing so in the U.S. And, 34 percent of children were overweight or obese, compared to the national average of 32 percent.

Gubernatorial election results
Year Democratic Republican
1950 99.9% 50,633
1954 99.9% 214,204
1958 99.9% 77,714
1962 99.9% 253,704
1966 58.2% 255,854 41.8% 184,088
1970 52.1% 251,151 45.9% 221,236
1974 47.0% 248,861 50.3% 266,338
1978 61.3% 384,898 37.7% 236,946
1982 69.8% 468,787 30.2% 202,806
1986 47.9% 361,328 51.0% 384,565
1990 27.8% 212,048 69.5% 528,831
1994 47.9% 447,002 50.4% 470,756
1998 53.2% 570,070 45.2% 484,088
2002 47.0% 521,140 52.9% 585,422
2006 44.8% 489,076 55.1% 601,868
2010 46.9% 630,534 51.4% 690,525
2014 41.4% 516,166 55.9% 696,645
2018 45.9% 784,182 54.0% 921,342
Presidential election results
Year Democratic Republican
1952 50.7% 173,004 49.3% 168,082
1956 45.4% 136,372 25.2% 75,700
1960 51.2% 198,129 48.8% 188,558
1964 41.1% 215,700 58.9% 309,048
1968 29.6% 197,486 38.1% 254,062
1972 27.9% 189,270 70.6% 478,427
1976 56.2% 450,825 43.1% 346,140
1980 48.0% 427,560 49.6% 441,207
1984 35.6% 344,470 63.6% 615,539
1988 37.6% 370,554 61.5% 606,443
1992 39.9% 479,514 48.0% 577,507
1996 43.9% 504,051 49.9% 573,458
2000 40.9% 566,039 56.8% 786,426
2004 40.9% 661,699 58.0% 937,974
2008 44.9% 862,449 53.9% 1,034,896
2012 44.1% 865,941 54.6% 1,071,645
2016 40.7% 855,373 54.9% 1,155,389
2020 43.5% 1,091,348 55.1% 1,384,852
Treemap of the popular vote by county, 2016 presidential election

South Carolina's state government consists of the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches. Also relevant are the state constitution, law enforcement agencies, federal representation, state finances, and state taxes.

South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch and a strong legislature. Before 1865, governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly, and held the title "President of State". The 1865 Constitution changed this process, requiring a popular election. Local governments were also weak. But, the 1867 Constitution, passed during the Reconstruction era, extended democratization by establishing home rule for counties, which were established from the formerly designated districts of the state.

The 1895 state constitution overturned this, reducing the role of counties and strengthening the relative role of the state legislature; essentially the counties were agents of the state and ruled by the General Assembly through the legislative delegation for each county. They are geographically comprehensive; all areas of the state are included in counties. As each county had one state senator, that position was particularly powerful. This status continued until 1973, when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule for the counties. During this time the state had changed, with increasing urbanization, but rural counties retained proportionally more power as the legislature was based in representatives elected from counties rather than population districts.

The federal court case, Reynolds v. Sims (1964), "established the one-man, one-vote concept for electoral representation at the state level. Legislators were now supposed to represent more or less equal numbers of people." Residents of urban areas had been found to be markedly underrepresented in the legislature under the county-based system. Reapportionment made obvious the need for other changes to county structure, leading to the legislature passing the constitutional amendment. The Home Rule Act of 1975 implemented the amendment giving more power to the counties. With urbanization, their governments have become increasingly important in the state.

Several changes to the state constitution have affected the office of the governor and the cabinet. In 1926 the governor's term was extended from two to four years; in 1982 the governor was allowed to run for a second succeeding term. In 1993, the state passed an amendment requiring a limited cabinet (all of whom must be popularly elected).

As of April 2, 2021, there were 3,523,754 registered voters.

South Carolina has many venues for visual and performing arts. The Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston, the Greenville County Museum of Art, the Columbia Museum of Art, Spartanburg Art Museum, and the South Carolina State Museum in Columbia among others provide access to visual arts to the state. There are also numerous historic sites and museums scattered throughout the state paying homage to many events and periods in the state's history from Native American inhabitation to the present day.

South Carolina also has performing art venues including the Peace Center in Greenville, the Koger Center for the Arts in Columbia, and the Newberry Opera House, among others to bring local, national, and international talent to the stages of South Carolina. Several large venues can house major events, including Colonial Life Arena in Columbia, Bon Secours Wellness Arena in Greenville, and North Charleston Coliseum.

One of the nation's major performing arts festivals, Spoleto Festival USA, is held annually in Charleston. There are also countless local festivals throughout the state highlighting many cultural traditions, historical events, and folklore.

According to the South Carolina Arts Commission, creative industries generate $9.2 billion annually and support over 78,000 jobs in the state. A 2009 statewide poll by the University of South Carolina Institute for Public Service and Policy Research found that 67% of residents had participated in the arts in some form during the past year and on average citizens had participated in the arts 14 times in the previous year.

Sports

Although no major league professional sports teams are based in South Carolina, the Carolina Panthers have training facilities in the state and played their inaugural season's home games at Clemson's Memorial Stadium in 1995. They now play at Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Panthers consider themselves "The Carolinas' Team" and refrained from naming themselves after Charlotte or either of the Carolinas. The state is also home to numerous minor league professional teams. College teams represent their particular South Carolina institutions, and are the primary options for football, basketball and baseball attendance in the state. South Carolina is also a top destination for golf and water sports.

South Carolina is also home to one of NASCAR's first tracks and its first paved speedway, Darlington Raceway, located northwest of Florence.

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List of TV stations in South Carolina: Television Stations – Station Index

Preceded by
List of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union
Ratified Constitution on May 23, 1788 (8th)
Succeeded by

Coordinates:33°55′01″N80°53′47″W /33.9169°N 80.8964°W /33.9169; -80.8964 (State of South Carolina)

South Carolina
South Carolina Language Watch Edit This article is about the State of South Carolina For other uses see South Carolina disambiguation South Carolina ˌ k aer e ˈ l aɪ n e listen is a state in the coastal southeastern region of the United States It is bordered to the north by North Carolina to the southeast by the Atlantic Ocean and to the southwest by Georgia across the Savannah River South Carolina is the 40th most extensive and 23rd most populous U S state with a recorded population of 5 124 712 7 according to the 2020 census In 2019 its GDP was 213 45 billion South Carolina is composed of 46 counties The capital is Columbia with a population of 133 273 in 2019 8 while its largest city is Charleston with a 2020 population of 150 277 9 The Greenville Anderson Mauldin metropolitan area is the largest in the state with a 2018 population estimate of 906 626 10 South CarolinaStateState of South CarolinaFlagSealNickname s The Palmetto StateMotto s Dum spiro spero Latin While I breathe I hope Animis opibusque parati Latin Prepared in mind and resources Anthem Carolina South Carolina On My Mind Map of the United States with South Carolina highlightedCountryUnited StatesBefore statehoodProvince of South CarolinaAdmitted to the UnionMay 23 1788 8th CapitalColumbiaLargest cityCharleston 1 Largest metro and urban areasGreenville combined and metro Columbia urban Government GovernorHenry McMaster R Lieutenant GovernorPamela Evette R LegislatureGeneral Assembly Upper houseSenate Lower houseHouse of RepresentativesJudiciarySouth Carolina Supreme CourtU S senatorsLindsey Graham R Tim Scott R U S House delegation6 Republicans 1 Democrat list Area Total32 020 2 sq mi 82 932 km2 Land30 109 sq mi 77 982 km2 Water1 911 sq mi 4 949 km2 6 Area rank40thDimensions Length260 mi 420 km Width200 mi 320 km Elevation350 ft 110 m Highest elevation Sassafras Mountain 3 4 3 560 ft 1 085 m Lowest elevation Atlantic Ocean 3 0 ft 0 m Population 2020 Total5 124 712 5 Rank23rd Density157 sq mi 60 6 km2 Density rank19th Median household income 50 570 6 Income rank43rdDemonym s South CarolinianLanguage Official languageEnglishTime zoneUTC 05 00 Eastern Summer DST UTC 04 00 EDT USPS abbreviationSCISO 3166 codeUS SCTraditional abbreviationS C Latitude32 2 N to 35 13 NLongitude78 32 W to 83 21 WWebsitesc wbr govSouth Carolina state symbolsFlag of South CarolinaLiving insigniaAmphibianSalamanderBirdCarolina WrenButterflyEastern Tiger SwallowtailDog breedBoykin SpanielFishStriped bassFlowerYellow jessamineInsectCarolina mantisMammalWhite tailed deerReptileLoggerhead sea turtleTreeSabal palmettoInanimate insigniaBeverageMilkDanceCarolina shagFoodFruit PeachSnack Boiled peanutsVegetable Collard greensFossilColumbian mammoth Mammuthus columbi MineralAmethystRockBlue graniteShellLettered oliveState route markerState quarterReleased in 2000Lists of United States state symbols South Carolina was named in honor of King Charles I of England who first formed the English colony with Carolus being Latin for Charles 11 In 1712 the Province of South Carolina was formed One of the Thirteen Colonies South Carolina became a royal colony in 1719 During the American Revolution South Carolina became part of the United States in 1776 South Carolina became the eighth state to ratify the U S Constitution on May 23 1788 It was the first state to vote in favor of secession from the Union on December 20 1860 After the American Civil War it was readmitted into the United States on July 9 1868 During the early to mid 20th century the state started to see economic progress as many textile mills and factories were built across the state South Carolina s economic diversification would continue into the early 21st century in industries such as aerospace agribusiness automotive manufacturing and tourism 12 Within South Carolina from east to west are three main geographic regions the Atlantic coastal plain the Piedmont and the Blue Ridge Mountains in the northwestern corner of Upstate South Carolina South Carolina has primarily a humid subtropical climate with hot humid summers and mild winters Areas in the Upstate have a subtropical highland climate Along South Carolina s eastern coastal plain are many salt marshes and estuaries South Carolina s southeastern Lowcountry contains portions of the Sea Islands a chain of barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean History EditMain article History of South Carolina Precolonial period Edit Top left the shores of Florida and the future Carolina explored in 1500 and showed in 1502 on the Cantino planisphere There is evidence of human activity in the area dating to about 40 000 years ago At the time Europeans arrived marking the end of the Pre Columbian era around 1600 there were many separate Native American tribes the largest being the Cherokee and the Catawba with the total population being up to 20 000 13 Up the rivers of the eastern coastal plain lived about a dozen tribes of Siouan background Along the Savannah River were the Apalachee Yuchi and the Yamasee Further west were the Cherokee and along the Catawba River the Catawba These tribes were village dwellers relying on agriculture as their primary food source 13 The Cherokee lived in wattle and daub houses made with wood and clay roofed with wood or thatched grass 14 About a dozen or more separate small tribes summered on the coast harvesting oysters and fish and cultivating corn peas and beans Travelling inland as much as 50 miles 80 km mostly by canoe they wintered on the coastal plain hunting deer and gathering nuts and fruit The names of these tribes survive in place names like Edisto Island Kiawah Island and the Ashepoo River 13 Exploration Edit Map of French Florida which included modern day South Carolina The Spanish were the first Europeans in the area From June 24 to July 14 1521 they explored the land around Winyah Bay On October 8 1526 they founded San Miguel de Gualdape near present day Georgetown South Carolina It was the first European settlement in what is now the contiguous United States Established with five hundred settlers it was abandoned eight months later by one hundred and fifty survivors In 1540 Hernando de Soto explored the region and the main town of Cofitachequi where he captured the queen of the Maskoki Muscogee and the Chelaque Cherokee who had welcomed him In 1562 French Huguenots established a settlement at what is now the Charlesfort Santa Elena archaeological site on Parris Island Many of these settlers preferred a natural life far from civilization and the atrocities of the Wars of Religion The garrison lacked supplies however and the soldiers as in the France Antarctique soon ran away The French returned two years later but settled in present day Florida rather than South Carolina 13 Colonization Edit Main articles Province of Carolina and Province of South Carolina The Carolina Colony grants of 1663 and 1665 Sixty years later in 1629 King of England Charles I established the Province of Carolina an area covering what is now South and North Carolina Georgia and Tennessee In 1663 Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors in return for their financial and political assistance in restoring him to the throne in 1660 15 Anthony Ashley Cooper one of the Lord Proprietors planned the Grand Model for the Province of Carolina and wrote the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina which laid the basis for the future colony 16 His utopia was inspired by John Locke an English philosopher and physician widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the Father of Liberalism The Carolina slave trade which included both trading and direct raids by colonists 17 109 was the largest among the British colonies in North America 17 65 Between 1670 and 1715 between 24 000 and 51 000 captive Native Americans were exported from South Carolina more than the number of Africans imported to the colonies of the future United States during the same period 18 17 237 Additional enslaved Native Americans were exported from South Carolina to other U S colonies 18 The historian Alan Gallay says the trade in Indian slaves was at the center of the English empire s development in the American South The trade in Indian slaves was the most important factor affecting the South in the period 1670 to 1715 18 In the 1670s English planters from Barbados established themselves near what is now Charleston Settlers from all over Europe built rice plantations in the South Carolina Lowcountry east of the Atlantic Seaboard fall line Plantation labor was done by African slaves who formed the majority of the population by 1720 19 Another cash crop was the indigo plant a plant source of blue dye developed by Eliza Lucas Meanwhile Upstate South Carolina west of the Fall Line was settled by small farmers and traders who displaced Native American tribes westward Colonists overthrew the proprietors rule seeking more direct representation In 1712 the former Province of Carolina split in to North and South Carolina In 1719 South Carolina was officially made a royal colony South Carolina prospered from the fertility of the lowcountry and the harbors such as at Charleston It allowed religious toleration encouraging settlement and trade in deerskin lumber and beef thrived Rice cultivation was developed on a large scale on the back of slave labor By the second half of the 1700s South Carolina was one of the richest of the Thirteen Colonies 19 The American Revolution Edit Main articles South Carolina in the American Revolution and Southern theater of the American Revolutionary War On March 26 1776 the colony adopted the Constitution of South Carolina 20 electing John Rutledge as the state s first president In February 1778 South Carolina became the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation 21 the initial governing document of the United States and in May 1788 South Carolina ratified the United States Constitution becoming the eighth state to enter the union During the American Revolutionary War 1775 1783 about a third of combat action took place in South Carolina 22 more than in any other state 19 Inhabitants of the state endured being invaded by British forces and an ongoing civil war between loyalists and partisans that devastated the backcountry 22 It is estimated 25 000 slaves 30 of those in South Carolina fled migrated or died during the war 23 Antebellum Edit Main article Antebellum South Carolina Millford Plantation 1839 41 an example of Greek Revival architecture America s first census in 1790 put the state s population at nearly 250 000 By the 1800 census the population had increased 38 per cent to nearly 340 000 of which 146 000 were slaves At that time South Carolina had the largest population of Jews in the sixteen states of the United States mostly based in Savannah and Charleston 24 the latter being the country s fifth largest city 25 In the Antebellum period before the Civil War the state s economy and population grew Cotton became an important crop after the invention of the cotton gin While nominally democratic from 1790 until 1865 wealthy landowners were in control of South Carolina For example a man was not eligible to sit in the State House of Representatives unless he possessed an estate of 500 acres of land and 10 Negroes or at least 150 pounds sterling diminishing the electorate Further the state maintained indirect election of electors by the state legislature until 1868 the last state to do so Voters thus did not participate in presidential elections other than through state wide elections 26 Columbia the new state capital was founded in the center of the state and the State Legislature first met there in 1790 The town grew after it was connected to Charleston by the Santee Canal in 1800 one of the first canals in the United States As dissatisfaction of the planters ruling class with the federal government grew in the 1820s John C Calhoun became a leading proponent of states rights limited government nullification of the U S Constitution and free trade In 1832 the Ordinance of Nullification declared federal tariff laws unconstitutional and not to be enforced in the state leading to the Nullification Crisis The federal Force Bill was enacted to use whatever military force necessary to enforce federal law in the state bringing South Carolina back into line In the United States presidential election of 1860 voting was sharply divided with the south voting for the Southern Democrats and the north for Abraham Lincoln s Republican Party Lincoln was anti slavery did not acknowledge the right to secession and would not yield federal property in Southern states Southern secessionists believed Lincoln s election meant long term doom for their slavery based agrarian economy and social system 27 Lincoln was elected president on November 6 1860 The state House of Representatives three days later passed the Resolution to Call the Election of Abraham Lincoln as U S President a Hostile Act 28 and within weeks South Carolina became the first state to secede 19 Civil War 1861 1865 Edit Main articles Ordinance of Secession Confederate States of America and South Carolina in the American Civil War Charleston in ruins 1865 On April 12 1861 Confederate batteries began shelling the Union Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor and the American Civil War began In November of that year the Union attacked Port Royal Sound and soon occupied Beaufort County and the neighboring Sea Islands For the rest of the war this area served as a Union base and staging point for other operations Whites abandoned their plantations 29 leaving behind about ten thousand enslaved people Several Northern charities partnered with the federal government to help these people run the cotton farms themselves under the Port Royal Experiment Workers were paid by the pound harvested and thus became the first enslaved people freed by the Union forces to earn wages 30 Although the state was not a major battleground the war ruined the economy Under conscription all white men aged 18 35 later 45 were drafted for Confederate service More than 60 000 served 29 and the state lost nearly one third of the white male population of fighting age 31 At the end of the war in early 1865 the troops of General William Tecumseh Sherman marched across the state devastating plantations and most of Columbia South Carolina would be readmitted to the Union on July 9 1868 Reconstruction 1865 1877 Edit Main article Reconstruction era After the war South Carolina was restored to the United States during Reconstruction Under presidential Reconstruction 1865 66 freedmen former slaves were given limited rights Under Radical reconstruction 1867 1877 a Republican coalition of freedmen carpetbaggers and scalawags was in control supported by Union Army forces They established public education welfare institutions and home rule for counties expanding democracy citation needed In Texas vs White 1869 the Supreme Court ruled the ordinances of secession including that of South Carolina were invalid and thus those states had never left the Union However South Carolina did not regain representation in Congress until that date Until the 1868 presidential election South Carolina s legislature not the voters chose the state s electors for the presidential election South Carolina was the last state to choose its electors in this manner On October 19 1871 President Ulysses S Grant suspended habeas corpus in nine South Carolina counties under the authority of the Ku Klux Klan Act 32 Led by Grant s Attorney General Amos T Akerman hundreds of Klansmen were arrested while 2 000 Klansmen fled the state 32 This was done to suppress Klan violence against African American and white voters in the South 32 In the mid to late 1870s white Democrats used paramilitary groups such as the Red Shirts to intimidate and terrorize black voters They regained political control of the state under conservative white Redeemers and pro business Bourbon Democrats In 1877 the federal government withdrew its troops as part of the Compromise of 1877 that ended Reconstruction Populist and agrarian movements Edit The state became a hotbed of racial and economic tensions during the Populist and Agrarian movements of the 1890s A Republican Populist biracial coalition took power away from White Democrats temporarily To prevent that from happening again Democrats gained passage of a new constitution in 1895 which effectively disenfranchised almost all blacks and many poor whites by new requirements for poll taxes residency and literacy tests that dramatically reduced the voter rolls By 1896 only 5 500 black voters remained on the voter registration rolls although they constituted a majority of the state s population 33 The 1900 census demonstrated the extent of disenfranchisement the 782 509 African American citizens comprised more than 58 of the state s population but they were essentially without any political representation in the Jim Crow society 34 The 1895 constitution overturned local representative government reducing the role of the counties to agents of state government effectively ruled by the General Assembly through the legislative delegations for each county As each county had one state senator that person had considerable power The counties lacked representative government until home rule was passed in 1975 35 Governor Pitchfork Ben Tillman a Populist led the effort to disenfranchise the blacks and poor whites although he controlled Democratic state politics from the 1890s to 1910 with a base among poor white farmers During the constitutional convention in 1895 he supported another man s proposal that the state adopt a one drop rule as well as prohibit marriage between whites and anyone with any known African ancestry Some members of the convention realized prominent white families with some African ancestry could be affected by such legislation In terms similar to a debate in Virginia in 1853 on a similar proposal which was dropped George Dionysius Tillman said in opposition If the law is made as it now stands respectable families in Aiken Barnwell Colleton and Orangeburg will be denied the right to intermarry among people with whom they are now associated and identified At least one hundred families would be affected to my knowledge They have sent good soldiers to the Confederate Army and are now landowners and taxpayers Those men served creditably and it would be unjust and disgraceful to embarrass them in this way It is a scientific fact that there is not one full blooded Caucasian on the floor of this convention Every member has in him a certain mixture of colored blood The pure blooded white has needed and received a certain infusion of darker blood to give him readiness and purpose It would be a cruel injustice and the source of endless litigation of scandal horror feud and bloodshed to undertake to annul or forbid marriage for a remote perhaps obsolete trace of Negro blood The doors would be open to scandal malice and greed to statements on the witness stand that the father or grandfather or grandmother had said that A or B had Negro blood in their veins Any man who is half a man would be ready to blow up half the world with dynamite to prevent or avenge attacks upon the honor of his mother in the legitimacy or purity of the blood of his father 36 37 38 39 The state postponed such a one drop law for years Virginian legislators adopted a one drop law in 1924 forgetting that their state had many people of mixed ancestry among those who identified as white 20th century Edit Some children who worked in South Carolina textile mills went to school half a day and worked before and after school and eight or nine hours on Saturday Early in the 20th century South Carolina developed a thriving textile industry The state also converted its main agricultural base from cotton to more profitable crops It would attract large military bases during World War I through its majority Democratic congressional delegation part of the one party Solid South following disfranchisement of blacks In the late 19th century South Carolina would implement Jim Crow laws which enforced racial segregation policies until the 1960s During the early to mid part of the 20th century millions of African Americans left South Carolina and other southern states for jobs opportunities and relative freedom in U S cities outside the former Confederate states In total from 1910 to 1970 6 5 million blacks left the South in the Great Migration By 1930 South Carolina had a white majority population for the first time since 1708 40 South Carolina was one of several states that initially rejected the Nineteenth Amendment 1920 giving women the right to vote The South Carolina legislature later ratified the amendment on July 1 1969 See also South Carolina in the civil rights movement The struggle of the civil rights movement took place in South Carolina as they did in other Southern states and elsewhere within the country South Carolina would experience a much less violent movement than other Deep South states 41 This tranquil transition from a Jim Crow society occurred because the state s white and black leaders were willing to accept slow change rather than being utterly unwilling to accept change at all 42 Other South Carolina political figures like Sen Strom Thurmond on the other hand were among the nation s most radical and effective opponents of social equality and integration During the mid to late 20th century South Carolina started to see economic progress first in the textile industry and then in manufacturing Tourism also started to form into a major industry within the state during the 20th century especially in areas such as Myrtle Beach and Charleston 43 21st century Edit As of 2015 South Carolina had one of the lowest percentages among all states of women in state legislature at 13 5 only Louisiana Oklahoma and Wyoming had a lower percentage the national average is 24 3 with the highest percentage being in Colorado at 41 44 In 2011 South Carolina ranked first in the country in the rate of women killed by men 45 As the 21st century progresses South Carolina has attracted new business by having a 5 corporate income tax rate no state property tax no local income tax no inventory tax no sales tax on manufacturing equipment industrial power or materials for finished products no wholesale tax and no unitary tax on worldwide profits 46 South Carolina was one of the first states to stop paying for early elective deliveries of babies under either Medicaid and private insurance The term early elective is defined as a labor induction or Cesarean section between 37 and 39 weeks that is not medically based This change is intended to result in healthier babies and fewer unnecessary costs for South Carolina 47 On November 20 2014 South Carolina became the 35th state to legalize same sex marriages when a federal court ordered the change 48 Geography EditRegions Edit The state can be divided into three natural geographic areas which then can be subdivided into five distinct cultural regions The natural environment is divided from east to west by the Atlantic coastal plain the Piedmont and the Blue Ridge Mountains Culturally the coastal plain is split into the Lowcountry and the Pee Dee region While the upper Piedmont region is referred to as the Piedmont and the lower Piedmont region is referred to as the Midlands The area surrounding the Blue Ridge Mountains is known as the Upstate 49 The Atlantic Coastal Plain makes up two thirds of the state Its eastern border is the Sea Islands a chain of tidal and barrier islands The border between the lowcountry and the upcountry is defined by the Atlantic Seaboard fall line which marks the limit of navigable rivers Atlantic Coastal Plain Edit Main article South Carolina Lowcountry The Atlantic Coastal Plain consists of sediments and sedimentary rocks that range in age from Cretaceous to Present The terrain is relatively flat and the soil is composed predominantly of sand silt and clay Areas with better drainage make excellent farmland though some land is swampy An unusual feature of the coastal plain is a large number of low relief topographic depressions named Carolina bays The bays tend to be oval lining up in a northwest to southeast orientation The eastern portion of the coastal plain contains many salt marshes and estuaries as well as natural ports such as Georgetown and Charleston The natural areas of the coastal plain are part of the Middle Atlantic coastal forests ecoregion 50 The Sandhills or Carolina Sandhills is a 10 35 mi 16 56 km wide region within the Atlantic Coastal Plain province along the inland margin of this province The Carolina Sandhills are interpreted as eolian wind blown sand sheets and dunes that were mobilized episodically from approximately 75 000 to 6 000 years ago Most of the published luminescence ages from the sand are coincident with the last glaciation a time when the southeastern United States was characterized by colder air temperatures and stronger winds 51 Piedmont Edit Much of Piedmont consists of Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks and the landscape has relatively low relief Due to the changing economics of farming much of the land is now reforested in loblolly pine for the lumber industry These forests are part of the Southeastern mixed forests ecoregion 50 At the southeastern edge of Piedmont is the fall line where rivers drop to the coastal plain The fall line was an important early source of water power Mills built to this resource encouraged the growth of several cities including the capital Columbia The larger rivers are navigable up to the fall line providing a trade route for mill towns The northwestern part of Piedmont is also known as the Foothills The Cherokee Parkway is a scenic driving route through this area This is where Table Rock State Park is located Blue Ridge Edit The Blue Ridge consists primarily of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and the landscape has relatively high relief The Blue Ridge Region contains an escarpment of the Blue Ridge Mountains that continues into North Carolina and Georgia as part of the southern Appalachian Mountains Sassafras Mountain South Carolina s highest point at 3 560 feet 1 090 m is in this area 52 Also in this area is Caesars Head State Park The environment here is that of the Appalachian Blue Ridge forests ecoregion 50 The Chattooga River on the border between South Carolina and Georgia is a favorite whitewater rafting destination Lakes Edit Main article List of lakes in South Carolina South Carolina has several major lakes covering over 683 square miles 1 770 km2 All major lakes in South Carolina are man made The following are the lakes listed by size 53 54 Lake Marion 110 000 acres 450 km2 Lake Strom Thurmond also known as Clarks Hill Lake 71 100 acres 290 km2 Lake Moultrie 60 000 acres 240 km2 Lake Hartwell 56 000 acres 230 km2 Lake Murray 50 000 acres 200 km2 Russell Lake 26 650 acres 110 km2 Lake Keowee 18 372 acres 70 km2 Lake Wylie 13 400 acres 50 km2 Lake Wateree 13 250 acres 50 km2 Lake Greenwood 11 400 acres 50 km2 Lake Jocassee 7 500 acres 30 km2 Lake Bowen 1 534 acres 6 21 km2 Earthquakes Edit Main article List of earthquakes in South Carolina The Charleston area along the central coastline of the state demonstrates the greatest frequency of earthquakes in South Carolina South Carolina averages 10 15 earthquakes a year below magnitude 3 FEMA The Charleston earthquake of 1886 was the largest quake ever to hit the eastern United States The 7 0 7 3 magnitude earthquake killed 60 people and destroyed much of the city 55 Faults in this region are difficult to study at the surface due to thick sedimentation on top of them Many of the ancient faults are within plates rather than along plate boundaries Climate Edit Main article Climate of South Carolina South Carolina has a humid subtropical climate Koppen climate classification Cfa although high elevation areas in the Upstate area have fewer subtropical characteristics than areas on the Atlantic coastline In the summer South Carolina is hot and humid with daytime temperatures averaging between 86 93 F 30 34 C in most of the state and overnight lows averaging 70 75 F 21 24 C on the coast and from 66 73 F 19 23 C inland Winter temperatures are much less uniform in South Carolina A map of the average annual precipitation in South Carolina Coastal areas of the state have very mild winters with high temperatures approaching an average of 60 F 16 C and overnight lows around 40 F 5 8 C Inland the average January overnight low is around 32 F 0 C in Columbia and temperatures well below freezing in the Upstate While precipitation is abundant the entire year in almost the entire state the coast tends to have a slightly wetter summer while inland the spring and autumn transitions tend to be the wettest periods and winter the driest season with November being the driest month The highest recorded temperature is 113 F 45 C in Johnston and Columbia on June 29 2012 and the lowest recorded temperature is 19 F 28 C at Caesars Head on January 21 1985 Snowfall in South Carolina is minimal in the lower elevation areas south and east of Columbia It is not uncommon for areas along the southernmost coast to not receive measurable snowfall for several years In the Piedmont and Foothills especially along and north of Interstate 85 measurable snowfall occurs one to three times in most years Annual average total amounts range from 2 to 6 inches The Blue Ridge Escarpment receives the most average total measurable snowfall amounts range from 7 to 12 inches South Carolina is also prone to tropical cyclones and tornadoes Two of the strongest hurricanes to strike South Carolina in recent history were Hurricane Hazel 1954 and Hurricane Hugo 1989 Hurricanes and tropical cyclones Edit Category 4 Hurricane Hugo in 1989 The state is occasionally affected by tropical cyclones This is an annual concern during hurricane season which lasts from June 1 to November 30 The peak time of vulnerability for the southeast Atlantic coast is from early August to early October during the Cape Verde hurricane season Memorable hurricanes to hit South Carolina include Hazel 1954 Florence 2018 and Hugo 1989 all Category 4 hurricanes 56 South Carolina averages around 50 days of thunderstorm activity a year This is less than some of the states further south and it is slightly less vulnerable to tornadoes than the states which border on the Gulf of Mexico Some notable tornadoes have struck South Carolina and the state averages around 14 tornadoes annually Hail is common with many of the thunderstorms in the state as there is often a marked contrast in temperature of warmer ground conditions compared to the cold air aloft 56 Climate change Edit This section is an excerpt from Climate change in South Carolina edit Koppen climate types in South Carolina showing a large majority of the state being humid subtropical with smaller outlier pockets of an oceanic climate in the Blue Ridge Mountains Climate change in South Carolina encompasses the effects of climate change attributed to man made increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide in the U S state of South Carolina Studies show that South Carolina is among a string of Deep South states that will experience the worst effects of climate change 57 According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency South Carolina s climate is changing Most of the state has warmed by one half to one degree F in the last century and the sea is rising about one to one and a half inches every decade Higher water levels are eroding beaches submerging low lands and exacerbating coastal flooding Like other southeastern states South Carolina has warmed less than most of the nation But in the coming decades the region s changing climate is likely to reduce crop yields harm livestock increase the number of unpleasantly hot days and increase the risk of heat stroke and other heat related illnesses 58 As of January 2020 South Carolina s failure to develop a comprehensive climate plan means the state has no overall effort to cut greenhouse gas pollution limit sprawl or educate the public on how to adapt to the changing climate 59 Congaree National Park Hopkins Federal lands in South Carolina Edit Main article List of federal lands in South Carolina Charles Pinckney National Historic Site at Mt Pleasant Congaree National Park in Hopkins Cowpens National Battlefield near Chesnee Fort Moultrie National Monument at Sullivan s Island Fort Sumter National Monument in Charleston Harbor Kings Mountain National Military Park at Blacksburg Ninety Six National Historic Site in Ninety Six Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail Fort Jackson near Columbia Joint Base Charleston near Charleston Shaw Air Force Base near Sumter Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island at Parris IslandFlora and fauna Edit This section is empty You can help by adding to it May 2021 Further information List of mammals of South Carolina Population centers Edit See also South Carolina statistical areas Some Primary Statistical Areas of South Carolina overlap with neighbouring states of North Carolina and Georgia Rank Primary Statistical Area Population Counties1 Greenville Spartanburg Anderson SC CSA 1 460 036 Greenville Spartanburg Anderson Pickens Oconee Laurens Cherokee Union2 Columbia Orangeburg Newberry SC CSA 950 997 Richland Lexington Orangeburg Kershaw Newberry Fairfield Saluda Calhoun3 Charleston North Charleston Summerville SC CSA 775 831 Charleston Dorchester Berkeley4 Myrtle Beach Conway Georgetown SC CSA 525 772 Horry Brunswick Georgetown5 Charlotte Concord Gastonia NC SC MSA 415 321 in SC York Lancaster Chesterfield Chester The following table shows the major metropolitan areas of South Carolina 60 Rank Metropolitan Area Population Counties1 Greenville Anderson Mauldin SC MSA 895 923 Greenville Anderson Laurens Pickens2 Columbia SC MSA 825 033 Calhoun Kershaw Fairfield Richland Lexington Saluda3 Charleston North Charleston Summerville SC MSA 775 831 Charleston Dorchester Berkeley4 Myrtle Beach Conway North Myrtle Beach SC MSA 464 165 Horry Georgetown Brunswick5 Spartanburg SC MSA 334 391 Spartanburg6 Charlotte Concord Gastonia NC SC MSA 251 195 in SC York7 Hilton Head Island Bluffton Beaufort SC MSA 215 302 Beaufort Jasper8 Florence SC MSA 205 831 Florence Darlington9 Sumter SC MSA 106 847 Sumter In 2019 the U S Census Bureau released 2018 population estimates for South Carolina s most populous cities 61 Demographics EditMain articles Demographics of South Carolina and List of cities and towns in South Carolina Historical populationCensus Pop 1790249 073 1800345 59138 8 1810415 11520 1 1820502 74121 1 1830581 18515 6 1840594 3982 3 1850668 50712 5 1860703 7085 3 1870705 6060 3 1880995 57741 1 18901 151 14915 6 19001 340 31616 4 19101 515 40013 1 19201 683 72411 1 19301 738 7653 3 19401 899 8049 3 19502 117 02711 4 19602 382 59412 5 19702 590 5168 7 19803 121 82020 5 19903 486 70311 7 20004 012 01215 1 20104 625 36415 3 20205 118 42510 7 Source 1910 2020 63 South Carolina racial breakdown of population Racial composition 1990 64 2000 65 2010 66 2019 67 2020 68 White 69 0 67 2 66 2 68 5 63 4 Black 29 8 29 5 27 9 27 1 25 0 Asian 0 6 0 9 1 3 1 8 1 8 Native American 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 5 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 0 1 0 1 0 1 Two or more races 1 0 1 7 1 9 5 8 Population density of South Carolina The 2020 census determined the state had a population of 5 118 425 The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of South Carolina was 5 148 714 on July 1 2019 an 11 31 percentage increase since the 2010 census 69 As of the 2017 census estimate the racial make up of the state is 68 5 White 63 8 non Hispanic white 27 3 Black or African American 0 5 American Indian and Alaska Native 1 7 Asian 0 1 Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander 1 9 from two or more races 5 7 of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race 70 According to the United States Census Bureau as of 2019 South Carolina had an estimated population of 5 148 714 which is an increase of 64 587 from the prior year and an increase of 523 350 or 11 31 since the year 2010 Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 36 401 people and migration within the country produced a net increase of 115 084 people According to the University of South Carolina s Arnold School of Public Health Consortium for Latino Immigration Studies South Carolina s foreign born population grew faster than any other state between 2000 and 2005 71 72 South Carolina has banned sanctuary cities 73 Legend African American European American Other Historical South Carolina Racial Breakdown of Population 74 Religion Edit Religion in South Carolina 75 Evangelical Protestant 35 Mainline Protestant 16 Historically Black Protestant 15 Catholic 10 Other Christian 2 Other 2 Unaffiliated none 19 Don t Know 1 According to the Association of Religion Data Archives ARDA in 2010 the largest religion is Christianity of which the largest denominations were the Southern Baptist Convention with 913 763 adherents the United Methodist Church with 274 111 adherents and the Roman Catholic Church with 181 743 adherents Fourth largest is the African Methodist Episcopal Church with 564 congregations and 121 000 members and fifth largest is the Presbyterian Church USA with 320 congregations and almost 100 000 members 76 As of 2010 South Carolina is the American state with the highest per capita proportion of citizens who follow the Bahaʼi Faith with 17 559 adherents 77 making Bahaʼi the second largest religion in the state 78 Economy and infrastructure EditSee also Economy of South Carolina and South Carolina locations by per capita income The Arthur Ravenel Jr Bridge from Charleston Harbor Total employment 2016 1 716 496 Total employer establishments 105 959 79 In 2019 South Carolina s GDP was 249 9 billion making the state the 26th largest by GDP in the United States 80 According to the U S Bureau of Economic Analysis South Carolina s gross state product GSP in was 97 billion in 1997 and 153 billion in 2007 Its per capita real gross domestic product GDP in chained 2000 dollars was 26 772 in 1997 and 28 894 in 2007 which represented 85 of the 31 619 per capita real GDP for the United States overall in 1997 and 76 of the 38 020 for the U S in 2007 The state debt in 2012 was calculated by one source to be 22 9bn or 7 800 per taxpayer 81 Industrial outputs include textile goods chemical products paper products machinery automobiles automotive products and tourism Major agricultural outputs of the state are tobacco poultry cotton cattle dairy products soybeans hay rice and swine 82 83 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics as of March 2012 South Carolina had 1 852 700 nonfarm jobs of which 12 are in manufacturing 11 5 are in leisure and hospitality 19 are in trade transportation and utilities and 11 8 are in education and health services The service sector accounts for 83 7 of the South Carolina economy 84 Many large corporations have moved their locations to South Carolina Boeing opened an aircraft manufacturing facility in Charleston in 2011 which serves as one of two final assembly sites for the 787 Dreamliner South Carolina is a right to work state 85 and many businesses utilize staffing agencies to temporarily fill positions Domtar in Rock Hill used to be the only Fortune 500 company headquartered in South Carolina 86 The Fortune 1000 list includes SCANA Sonoco Products and ScanSource South Carolina also benefits from foreign investment There are 1 950 foreign owned firms operating in South Carolina employing almost 135 000 people 87 Foreign Direct Investment FDI brought 1 06 billion dollars to the state economy in 2010 88 Since 1994 BMW has had a production facility in Spartanburg County near Greer and since 1996 the Zapp Group operates in Summerville near Charleston Media Edit See also Category Mass media in South Carolina This section needs expansion You can help by adding to it March 2017 There are 36 TV stations including PBS affiliates serving South Carolina with terrestrial and some online streaming access Markets in which the stations are located include Columbia Florence Allendale Myrtle Beach Greenville Charleston Conway Beaufort Hardeeville Spartanburg Greenwood Anderson and Sumter Transportation Edit Roads Edit The state has the fourth largest state maintained system in the country consisting of 11 Interstates numbered highways state highways and secondary roads totalling approximately 41 500 miles 89 On secondary roads South Carolina uses a numbering system to keep track of all non interstate and primary highways that the South Carolina Department of Transportation maintains Secondary roads are numbered by the number of the county followed by a unique number for the particular road Rail Edit Passenger rail Amtrak operates four passenger routes in South Carolina the Crescent the Palmetto the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star The Crescent route serves the Upstate cities the Silver Star serves the Midlands cities and the Palmetto and Silver Meteor routes serve the lowcountry cities Station stops Station ConnectionsCamden Silver StarNorth Charleston Palmetto Silver MeteorColumbia Silver StarClemson CrescentDenmark Silver StarDillon PalmettoFlorence Palmetto Silver MeteorGreenville CrescentKingstree Palmetto Silver MeteorSpartanburg CrescentYemassee Palmetto Silver Meteor Freight CSX Transportation and Norfolk Southern are the only Class I railroad companies in South Carolina as other freight companies in the state are short lines Major and regional airports Edit Main article List of airports in South Carolina There are seven significant airports in South Carolina all of which act as regional airport hubs The busiest by passenger volume is Charleston International Airport 90 Just across the border in North Carolina is Charlotte Douglas International Airport the 30th busiest airport in the world in terms of passengers 91 Columbia Metropolitan Airport Columbia Charleston International Airport North Charleston Greenville Spartanburg International Airport Greenville Spartanburg Florence Regional Airport Florence Myrtle Beach International Airport Myrtle Beach Hilton Head Airport Hilton Head Island Beaufort Rock Hill York County Airport Rock HillEducation EditAs of 2010 South Carolina is one of three states that have not agreed to use competitive international math and language standards 92 In 2014 the South Carolina Supreme Court ruled the state had failed to provide a minimally adequate education to children in all parts of the state as required by the state s constitution 93 South Carolina has 1 144 K 12 schools in 85 school districts with an enrollment of 712 244 as of fall 2009 94 95 As of the 2008 2009 school year South Carolina spent 9 450 per student which places it 31st in the country for per student spending 96 In 2015 the national average SAT score was 1490 and the South Carolina average was 1442 48 points lower than the national average 97 South Carolina is the only state which owns and operates a statewide school bus system As of December 2016 the state maintains a 5 582 bus fleet with the average vehicle in service being fifteen years old the national average is six having logged 236 000 miles 98 Half of the state s school buses are more than 15 years old and some are reportedly up to 30 years old In 2017 in the budget proposal Superintendent of Education Molly Spearman requested the state lease to purchase 1 000 buses to replace the most decrepit vehicles An additional 175 buses could be purchased immediately through the State Treasurer s master lease program 99 On January 5 2017 the U S Environmental Protection Agency awarded South Carolina more than 1 1 million to replace 57 school buses with new cleaner models through its Diesel Emissions Reduction Act program 100 Institutions of higher education Edit See also List of colleges and universities in South Carolina South Carolina has diverse institutions from large state funded research universities to small colleges that cultivate a liberal arts religious or military tradition The College of Charleston founded in 1770 and chartered in 1785 is the oldest institution of higher learning in South Carolina the 13th oldest in the United States and the first municipal college in the country The college is in company with the Colonial Colleges as one of the original and foundational institutions of higher education in the United States Its founders include three signers of the United States Declaration of Independence and three signers of the United States Constitution The college s historic campus listed on the U S Department of the Interior s National Register of Historic Places forms an integral part of Charleston s colonial era urban center The Graduate School of the College of Charleston offers a number of degree programs and coordinates support for its nationally recognized faculty research efforts The University of South Carolina in Columbia is a flagship public co educational research university with seven satellite campuses It was founded in 1801 as South Carolina College and its original campus The Horseshoe is listed on the National Register of Historic Places The university s main campus covers over 359 acres 1 5 km2 in the urban core less than one city block from the South Carolina State House The University of South Carolina has around 35 000 students on the Columbia campus Furman University bell tower near Greenville Furman University is a private coeducational non sectarian liberal arts university in Greenville Founded in 1826 Furman enrolls approximately 2 900 undergraduate and 500 graduate students Furman is the largest private institution in South Carolina The university is primarily focused on undergraduate education only two departments education and chemistry offer graduate degrees Erskine College is a private coeducational liberal arts college in Due West South Carolina The college was founded in 1839 and is affiliated with the Associate Reformed Presbyterian Church which maintains a theological seminary on the campus The Citadel The Military College of South Carolina is a state supported comprehensive college in Charleston Founded in 1842 it is best known for its undergraduate Corps of Cadets military program for men and women which combines academics physical challenges and military discipline In addition to the cadet program the Citadel Graduate College offers evening certificate undergraduate and graduate programs to civilians The Citadel has 2 200 undergraduate cadets in its residential military program and 1 200 civilian students in the evening programs Wofford College is a small liberal arts college in Spartanburg Wofford was founded in 1854 with a bequest of 100 000 from the Rev Benjamin Wofford 1780 1850 a Methodist minister and Spartanburg native who sought to create a college for literary classical and scientific education in my native district of Spartanburg It is one of the few four year institutions in the southeastern United States founded before the American Civil War that operates on its original campus Newberry College is a small liberal arts college in Newberry Founded in 1856 Newberry is a co educational private liberal arts college of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America ELCA on a historic 90 acre 36 ha campus in Newberry South Carolina It has roughly 1 110 students and a 14 1 student teacher ratio According to U S News amp World Report s America s Best Colleges Newberry College ranks among the nation s top colleges in the southern region Claflin University founded in 1869 by the American Missionary Association is the oldest historically black college in the state After the Democratic dominated legislature closed the university in 1877 before passing a law to restrict admission to whites it designated Claflin as the only state college for blacks Lander University is a public liberal arts university in Greenwood Lander was founded in 1872 as Willamston Female College 101 The school moved to Greenwood in 1904 and was renamed Lander College in honor of its founder Samuel Lander In 1973 Lander became part of the state s higher education system and is now a co educational institution The university is focused on undergraduate education and enrolls approximately 3 000 undergraduates Presbyterian College PC is a private liberal arts college founded in 1880 in Clinton Presbyterian College enrolls around 1000 undergraduate students and around 200 graduate students in its pharmacy school In 2007 Washington Monthly ranked PC as the No 1 Liberal Arts College in the nation 102 Winthrop University founded in 1886 as an all female teaching school in Rock Hill became a co ed institution in 1974 It is now a public university with an enrollment of just over 6 100 students It is one of the fastest growing universities in the state with several new academic and recreational buildings being added to the main campus in the past five years as well as several more planned for the near future The Richard W Riley College of Education is still the school s most well known area of study Clemson University founded in 1889 is a public coeducational land grant research university in Clemson It has more than 19 000 undergraduate students and 5 200 graduate students from all 50 states and from more than 70 countries Clemson is also the home to the South Carolina Botanical Garden North Greenville University founded in 1891 is a comprehensive university in Tigerville It is affiliated with South Carolina Baptist Convention and the Southern Baptist Convention and is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools It has an enrollment of around 2 500 undergraduates South Carolina State University founded in 1896 is a historically black university in Orangeburg SCSU has an enrollment of nearly 5 000 and offers undergraduate graduate and post graduate degrees SCSU boasts the only Doctor of Education program in the state Anderson University founded in 1911 is a selective comprehensive university that offers bachelor s and master s degrees It enrolls about 2 900 students Webster University founded in 1915 in St Louis MO with five extended campuses in SC offers undergraduate and graduate degrees Bob Jones University founded in 1927 is a private non denominational and conservative Christian liberal arts university with a 2019 total enrollment of 3 000 BJU offers more than 60 undergraduate majors and 70 graduate programs 103 104 Coastal Carolina University founded in 1954 became an independent state supported liberal arts university in 1993 The university enrolls approximately 10 500 students on its 307 acre 1 24 km2 campus in Conway part of the Myrtle Beach metropolitan area Baccalaureate programs are offered in 51 major fields of study along with graduate programs in education business administration MBA and coastal marine and wetland studies Charleston Southern University founded in 1969 is a liberal arts university and is affiliated with the South Carolina Baptist Convention Charleston Southern CSU is on 300 acres formerly the site of a rice and indigo plantation in the City of North Charleston one of South Carolina s largest accredited independent universities enrolling approximately 3 400 students Francis Marion University formerly Francis Marion College is a state supported liberal arts university near Florence South Carolina It was founded in 1970 and achieved university status in 1992 Universities and colleges ranked by endowment 2010 Edit State Rank National Rank Institution Location Public or Private Endowment Funds Percentage Change YOY1 142 Furman University Greenville Private 650 000 000 7 8 2 151 University of South Carolina Columbia amp regional campuses Public 625 186 000 6 0 3 153 Clemson University Clemson Public 623 200 000 9 5 4 236 Medical University of South Carolina Charleston Public 272 319 000 13 7 5 270 The Citadel Charleston Public 244 000 000 8 1 6 324 Wofford College Spartanburg Private 166 619 000 10 2 7 447 Presbyterian College Clinton Private 97 590 000 11 0 8 530 Converse College Spartanburg Private 78 240 004 6 4 9 782 Winthrop University Rock Hill Public 43 600 000 13 6 10 658 Coker College Hartsville Private 37 660 000 4 9 105 Health care EditFor overall health care South Carolina is ranked 33rd out of the 50 states according to the Commonwealth Fund a private health foundation working to improve the health care system 106 needs update The state s teen birth rate was 53 births per 1 000 teens compared to the national average of 41 9 births according to the Kaiser Family Foundation 107 The state s infant mortality rate was 9 4 deaths per 1 000 births compared to the national average of 6 9 deaths 108 There were 2 6 physicians per 1 000 people compared to the national average of 3 2 physicians 109 There was 5 114 spent on health expenses per capita in the state compared to the national average of 5 283 110 There were 26 percent of children and 13 percent of elderly living in poverty in the state compared to 23 percent and 13 percent respectively doing so in the U S 111 And 34 percent of children were overweight or obese compared to the national average of 32 percent 112 Government and politics EditMain article South Carolina government and politics Gubernatorial election results 113 Year Democratic Republican1950 99 9 50 633 1954 99 9 214 204 1958 99 9 77 714 1962 99 9 253 704 1966 58 2 255 854 41 8 184 0881970 52 1 251 151 45 9 221 2361974 47 0 248 861 50 3 266 3381978 61 3 384 898 37 7 236 9461982 69 8 468 787 30 2 202 8061986 47 9 361 328 51 0 384 5651990 27 8 212 048 69 5 528 8311994 47 9 447 002 50 4 470 7561998 53 2 570 070 45 2 484 0882002 47 0 521 140 52 9 585 4222006 44 8 489 076 55 1 601 8682010 46 9 630 534 51 4 690 5252014 41 4 516 166 55 9 696 6452018 45 9 784 182 54 0 921 342Presidential election results 113 Year Democratic Republican1952 50 7 173 004 49 3 168 0821956 45 4 136 372 25 2 75 7001960 51 2 198 129 48 8 188 5581964 41 1 215 700 58 9 309 0481968 29 6 197 486 38 1 254 0621972 27 9 189 270 70 6 478 4271976 56 2 450 825 43 1 346 1401980 48 0 427 560 49 6 441 2071984 35 6 344 470 63 6 615 5391988 37 6 370 554 61 5 606 4431992 39 9 479 514 48 0 577 5071996 43 9 504 051 49 9 573 4582000 40 9 566 039 56 8 786 4262004 40 9 661 699 58 0 937 9742008 44 9 862 449 53 9 1 034 8962012 44 1 865 941 54 6 1 071 6452016 40 7 855 373 54 9 1 155 3892020 43 5 1 091 348 55 1 1 384 852 South Carolina State House Treemap of the popular vote by county 2016 presidential election South Carolina s state government consists of the Executive Legislative and Judicial branches Also relevant are the state constitution law enforcement agencies federal representation state finances and state taxes South Carolina has historically had a weak executive branch and a strong legislature Before 1865 governors in South Carolina were appointed by the General Assembly and held the title President of State The 1865 Constitution changed this process requiring a popular election Local governments were also weak But the 1867 Constitution passed during the Reconstruction era extended democratization by establishing home rule for counties which were established from the formerly designated districts of the state The 1895 state constitution overturned this reducing the role of counties and strengthening the relative role of the state legislature essentially the counties were agents of the state and ruled by the General Assembly through the legislative delegation for each county 35 They are geographically comprehensive all areas of the state are included in counties As each county had one state senator that position was particularly powerful This status continued until 1973 when the state constitution was amended to provide for home rule for the counties During this time the state had changed with increasing urbanization but rural counties retained proportionally more power as the legislature was based in representatives elected from counties rather than population districts 114 The federal court case Reynolds v Sims 1964 established the one man one vote concept for electoral representation at the state level Legislators were now supposed to represent more or less equal numbers of people 114 Residents of urban areas had been found to be markedly underrepresented in the legislature under the county based system Reapportionment made obvious the need for other changes to county structure leading to the legislature passing the constitutional amendment The Home Rule Act of 1975 implemented the amendment giving more power to the counties With urbanization their governments have become increasingly important in the state 114 Several changes to the state constitution have affected the office of the governor and the cabinet In 1926 the governor s term was extended from two to four years in 1982 the governor was allowed to run for a second succeeding term In 1993 the state passed an amendment requiring a limited cabinet all of whom must be popularly elected As of April 2 2021 there were 3 523 754 registered voters 115 Culture EditSee also South Carolina literature South Carolina has many venues for visual and performing arts The Gibbes Museum of Art in Charleston the Greenville County Museum of Art the Columbia Museum of Art Spartanburg Art Museum and the South Carolina State Museum in Columbia among others provide access to visual arts to the state There are also numerous historic sites and museums scattered throughout the state paying homage to many events and periods in the state s history from Native American inhabitation to the present day South Carolina also has performing art venues including the Peace Center in Greenville the Koger Center for the Arts in Columbia and the Newberry Opera House among others to bring local national and international talent to the stages of South Carolina Several large venues can house major events including Colonial Life Arena in Columbia Bon Secours Wellness Arena in Greenville and North Charleston Coliseum One of the nation s major performing arts festivals Spoleto Festival USA is held annually in Charleston There are also countless local festivals throughout the state highlighting many cultural traditions historical events and folklore According to the South Carolina Arts Commission creative industries generate 9 2 billion annually and support over 78 000 jobs in the state 116 A 2009 statewide poll by the University of South Carolina Institute for Public Service and Policy Research found that 67 of residents had participated in the arts in some form during the past year and on average citizens had participated in the arts 14 times in the previous year Sports Edit Main article Sports in South Carolina Although no major league professional sports teams are based in South Carolina the Carolina Panthers have training facilities in the state and played their inaugural season s home games at Clemson s Memorial Stadium in 1995 They now play at Bank of America Stadium in Charlotte North Carolina The Panthers consider themselves The Carolinas Team and refrained from naming themselves after Charlotte or either of the Carolinas The state is also home to numerous minor league professional teams College teams represent their particular South Carolina institutions and are the primary options for football basketball and baseball attendance in the state South Carolina is also a top destination for golf and water sports South Carolina is also home to one of NASCAR s first tracks and its first paved speedway Darlington Raceway located northwest of Florence See also Edit 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QuickFacts South Carolina Archived from the original on November 11 2019 Retrieved November 11 2019 Info www bea gov Retrieved June 20 2020 statedatalab org The 24th worst state Truth in Accounting PDF Archived PDF from the original on October 16 2014 Retrieved February 27 2014 Gross Domestic Product by State Archived July 7 2010 at the Wayback Machine June 5 2008 Retrieved March 15 2009 Bls gov Archived July 25 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 Economy at a Glance South Carolina Archived May 27 2012 at the Wayback Machine Accessed on May 10 2012 List of Right To Work States Right to Work States Meaning Righttoworkstates org Archived from the original on December 14 2012 Retrieved December 19 2012 Exxon Mobil Corporation Archived May 11 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 South Carolina Tennessee Archived May 25 2017 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 FDI in south Carolina a five year report Retrieved May 10 2012 SCDOT Statewide Transportation Improvement Program PDF South Carolina Department of Transportation July 16 2009 Archived PDF from the original on March 30 2015 Retrieved June 24 2013 2007 PRELIMl passenger ranking dead link Airports Council International Aci aero Archived from the original on May 31 2011 Retrieved January 27 2011 Hunt Albert R August 23 2009 A 5 billion bet on better education The New York Times Archived from the original on May 10 2013 Retrieved May 23 2010 Click Carolyne Hinshaw Dawn November 12 2014 SC Supreme Court finds for poor districts in 20 year old school equity suit The State Archived from the original on March 31 2016 Retrieved March 25 2016 South Carolina Fast Facts Archived May 11 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 NEA Rankings and Estimates Page 11 Archived May 5 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 NEA Rankings and Estimates Page 54 Archived May 5 2012 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved May 10 2012 Average SAT Scores By State US LEAP blog Archived from the original on October 15 2015 Retrieved March 25 2016 SC should privatize school bus fleet Lowcountry Source December 17 2016 Archived from the original on February 2 2017 Retrieved January 24 2017 Update South Carolina s decrepit school bus fleet The Post and Courier Archived from the original on September 11 2018 Retrieved January 24 2017 EPA Awards South Carolina 1 1 Million For Cleaner School Buses South Carolina Department of Education Archived from the original on February 2 2017 Retrieved January 24 2017 About Lander University Archived from the original on July 2 2012 Retrieved May 19 2013 Our Third Annual College Rankings Washingtonmonthly com Archived from the original on December 4 2010 Retrieved July 31 2010 Fast Facts Bob Jones University Archived from the original on December 11 2004 Bob Jones University Enrollment Profile Retrieved June 4 2021 As of June 30 2010 U S and Canadian Institutions Listed by Fiscal Year 2010 Endowment Market Value and Percentage Change in Endowment Market Value from FY 2009 to FY 2010 PDF 2010 NACUBO Commonfund Study of Endowments National Association of College and University Business Officers Archived from the original PDF on July 17 2012 Retrieved February 17 2010 Commonwealth Fund State Scorecard Archived from the original on June 10 2015 Kaiser State Health Facts 2006 Statehealthfacts org Archived from the original on July 18 2011 Retrieved July 31 2010 US Census US National Center for Health Statistics 2005 Archived copy at the Portuguese Web Archive July 10 2009 Kaiser State Health Facts based on Amer Medical Association data 2008 Statehealthfactsonline org July 1 2008 Archived from the original on July 28 2011 Retrieved July 31 2010 Kaiser State Health Facts based on Center for Medicare and Medicaid Statistics 2007 Statehealthfactsonline org Archived from the original on July 28 2011 Retrieved July 31 2010 Kaiser State Health Facts 2008 2008 Statehealthfactsonline org Archived from the original on July 28 2011 Retrieved July 31 2010 Kaiser State Health Facts based on Nat Survey of Children s Health 2009 Statehealthfactsonline org Archived from the original on July 28 2011 Retrieved July 31 2010 a b Leip David General Election Results South Carolina United States Election Atlas Archived from the original on July 9 2018 Retrieved November 18 2016 a b c Tyler 1998 The South Carolina Governance Project p 222 South Carolina Voter Registration Demographics South Carolina State Election Commission Retrieved June 10 2021 The South Carolina Arts Commission Economic Impact southcarolinaarts com Archived from the original on June 27 2012 Retrieved May 10 2012 External links EditSouth Carolinaat Wikipedia s sister projects Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guides from Wikivoyage Resources from Wikiversity Official website South Carolina State Guide from the Library of Congress South Carolina Department of Parks amp Tourism South Carolina travel guide from Wikivoyage Reynolds Francis J ed 1921 South Carolina Collier s New Encyclopedia New York P F Collier amp Son Company South Carolina at Curlie Energy amp Environmental Data for South Carolina USGS real time geographic and other scientific resources of South Carolina U S Census Bureau South Carolina Visitor amp Travel Information South Carolina State Facts from USDA Geographic data related to South Carolina at OpenStreetMap South Carolina Lakes Database and reviews List of TV stations in South Carolina Television Stations Station Index Preceded by Maryland List of U S states by date of admission to the Union Ratified Constitution on May 23 1788 8th Succeeded by New Hampshire Coordinates 33 55 01 N 80 53 47 W 33 9169 N 80 8964 W 33 9169 80 8964 State of South Carolina Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title South Carolina amp oldid 1052953091, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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