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Southampton Cenotaph

Southampton Cenotaph is a First World War memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and located in Watts Park in Southampton, southern England. The memorial was the first of dozens by Lutyens to be built in permanent form and it influenced his later designs, including The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. It is a tapering, multi-tiered pylon which culminates in a series of diminishing layers before terminating in a sarcophagus (or cenotaph, "empty tomb") which features a recumbent figure of a soldier. In front is an altar-like Stone of Remembrance. The cenotaph contains multiple sculptural details including a prominent cross, the town's coat of arms, and two lions. The names of the dead are inscribed on three sides. Although similar in outline, Lutyens' later cenotaphs were much more austere and featured almost no sculpture. The design uses abstract, ecumenical features and lifts the recumbent soldier high above eye level, anonymising him.

Southampton Cenotaph
United Kingdom
For Casualties of the First World War from Southampton
Unveiled6 November 1920 (1920-11-06)
Location50°54′34.7″N1°24′18.7″W /50.909639°N 1.405194°W /50.909639; -1.405194Coordinates: 50°54′34.7″N1°24′18.7″W /50.909639°N 1.405194°W /50.909639; -1.405194
Watts Park/Above Bar Street, Southampton
Designed bySir Edwin Lutyens
OUR GLORIOUS DEAD
THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE
Listed Building – Grade I
Official nameSouthampton Cenotaph
Designated8 October 1981
Reference no.1340007

The memorial was unveiled at a public ceremony on 6 November 1920. Shortly afterwards, concerns emerged that the list of names on the cenotaph was incomplete. After a newspaper campaign, more than 200 further names were identified and these were eventually added to the cenotaph. The names of most Jewish casualties were omitted, the Jewish community being unhappy that the memorial featured a Christian cross. By the beginning of the 21st century, the engravings on the memorial had deteriorated noticeably. Rather than re-cut them and damage the stonework, they were supplemented by a series of glass panels which bear all the names from the cenotaph, as well as names from the Second World War and later conflicts. The panels were unveiled in 2011.

The memorial is a Grade I listed building, having been upgraded in 2015 when Lutyens' war memorials were declared a national collection.

Contents

In the aftermath of the First World War and its unprecedented casualties, thousands of war memorials were built across Britain. Amongst the most prominent designers of memorials was Sir Edwin Lutyens, described by Historic England as "the leading English architect of his generation". Lutyens established his reputation before the war by designing country houses for wealthy clients and through his work on the new imperial headquarters at New Delhi. The war affected him deeply and, following it, he devoted much of his time to memorialising its casualties. His biographer Jane Brown records that, in the 1920s, more than half of his commissions were "for memorials and tombs, (his) clients more the dead than the living". He designed Southampton Cenotaph at around the same as his most famous memorial, The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London. That, along with Lutyens' work for the Imperial War Graves Commission (IWGC), led to commissions for war memorials across Britain and the empire.

Being a major port town, Southampton was heavily involved in the British war effort from the outset. It became the main embarkation point for troops crossing the Channel to France and the main receiving point for wounded personnel being evacuated back to Britain; much of Southampton Common became an assembly point. Over the course of the war, more than eight million soldiers passed through Southampton on their way to the front. As elsewhere, many men from the town quickly volunteered for military service after Britain declared war on Germany, a preponderance of them joining the Hampshire Regiment. Many others from Southampton served on merchant vessels, several of which were sunk during the course of the war, such as the RMS Alcantara(1913), an armed merchant cruiser sunk in February 1916, and the HMHS Asturias, an ocean liner converted to a hospital ship, which was sunk in March 1917. The names of the casualties were routinely printed in the local press. After the Armistice of 11 November 1918, Southampton docks were still busy with military movements, starting with repatriation of prisoners of war and casualties, followed by other soldiers and materiel returning from the front lines.

Sculpted lion on the southern face of the Southampton Cenotaph

Shortly after the signing of the Armistice in November 1918, a public meeting was held in the city of Southampton which voted to construct a memorial to honour the city's war dead. A committee, headed by the Lord Mayor of Southampton, Sidney Kimber, was elected and discussions began as to what form such a memorial should take. The committee decided that their preferred option would be to construct a single, high-quality memorial in a good location within Southampton and began to consider architects and locations, with a proposed budget of £10,000. Alfred Gutteridge, an architect on one of the sub-committees, knew and recommended Lutyens, who travelled to Southampton to meet Kimber, Gutteridge, and other members of the committee in January 1919.

Lutyens argued successfully against the committee's initial proposed location on Asylum Green in favour of Watts Park. His initial design featured a Stone of Remembrance (an altar-like monolith used in most IWGC cemeteries and several of Lutyens' memorials in Britain) with a substantial archway on either side, each archway supporting a recumbent figure of a soldier on a sarcophagus. This was rejected due to the likely cost and instead Lutyens suggested a single empty sarcophagus or cenotaph, supported by a plinth, on top of a pillar (pylon) with pine cones mounted on urns standing on each side. This was agreed to at a public meeting in September 1919 and detailed work on the project began. The London firm of Holloway Brothers were selected as the contractor for the memorial; the project was completed on time in 1920 at a total cost of £9,845.

Southampton Cenotaph, viewed from Above Bar St

The memorial stands on the east side of Watts Park, alongside Above Bar Street. It consists of a cenotaph—a pylon surmounted by a sarcophagus bearing a recumbent effigy of a fallen soldier—raised on five stone steps, in front of which is a Stone of Remembrance raised on two further steps. The cenotaph is a tapering, five-tiered pillar, connected by a low wall to two flanking columns topped by sculpted pine cones, which symbolise eternal life (being the fruit of an evergreen tree, the tree of life). The thin sheets of white Portland stone on the outside of the monument hide an inner brick core.

The pillar itself culminates in a series of diminishing tiers between the main body and the sarcophagus. It contains multiple sculptural details—a cross bearing a sword is engraved on the front (east) face of the largest (second) tier, on the tier above on the front and rear is carved Southampton's coat of arms, and on the fourth tier a lion stands on each side. Finally, on the fifth tier, below the sarcophagus, are wreaths which each contain emblems, representing the British Army, the Royal Navy, the Royal Air Force, and the Merchant Navy. The pillar is slightly curved (entasis) in imitation of the pillars at the Parthenon in Athens, and a similar effect was later repeated by Lutyens at the Whitehall Cenotaph. Besides the names of the dead, the only inscription on the cenotaph reads OUR GLORIOUS DEAD; The Stone of Remembrance is inscribed THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE, a phrase from the Book of Ecclesiasticus chosen by Rudyard Kipling. The names of the dead are cut into recessed panels on the north, south, and west faces.

Lutyens' design predominantly draws on a cleaner, more streamlined version of the classical symbolism used in earlier monuments. He reacted to the criticism of this sometimes cluttered approach by adopting cleaner architectural forms, but still retaining the ideal of a peaceful, "beautiful death". He used shapes derived from classical architecture and with an ecumenical appeal. Southampton's cenotaph features a slender cross, a late addition at the insistence of the committee, though Lutyens was reluctant to feature overtly religious symbolism on his memorials and he resisted pressure to incorporate a cross into several of his later cenotaphs, including Whitehall. Whereas memorials from previous wars, particularly the Second Boer War, often used allegorical figures, Southampton Cenotaph makes use of an abstract, beautiful design intended to remove the viewer from the real world, and focus them on an idealised sense of self-sacrifice and death. The recumbent figure of a soldier is placed high atop the structure, anonymising him and allowing the onlooker to believe that he could be somebody they personally mourned. By placing the figure at the top of the pylon, Lutyens also draws attention to the detail at the top of the pylon, connecting the beauty of the design to the memory of the fallen soldier.

Poppy wreaths laid around the Stone of Remembrance

Southampton's is significant as the first of Lutyens' First World War memorials to be completed in permanent form. It became the first of multiple cenotaphs by Lutyens across England and the British Empire. The heavy use of sculpture contrasts sharply with Lutyens' later cenotaphs (for example Whitehall or Manchester Cenotaph), which—although of a similar shape and size—were far more austere and relied on subtler forms of expression. Additionally, the Whitehall cenotaph, and several of Lutyens' later cenotaphs, terminate in an empty coffin rather than a recumbent figure.

Lutyens reused several elements of his previous work at Southampton. He first designed the pine cones and piers (which flank the cenotaph) for a war shrine in Hyde Park in London. The war shrine was never built, but Lutyens re-used the flanking piers (without the pine cones) for the entrance to Étaples Military Cemetery in France, which he designed for the IWGC. Lutyens re-used several parts of the Southampton design, including the recumbent figure, in his proposal for the Royal Artillery Memorial in London, though that proposal was rejected by the client, who favoured a memorial with greater realism. The design that was eventually built, by sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger, features a dead soldier directly at eye level, as though just fallen. The soldier is covered by his greatcoat, thus still anonymised, but the stark imagery contrasts sharply with Lutyens' abstract, "beautiful" portrayal of death with the soldier raised high above the ground.

  • The recumbent figure and the coat of arms atop the cenotaph
Flags lowered in salute at the Remembrance Day parade, 2011

The Cenotaph was unveiled by Major-General John Seely, the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire, and dedicated by the Right Reverend Edward Talbot, Bishop of Winchester, at a public ceremony on 6 November 1920. Seely first removed a canvas covering the whole structure and then a Union Flag which covered the effigy of the soldier, after which the Last Post was played and the crowd observed a two-minute silence. The crowd recited the Lord's Prayer then sang the national anthem, God Save the King, after which Kimber handed the memorial over to the town council. Kimber was very pleased with both the project and Lutyens, and he hoped to build a second war memorial in Southampton using the architect—Lutyens even offered to design a War Cross free of charge—though the project never came to fruition. The committee was left with a surplus of just over £100 once it wound up, which it donated towards the Hampshire, Isle of Wight and Winchester War Memorial at Winchester Cathedral.

Issues arose shortly after the unveiling concerning the names inscribed on the memorial. The committee had identified 1,793 names of Southampton men, and a number of women, who had died during the war and these had been inscribed on the Cenotaph. After the unveiling of the monument multiple relatives approached the committee to request that additional names be added, only to be told that this was not possible. The Hampshire branch of the Comrades of the Great War took up the case and wrote to the Southern Daily Echo newspaper, appealing for families to come forward with more names of unlisted casualties. Kimber eventually agreed and 203 additional names were inscribed in November 1921. Another name was added in 1922, bringing the total to 1,997.

More controversy surrounded the exclusion of the Jewish war dead from the memorial. Jews in Southampton had donated to the committee on the understanding that the memorial would commemorate not only Christian casualties but Jewish ones as well: one in ten adult male Jews in Southampton died during the conflict, twice the proportion for Southampton as a whole. The final decision on the design of the Cenotaph, however, featured a prominent Christian cross. This upset the Jewish community, and ultimately Jewish names were predominantly excluded from the memorial; only one Jewish name was finally inscribed on it.

Glass panels inscribed with the names of the dead

By the start of the 21st century it became evident that the soft stone of the Cenotaph was deteriorating badly as a result of water damage and frost. Recutting the names on the monument was discounted as a solution due to the long-term damage this repeated work would cause to the Cenotaph's structure. The council, supported by the Royal British Legion, decided to expand the war memorial instead. A memorial wall, designed by Martin Donlin, consisting of eight large glass panels, 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) by 1.2 m (3 ft 11 in) mounted in blocks of Portland stone, was installed, with four panels on each side of the Cenotaph, at a cost of £130,000, which was met by the city council and through public donations. The panels were engraved with the names of the World War I casualties and, in addition, those from Southampton who had died in later conflicts. The opportunity was taken to add names missing from the original monument so the Memorial Wall included a total of 2,368 names from the First World War as well as 927 from the Second World War and four from later conflicts—two from the Malayan Emergency (1948–1960), and one each from the Korean War (1950–1953) and the Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1960). This addition to the Cenotaph was unveiled on 11 November 2011.

Two additional stones were later added to the west of the Stone of Remembrance; one commemorates Southampton civilians who were killed in the Second World War and the other is dedicated to all service personnel from Southampton who died in the line of duty. Another stone was laid by the Cenotaph in 2018, dedicated to Southampton-born Major-General Daniel Marcus William Beak, VC, DSO, MC, who fought in and survived the First World War, and was awarded the Victoria Cross.

A small metal plaque mounted on a concrete plinth was installed by Southampton City Council on 28 October 2006 to commemorate members of the International Brigades, communist paramilitaries who fought for the Spanish republican government against the rebelling nationalists (who were supported by Nazi Germany) in the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939). It stands in a flower bed to the north-east of the cenotaph and lists the names of four casualties, along with a dedication.

Southampton Cenotaph was designated a Grade II* listed building in 1981. Listing provides legal protection from demolition or modification; Grade II* is applied to "particularly important buildings of more than special interest" and applied to about 5.5% of listings. It was upgraded to Grade I (the highest grade, reserved for buildings of "exceptional interest" and applied to only 2.5% of listings) in November 2015, when Historic England formed a national collection of Lutyens' 44 war memorials.

Wikimedia Commons has media related toSouthampton Cenotaph.
  1. Lutyens was more successful in arguing against the use of overtly Christian symbols on other memorials, particularly at the war cemeteries in France and Belgium. "All that is done of structure should be for all time and for equality of honour, for besides Christians of all denominations, there will be Jews, Mussulmens, Hindus and men of other creeds, their glorious names and their mortal bodies all equally deserving enduring record and seemly sepulture."

Bibliography

Citations

  1. Historic England. "The Arch of Remembrance (1074786)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved28 May 2018.
  2. Brown, pp. 174–175.
  3. Skelton, p. 37.
  4. Stamp. p. 65.
  5. Brown, pp. 212–213
  6. Eddleston, chapter 3, location 163.
  7. Eddleston, chapter 3, location 180.
  8. Eddleston, chapter 5, location 518.
  9. Eddleston, chapter 6, location 755.
  10. Eddleston, chapter 8, location 1029.
  11. Skelton, p. 17.
  12. Historic England. "Southampton Cenotaph (1340007)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved20 December 2018.
  13. Skelton, pp. 37–38.
  14. Boorman (2005), pp. 18–19.
  15. "Southampton Cenotaph". Southampton City Council. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  16. Pevsner, p. 652.
  17. "Southampton Cenotaph". War Memorials Register. Imperial War Museums. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  18. Olderr, p. 158.
  19. Geurst, pp. 51–52.
  20. Geurst, p. 52.
  21. King, pp. 132–139.
  22. Amery et al., p. 148.
  23. Winter, pp. 102–104.
  24. Kushner (in Taylor, pp. 186–187).
  25. Carden-Coyne, pp. 155–156.
  26. Stamp, pp. 39–42.
  27. Skelton, p. 38.
  28. Borg, p. 96.
  29. "Southampton Cenotaph, Watts Park, Southampton. Upgraded to Grade I". Heritage Calling. Historic England. 11 July 2015. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  30. Guerst, pp. 285–286.
  31. Corke, p. 45.
  32. Skelton, p. 150.
  33. Carden-Coyne, p. 156.
  34. Boorman (1995), pp. 220–221.
  35. Amery et al., p. 150.
  36. "New war memorial walls unveiled at Southampton Cenotaph". BBC News. 11 November 2011. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  37. "Southampton's Fallen Heroes: As inscribed on the Memorial Walls of the Cenotaph in Watts Park"(PDF). Southampton County Council. November 2013. Archived(PDF) from the original on 23 March 2019. Retrieved23 March 2019.
  38. Adams, Rachel (10 December 2018). "Commemorative stone to Victoria Cross hero Commander Daniel Beak unveiled at Southampton Cenotaph". Southern Daily Echo. Newsquest. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  39. "Civil War Tribute Will Go Ahead". Daily Echo. 16 September 2006. Retrieved23 March 2019.
  40. "Memorials in Hampshire"(PDF). International Brigade Memorial Trust (16): 5. January 2007.
  41. "Southampton". International Brigade Memorial Trust. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved24 December 2018.
  42. "The Listing and Grading of War Memorials". Historic England. July 2015. p. 2. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. Retrieved10 February 2017.
  43. "National Collection of Lutyens' War Memorials Listed". Historic England. 7 November 2015. Archived from the original on 13 January 2016. Retrieved1 February 2016.

Southampton Cenotaph
Southampton Cenotaph Language Watch Edit Southampton Cenotaph is a First World War memorial designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens and located in Watts Park in Southampton southern England The memorial was the first of dozens by Lutyens to be built in permanent form and it influenced his later designs including The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London It is a tapering multi tiered pylon which culminates in a series of diminishing layers before terminating in a sarcophagus or cenotaph empty tomb which features a recumbent figure of a soldier In front is an altar like Stone of Remembrance The cenotaph contains multiple sculptural details including a prominent cross the town s coat of arms and two lions The names of the dead are inscribed on three sides Although similar in outline Lutyens later cenotaphs were much more austere and featured almost no sculpture The design uses abstract ecumenical features and lifts the recumbent soldier high above eye level anonymising him Southampton CenotaphUnited KingdomFor Casualties of the First World War from SouthamptonUnveiled6 November 1920 1920 11 06 Location50 54 34 7 N 1 24 18 7 W 50 909639 N 1 405194 W 50 909639 1 405194 Coordinates 50 54 34 7 N 1 24 18 7 W 50 909639 N 1 405194 W 50 909639 1 405194 Watts Park Above Bar Street SouthamptonDesigned bySir Edwin LutyensOUR GLORIOUS DEAD THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMOREListed Building Grade IOfficial nameSouthampton CenotaphDesignated8 October 1981Reference no 1340007 The memorial was unveiled at a public ceremony on 6 November 1920 Shortly afterwards concerns emerged that the list of names on the cenotaph was incomplete After a newspaper campaign more than 200 further names were identified and these were eventually added to the cenotaph The names of most Jewish casualties were omitted the Jewish community being unhappy that the memorial featured a Christian cross By the beginning of the 21st century the engravings on the memorial had deteriorated noticeably Rather than re cut them and damage the stonework they were supplemented by a series of glass panels which bear all the names from the cenotaph as well as names from the Second World War and later conflicts The panels were unveiled in 2011 The memorial is a Grade I listed building having been upgraded in 2015 when Lutyens war memorials were declared a national collection Contents 1 Background 2 Commissioning 3 Design and symbolism 4 History 5 See also 6 Footnotes 7 References 7 1 Bibliography 7 2 Citations 8 External linksBackground EditIn the aftermath of the First World War and its unprecedented casualties thousands of war memorials were built across Britain Amongst the most prominent designers of memorials was Sir Edwin Lutyens described by Historic England as the leading English architect of his generation 1 Lutyens established his reputation before the war by designing country houses for wealthy clients and through his work on the new imperial headquarters at New Delhi The war affected him deeply and following it he devoted much of his time to memorialising its casualties His biographer Jane Brown records that in the 1920s more than half of his commissions were for memorials and tombs his clients more the dead than the living He designed Southampton Cenotaph at around the same as his most famous memorial The Cenotaph on Whitehall in London That along with Lutyens work for the Imperial War Graves Commission IWGC led to commissions for war memorials across Britain and the empire 1 2 3 4 5 Being a major port town Southampton was heavily involved in the British war effort from the outset It became the main embarkation point for troops crossing the Channel to France and the main receiving point for wounded personnel being evacuated back to Britain much of Southampton Common became an assembly point Over the course of the war more than eight million soldiers passed through Southampton on their way to the front 6 As elsewhere many men from the town quickly volunteered for military service after Britain declared war on Germany a preponderance of them joining the Hampshire Regiment 7 Many others from Southampton served on merchant vessels several of which were sunk during the course of the war such as the RMS Alcantara 1913 an armed merchant cruiser sunk in February 1916 and the HMHS Asturias an ocean liner converted to a hospital ship which was sunk in March 1917 The names of the casualties were routinely printed in the local press 8 9 After the Armistice of 11 November 1918 Southampton docks were still busy with military movements starting with repatriation of prisoners of war and casualties followed by other soldiers and materiel returning from the front lines 10 Commissioning Edit Sculpted lion on the southern face of the Southampton Cenotaph Shortly after the signing of the Armistice in November 1918 a public meeting was held in the city of Southampton which voted to construct a memorial to honour the city s war dead A committee headed by the Lord Mayor of Southampton Sidney Kimber was elected and discussions began as to what form such a memorial should take The committee decided that their preferred option would be to construct a single high quality memorial in a good location within Southampton and began to consider architects and locations with a proposed budget of 10 000 Alfred Gutteridge an architect on one of the sub committees knew and recommended Lutyens who travelled to Southampton to meet Kimber Gutteridge and other members of the committee in January 1919 11 12 Lutyens argued successfully against the committee s initial proposed location on Asylum Green in favour of Watts Park His initial design featured a Stone of Remembrance an altar like monolith used in most IWGC cemeteries and several of Lutyens memorials in Britain with a substantial archway on either side each archway supporting a recumbent figure of a soldier on a sarcophagus This was rejected due to the likely cost and instead Lutyens suggested a single empty sarcophagus or cenotaph supported by a plinth on top of a pillar pylon with pine cones mounted on urns standing on each side This was agreed to at a public meeting in September 1919 and detailed work on the project began 11 The London firm of Holloway Brothers were selected as the contractor for the memorial the project was completed on time in 1920 at a total cost of 9 845 13 Design and symbolism Edit Southampton Cenotaph viewed from Above Bar St The memorial stands on the east side of Watts Park alongside Above Bar Street It consists of a cenotaph a pylon surmounted by a sarcophagus bearing a recumbent effigy of a fallen soldier raised on five stone steps in front of which is a Stone of Remembrance raised on two further steps The cenotaph is a tapering five tiered pillar connected by a low wall to two flanking columns topped by sculpted pine cones which symbolise eternal life being the fruit of an evergreen tree the tree of life The thin sheets of white Portland stone on the outside of the monument hide an inner brick core 14 15 16 17 18 The pillar itself culminates in a series of diminishing tiers between the main body and the sarcophagus It contains multiple sculptural details a cross bearing a sword is engraved on the front east face of the largest second tier on the tier above on the front and rear is carved Southampton s coat of arms and on the fourth tier a lion stands on each side Finally on the fifth tier below the sarcophagus are wreaths which each contain emblems representing the British Army the Royal Navy the Royal Air Force and the Merchant Navy The pillar is slightly curved entasis in imitation of the pillars at the Parthenon in Athens and a similar effect was later repeated by Lutyens at the Whitehall Cenotaph Besides the names of the dead the only inscription on the cenotaph reads OUR GLORIOUS DEAD The Stone of Remembrance is inscribed THEIR NAME LIVETH FOR EVERMORE a phrase from the Book of Ecclesiasticus chosen by Rudyard Kipling 12 19 The names of the dead are cut into recessed panels on the north south and west faces 14 17 Lutyens design predominantly draws on a cleaner more streamlined version of the classical symbolism used in earlier monuments He reacted to the criticism of this sometimes cluttered approach by adopting cleaner architectural forms but still retaining the ideal of a peaceful beautiful death He used shapes derived from classical architecture and with an ecumenical appeal Southampton s cenotaph features a slender cross a late addition at the insistence of the committee though Lutyens was reluctant to feature overtly religious symbolism on his memorials and he resisted pressure to incorporate a cross into several of his later cenotaphs including Whitehall Whereas memorials from previous wars particularly the Second Boer War often used allegorical figures Southampton Cenotaph makes use of an abstract beautiful design intended to remove the viewer from the real world and focus them on an idealised sense of self sacrifice and death The recumbent figure of a soldier is placed high atop the structure anonymising him and allowing the onlooker to believe that he could be somebody they personally mourned 20 21 22 23 24 By placing the figure at the top of the pylon Lutyens also draws attention to the detail at the top of the pylon connecting the beauty of the design to the memory of the fallen soldier 25 Poppy wreaths laid around the Stone of Remembrance Southampton s is significant as the first of Lutyens First World War memorials to be completed in permanent form It became the first of multiple cenotaphs by Lutyens across England and the British Empire The heavy use of sculpture contrasts sharply with Lutyens later cenotaphs for example Whitehall or Manchester Cenotaph which although of a similar shape and size were far more austere and relied on subtler forms of expression Additionally the Whitehall cenotaph and several of Lutyens later cenotaphs terminate in an empty coffin rather than a recumbent figure 12 26 27 28 29 Lutyens reused several elements of his previous work at Southampton He first designed the pine cones and piers which flank the cenotaph for a war shrine in Hyde Park in London The war shrine was never built but Lutyens re used the flanking piers without the pine cones for the entrance to Etaples Military Cemetery in France which he designed for the IWGC 20 26 30 31 Lutyens re used several parts of the Southampton design including the recumbent figure in his proposal for the Royal Artillery Memorial in London though that proposal was rejected by the client who favoured a memorial with greater realism 32 The design that was eventually built by sculptor Charles Sargeant Jagger features a dead soldier directly at eye level as though just fallen The soldier is covered by his greatcoat thus still anonymised but the stark imagery contrasts sharply with Lutyens abstract beautiful portrayal of death with the soldier raised high above the ground 33 The recumbent figure and the coat of arms atop the cenotaph History Edit Flags lowered in salute at the Remembrance Day parade 2011 The Cenotaph was unveiled by Major General John Seely the Lord Lieutenant of Hampshire and dedicated by the Right Reverend Edward Talbot Bishop of Winchester at a public ceremony on 6 November 1920 Seely first removed a canvas covering the whole structure and then a Union Flag which covered the effigy of the soldier after which the Last Post was played and the crowd observed a two minute silence The crowd recited the Lord s Prayer then sang the national anthem God Save the King after which Kimber handed the memorial over to the town council Kimber was very pleased with both the project and Lutyens and he hoped to build a second war memorial in Southampton using the architect Lutyens even offered to design a War Cross free of charge though the project never came to fruition The committee was left with a surplus of just over 100 once it wound up which it donated towards the Hampshire Isle of Wight and Winchester War Memorial at Winchester Cathedral 12 27 34 Issues arose shortly after the unveiling concerning the names inscribed on the memorial The committee had identified 1 793 names of Southampton men and a number of women who had died during the war and these had been inscribed on the Cenotaph After the unveiling of the monument multiple relatives approached the committee to request that additional names be added only to be told that this was not possible The Hampshire branch of the Comrades of the Great War took up the case and wrote to the Southern Daily Echo newspaper appealing for families to come forward with more names of unlisted casualties Kimber eventually agreed and 203 additional names were inscribed in November 1921 Another name was added in 1922 bringing the total to 1 997 12 15 More controversy surrounded the exclusion of the Jewish war dead from the memorial Jews in Southampton had donated to the committee on the understanding that the memorial would commemorate not only Christian casualties but Jewish ones as well one in ten adult male Jews in Southampton died during the conflict twice the proportion for Southampton as a whole The final decision on the design of the Cenotaph however featured a prominent Christian cross This upset the Jewish community and ultimately Jewish names were predominantly excluded from the memorial only one Jewish name was finally inscribed on it a 24 Glass panels inscribed with the names of the dead By the start of the 21st century it became evident that the soft stone of the Cenotaph was deteriorating badly as a result of water damage and frost 15 Recutting the names on the monument was discounted as a solution due to the long term damage this repeated work would cause to the Cenotaph s structure The council supported by the Royal British Legion decided to expand the war memorial instead 15 A memorial wall designed by Martin Donlin 12 consisting of eight large glass panels 2 85 m 9 ft 4 in by 1 2 m 3 ft 11 in mounted in blocks of Portland stone was installed with four panels on each side of the Cenotaph at a cost of 130 000 which was met by the city council and through public donations 12 36 The panels were engraved with the names of the World War I casualties and in addition those from Southampton who had died in later conflicts 15 The opportunity was taken to add names missing from the original monument so the Memorial Wall included a total of 2 368 names from the First World War as well as 927 from the Second World War and four from later conflicts two from the Malayan Emergency 1948 1960 and one each from the Korean War 1950 1953 and the Mau Mau Uprising 1952 1960 37 This addition to the Cenotaph was unveiled on 11 November 2011 12 15 36 Two additional stones were later added to the west of the Stone of Remembrance one commemorates Southampton civilians who were killed in the Second World War and the other is dedicated to all service personnel from Southampton who died in the line of duty 14 Another stone was laid by the Cenotaph in 2018 dedicated to Southampton born Major General Daniel Marcus William Beak VC DSO MC who fought in and survived the First World War and was awarded the Victoria Cross 38 A small metal plaque mounted on a concrete plinth was installed by Southampton City Council on 28 October 2006 to commemorate members of the International Brigades communist paramilitaries who fought for the Spanish republican government against the rebelling nationalists who were supported by Nazi Germany in the Spanish Civil War 1936 1939 39 40 It stands in a flower bed to the north east of the cenotaph and lists the names of four casualties along with a dedication 41 Southampton Cenotaph was designated a Grade II listed building in 1981 12 Listing provides legal protection from demolition or modification Grade II is applied to particularly important buildings of more than special interest and applied to about 5 5 of listings It was upgraded to Grade I the highest grade reserved for buildings of exceptional interest and applied to only 2 5 of listings in November 2015 when Historic England formed a national collection of Lutyens 44 war memorials 42 43 See also EditWikimedia Commons has media related to Southampton Cenotaph Rochdale Cenotaph another Lutyens memorial similar in design to Southampton s Grade I listed buildings in Hampshire Grade I listed war memorials in England Listed buildings in SouthamptonFootnotes Edit Lutyens was more successful in arguing against the use of overtly Christian symbols on other memorials particularly at the war cemeteries in France and Belgium All that is done of structure should be for all time and for equality of honour for besides Christians of all denominations there will be Jews Mussulmens Hindus and men of other creeds their glorious names and their mortal bodies all equally deserving enduring record and seemly sepulture 35 References EditBibliography Edit Amery Colin et al 1981 Lutyens The Work of the English Architect Sir Edwin Lutyens London Arts Council of Great Britain ISBN 9780728703032 Boorman Derek 1995 For Your Tomorrow British Second World War Memorials York The Ebor Press ISBN 9780951365410 Boorman Derek 2005 A Century of Remembrance One Hundred Outstanding British War Memorials Barnsley Pen and Sword Military ISBN 9781844153169 Borg Alan 1991 War Memorials From Antiquity to the Present London Leo Cooper ISBN 9780850523638 Brown Jane 1996 Lutyens and the Edwardians London Viking Press ISBN 9780670858712 Carden Coyne Ana 2009 Reconstructing the Body Classicism Modernism and the First World War Oxford Oxford University Press ISBN 9780199546466 Corke Jim 2005 War Memorials in Britain Oxford Shire Publications ISBN 9780747806264 Eddleston John J 2014 Southampton in the Great War Kindle ed Barnsley Pen amp Sword Military ISBN 9781783462964 Geurst Jeroen 2010 Cemeteries of the Great War by Sir Edwin Lutyens Rotterdam 010 Publishers ISBN 9789064507151 King Alex 1998 Memorials of the Great War In Britain The Symbolism and Politics of Remembrance Oxford Berg Publishers ISBN 9781859739884 Kushner Tony 2007 Not That Far Remembering and Forgetting Cosmopolitan Southampton in the 20th Century in Taylor Miles ed 2007 Southampton Gateway to the British Empire London I B Tauris pp 185 208 ISBN 9781845110321 Olderr Steven 2012 Symbolism A Comprehensive Dictionary 2nd ed Jefferson North Carolina McFarland amp Company ISBN 9780786469550 Pevsner Nikolaus O Brien Charles Bailey Bruce Lloyd David W 2018 Hampshire South The Buildings of England New Haven Connecticut Yale University Press ISBN 9780300225037 Skelton Tim Gliddon Gerald 2008 Lutyens and the Great War London Frances Lincoln Publishers ISBN 9780711228788 Stamp Gavin 2007 The Memorial to the Missing of the Somme paperback ed London Profile Books ISBN 9781861978967 Winter Jay 2014 Sites of Memory Sites of Mourning The Great War in European Cultural History Canto Classics ed Cambridge Cambridge University Press ISBN 9781107661653 Citations Edit a b Historic England The Arch of Remembrance 1074786 National Heritage List for England Retrieved 28 May 2018 Brown pp 174 175 Skelton p 37 Stamp p 65 Brown pp 212 213 Eddleston chapter 3 location 163 Eddleston chapter 3 location 180 Eddleston chapter 5 location 518 Eddleston chapter 6 location 755 Eddleston chapter 8 location 1029 a b Skelton p 17 a b c d e f g h i Historic England Southampton Cenotaph 1340007 National Heritage List for England Retrieved 20 December 2018 Skelton pp 37 38 a b c Boorman 2005 pp 18 19 a b c d e f Southampton Cenotaph Southampton City Council Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Pevsner p 652 a b Southampton Cenotaph War Memorials Register Imperial War Museums Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Olderr p 158 Geurst pp 51 52 a b Geurst p 52 King pp 132 139 Amery et al p 148 Winter pp 102 104 a b Kushner in Taylor pp 186 187 Carden Coyne pp 155 156 a b Stamp pp 39 42 a b Skelton p 38 Borg p 96 Southampton Cenotaph Watts Park Southampton Upgraded to Grade I Heritage Calling Historic England 11 July 2015 Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Guerst pp 285 286 Corke p 45 Skelton p 150 Carden Coyne p 156 Boorman 1995 pp 220 221 Amery et al p 150 a b New war memorial walls unveiled at Southampton Cenotaph BBC News 11 November 2011 Archived from the original on 24 November 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Southampton s Fallen Heroes As inscribed on the Memorial Walls of the Cenotaph in Watts Park PDF Southampton County Council November 2013 Archived PDF from the original on 23 March 2019 Retrieved 23 March 2019 Adams Rachel 10 December 2018 Commemorative stone to Victoria Cross hero Commander Daniel Beak unveiled at Southampton Cenotaph Southern Daily Echo Newsquest Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 Civil War Tribute Will Go Ahead Daily Echo 16 September 2006 Retrieved 23 March 2019 Memorials in Hampshire PDF International Brigade Memorial Trust 16 5 January 2007 Southampton International Brigade Memorial Trust Archived from the original on 25 December 2018 Retrieved 24 December 2018 The Listing and Grading of War Memorials Historic England July 2015 p 2 Archived from the original on 21 October 2016 Retrieved 10 February 2017 National Collection of Lutyens War Memorials Listed Historic England 7 November 2015 Archived from the original on 13 January 2016 Retrieved 1 February 2016 External links EditList of names recorded at the Southampton Cenotaph Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southampton Cenotaph amp oldid 1053724259, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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