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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia, also spelt South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian subcontinent and north-west of Australia. Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia, to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal, to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean, and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean. Apart from the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in South Asia, Southeast Asia is the only other subregion of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere. The majority of the subregion is still in the Northern Hemisphere. East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator.

Southeast Asia
Area4,545,792 km2 (1,755,140 sq mi)
Population655,298,044 (3rd)
Population density135.6/km2 (351/sq mi)
GDP (PPP)$9.727 trillion
GDP (nominal)$3.317 trillion (exchange rate)
GDP per capita$5,017 (exchange rate)
HDI 0.723
Ethnic groupsIndigenous (Southeast Asians)
Austroasiatic, Austronesian, Negrito, Lolo-Burmese and Tai peoples
East Asians
Han
South Asians
Tamils
ReligionsAnimism, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, Hinduism, Islam, Tai folk, Taoism and Vietnamese folk
DemonymSoutheast Asian
Countries
Dependencies
Languages
Time zones
Internet TLD.bn, .id, .kh, .la, .mm, .my, .ph, .sg, .th, .tl, .vn
Calling codeZone 6 & 8
Largest cities
UN M49 code035 – South-eastern Asia
142Asia
001World

In contemporary definition, Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions:

  1. Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and historically as Indochina, comprising Cambodia, Laos, Peninsular Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam.
  2. Maritime Southeast Asia, also known as the Malay Archipelago and historically as Nusantara, comprising the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India), Brunei, East Malaysia, East Timor, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Singapore.

The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities. The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region, featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar, northern Thailand, northern Laos, northern Vietnam, and northern Luzon of the Philippines. The mountain ranges in Myanmar, Thailand, and Peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt, while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire. Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia, causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.

It covers about 4,500,000 km2 (1,700,000 sq mi), which is 10.5% of Asia or 3% of Earth's total land area. Its total population is more than 655 million, about 8.5% of the world's population. It is the third most populous geographical region in Asia after South Asia and East Asia. The region is culturally and ethnically diverse, with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups. Ten countries in the region are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), a regional organization established for economic, political, military, educational and cultural integration amongst its members.

Contents

States and regions of Southeast Asia

The region, together with part of South Asia, was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Chinese sources referred the region as Nanyang ("南洋"), which literally means the "Southern Ocean". The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions. In the 20th century, however, the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina (Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam). The maritime section of Southeast Asia is also known as the Malay Archipelago, a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race. Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia (Indian Islands), used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia.

The term "Southeast Asia" was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South-Eastern Asia. Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia. The term was officially used in the midst of World War II by the Allies, through the formation of South East Asia Command (SEAC) in 1943. SEAC popularised the use of the term "Southeast Asia," although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed; for example, SEAC excluded the Philippines and a large part of Indonesia while including Ceylon. However, by the late 1970s, a roughly standard usage of the term "Southeast Asia" and the territories it encompasses had emerged. Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of "Southeast Asia" may vary, the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries (sovereign states and dependent territories) listed below.

Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), while East Timor is an observer state. Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN, and is currently an observer. Sovereignty issues exist over some islands in the South China Sea.

Political divisions

Sovereign states

State Area
(km2)
Population
(2020)
Density
(/km2)
GDP (nominal),
USD (2020)
GDP (PPP)
per capita,
Int$ (2020)
HDI (2019 report) Capital
Brunei 5,765 437,479 74 12,003,000,000 $85,011 0.838 Bandar Seri Begawan
Cambodia 181,035 16,718,965 90 25,192,000,000 $5,044 0.594 Phnom Penh
East Timor 14,874 1,267,974 85 1,777,000,000 $5,321 0.606 Dili
Indonesia 1,904,569 267,670,543 141 1,059,638,000,000 $14,841 0.718 Jakarta
Laos 236,800 7,061,507 30 18,820,000,000 $8,684 0.613 Vientiane
Malaysia 329,847 31,528,033 96 337,008,000,000 $34,567 0.810 Kuala Lumpur*
Myanmar 676,578 53,708,320 79 81,257,000,000 $7,220 0.583 Nay Pyi Taw
Philippines 300,000 106,651,394 356 361,489,000,000 $10,094 0.718 Manila
Singapore 719.2 5,757,499 8,005 339,981,000,000 $105,689 0.938 Singapore
Thailand 513,120 69,428,453 135 501,712,000,000 $21,361 0.777 Bangkok
Vietnam 331,210 95,545,962 288 343,114,000,000 $8,677 0.704 Hanoi

* Administrative centre in Putrajaya.

The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories:
Southeast Asia
Political map of Southeast Asia

Geographical divisions

Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions, namely Mainland Southeast Asia (or the Indochinese Peninsula) and Maritime Southeast Asia (or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago) (Javanese:Nusantara).

Mainland Southeast Asia includes:

Maritime Southeast Asia includes:

Although Peninsular Malaysia geographically situated in Mainland Southeast Asia, it also shares many similar cultural and ecological affinities with surrounding islands, thus it serves as a bridge of two subregions. Geographically, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India is also considered a part of Maritime Southeast Asia. Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Mainland Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between South Asia and Southeast Asia. Similarly, Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands have strong cultural ties with Maritime Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between Southeast Asia and Australia/Oceania. On some occasions, Sri Lanka has been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural and religious ties to Mainland Southeast Asia. The eastern half of the island of New Guinea, which is not a part of Indonesia, namely, Papua New Guinea, is sometimes included as a part of Maritime Southeast Asia, and so are Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and Palau, which were all parts of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region, specifically, the Philippines.

East Timor and the eastern half of Indonesia (east of the Wallace Line in the region of Wallacea) are considered to be geographically associated with Oceania due to their distinctive faunal features. Geologically, the island of New Guinea and its surrounding islands are considered as parts of the Australian continent, connected via the Sahul Shelf. Both Christmas Island and the Cocos (Keeling) Islands are located on the Australian Plate, south of the Java Trench. Even though they are geographically closer to Maritime Southeast Asia than mainland Australia, these two Australian external territories are not geologically associated with Asia as none of them is actually on the Sunda Plate. The United Nations geoscheme has classified both island territories as parts of Oceania, under the Australia and New Zealand (Australasia) subregion.

Andaman Sea
Arafura Sea
Bali Sea
Banda Sea
Ceram Sea
Flores Sea
Java Sea
Molucca Sea
Savu Sea
South China Sea
Timor Sea
Bohol Sea
Camotes Sea
Philippine Sea (Pacific Ocean)
Samar Sea
Sibuyan Sea
Sulu Sea
Visayan Sea
Celebes Sea
Bismarck Sea
Coral Sea
Solomon Sea
Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Tonkin
Bay of Bengal
Indian Ocean
Strait of Malacca
Makassar Strait
Gulf of Carpentaria
Karimata Strait
Luzon Strait
Gulf of Tomini
Sunda Strait
Moro Gulf
Madura Strait
Oceans and Seas in Southeast Asia

Prehistory

Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi, Sumatra, Indonesia 1500 CE

The region was already inhabited by Homo erectus from approximately 1,500,000 years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age. Distinct Homo sapien groups, ancestral to East-Eurasian (East Asian-related) populations, and South-Eurasian (Papuan-related) populations, reached the region by between 50,000BC to 70,000BC, with some arguing earlier. Rock art (parietal art) dating from 40,000 years ago (which is currently the world's oldest) has been discovered in the caves of Borneo. Homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until at least 50,000 years ago, after which they became extinct. During much of this time the present-day islands of western Indonesia were joined into a single landmass known as Sundaland due to lower sea levels.

Ancient remains of hunter-gatherers in Maritime Southeast Asia, such as one Holocene hunter-gatherer from South Sulawesi, had ancestry from both, the South-Eurasian lineage (represented by Papuans and Aboriginal Australians), and the East-Eurasian lineage (represented by East Asians). The hunter-gatherer individual had approximately ~50% "Basal-East Asian" ancestry, and was positioned in between modern East Asians and Papuans of Oceania. The authors concluded that East Asian-related ancestry expanded from Mainland Southeast Asia into Maritime Southeast Asia much earlier than previously suggested, as early as 25,000BC, long before the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian groups.

Distinctive Basal-East Asian (East-Eurasian) ancestry was recently found to have originated in Mainland Southeast Asia at ~50,000BC, and expanded through multiple migration waves southwards and northwards respectively. Geneflow of East-Eurasian ancestry into Maritime Southeast Asia and Oceania could be estimated to ~25,000BC (possibly also earlier). The pre-Neolithic South-Eurasian populations of Maritime Southeast Asia were largely replaced by the expansion of various East-Eurasian populations, beginning about 50,000BC to 25,000BC years ago from Mainland Southeast Asia. The remainders, known as Negritos, form small minority groups in geographically isolated regions. Southeast Asia was dominated by East Asian-related ancestry already in 15,000BC, predating the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian peoples.

The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia.

In the late Neolithic, the Austronesian peoples, who form the majority of the modern population in Brunei, Indonesia, East Timor, Malaysia, and the Philippines, migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan in the first seaborne human migration known as the Austronesian Expansion. They arrived in the northern Philippines between 7,000 BC to 2,200 BC and rapidly spread further into the Northern Mariana Islands and Borneo by 1500 BC; Island Melanesia by 1300 BC; and to the rest of Indonesia, Malaysia, southern Vietnam, and Palau by 1000 BC. They often settled along coastal areas, replacing and assimilating the diverse preexisting peoples.

The Austronesian peoples of Southeast Asia have been seafarers for thousands of years. They spread eastwards to Micronesia and Polynesia, as well as westwards to Madagascar, becoming the ancestors of modern-day Malagasy people, Micronesians, Melanesians, and Polynesians. Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar, as well as commerce between Western Asia, eastern coast of India and Chinese southern coast. Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome. Pliny the Elder wrote in his Natural History about Chryse and Argyre, two legendary islands rich in gold and silver, located in the Indian Ocean. Their vessels, such as the vinta, were capable to sail across the ocean. Magellan's voyage records how much more maneuverable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships. A slave from the Sulu Sea was believed to have been used in Magellan's voyage as a translator.

Studies presented by the Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia show empirically that there was a single migration event from Africa, whereby the early people travelled along the south coast of Asia, first entered the Malay peninsula 50,000–90,000 years ago. The Orang Asli, in particular the Semang who show Negrito characteristics, are the direct descendants of these earliest settlers of Southeast Asia. These early people diversified and travelled slowly northwards to China, and the populations of Southeast Asia show greater genetic diversity than the younger population of China.

Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD. The Bronze Age Dong Son culture flourished in Northern Vietnam from about 1000 BC to 1 BC. Its influence spread to other parts Southeast Asia. The region entered the Iron Age era in 500 BC, when iron was forged also in northern Vietnam still under Dong Son, due to its frequent interactions with neighboring China.

Bronze drum from Sông Đà, northern Vietnam. Mid-1st millennium BC

Most Southeast Asian people were originally animist, engaged in ancestors, nature, and spirits worship. These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism and Buddhism after the region, especially coastal areas, came under contact with Indian subcontinent during the 1st century. Indian Brahmins and traders brought Hinduism to the region and made contacts with local courts. Local rulers converted to Hinduism or Buddhism and adopted Indian religious traditions to reinforce their legitimacy, elevate ritual status above their fellow chief counterparts and facilitate trade with South Asian states. They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region. Shaivism was the dominant religious tradition of many southern Indian Hindu kingdoms during the 1st century. It then spread into Southeast Asia via Bay of Bengal, Indochina, then Malay Archipelago, leading to thousands of Shiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam, co-evolving with Buddhism in the region. Theravada Buddhism entered the region during the 3rd century, via maritime trade routes between the region and Sri Lanka. Buddhism later established a strong presence in Funan region in the 5th century. In present-day mainland Southeast Asia, Theravada is still the dominant branch of Buddhism, practiced by the Thai, Burmese, and Cambodian Buddhists. This branch was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture. Mahayana Buddhism established presence in Maritime Southeast Asia, brought by Chinese monks during their transit in the region en route to Nalanda. It is still the dominant branch of Buddhism practiced by Indonesian and Malaysian Buddhists.

The spread of these two Indian religions confined the adherents of Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs into remote inland areas. Maluku Islands and New Guinea were never Indianised and its native people were predominantly animists until the 15th century when Islam began to spread in those areas. While in Vietnam, Buddhism never managed to develop strong institutional networks due to strong Chinese influence. In present-day Southeast Asia, Vietnam is the only country where its folk religion makes up the plurality. Recently, Vietnamese folk religion is undergoing a revival with the support of the government. Elsewhere, there are ethnic groups in Southeast Asia that resisted conversion and still retain their original animist beliefs, such as the Dayaks in Kalimantan, the Igorots in Luzon, and the Shans in eastern Myanmar.

Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms era

Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia

After the region came under contact with the Indian subcontinent circa 400 BCE, it began a gradual process of Indianisation where Indian ideas such as religions, cultures, architectures, and political administrations were brought by traders and religious figures and adopted by local rulers. In turn, Indian Brahmins and monks were invited by local rulers to live in their realms and help transforming local polities to become more Indianised, blending Indian and indigenous traditions. Sanskrit and Pali became the elite language of the region, which effectively made Southeast Asia part of the Indosphere. Most of the region had been Indianised during the first centuries, while the Philippines later Indianised circa 9th century when Kingdom of Tondo was established in Luzon. Vietnam, especially its northern part, was never fully Indianised due to the many periods of Chinese domination it experienced.

The first Indian-influenced polities established in the region were the Pyu city-states that already existed circa 2nd century BCE, located in inland Myanmar. It served as an overland trading hub between India and China. Theravada Buddhism was the predominant religion of these city states, while the presence of other Indian religions such as Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism were also widespread. In the 1st century, the Funan states centered in Mekong Delta were established, encompassed modern-day Cambodia, southern Vietnam, Laos, and eastern Thailand. It became the dominant trading power in mainland Southeast Asia for about five centuries, provided passage for Indian and Chinese goods and assumed authority over the flow of commerce through Southeast Asia. In maritime Southeast Asia, the first recorded Indianised kingdom was Salakanagara, established in western Java circa 2nd century CE. This Hindu kingdom was known by the Greeks as Argyre (Land of Silver).

By the 5th century CE, trade networking between East and West was concentrated in the maritime route. Foreign traders were starting to use new routes such as Malacca and Sunda Strait due to the development of maritime Southeast Asia. This change resulted in the decline of Funan, while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya, Tarumanagara, and Medang emerged. Srivijaya especially became the dominant maritime power for more than 5 centuries, controlling both Strait of Malacca and Sunda Strait. This dominance started to decline when Srivijaya were invaded by Chola Empire, a dominant maritime power of Indian subcontinent, in 1025. The invasion reshaped power and trade in the region, resulted in the rise of new regional powers such as the Khmer Empire and Kahuripan. Continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire enabled the Cholas to influence the local cultures. Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions.

As Srivijaya influence in the region declined, The Hindu Khmer Empire experienced a golden age during the 11th to 13th century CE. The empire's capital Angkor hosts majestic monuments—such as Angkor Wat and Bayon. Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor, during its peak, was the largest pre-industrial urban centre in the world. The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam, and was a highly Indianised Hindu Kingdom. The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, ransacking and burning Champa, slaughtering thousands of Cham people, and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture.

During the 13th century CE, the region experienced Mongol invasions, affected areas such as Vietnamese coast, inland Burma and Java. In 1258, 1285 and 1287, the Mongols tried to invade Đại Việt and Champa. The invasions were unsuccessful, yet both Dai Viet and Champa agreed to become tributary states to Yuan dynasty to avoid further conflicts. The Mongols also invaded Pagan Kingdom in Burma from 1277 to 1287, resulted in fragmentation of the Kingdom and rise of smaller Shan States ruled by local chieftains nominally submitted to Yuan dynasty. However, in 1297, a new local power emerged. Myinsaing Kingdom became the real ruler of Central Burma and challenged the Mongol rule. This resulted in the second Mongol invasion of Burma in 1300, which was repulsed by Myinsaing. The Mongols would later in 1303 withdrawn from Burma. In 1292, The Mongols sent envoys to Singhasari Kingdom in Java to ask for submission to Mongol rule. Singhasari rejected the proposal and injured the envoys, enraged the Mongols and made them sent a large invasion fleet to Java. Unbeknownst to them, Singhasari collapsed in 1293 due to a revolt by Kadiri, one of its vassals. When the Mongols arrived in Java, a local prince named Raden Wijaya offered his service to assist the Mongols in punishing Kadiri. After Kadiri was defeated, Wijaya turned on his Mongol allies, ambushed their invasion fleet and forced them to immediately leave Java.

After the departure of the Mongols, Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293. Majapahit would soon grow into a regional power. Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk, whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire's peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Sumatra, and Bali came under its influence. Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi, Maluku, and some areas of western New Guinea and southern Philippines, making it one of the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history.: 107 By the 15th century CE however, Majapahit's influence began to wane due to many war of successions it experienced and the rise of new Islamic states such as Samudera Pasai and Malacca Sultanate around the strategic Strait of Malacca. Majapahit then collapsed around 1500. It was the last major Hindu kingdom and the last regional power in the region before the arrival of the Europeans.

Spread of Islam

Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia, and the second oldest in Southeast Asia, built in 1414

Islam began to make contacts with Southeast Asia in the 8th-century CE, when the Umayyads established trade with the region via sea routes. However its spread into the region happened centuries later. In the 11th century, a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia. The Indian Chola navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram (Kedah); the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive. Along with Kadaram, Pannai in present-day Sumatra and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too. Soon after that, the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu faith, and converted to Islam with the Sultanate of Kedah established in 1136. Samudera Pasai converted to Islam in 1267, the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai, and the son became the first sultan of Malacca. Soon, Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade, and other rulers followed suit. Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka (1908–1981) wrote in 1961: "The development of Islam in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim, Admiral Zheng He."

There are several theories to the Islamization process in Southeast Asia. Another theory is trade. The expansion of trade among West Asia, India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen (Hadramout) brought Islam to the region with their large volume of trade. Many settled in Indonesia, Singapore, and Malaysia. This is evident in the Arab-Indonesian, Arab-Singaporean, and Arab-Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries. Finally, the ruling classes embraced Islam and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region. The ruler of the region's most important port, Malacca Sultanate, embraced Islam in the 15th century, heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam throughout the region as Islam provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes. Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia.

Trade and colonisation

Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition. The consequences of colonial rule, struggle for independence, and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country.

Chinese

From 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam was under Chinese rule. Vietnam was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han, Eastern Han, Eastern Wu, Cao Wei, Jin, Liu Song, Southern Qi, Liang, Sui, Tang, and Southern Han.

Records from Magellan's voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than European ships, so the Chinese must have been trading with them.

Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess, Hang Li Po, to Malacca, with a retinue of 500, to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan. Han Li Po's well (constructed 1459) is now a tourist attraction there, as is Bukit Cina, where her retinue settled.

The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca, which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century, did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa, who in 1500 wrote: "He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".

Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia

European

Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786, thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya

Western influence started to enter in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca, Maluku and the Philippines, the latter being settled by the Spanish years later. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies; the French Indochina; and the British Strait Settlements. By the 19th century, all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand.

Duit, a coin minted by the VOC, 1646–1667. 2 kas, 2 duit

European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east. Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products, such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago. Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century, the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links. For the majority of the populations in each country, there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued. For most, a life with subsistence-level agriculture, fishing and, in less developed civilizations, hunting and gathering was still hard.

Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread. Thailand also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe and Russia.

Japanese

During World War II, Imperial Japan invaded most of the former western colonies. The Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as the Manila massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour, such as the one involving 4 to 10 million romusha in Indonesia. A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation. The Allied powers who defeated Japan in the South-East Asian theatre of World War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence.

Indian

Gujarat, India had a flourishing trade relationship with Southeast Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries. The trade relationship with Gujarat declined after the Portuguese invasion of Southeast Asia in the 17th century.

American

The United States took the Philippines from Spain in 1898. Internal autonomy was granted in 1934, and independence in 1946.

Contemporary history

Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy. Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root. ASEAN provides a framework for the integration of commerce and regional responses to international concerns.

China has asserted broad claims over the South China Sea, based on its nine-dash line, and has built artificial islands in an attempt to bolster its claims. China also has asserted an exclusive economic zone based on the Spratly Islands. The Philippines challenged China in the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague in 2013, and in Philippines v. China (2016), the Court ruled in favor of the Philippines and rejected China's claims.

Relief map of Southeast Asia

Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia and is also the largest archipelago in the world by size (according to the CIA World Factbook). Geologically, the Indonesian Archipelago is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world. Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains, culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua, Indonesia at 5,030 metres (16,503 feet), on the island of New Guinea; it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia. The highest mountain in Southeast Asia is Hkakabo Razi at 5,967 metres (19,577 feet) and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak, Mount Everest.

The South China Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, Brunei, Indonesia, and Singapore, have integral rivers that flow into the South China Sea.

Mayon Volcano, despite being dangerously active, holds the record of the world's most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption.

Boundaries

Geographically, Southeast Asia is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent, the boundary between these two regions runs through Wallacea.

Geopolitically, the boundary lies between Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea (Papua and West Papua). Both countries share the island of New Guinea.

Climate

Southeast Asia map of Köppen climate classification

The climate in Southeast Asia is mainly tropical–hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall. Northern Vietnam and the mountainous parts of Laos and Myanmar are the only regions in Southeast Asia that feature a subtropical climate, which have a milder winter with maxima as low as 20 °C or 68 °F. The majority of Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shifts in winds or monsoon. The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season. The rainforest is the second largest on Earth (with the Amazon rainforest being the largest). Exceptions to this rainforest climate and vegetation are:

  1. mountain areas in the northern region and the higher islands, where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures
  2. the "dry zone" of central Myanmar in the rain shadow of the Arakan Mountains, where annual rainfall can be as low as 600 millimetres or 24 inches, which under the hot temperatures that prevail is dry enough to qualify as semi-arid.

Southeast Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in the world. Climate change will have a big effect on agriculture in Southeast Asia such as irrigation systems will be affected by changes in rainfall and runoff, and subsequently, water quality and supply. Climate change is also likely to pose a serious threat to the fisheries industry in Southeast Asia. Despite being one of the most vulnerable regions to the effects of climate change in the world, Southeast Asian countries are lagging behind in terms of their climate mitigation measures.

Environment

The vast majority of Southeast Asia falls within the warm, humid tropics, and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal. The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse; on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra, the orangutan, the Asian elephant, the Malayan tapir, the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Bornean clouded leopard can also be found. Six subspecies of the binturong or bearcat exist in the region, though the one endemic to the island of Palawan is now classed as vulnerable.

Tigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra (the Sumatran tiger), in peninsular Malaysia (the Malayan tiger), and in Indochina (the Indochinese tiger); all of which are endangered species.

The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, and Gili Motang in Indonesia.

The Philippine eagle is the national bird of the Philippines. It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world, and is endemic to the Philippines' forests.

The wild Asian water buffalo, and on various islands related dwarf species of Bubalus such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia; nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region, but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered.

The mouse deer, a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat, mostly can be found on Sumatra, Borneo (Indonesia), and in Palawan Islands (Philippines). The gaur, a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo, is found mainly in Indochina. There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians.

Birds such as the green peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia. The babirusa, a four-tusked pig, can be found in Indonesia as well. The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China. The horn of the rhinoceros, not part of its skull, was prized in China as well.

The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line. This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary, and separates Asian (Western) species from Australasian (Eastern) species. The islands between Java/Borneo and Papua form a mixed zone, where both types occur, known as Wallacea. As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia, concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region's environment. A significant portion of Southeast Asia, however, has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife. The nations of the region, with only a few exceptions, have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna. Indonesia, for example, has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose. Even so, such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction, with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java.

Wallace's hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna, Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna. The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now-separated islands and landmasses on either side

The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems, where coral, fish, and molluscs abound. According to Conservation International, marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat (Indonesia) is the highest recorded on Earth. Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea. The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world's coral reef biodiversity, the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world's "center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity". The whale shark, the world's largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines.

The trees and other plants of the region are tropical; in some countries where the mountains are tall enough, temperate-climate vegetation can be found. These rainforest areas are currently being logged-over, especially in Borneo.

While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna, Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger. Predictions have been made that more than 40% of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century. At the same time, haze has been a regular occurrence. The two worst regional hazes were in 1997 and 2006 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze, mostly caused by "slash and burn" activities in Sumatra and Borneo. In reaction, several countries in Southeast Asia signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution to combat haze pollution.

The 2013 Southeast Asian Haze saw API levels reach a hazardous level in some countries. Muar experienced the highest API level of 746 on 23 June 2013 at around 7 am.

The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world, and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia

Even prior to the penetration of European interests, Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system. A wide range of commodities originated in the region, but especially important were spices such as pepper, ginger, cloves, and nutmeg. The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants, but it also brought Europeans to the region. First, Spaniards (Manila galleon) who sailed from the Americas and Kingdom of Portugal, then the Dutch, and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries. The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories, as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities. As a result, the Dutch moved into Indonesia, the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo, the French into Indochina, and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines. An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities. For example, the rubber plantations of Malaysia, Java, Vietnam, and Cambodia, the tin mining of Malaya, the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam, and the Irrawaddy River delta in Burma, were a response to the powerful market demands.

The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region. The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century, when Chinese migrants from southern China settled in Indonesia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution in 1949, which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China.

The region's economy greatly depends on agriculture; rice and rubber have long been prominent exports. Manufacturing and services are becoming more important.[citation needed] An emerging market, Indonesia is the largest economy in this region. Newly industrialised countries include Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Philippines, while Singapore and Brunei are affluent developed economies. The rest of Southeast Asia is still heavily dependent on agriculture, but Vietnam is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors.[citation needed] The region notably manufactures textiles, electronic high-tech goods such as microprocessors, and heavy industrial products such as automobiles.[citation needed] Oil reserves in Southeast Asia are plentiful.[citation needed]

Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia-America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the US This is to avoid disruption of the kind caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes.

Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts. Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville, Cambodia

Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries, especially Cambodia. According to UNESCO, "tourism, if correctly conceived, can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet." Since the early 1990s, "even the non-ASEAN nations such as Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Burma, where the income derived from tourism is low, are attempting to expand their own tourism industries." In 1995, Singapore was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8%. By 1998, those receipts had dropped to less than 6% of GDP while Thailand and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7%. Since 2000, Cambodia has surpassed all other ASEAN countries and generated almost 15% of its GDP from tourism in 2006. Furthermore, Vietnam is considered as a rising power in Southeast Asia due to its large foreign investment opportunities and the booming tourism sector, despite only having their trade embargo lifted in 1995.

Indonesia is the only member of G-20 major economies and is the largest economy in the region. Indonesia's estimated gross domestic product for 2020 was US$1,088.8 billion (nominal) or $3,328.3 billion (PPP) with per capita GDP of US$4,038 (nominal) or $12,345 (PPP).

Stock markets in Southeast Asia have performed better than other bourses in the Asia-Pacific region in 2010, with the Philippines' PSE leading the way with 22 percent growth, followed by Thailand's SET with 21 percent and Indonesia's JKSE with 19 percent.

Southeast Asia's GDP per capita is US$4,685 according to a 2020 International Monetary Fund estimates, which is comparable to South Africa, Iraq, and Georgia.

Country Currency Population
(2020)
Nominal GDP
(2020) $ billion
GDP per capita
(2020)
GDP growth
(2020)
Inflation
(2020)
Main industries
Brunei B$ Brunei dollar 437,479 $10.647 $23,117 0.1% 0.3% Petroleum, Petrochemicals, Fishing
Cambodia Riel 16,718,965 $26.316 $1,572 -2.8% 2.5% Clothing, Gold, Agriculture
East Timor US$ US dollar 1,318,445 $1.920 $1,456 -6.8% 0.9% Petroleum, Coffee, Electronics
Indonesia Rp Rupiah 270,203,917 $1,088.768 $4,038 -1.5% 2.1% Coal, Petroleum, Palm oil
Laos Kip 7,275,560 $18.653 $2,567 0.2% 6.5% Copper, Electronics, Tin
Malaysia RM Ringgit 32,365,999 $336.330 $10,192 -6% -1.1% Electronics, Petroleum, Palm oil
Myanmar K Kyat 54,409,800 $70.890 $1,333 2% 6.1% Natural gas, Agriculture, Clothing
Philippines Peso 109,581,078 $367.362 $3,373 -8.3% 2.4% Electronics, Timber, Automotive
Singapore S$ Singapore dollar 5,850,342 $337.451 $58,484 -6% -0.4% Electronics, Petroleum, Chemicals
Thailand ฿ Baht 69,799,978 $509.200 $7,295 -7.1% -0.4% Electronics, Automotive, Rubber
Vietnam Đồng 97,338,579 $340.602 $3,498 2.9% 3.8% Electronics, Clothing, Petroleum
Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia (with Indonesia split into its major islands).

Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4,500,000 square kilometres (1,700,000 sq mi). As of 2018, around 655 million people live in the region, more than a fifth live (143 million) on the Indonesian island of Java, the most densely populated large island in the world. Indonesia is the most populous country with 268 million people, and also the 4th most populous country in the world. The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country. Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia, most prominently in Christmas Island, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand, and also as the Hoa in Vietnam. People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites.


Ethnic groups

Ati woman in Aklan – the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia.
Ethnic mosaic of Southeast Asia

The Aslians and Negritos were believed as one of the earliest inhabitants in the region. They are genetically related to the Papuans in Eastern Indonesia, East Timor and Australian Aborigines. In modern times, the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia, with more than 100 million people, mostly concentrated in Java, Indonesia. The second-largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia is Vietnamese (Kinh people) with around 86 million population, mainly inhabiting in Vietnam, thus forming a significant minority in neighboring Cambodia and Laos. The Thais is also a significant ethnic group with around 59 million population forming the majority in Thailand. In Burma, the Burmese account for more than two-thirds of the ethnic stock in this country, with the Indo-Aryan Rohingya make up a significant minority in Rakhine State.

Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups, with hundreds of ethnic minorities inhabited the archipelago, including Madurese, Minangkabau, Bugis, Balinese, Dayak, Batak and Malays. While Malaysia is split between more than half Malays and one-quarter Chinese, and also Indian minority in the West Malaysia however Dayaks make up the majority in Sarawak and Kadazan-dusun makes up the majority in Sabah which are in the East Malaysia. The Malays are the majority in West Malaysia and Brunei, while they forming a significant minority in Indonesia, Southern Thailand, East Malaysia and Singapore. In city-state Singapore, Chinese are the majority, yet the city is a multicultural melting pot with Malays, Indians and Eurasian also called the island their home.

The Chams form a significant minority in Central and South Vietnam, also in Central Cambodia. While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia and form a significant minority in Southern Vietnam and Thailand, the Hmong people are the minority in Vietnam, China, and Laos.

Within the Philippines, the Tagalog, Visayan (mainly Cebuanos, Warays and Hiligaynons), Ilocano, Bicolano, Moro (mainly Tausug, Maranao, and Maguindanao) and Central Luzon (mainly Kapampangan and Pangasinan) groups are significant.

Religion

Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief.
The Mother Temple of Besakih, one of Bali's most significant Balinese Hindu temples.
The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple, the oldest Taoist temple in Penang, Malaysia.
A Protestant church in Indonesia. Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia.
Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia, demolished in 2013.

Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions. By population, Islam is the most practised faith, numbering approximately 240 million adherents, or about 40% of the entire population, concentrated in Indonesia, Brunei, Malaysia, Southern Thailand and in the Southern Philippines. Indonesia is the most populous Muslim-majority country in the world.

There are approximately 205 million Buddhists in Southeast Asia, making it the second-largest religion in the region, after Islam. Approximately 38% of the global Buddhist population resides in Southeast Asia. Buddhism is predominant in Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar and Singapore. Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore.

Christianity is predominant in the Philippines, eastern Indonesia, East Malaysia, and East Timor. The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia. East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Indonesian and Portuguese rule. In October 2019, the number of Christians, both Catholic and Protestant in Southeast Asia, reached 156 million, of which 97 million came from the Philippines, 29 million came from Indonesia, 11 million came from Vietnam, and the rest came from Malaysia, Myanmar, East Timor, Singapore, Laos, Cambodia and Brunei.

No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous. Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world. In the world's most populous Muslim nation, Indonesia, Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali. Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines, New Guinea, Flores and Timor. Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore, Malaysia, etc. Garuda, the phoenix who is the mount (vahanam) of Vishnu, is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia; in the Philippines, gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan; gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao. Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere, as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it. Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia; they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines, Asia's largest Christian nation. In addition, there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia, Highland Philippines, and Papua in eastern Indonesia. In Burma, Sakka (Indra) is revered as a Nat. In Vietnam, Mahayana Buddhism is practised, which is influenced by native animism but with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship.

The religious composition for each country is as follows: Some values are taken from the CIA World Factbook:

Country Religions
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Hinduism (69%), Christianity, Islam, Sikhism and others
Brunei Islam (81%), Buddhism, Christianity, others (indigenous beliefs, etc.)
Cambodia Buddhism (97%), Islam, Christianity, Animism, others
East Timor Roman Catholicism (97%), Protestantism, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism
Indonesia Islam (86.7%), Protestantism (7.6%), Roman Catholicism (3.12%), Hinduism (1.74%), Buddhism(0.77%), Confucianism(0.03%), others(0.4%)
Laos Buddhism (67%), Animism, Christianity, others
Malaysia Islam (61.3%), Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism
Myanmar (Burma) Buddhism (89%), Islam, Christianity, Hinduism, Animism, others
Philippines Roman Catholicism (80.6%), Islam (6.9%-11%), Evangelicals (2.7%), Iglesia ni Cristo (Church of Christ) (2.4%), Other Protestants (3.8%), Buddhism (0.05%-2%), Animism (0.2%-1.25%), others (1.9%)
Singapore Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Taoism, Hinduism, others
Thailand Buddhism (93.5%), Islam (5.4%), Christianity (1.13%), Hinduism (0.02%), others (0.003%)
Vietnam Vietnamese folk religion (45.3%), Buddhism (16.4%), Christianity (8.2%), Other (0.4%), Unaffiliated (29.6%)

Languages

Each of the languages has been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade, immigration, and historical colonization as well. There are nearly 800 native languages in the region.

The language composition for each country is as follows (with official languages in bold):

Country/Region Languages
Andaman and Nicobar Islands Bengali, Hindi, English, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Shompen, A-Pucikwar, Aka-Jeru, Aka-Bea, Aka-Bo, Aka-Cari, Aka-Kede, Aka-Kol, Aka-Kora, Aka-Bale, Jangil, Jarawa, Oko-Juwoi, Önge, Sentinelese, Camorta, Car, Chaura, Katchal, Nancowry, Southern Nicobarese, Teressa
Brunei Malay, English, Indonesian, Chinese, Tamil and indigenous Bornean dialects (Iban, Murutic language, Lun Bawang,)
Cambodia Khmer, English, French, Teochew, Vietnamese, Cham, Mandarin, others
East Timor Tetum, Portuguese, Mambae, Makasae, Tukudede, Bunak, Galoli, Kemak, Fataluku, Baikeno, others
Indonesia Indonesian, Javanese, Sundanese, Batak, Minangkabau, Buginese, Banjar, Papuan, Dayak, Acehnese, Ambonese Balinese, Betawi, Madurese, Musi, Manado, Sasak, Makassarese, Batak Dairi, Karo, Mandailing, Jambi Malay, Mongondow, Gorontalo, Ngaju, Kenyah, Nias, North Moluccan, Uab Meto, Bima, Manggarai, Toraja-Sa'dan, Komering, Tetum, Rejang, Muna, Sumbawa, Bangka Malay, Osing, Gayo, Bungku-Tolaki languages, Moronene, Bungku, Bahonsuai, Kulisusu, Wawonii, Mori Bawah, Mori Atas, Padoe, Tomadino, Lewotobi, Tae', Mongondow, Lampung, Tolaki, Ma'anyan, Simeulue, Gayo, Buginese, Mandar, Minahasan, Enggano, Ternate, Tidore, Mairasi, East Cenderawasih Language, Lakes Plain Languages, Tor-Kwerba, Nimboran, Skou/Sko, Border languages, Senagi, Pauwasi, Mandarin, Hokkien, Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew, Tamil, Punjabi, Bengali, and Arabic.

Indonesia has over 700 languages in over 17,000 islands across the archipelago, making Indonesia the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet, slightly behind Papua New Guinea. The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), widely used in educational, political, economic, and other formal situations. In daily activities and informal situations, most Indonesians speak in their local language(s). For more details, see: Languages of Indonesia.

Laos Lao, Thai, Vietnamese, Hmong, Miao, Mien, Dao, Shan and others
Malaysia Malaysian, English, Mandarin, Indonesian, Tamil, Kedah Malay, Sabah Malay, Brunei Malay, Kelantan Malay, Pahang Malay, Acehnese, Javanese, Minangkabau, Banjar, Buginese, Tagalog, Hakka, Cantonese, Hokkien, Teochew, Fuzhounese, Telugu, Bengali, Punjabi, Hindi, Sinhala, Malayalam, Arabic, Brunei Bisaya, Okolod, Kota Marudu Talantang, Kelabit, Lotud, Terengganu Malay, Semelai, Thai, Iban, Kadazan, Dusun, Kristang, Bajau, Jakun, Mah Meri, Batek, Melanau, Semai, Temuan, Lun Bawang, Temiar, Penan, Tausug, Iranun, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, and others see: Languages of Malaysia
Myanmar (Burma) Burmese, Shan, Kayin(Karen), Rakhine, Kachin, Chin, Mon, Kayah, Chinese and other ethnic languages.
Philippines Filipino (Tagalog), English, Bisayan languages (Aklanon, Cebuano, Kinaray-a, Capiznon, Hiligaynon, Waray, Masbateño, Romblomanon, Cuyonon, Surigaonon, Butuanon, Tausug), Ivatan, Ilocano, Ibanag, Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Bicolano, Sama-Bajaw, Maguindanao, Maranao, Chavacano

The Philippines has more than a hundred native languages, most without official recognition from the national government. Spanish and Arabic are on a voluntary and optional basis. Malay (Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Indonesia), Mandarin, Lan-nang (Hokkien), Cantonese, Hakka, Japanese and Korean are also spoken in the Philippines due to immigration, geographic proximity and historical ties. See: Languages of the Philippines

Singapore English, Malay, Mandarin Chinese, Tamil, Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Telugu, Malayalam, Punjabi, Hindi, Sinhala, Javanese, Balinese, Singlish creole and others
Thailand Thai, Isan, Northern Khmer, Malay, Karen, Hmong, Teochew, Minnan, Hakka, Yuehai, Burmese, Mien, Tamil, Bengali, Urdu, Arabic, Shan, Lue, Phutai, Mon and others
Vietnam Vietnamese, Khmer, Cantonese, Hmong, Tai, Cham and others

Cities

Jakarta
Bangkok
Hồ Chí Minh City
Hà Nội
Singapore
Yangon
Surabaya
Quezon City
Medan
Hải Phòng
Manila
Davao City
Palembang
Kuala Lumpur
Makassar
Phnom Penh
Cần Thơ
Mandalay
Batam
Pekanbaru
Bogor
Đà Nẵng
Bandar Lampung
Cebu City
Padang
Zamboanga City
Denpasar
Malang
Samarinda
George Town, Penang
Tasikmalaya
Cagayan de Oro
Banjarmasin
Ipoh
Balikpapan
General Santos
Bacolod
Nay Pyi Taw
Vientiane
Nha Trang
Chiang Mai
Thanh Hóa
Jambi
Pontianak
Most populous cities in Southeast Asia (500,000+ inhabitants)
Burmese puppet performance

The culture in Southeast Asia is very diverse: on mainland Southeast Asia, the culture is a mix of Burmese, Cambodian, Laotian, and Thai (Indian) and Vietnamese (Chinese) cultures. While in Indonesia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Malaysia the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian, Indian, Islamic, Western, and Chinese cultures. Also Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia. Vietnam and Singapore show more Chinese influence in that Singapore, although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation, is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China's sphere of influence for much of its history. Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants, which influenced, to some extent, the cuisine of Singapore. Throughout Vietnam's history, it has had no direct influence from India – only through contact with the Thai, Khmer and Cham peoples. Moreover, Vietnam is also categorized under the East Asian cultural sphere along with China, Korea, and Japan due to a large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle.

Paddy field in Vietnam

Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for millennia, ranging across the subregion. Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines. Maintenance of these paddies is very labour-intensive. The rice paddies are well-suited to the monsoon climate of the region.

Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia, from Thailand and Vietnam to Borneo, to Luzon in the Philippines, to Papua New Guinea. The region has diverse metalworking, especially in Indonesia. This includes weaponry, such as the distinctive kris, and musical instruments, such as the gamelan.

Influences

The region's chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam, India, and China. Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines, derived particularly from the period of Spanish and American rule, contact with Indian-influenced cultures, and the Chinese and Japanese trading era.

As a rule, the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India, for example, than the culture of China, where the peoples ate with chopsticks; tea, as a beverage, can be found across the region. The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary.

Arts

The Royal Ballet of Cambodia (Paris, France 2010)

The arts of Southeast Asia have an affinity with the arts of other areas. Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet, to express the dance's emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience. Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court; in particular, Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire, which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism. Apsara Dance, famous for strong hand and feet movement, is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance.

Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries, a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia. The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia are quite influenced by Hinduism, which was brought to them centuries ago. Indonesia, despite conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art, has retained many forms of Hindu-influenced practices, culture, art, and literature. An example is the Wayang Kulit (Shadow Puppet) and literature like the Ramayana. The wayang kulit show has been recognized by UNESCO on 7 November 2003, as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity.

It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods, but to the Southeast Asian mind, the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves—joyous, earthy, yet divine. The Tai, coming late into Southeast Asia, brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions, but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions, and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples, especially the tapering roof, and in their lacquerware.

Music

Traditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions. Main styles of traditional music can be seen: Court music, folk music, music styles of smaller ethnic groups, and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region.

Of the court and folk genres, Gong chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority (the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam). Gamelan and Angklung orchestras from Indonesia, Piphat /Pinpeat ensembles of Thailand and Cambodia and the Kulintang ensembles of the southern Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi and Timor are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region. String instruments also are popular in the region.

On 18 November 2010, UNESCO officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, and encourage the Indonesian people and government to safeguard, transmit, promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making.

Writing

Thai manuscript from before the 19th-century writing system

The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors, from both within and without writing about the region.

Originally, Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing. This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar (see image to the left – magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side, and the decoration on the reverse side).

Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali

The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China. Note each palm leaf section was only several lines, written longitudinally across the leaf, and bound by twine to the other sections. The outer portion was decorated. The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas, until the arrival of the Europeans, who used words that also ended in consonants, not just vowels. Other forms of official documents, which did not use paper, included Javanese copperplate scrolls. This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia.

In Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore, the Malay language is now generally written in the Latin script. The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian, although different spelling standards are utilised (e.g. 'Teksi' in Malay and 'Taksi' in Indonesian for the word 'Taxi').

The use of Chinese characters, in the past and present, is only evident in Vietnam and more recently, Singapore and Malaysia. The adoption of Chữ Hán in Vietnam dates back to around 111 B.C. when it was occupied by the Chinese. A Vietnamese script called Chữ Nôm used modified Chữ Hán to express the Vietnamese language. Both Chữ Hán and Chữ Nôm were used up until the early 20th century.

However, the use of the Chinese script has been in decline, especially in Singapore and Malaysia as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script.

Sports

Association Football is the most popular sport in the region, with the ASEAN Football Federation, the region's primary regulatory body, formed on 31 January 1984, in Jakarta, Indonesia. AFF Championship is the highest football competition in the region since its inaugural in 1996 with Thailand becoming the most title in the competition with 5 titles. The reigning winner is Vietnam, who defeated Malaysia in the 2018 final. Thailand is the most numerous appearance in AFC Asian Cup with 7 while the highest-ranked result in the Asian Cup for a Southeast Asian team is 2nd place in the 1968 by Myanmar in Iran. Indonesia is the only Southeast Asian team to be played at the FIFA World Cup in 1938 FIFA World Cup.

  1. The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture.

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Southeast Asia Language Watch Edit 160 160 Redirected from Southeastern Asia Southeast Asia also spelt South East Asia and South East Asia and also known as Southeastern Asia orSEA is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia consisting of the regions that are south of China south east of the Indian subcontinent and north west of Australia 6 Southeast Asia is bordered to the north by East Asia to the west by South Asia and the Bay of Bengal to the east by Oceania and the Pacific Ocean and to the south by Australia and the Indian Ocean Apart from the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in South Asia Southeast Asia is the only other subregion of Asia that lies partly within the Southern Hemisphere The majority of the subregion is still in the Northern Hemisphere East Timor and the southern portion of Indonesia are the only parts that are south of the Equator Southeast AsiaArea4 545 792 km2 1 755 140 sq mi Population655 298 044 3rd 1 2 Population density135 6 km2 351 sq mi GDP PPP 9 727 trillion 3 GDP nominal 3 317 trillion exchange rate 4 GDP per capita 5 017 exchange rate 4 HDI0 723Ethnic groupsIndigenous Southeast Asians Austroasiatic Austronesian Negrito Lolo Burmese and Tai peoples East Asians Han South Asians TamilsReligionsAnimism Buddhism Christianity Confucianism Hinduism Islam Tai folk Taoism and Vietnamese folkDemonymSoutheast AsianCountries11 Brunei Cambodia East Timor Indonesia 5 Laos Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Singapore Thailand VietnamDependenciesList Andaman amp Nicobar Islands India Christmas Island Australia Cocos Keeling Islands Australia LanguagesOfficial languages BurmeseEnglishFilipinoKhmerLaoIndonesianMalayMandarinPortugueseTamilTetumThaiVietnamese Other languages Afro Asiatic ArabicAustroasiatic MonNicobareseAslianAustronesian TagalogTetumJavaneseSundaneseCebuanoMadureseIlocanoHiligaynonMinangkabauBatakBikolBanjarBalineseWarayKapampanganPangasinanMasbatenoBugineseChamAcehneseIbanBidayuhDusunKadazanLun Bawang LundayehMokenCreoles ChavacanoTok PisinKristangBetawiAmboneseDravidian TamilTeluguMalayalamGreat Andamanese Aka Jeru Present Great Andamanese Indo European BengaliEnglishFrenchPersianPortugueseSpanishHindi UrduDutchSinhalaRohingyaOngan OngeJarawaSentinelese Tai Kadai ThaiLaoShanSino Tibetan BurmeseRakhineKarenMandarinCantoneseMinHakkaHmarMizoZomiThadouMeiteiLanguages of Asia All of the languages of AsiaTime zones5 time zones UTC 5 30 Andaman and Nicobar IslandsUTC 6 30 Cocos Keeling Islands MyanmarUTC 7 00 Cambodia Christmas Island Indonesia Laos Thailand VietnamUTC 8 00 Brunei Indonesia Malaysia Philippines SingaporeUTC 9 00 East Timor IndonesiaInternet TLD bn id kh la mm my ph sg th tl vnCalling codeZone 6 amp 8Largest citiesCapital cities Bandar Seri BegawanPhnom PenhJakartaVientianeKuala LumpurNay Pyi DawManilaSingaporeBangkokDiliHa Noi Largest cities BandungBekasiBangkokCan ThoDa NangCebu CityDavao CityDenpasarDepokGeorge TownHa NoiHai PhongHo Chi Minh CityJakartaKuala LumpurMakassarManilaMedanPalembangQuezon CitySemarangSingaporeSurabayaTangerangYangonYogyakartaUN M49 code035 South eastern Asia 142 Asia 001 World In contemporary definition Southeast Asia consists of two geographic regions Mainland Southeast Asia also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and historically as Indochina comprising Cambodia Laos Peninsular Malaysia Myanmar Thailand and Vietnam Maritime Southeast Asia also known as the Malay Archipelago and historically as Nusantara comprising the Andaman and Nicobar Islands India Brunei East Malaysia East Timor Indonesia the Philippines and Singapore 7 The region lies near the intersection of geological plates with both heavy seismic and volcanic activities The Sunda Plate is the main plate of the region featuring almost all Southeast Asian countries except Myanmar northern Thailand northern Laos northern Vietnam and northern Luzon of the Philippines The mountain ranges in Myanmar Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia are part of the Alpide belt while the islands of the Philippines are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire Both seismic belts meet in Indonesia causing the region to have relatively high occurrences of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions 8 It covers about 4 500 000 km2 1 700 000 sq mi which is 10 5 of Asia or 3 of Earth s total land area Its total population is more than 655 million about 8 5 of the world s population It is the third most populous geographical region in Asia after South Asia and East Asia 9 The region is culturally and ethnically diverse with hundreds of languages spoken by different ethnic groups 10 Ten countries in the region are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN a regional organization established for economic political military educational and cultural integration amongst its members 11 Contents 1 Definitions 1 1 Political divisions 1 1 1 Sovereign states 1 2 Geographical divisions 2 History 2 1 Prehistory 2 2 Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms era 2 3 Spread of Islam 2 4 Trade and colonisation 2 4 1 Chinese 2 4 2 European 2 4 3 Japanese 2 4 4 Indian 2 4 5 American 2 5 Contemporary history 3 Geography 3 1 Boundaries 3 2 Climate 3 3 Environment 4 Economy 5 Demographics 5 1 Ethnic groups 5 2 Religion 5 3 Languages 5 4 Cities 6 Culture 6 1 Influences 6 2 Arts 6 2 1 Music 6 2 2 Writing 6 2 3 Sports 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 9 1 Citations 10 Further reading 11 External linksDefinitions Edit States and regions of Southeast Asia The region together with part of South Asia was well known by Europeans as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century Chinese sources referred the region as Nanyang 南洋 which literally means the Southern Ocean The mainland section of Southeast Asia was referred to as Indochina by European geographers due to its location between China and the Indian subcontinent and its having cultural influences from both neighboring regions In the 20th century however the term became more restricted to territories of the former French Indochina Cambodia Laos and Vietnam The maritime section of Southeast Asia is also known as the Malay Archipelago a term derived from the European concept of a Malay race 12 Another term for Maritime Southeast Asia is Insulindia Indian Islands used to describe the region between Indochina and Australasia 13 The term Southeast Asia was first used in 1839 by American pastor Howard Malcolm in his book Travels in South Eastern Asia Malcolm only included the Mainland section and excluded the Maritime section in his definition of Southeast Asia 14 The term was officially used in the midst of World War II by the Allies through the formation of South East Asia Command SEAC in 1943 15 SEAC popularised the use of the term Southeast Asia although what constituted Southeast Asia was not fixed for example SEAC excluded the Philippines and a large part of Indonesia while including Ceylon However by the late 1970s a roughly standard usage of the term Southeast Asia and the territories it encompasses had emerged 16 Although from a cultural or linguistic perspective the definitions of Southeast Asia may vary the most common definitions nowadays include the area represented by the countries sovereign states and dependent territories listed below Ten of the eleven states of Southeast Asia are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN while East Timor is an observer state Papua New Guinea has stated that it might join ASEAN and is currently an observer Sovereignty issues exist over some islands in the South China Sea Political divisions Edit Sovereign states Edit State Area km2 Population 2020 17 Density km2 GDP nominal USD 2020 4 GDP PPP per capita Int 2020 4 HDI 2019 report Capital Brunei 5 765 18 437 479 74 12 003 000 000 85 011 0 838 Bandar Seri Begawan Cambodia 181 035 19 16 718 965 90 25 192 000 000 5 044 0 594 Phnom Penh East Timor 14 874 20 1 267 974 85 1 777 000 000 5 321 0 606 Dili Indonesia 1 904 569 21 267 670 543 141 1 059 638 000 000 14 841 0 718 Jakarta Laos 236 800 22 7 061 507 30 18 820 000 000 8 684 0 613 Vientiane Malaysia 329 847 23 31 528 033 96 337 008 000 000 34 567 0 810 Kuala Lumpur Myanmar 676 578 24 53 708 320 79 81 257 000 000 7 220 0 583 Nay Pyi Taw Philippines 300 000 25 106 651 394 356 361 489 000 000 10 094 0 718 Manila Singapore 719 2 26 5 757 499 8 005 339 981 000 000 105 689 0 938 Singapore Thailand 513 120 27 69 428 453 135 501 712 000 000 21 361 0 777 Bangkok Vietnam 331 210 28 95 545 962 288 343 114 000 000 8 677 0 704 Hanoi Administrative centre in Putrajaya The UN Statistics Division for Asia are based on convenience rather than implying any assumption regarding political or other affiliation of countries or territories 29 Central Asia East Asia North Asia South Asia Southeast Asia West Asia Political map of Southeast Asia Geographical divisions Edit Southeast Asia is geographically divided into two subregions namely Mainland Southeast Asia or the Indochinese Peninsula and Maritime Southeast Asia or the similarly defined Malay Archipelago Javanese Nusantara Mainland Southeast Asia includes Cambodia Laos Myanmar Burma Peninsular Malaysia Thailand Vietnam Maritime Southeast Asia includes Brunei East Malaysia East Timor Indonesia Philippines Singapore Although Peninsular Malaysia geographically situated in Mainland Southeast Asia it also shares many similar cultural and ecological affinities with surrounding islands thus it serves as a bridge of two subregions 30 Geographically the Andaman and Nicobar Islands of India is also considered a part of Maritime Southeast Asia Eastern Bangladesh and Northeast India have strong cultural ties with Mainland Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between South Asia and Southeast Asia 31 Similarly Christmas Island and the Cocos Keeling Islands have strong cultural ties with Maritime Southeast Asia and are sometimes considered transregional areas between Southeast Asia and Australia Oceania On some occasions Sri Lanka has been considered a part of Southeast Asia because of its cultural and religious ties to Mainland Southeast Asia 16 32 The eastern half of the island of New Guinea which is not a part of Indonesia namely Papua New Guinea is sometimes included as a part of Maritime Southeast Asia and so are Guam the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau which were all parts of the Spanish East Indies with strong cultural and linguistic ties to the region specifically the Philippines 33 East Timor and the eastern half of Indonesia east of the Wallace Line in the region of Wallacea are considered to be geographically associated with Oceania due to their distinctive faunal features Geologically the island of New Guinea and its surrounding islands are considered as parts of the Australian continent connected via the Sahul Shelf Both Christmas Island and the Cocos Keeling Islands are located on the Australian Plate south of the Java Trench Even though they are geographically closer to Maritime Southeast Asia than mainland Australia these two Australian external territories are not geologically associated with Asia as none of them is actually on the Sunda Plate The United Nations geoscheme has classified both island territories as parts of Oceania under the Australia and New Zealand Australasia subregion Andaman Sea Arafura Sea Bali Sea Banda Sea Ceram Sea Flores Sea Java Sea Molucca Sea Savu Sea South China Sea Timor Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Philippine Sea Pacific Ocean Samar Sea Sibuyan Sea Sulu Sea Visayan Sea Celebes Sea Bismarck Sea Coral Sea Solomon Sea Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Bay of Bengal Indian Ocean Strait of Malacca Makassar Strait Gulf of Carpentaria Karimata Strait Luzon Strait Gulf of Tomini Sunda Strait Moro Gulf Madura StraitOceans and Seas in Southeast AsiaHistory EditMain article History of Southeast Asia Prehistory Edit Megalithic statue found in Tegurwangi Sumatra Indonesia 1500 CE The region was already inhabited by Homo erectus from approximately 1 500 000 years ago during the Middle Pleistocene age 34 Distinct Homo sapien groups ancestral to East Eurasian East Asian related populations and South Eurasian Papuan related populations reached the region by between 50 000BC to 70 000BC with some arguing earlier 35 36 Rock art parietal art dating from 40 000 years ago which is currently the world s oldest has been discovered in the caves of Borneo 37 Homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until at least 50 000 years ago after which they became extinct 38 During much of this time the present day islands of western Indonesia were joined into a single landmass known as Sundaland due to lower sea levels Ancient remains of hunter gatherers in Maritime Southeast Asia such as one Holocene hunter gatherer from South Sulawesi had ancestry from both the South Eurasian lineage represented by Papuans and Aboriginal Australians and the East Eurasian lineage represented by East Asians The hunter gatherer individual had approximately 50 Basal East Asian ancestry and was positioned in between modern East Asians and Papuans of Oceania The authors concluded that East Asian related ancestry expanded from Mainland Southeast Asia into Maritime Southeast Asia much earlier than previously suggested as early as 25 000BC long before the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian groups 39 Distinctive Basal East Asian East Eurasian ancestry was recently found to have originated in Mainland Southeast Asia at 50 000BC and expanded through multiple migration waves southwards and northwards respectively Geneflow of East Eurasian ancestry into Maritime Southeast Asia and Oceania could be estimated to 25 000BC possibly also earlier The pre Neolithic South Eurasian populations of Maritime Southeast Asia were largely replaced by the expansion of various East Eurasian populations beginning about 50 000BC to 25 000BC years ago from Mainland Southeast Asia The remainders known as Negritos form small minority groups in geographically isolated regions Southeast Asia was dominated by East Asian related ancestry already in 15 000BC predating the expansion of Austroasiatic and Austronesian peoples 36 The Austroasiatic and Austronesian expansions into Maritime Southeast Asia In the late Neolithic the Austronesian peoples who form the majority of the modern population in Brunei Indonesia East Timor Malaysia and the Philippines migrated to Southeast Asia from Taiwan in the first seaborne human migration known as the Austronesian Expansion They arrived in the northern Philippines between 7 000 BC to 2 200 BC and rapidly spread further into the Northern Mariana Islands and Borneo by 1500 BC Island Melanesia by 1300 BC and to the rest of Indonesia Malaysia southern Vietnam and Palau by 1000 BC 40 41 They often settled along coastal areas replacing and assimilating the diverse preexisting peoples 42 43 36 The Austronesian peoples of Southeast Asia have been seafarers for thousands of years They spread eastwards to Micronesia and Polynesia as well as westwards to Madagascar becoming the ancestors of modern day Malagasy people Micronesians Melanesians and Polynesians 44 Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar as well as commerce between Western Asia eastern coast of India and Chinese southern coast 44 Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome Pliny the Elder wrote in his Natural History about Chryse and Argyre two legendary islands rich in gold and silver located in the Indian Ocean Their vessels such as the vinta were capable to sail across the ocean Magellan s voyage records how much more maneuverable their vessels were as compared to the European ships 45 A slave from the Sulu Sea was believed to have been used in Magellan s voyage as a translator Studies presented by the Human Genome Organisation HUGO through genetic studies of the various peoples of Asia show empirically that there was a single migration event from Africa whereby the early people travelled along the south coast of Asia first entered the Malay peninsula 50 000 90 000 years ago The Orang Asli in particular the Semang who show Negrito characteristics are the direct descendants of these earliest settlers of Southeast Asia These early people diversified and travelled slowly northwards to China and the populations of Southeast Asia show greater genetic diversity than the younger population of China 46 47 Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as 5000 BC to 1 AD 48 The Bronze Age Dong Son culture flourished in Northern Vietnam from about 1000 BC to 1 BC Its influence spread to other parts Southeast Asia 49 50 51 The region entered the Iron Age era in 500 BC when iron was forged also in northern Vietnam still under Dong Son due to its frequent interactions with neighboring China 34 Bronze drum from Song Đa northern Vietnam Mid 1st millennium BC Most Southeast Asian people were originally animist engaged in ancestors nature and spirits worship These belief systems were later supplanted by Hinduism and Buddhism after the region especially coastal areas came under contact with Indian subcontinent during the 1st century 52 Indian Brahmins and traders brought Hinduism to the region and made contacts with local courts 53 Local rulers converted to Hinduism or Buddhism and adopted Indian religious traditions to reinforce their legitimacy elevate ritual status above their fellow chief counterparts and facilitate trade with South Asian states They periodically invited Indian Brahmins into their realms and began a gradual process of Indianisation in the region 54 55 56 Shaivism was the dominant religious tradition of many southern Indian Hindu kingdoms during the 1st century It then spread into Southeast Asia via Bay of Bengal Indochina then Malay Archipelago leading to thousands of Shiva temples on the islands of Indonesia as well as Cambodia and Vietnam co evolving with Buddhism in the region 57 58 Theravada Buddhism entered the region during the 3rd century via maritime trade routes between the region and Sri Lanka 59 Buddhism later established a strong presence in Funan region in the 5th century In present day mainland Southeast Asia Theravada is still the dominant branch of Buddhism practiced by the Thai Burmese and Cambodian Buddhists This branch was fused with the Hindu influenced Khmer culture Mahayana Buddhism established presence in Maritime Southeast Asia brought by Chinese monks during their transit in the region en route to Nalanda 54 It is still the dominant branch of Buddhism practiced by Indonesian and Malaysian Buddhists The spread of these two Indian religions confined the adherents of Southeast Asian indigenous beliefs into remote inland areas Maluku Islands and New Guinea were never Indianised and its native people were predominantly animists until the 15th century when Islam began to spread in those areas 60 While in Vietnam Buddhism never managed to develop strong institutional networks due to strong Chinese influence 61 In present day Southeast Asia Vietnam is the only country where its folk religion makes up the plurality 62 63 Recently Vietnamese folk religion is undergoing a revival with the support of the government 64 Elsewhere there are ethnic groups in Southeast Asia that resisted conversion and still retain their original animist beliefs such as the Dayaks in Kalimantan the Igorots in Luzon and the Shans in eastern Myanmar 65 Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms era Edit Main articles Greater India and History of Indian influence on Southeast Asia Spread of Hinduism from South Asia to Southeast Asia After the region came under contact with the Indian subcontinent circa 400 BCE it began a gradual process of Indianisation where Indian ideas such as religions cultures architectures and political administrations were brought by traders and religious figures and adopted by local rulers In turn Indian Brahmins and monks were invited by local rulers to live in their realms and help transforming local polities to become more Indianised blending Indian and indigenous traditions 66 55 56 Sanskrit and Pali became the elite language of the region which effectively made Southeast Asia part of the Indosphere 67 Most of the region had been Indianised during the first centuries while the Philippines later Indianised circa 9th century when Kingdom of Tondo was established in Luzon 68 Vietnam especially its northern part was never fully Indianised due to the many periods of Chinese domination it experienced 69 The first Indian influenced polities established in the region were the Pyu city states that already existed circa 2nd century BCE located in inland Myanmar It served as an overland trading hub between India and China 70 Theravada Buddhism was the predominant religion of these city states while the presence of other Indian religions such as Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism were also widespread 71 72 In the 1st century the Funan states centered in Mekong Delta were established encompassed modern day Cambodia southern Vietnam Laos and eastern Thailand It became the dominant trading power in mainland Southeast Asia for about five centuries provided passage for Indian and Chinese goods and assumed authority over the flow of commerce through Southeast Asia 44 In maritime Southeast Asia the first recorded Indianised kingdom was Salakanagara established in western Java circa 2nd century CE This Hindu kingdom was known by the Greeks as Argyre Land of Silver 73 Borobudur temple in Central Java Indonesia By the 5th century CE trade networking between East and West was concentrated in the maritime route Foreign traders were starting to use new routes such as Malacca and Sunda Strait due to the development of maritime Southeast Asia This change resulted in the decline of Funan while new maritime powers such as Srivijaya Tarumanagara and Medang emerged Srivijaya especially became the dominant maritime power for more than 5 centuries controlling both Strait of Malacca and Sunda Strait 44 This dominance started to decline when Srivijaya were invaded by Chola Empire a dominant maritime power of Indian subcontinent in 1025 74 The invasion reshaped power and trade in the region resulted in the rise of new regional powers such as the Khmer Empire and Kahuripan 75 Continued commercial contacts with the Chinese Empire enabled the Cholas to influence the local cultures Many of the surviving examples of the Hindu cultural influence found today throughout Southeast Asia are the result of the Chola expeditions note 1 Angkor Wat in Siem Reap Cambodia As Srivijaya influence in the region declined The Hindu Khmer Empire experienced a golden age during the 11th to 13th century CE The empire s capital Angkor hosts majestic monuments such as Angkor Wat and Bayon Satellite imaging has revealed that Angkor during its peak was the largest pre industrial urban centre in the world 77 The Champa civilisation was located in what is today central Vietnam and was a highly Indianised Hindu Kingdom The Vietnamese launched a massive conquest against the Cham people during the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa ransacking and burning Champa slaughtering thousands of Cham people and forcibly assimilating them into Vietnamese culture 78 During the 13th century CE the region experienced Mongol invasions affected areas such as Vietnamese coast inland Burma and Java In 1258 1285 and 1287 the Mongols tried to invade Đại Việt and Champa 79 The invasions were unsuccessful yet both Dai Viet and Champa agreed to become tributary states to Yuan dynasty to avoid further conflicts 80 The Mongols also invaded Pagan Kingdom in Burma from 1277 to 1287 resulted in fragmentation of the Kingdom and rise of smaller Shan States ruled by local chieftains nominally submitted to Yuan dynasty 81 82 However in 1297 a new local power emerged Myinsaing Kingdom became the real ruler of Central Burma and challenged the Mongol rule This resulted in the second Mongol invasion of Burma in 1300 which was repulsed by Myinsaing 83 84 The Mongols would later in 1303 withdrawn from Burma 85 In 1292 The Mongols sent envoys to Singhasari Kingdom in Java to ask for submission to Mongol rule Singhasari rejected the proposal and injured the envoys enraged the Mongols and made them sent a large invasion fleet to Java Unbeknownst to them Singhasari collapsed in 1293 due to a revolt by Kadiri one of its vassals When the Mongols arrived in Java a local prince named Raden Wijaya offered his service to assist the Mongols in punishing Kadiri After Kadiri was defeated Wijaya turned on his Mongol allies ambushed their invasion fleet and forced them to immediately leave Java 86 87 After the departure of the Mongols Wijaya established the Majapahit Empire in eastern Java in 1293 Majapahit would soon grow into a regional power Its greatest ruler was Hayam Wuruk whose reign from 1350 to 1389 marked the empire s peak when other kingdoms in the southern Malay Peninsula Borneo Sumatra and Bali came under its influence Various sources such as the Nagarakertagama also mention that its influence spanned over parts of Sulawesi Maluku and some areas of western New Guinea and southern Philippines making it one of the largest empire to ever exist in Southeast Asian history 88 107 By the 15th century CE however Majapahit s influence began to wane due to many war of successions it experienced and the rise of new Islamic states such as Samudera Pasai and Malacca Sultanate around the strategic Strait of Malacca Majapahit then collapsed around 1500 It was the last major Hindu kingdom and the last regional power in the region before the arrival of the Europeans 89 90 Spread of Islam Edit Main articles Spread of Islam in Southeast Asia and Islam in Southeast Asia Wapauwe Old Mosque is the oldest surviving mosque in Indonesia and the second oldest in Southeast Asia built in 1414 Islam began to make contacts with Southeast Asia in the 8th century CE when the Umayyads established trade with the region via sea routes 91 92 93 However its spread into the region happened centuries later In the 11th century a turbulent period occurred in the history of Maritime Southeast Asia The Indian Chola navy crossed the ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatungavarman in Kadaram Kedah the capital of the powerful maritime kingdom was sacked and the king was taken captive Along with Kadaram Pannai in present day Sumatra and Malaiyur and the Malayan peninsula were attacked too Soon after that the king of Kedah Phra Ong Mahawangsa became the first ruler to abandon the traditional Hindu faith and converted to Islam with the Sultanate of Kedah established in 1136 Samudera Pasai converted to Islam in 1267 the King of Malacca Parameswara married the princess of Pasai and the son became the first sultan of Malacca Soon Malacca became the center of Islamic study and maritime trade and other rulers followed suit Indonesian religious leader and Islamic scholar Hamka 1908 1981 wrote in 1961 The development of Islam in Indonesia and Malaya is intimately related to a Chinese Muslim Admiral Zheng He 94 There are several theories to the Islamization process in Southeast Asia Another theory is trade The expansion of trade among West Asia India and Southeast Asia helped the spread of the religion as Muslim traders from Southern Yemen Hadramout brought Islam to the region with their large volume of trade Many settled in Indonesia Singapore and Malaysia This is evident in the Arab Indonesian Arab Singaporean and Arab Malay populations who were at one time very prominent in each of their countries Finally the ruling classes embraced Islam and that further aided the permeation of the religion throughout the region The ruler of the region s most important port Malacca Sultanate embraced Islam in the 15th century heralding a period of accelerated conversion of Islam throughout the region as Islam provided a positive force among the ruling and trading classes Gujarati Muslims played a pivotal role in establishing Islam in Southeast Asia 95 Trade and colonisation Edit Strait of Malacca Trade among Southeast Asian countries has a long tradition The consequences of colonial rule struggle for independence and in some cases war influenced the economic attitudes and policies of each country 96 Chinese Edit See also List of tributaries of Imperial China and Chinese Empire From 111 BC to 938 AD northern Vietnam was under Chinese rule Vietnam was successfully governed by a series of Chinese dynasties including the Han Eastern Han Eastern Wu Cao Wei Jin Liu Song Southern Qi Liang Sui Tang and Southern Han Records from Magellan s voyage show that Brunei possessed more cannon than European ships so the Chinese must have been trading with them 45 Malaysian legend has it that a Chinese Ming emperor sent a princess Hang Li Po to Malacca with a retinue of 500 to marry Sultan Mansur Shah after the emperor was impressed by the wisdom of the sultan Han Li Po s well constructed 1459 is now a tourist attraction there as is Bukit Cina where her retinue settled The strategic value of the Strait of Malacca which was controlled by Sultanate of Malacca in the 15th and early 16th century did not go unnoticed by Portuguese writer Duarte Barbosa who in 1500 wrote He who is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice Colonial boundaries in Southeast Asia European Edit See also European colonisation of Southeast Asia Fort Cornwallis in George Town marks the spot where the British East India Company first landed in Penang in 1786 thus heralding the British colonisation of Malaya Western influence started to enter in the 16th century with the arrival of the Portuguese in Malacca Maluku and the Philippines the latter being settled by the Spanish years later Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries the Dutch established the Dutch East Indies the French Indochina and the British Strait Settlements By the 19th century all Southeast Asian countries were colonised except for Thailand Duit a coin minted by the VOC 1646 1667 2 kas 2 duit European explorers were reaching Southeast Asia from the west and from the east Regular trade between the ships sailing east from the Indian Ocean and south from mainland Asia provided goods in return for natural products such as honey and hornbill beaks from the islands of the archipelago Before the eighteenth and nineteenth century the Europeans mostly were interested in expanding trade links For the majority of the populations in each country there was comparatively little interaction with Europeans and traditional social routines and relationships continued For most a life with subsistence level agriculture fishing and in less developed civilizations hunting and gathering was still hard 97 Europeans brought Christianity allowing Christian missionaries to become widespread Thailand also allowed Western scientists to enter its country to develop its own education system as well as start sending Royal members and Thai scholars to get higher education from Europe and Russia Japanese Edit See also Greater East Asia Co Prosperity Sphere Empire of Japan and Japanese war crimes During World War II Imperial Japan invaded most of the former western colonies The Shōwa occupation regime committed violent actions against civilians such as the Manila massacre and the implementation of a system of forced labour such as the one involving 4 to 10 million romusha in Indonesia 98 A later UN report stated that four million people died in Indonesia as a result of famine and forced labour during the Japanese occupation 99 The Allied powers who defeated Japan in the South East Asian theatre of World War II then contended with nationalists to whom the occupation authorities had granted independence Indian Edit Gujarat India had a flourishing trade relationship with Southeast Asia in the 15th and 16th centuries 95 The trade relationship with Gujarat declined after the Portuguese invasion of Southeast Asia in the 17th century 95 American Edit See also American Philippines The United States took the Philippines from Spain in 1898 Internal autonomy was granted in 1934 and independence in 1946 100 Contemporary history Edit Most countries in the region enjoy national autonomy Democratic forms of government and the recognition of human rights are taking root ASEAN provides a framework for the integration of commerce and regional responses to international concerns China has asserted broad claims over the South China Sea based on its nine dash line and has built artificial islands in an attempt to bolster its claims China also has asserted an exclusive economic zone based on the Spratly Islands The Philippines challenged China in the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague in 2013 and in Philippines v China 2016 the Court ruled in favor of the Philippines and rejected China s claims 101 102 Geography EditSee also Golden Triangle Southeast Asia List of Southeast Asian mountains and Zomia geography Relief map of Southeast Asia Indonesia is the largest country in Southeast Asia and is also the largest archipelago in the world by size according to the CIA World Factbook Geologically the Indonesian Archipelago is one of the most volcanically active regions in the world Geological uplifts in the region have also produced some impressive mountains culminating in Puncak Jaya in Papua Indonesia at 5 030 metres 16 503 feet on the island of New Guinea it is the only place where ice glaciers can be found in Southeast Asia The highest mountain in Southeast Asia is Hkakabo Razi at 5 967 metres 19 577 feet and can be found in northern Burma sharing the same range of its parent peak Mount Everest The South China Sea is the major body of water within Southeast Asia The Philippines Vietnam Malaysia Brunei Indonesia and Singapore have integral rivers that flow into the South China Sea Mayon Volcano despite being dangerously active holds the record of the world s most perfect cone which is built from past and continuous eruption 103 Boundaries Edit Further information Boundaries between the continents of Earth Geographically Southeast Asia is bounded to the southeast by the Australian continent the boundary between these two regions runs through Wallacea Geopolitically the boundary lies between Papua New Guinea and the Indonesian region of Western New Guinea Papua and West Papua Both countries share the island of New Guinea Climate Edit Southeast Asia map of Koppen climate classification The climate in Southeast Asia is mainly tropical hot and humid all year round with plentiful rainfall Northern Vietnam and the mountainous parts of Laos and Myanmar are the only regions in Southeast Asia that feature a subtropical climate which have a milder winter with maxima as low as 20 C or 68 F The majority of Southeast Asia has a wet and dry season caused by seasonal shifts in winds or monsoon The tropical rain belt causes additional rainfall during the monsoon season The rainforest is the second largest on Earth with the Amazon rainforest being the largest Exceptions to this rainforest climate and vegetation are mountain areas in the northern region and the higher islands where high altitudes lead to milder temperatures the dry zone of central Myanmar in the rain shadow of the Arakan Mountains where annual rainfall can be as low as 600 millimetres or 24 inches which under the hot temperatures that prevail is dry enough to qualify as semi arid Southeast Asia is one of the most vulnerable regions to climate change in the world 104 105 Climate change will have a big effect on agriculture in Southeast Asia such as irrigation systems will be affected by changes in rainfall and runoff and subsequently water quality and supply 106 Climate change is also likely to pose a serious threat to the fisheries industry in Southeast Asia 104 Despite being one of the most vulnerable regions to the effects of climate change in the world Southeast Asian countries are lagging behind in terms of their climate mitigation measures 105 Environment Edit See also Southeast Asian coral reefs and Wallace Line Komodo dragon in Komodo National Park Indonesia The vast majority of Southeast Asia falls within the warm humid tropics and its climate generally can be characterised as monsoonal The animals of Southeast Asia are diverse on the islands of Borneo and Sumatra the orangutan the Asian elephant the Malayan tapir the Sumatran rhinoceros and the Bornean clouded leopard can also be found Six subspecies of the binturong or bearcat exist in the region though the one endemic to the island of Palawan is now classed as vulnerable Tigers of three different subspecies are found on the island of Sumatra the Sumatran tiger in peninsular Malaysia the Malayan tiger and in Indochina the Indochinese tiger all of which are endangered species The Komodo dragon is the largest living species of lizard and inhabits the islands of Komodo Rinca Flores and Gili Motang in Indonesia The Philippine eagle The Philippine eagle is the national bird of the Philippines It is considered by scientists as the largest eagle in the world 107 and is endemic to the Philippines forests The wild Asian water buffalo and on various islands related dwarf species of Bubalus such as anoa were once widespread in Southeast Asia nowadays the domestic Asian water buffalo is common across the region but its remaining relatives are rare and endangered The mouse deer a small tusked deer as large as a toy dog or cat mostly can be found on Sumatra Borneo Indonesia and in Palawan Islands Philippines The gaur a gigantic wild ox larger than even wild water buffalo is found mainly in Indochina There is very little scientific information available regarding Southeast Asian amphibians 108 Birds such as the green peafowl and drongo live in this subregion as far east as Indonesia The babirusa a four tusked pig can be found in Indonesia as well The hornbill was prized for its beak and used in trade with China The horn of the rhinoceros not part of its skull was prized in China as well The Indonesian Archipelago is split by the Wallace Line This line runs along what is now known to be a tectonic plate boundary and separates Asian Western species from Australasian Eastern species The islands between Java Borneo and Papua form a mixed zone where both types occur known as Wallacea As the pace of development accelerates and populations continue to expand in Southeast Asia concern has increased regarding the impact of human activity on the region s environment A significant portion of Southeast Asia however has not changed greatly and remains an unaltered home to wildlife The nations of the region with only a few exceptions have become aware of the need to maintain forest cover not only to prevent soil erosion but to preserve the diversity of flora and fauna Indonesia for example has created an extensive system of national parks and preserves for this purpose Even so such species as the Javan rhinoceros face extinction with only a handful of the animals remaining in western Java Wallace s hypothetical line divides Indonesian Archipelago into 2 types of fauna Australasian and Southeast Asian fauna The deepwater of the Lombok Strait between the islands of Bali and Lombok formed a water barrier even when lower sea levels linked the now separated islands and landmasses on either side The shallow waters of the Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world s marine ecosystems where coral fish and molluscs abound According to Conservation International marine surveys suggest that the marine life diversity in the Raja Ampat Indonesia is the highest recorded on Earth Diversity is considerably greater than any other area sampled in the Coral Triangle composed of Indonesia the Philippines and Papua New Guinea The Coral Triangle is the heart of the world s coral reef biodiversity the Verde Passage is dubbed by Conservation International as the world s center of the center of marine shorefish biodiversity The whale shark the world s largest species of fish and 6 species of sea turtles can also be found in the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean territories of the Philippines The trees and other plants of the region are tropical in some countries where the mountains are tall enough temperate climate vegetation can be found These rainforest areas are currently being logged over especially in Borneo While Southeast Asia is rich in flora and fauna Southeast Asia is facing severe deforestation which causes habitat loss for various endangered species such as orangutan and the Sumatran tiger Predictions have been made that more than 40 of the animal and plant species in Southeast Asia could be wiped out in the 21st century 109 At the same time haze has been a regular occurrence The two worst regional hazes were in 1997 and 2006 in which multiple countries were covered with thick haze mostly caused by slash and burn activities in Sumatra and Borneo In reaction several countries in Southeast Asia signed the ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution to combat haze pollution The 2013 Southeast Asian Haze saw API levels reach a hazardous level in some countries Muar experienced the highest API level of 746 on 23 June 2013 at around 7 am 110 Economy Edit The Port of Singapore is the busiest transshipment and container port in the world and is an important transportation and shipping hub in Southeast Asia Even prior to the penetration of European interests Southeast Asia was a critical part of the world trading system A wide range of commodities originated in the region but especially important were spices such as pepper ginger cloves and nutmeg The spice trade initially was developed by Indian and Arab merchants but it also brought Europeans to the region First Spaniards Manila galleon who sailed from the Americas and Kingdom of Portugal then the Dutch and finally the British and French became involved in this enterprise in various countries The penetration of European commercial interests gradually evolved into annexation of territories as traders lobbied for an extension of control to protect and expand their activities As a result the Dutch moved into Indonesia the British into Malaya and parts of Borneo the French into Indochina and the Spanish and the US into the Philippines An economic effect of this imperialism was the shift in the production of commodities For example the rubber plantations of Malaysia Java Vietnam and Cambodia the tin mining of Malaya the rice fields of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and the Irrawaddy River delta in Burma were a response to the powerful market demands 111 The overseas Chinese community has played a large role in the development of the economies in the region The origins of Chinese influence can be traced to the 16th century when Chinese migrants from southern China settled in Indonesia Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries 112 Chinese populations in the region saw a rapid increase following the Communist Revolution in 1949 which forced many refugees to emigrate outside of China 113 The region s economy greatly depends on agriculture rice and rubber have long been prominent exports Manufacturing and services are becoming more important citation needed An emerging market Indonesia is the largest economy in this region Newly industrialised countries include Indonesia Malaysia Thailand and the Philippines while Singapore and Brunei are affluent developed economies The rest of Southeast Asia is still heavily dependent on agriculture but Vietnam is notably making steady progress in developing its industrial sectors citation needed The region notably manufactures textiles electronic high tech goods such as microprocessors and heavy industrial products such as automobiles citation needed Oil reserves in Southeast Asia are plentiful citation needed Seventeen telecommunications companies contracted to build the Asia America Gateway submarine cable to connect Southeast Asia to the US 114 This is to avoid disruption of the kind caused by the cutting of the undersea cable from Taiwan to the US in the 2006 Hengchun earthquakes Along with its temples Cambodia has been promoting its coastal resorts Island off Otres Beach Sihanoukville Cambodia Tourism has been a key factor in economic development for many Southeast Asian countries especially Cambodia According to UNESCO tourism if correctly conceived can be a tremendous development tool and an effective means of preserving the cultural diversity of our planet 115 Since the early 1990s even the non ASEAN nations such as Cambodia Laos Vietnam and Burma where the income derived from tourism is low are attempting to expand their own tourism industries 116 In 1995 Singapore was the regional leader in tourism receipts relative to GDP at over 8 By 1998 those receipts had dropped to less than 6 of GDP while Thailand and Lao PDR increased receipts to over 7 Since 2000 Cambodia has surpassed all other ASEAN countries and generated almost 15 of its GDP from tourism in 2006 117 Furthermore Vietnam is considered as a rising power in Southeast Asia due to its large foreign investment opportunities and the booming tourism sector despite only having their trade embargo lifted in 1995 Indonesia is the only member of G 20 major economies and is the largest economy in the region 118 Indonesia s estimated gross domestic product for 2020 was US 1 088 8 billion nominal or 3 328 3 billion PPP with per capita GDP of US 4 038 nominal or 12 345 PPP 119 Stock markets in Southeast Asia have performed better than other bourses in the Asia Pacific region in 2010 with the Philippines PSE leading the way with 22 percent growth followed by Thailand s SET with 21 percent and Indonesia s JKSE with 19 percent 120 121 Southeast Asia s GDP per capita is US 4 685 according to a 2020 International Monetary Fund estimates which is comparable to South Africa Iraq and Georgia 122 Country Currency Population 2020 17 123 Nominal GDP 2020 billion 124 GDP per capita 2020 122 GDP growth 2020 125 Inflation 2020 126 Main industries Brunei B Brunei dollar 437 479 10 647 23 117 0 1 0 3 Petroleum Petrochemicals Fishing Cambodia Riel 16 718 965 26 316 1 572 2 8 2 5 Clothing Gold Agriculture East Timor US US dollar 1 318 445 1 920 1 456 6 8 0 9 Petroleum Coffee Electronics Indonesia Rp Rupiah 270 203 917 123 1 088 768 4 038 1 5 2 1 Coal Petroleum Palm oil Laos Kip 7 275 560 18 653 2 567 0 2 6 5 Copper Electronics Tin Malaysia RM Ringgit 32 365 999 336 330 10 192 6 1 1 Electronics Petroleum Palm oil Myanmar K Kyat 54 409 800 70 890 1 333 2 6 1 Natural gas Agriculture Clothing Philippines Peso 109 581 078 367 362 3 373 8 3 2 4 Electronics Timber Automotive Singapore S Singapore dollar 5 850 342 337 451 58 484 6 0 4 Electronics Petroleum Chemicals Thailand Baht 69 799 978 509 200 7 295 7 1 0 4 Electronics Automotive Rubber Vietnam Đồng 97 338 579 340 602 3 498 2 9 3 8 Electronics Clothing PetroleumDemographics Edit Population distribution of the countries of Southeast Asia with Indonesia split into its major islands Southeast Asia has an area of approximately 4 500 000 square kilometres 1 700 000 sq mi As of 2018 around 655 million people live in the region more than a fifth live 143 million on the Indonesian island of Java the most densely populated large island in the world Indonesia is the most populous country with 268 million people and also the 4th most populous country in the world The distribution of the religions and people is diverse in Southeast Asia and varies by country Some 30 million overseas Chinese also live in Southeast Asia most prominently in Christmas Island Indonesia Malaysia the Philippines Singapore and Thailand and also as the Hoa in Vietnam People of Southeast Asian origins are known as Southeast Asians or Aseanites Ethnic groups Edit Main article Ethnic groups of Southeast Asia Ati woman in Aklan the Negritos were the earliest inhabitants of Southeast Asia Ethnic mosaic of Southeast Asia The Aslians and Negritos were believed as one of the earliest inhabitants in the region They are genetically related to the Papuans in Eastern Indonesia East Timor and Australian Aborigines In modern times the Javanese are the largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia with more than 100 million people mostly concentrated in Java Indonesia The second largest ethnic group in Southeast Asia is Vietnamese Kinh people with around 86 million population mainly inhabiting in Vietnam thus forming a significant minority in neighboring Cambodia and Laos The Thais is also a significant ethnic group with around 59 million population forming the majority in Thailand In Burma the Burmese account for more than two thirds of the ethnic stock in this country with the Indo Aryan Rohingya make up a significant minority in Rakhine State Indonesia is clearly dominated by the Javanese and Sundanese ethnic groups with hundreds of ethnic minorities inhabited the archipelago including Madurese Minangkabau Bugis Balinese Dayak Batak and Malays While Malaysia is split between more than half Malays and one quarter Chinese and also Indian minority in the West Malaysia however Dayaks make up the majority in Sarawak and Kadazan dusun makes up the majority in Sabah which are in the East Malaysia The Malays are the majority in West Malaysia and Brunei while they forming a significant minority in Indonesia Southern Thailand East Malaysia and Singapore In city state Singapore Chinese are the majority yet the city is a multicultural melting pot with Malays Indians and Eurasian also called the island their home The Chams form a significant minority in Central and South Vietnam also in Central Cambodia While the Khmers are the majority in Cambodia and form a significant minority in Southern Vietnam and Thailand the Hmong people are the minority in Vietnam China and Laos Within the Philippines the Tagalog Visayan mainly Cebuanos Warays and Hiligaynons Ilocano Bicolano Moro mainly Tausug Maranao and Maguindanao and Central Luzon mainly Kapampangan and Pangasinan groups are significant Religion Edit See also Buddhism in Southeast Asia Hinduism in Southeast Asia Islam in Southeast Asia Shenism in Southeast Asia Muslim Southeast Asia and Christianity in Asia Spirit houses are common in areas of Southeast Asia where Animism is a held belief The Mother Temple of Besakih one of Bali s most significant Balinese Hindu temples Thai Theravada Buddhists in Chiang Mai Thailand The prayer hall of the Goddess of Mercy Temple the oldest Taoist temple in Penang Malaysia Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddin Mosque in Brunei an Islamic country with Sharia rule Roman Catholic Cathedral Basilica of the Immaculate Conception the metropolitan see of the Archbishop of Manila Philippines A Protestant church in Indonesia Indonesia has the largest Protestant population in Southeast Asia Jewish Surabaya Synagogue in Indonesia demolished in 2013 Countries in Southeast Asia practice many different religions By population Islam is the most practised faith numbering approximately 240 million adherents or about 40 of the entire population concentrated in Indonesia Brunei Malaysia Southern Thailand and in the Southern Philippines Indonesia is the most populous Muslim majority country in the world There are approximately 205 million Buddhists in Southeast Asia making it the second largest religion in the region after Islam Approximately 38 of the global Buddhist population resides in Southeast Asia Buddhism is predominant in Vietnam Thailand Laos Cambodia Myanmar and Singapore Ancestor worship and Confucianism are also widely practised in Vietnam and Singapore Christianity is predominant in the Philippines eastern Indonesia East Malaysia and East Timor The Philippines has the largest Roman Catholic population in Asia 127 East Timor is also predominantly Roman Catholic due to a history of Indonesian 128 and Portuguese rule In October 2019 the number of Christians both Catholic and Protestant in Southeast Asia reached 156 million of which 97 million came from the Philippines 29 million came from Indonesia 11 million came from Vietnam and the rest came from Malaysia Myanmar East Timor Singapore Laos Cambodia and Brunei No individual Southeast Asian country is religiously homogeneous Some groups are protected de facto by their isolation from the rest of the world 129 In the world s most populous Muslim nation Indonesia Hinduism is dominant on islands such as Bali Christianity also predominates in the rest of the part of the Philippines New Guinea Flores and Timor Pockets of Hindu population can also be found around Southeast Asia in Singapore Malaysia etc Garuda the phoenix who is the mount vahanam of Vishnu is a national symbol in both Thailand and Indonesia in the Philippines gold images of Garuda have been found on Palawan gold images of other Hindu gods and goddesses have also been found on Mindanao Balinese Hinduism is somewhat different from Hinduism practised elsewhere as Animism and local culture is incorporated into it Christians can also be found throughout Southeast Asia they are in the majority in East Timor and the Philippines Asia s largest Christian nation In addition there are also older tribal religious practices in remote areas of Sarawak in East Malaysia Highland Philippines and Papua in eastern Indonesia In Burma Sakka Indra is revered as a Nat In Vietnam Mahayana Buddhism is practised which is influenced by native animism but with a strong emphasis on ancestor worship The religious composition for each country is as follows Some values are taken from the CIA World Factbook 130 Country Religions Andaman and Nicobar Islands Hinduism 69 Christianity Islam Sikhism and others Brunei Islam 81 Buddhism Christianity others indigenous beliefs etc Cambodia Buddhism 97 Islam Christianity Animism others East Timor Roman Catholicism 97 Protestantism Islam Hinduism Buddhism Indonesia Islam 86 7 Protestantism 7 6 Roman Catholicism 3 12 Hinduism 1 74 Buddhism 0 77 Confucianism 0 03 others 0 4 131 132 Laos Buddhism 67 Animism Christianity others Malaysia Islam 61 3 Buddhism Christianity Hinduism Animism Myanmar Burma Buddhism 89 Islam Christianity Hinduism Animism others Philippines Roman Catholicism 80 6 Islam 6 9 11 133 Evangelicals 2 7 Iglesia ni Cristo Church of Christ 2 4 Other Protestants 3 8 Buddhism 0 05 2 134 Animism 0 2 1 25 others 1 9 135 Singapore Buddhism Christianity Islam Taoism Hinduism others Thailand Buddhism 93 5 Islam 5 4 Christianity 1 13 Hinduism 0 02 others 0 003 Vietnam Vietnamese folk religion 45 3 Buddhism 16 4 Christianity 8 2 Other 0 4 Unaffiliated 29 6 136 Languages Edit See also Classification schemes for Southeast Asian languages Sino Tibetan languages Austroasiatic languages Austronesian languages Hmong Mien languages and Tai Kadai languages Each of the languages has been influenced by cultural pressures due to trade immigration and historical colonization as well There are nearly 800 native languages in the region The language composition for each country is as follows with official languages in bold Country Region Languages Andaman and Nicobar Islands Bengali Hindi English Tamil Telugu Malayalam Shompen A Pucikwar Aka Jeru Aka Bea Aka Bo Aka Cari Aka Kede Aka Kol Aka Kora Aka Bale Jangil Jarawa Oko Juwoi Onge Sentinelese Camorta Car Chaura Katchal Nancowry Southern Nicobarese Teressa Brunei Malay English Indonesian Chinese Tamil and indigenous Bornean dialects Iban Murutic language Lun Bawang 137 Cambodia Khmer English French Teochew Vietnamese Cham Mandarin others 138 East Timor Tetum Portuguese Mambae Makasae Tukudede Bunak Galoli Kemak Fataluku Baikeno others 139 Indonesia Indonesian Javanese Sundanese Batak Minangkabau Buginese Banjar Papuan Dayak Acehnese Ambonese Balinese Betawi Madurese Musi Manado Sasak Makassarese Batak Dairi Karo Mandailing Jambi Malay Mongondow Gorontalo Ngaju Kenyah Nias North Moluccan Uab Meto Bima Manggarai Toraja Sa dan Komering Tetum Rejang Muna Sumbawa Bangka Malay Osing Gayo Bungku Tolaki languages Moronene Bungku Bahonsuai Kulisusu Wawonii Mori Bawah Mori Atas Padoe Tomadino Lewotobi Tae Mongondow Lampung Tolaki Ma anyan Simeulue Gayo Buginese Mandar Minahasan Enggano Ternate Tidore Mairasi East Cenderawasih Language Lakes Plain Languages Tor Kwerba Nimboran Skou Sko Border languages Senagi Pauwasi Mandarin Hokkien Cantonese Hakka Teochew Tamil Punjabi Bengali and Arabic Indonesia has over 700 languages in over 17 000 islands across the archipelago making Indonesia the second most linguistically diverse country on the planet 140 slightly behind Papua New Guinea The official language of Indonesia is Indonesian Bahasa Indonesia widely used in educational political economic and other formal situations In daily activities and informal situations most Indonesians speak in their local language s For more details see Languages of Indonesia Laos Lao Thai Vietnamese Hmong Miao Mien Dao Shan and others 141 Malaysia Malaysian English Mandarin Indonesian Tamil Kedah Malay Sabah Malay Brunei Malay Kelantan Malay Pahang Malay Acehnese Javanese Minangkabau Banjar Buginese Tagalog Hakka Cantonese Hokkien Teochew Fuzhounese Telugu Bengali Punjabi Hindi Sinhala Malayalam Arabic Brunei Bisaya Okolod Kota Marudu Talantang Kelabit Lotud Terengganu Malay Semelai Thai Iban Kadazan Dusun Kristang Bajau Jakun Mah Meri Batek Melanau Semai Temuan Lun Bawang Temiar Penan Tausug Iranun Lundayeh Lun Bawang and others 142 see Languages of Malaysia Myanmar Burma Burmese Shan Kayin Karen Rakhine Kachin Chin Mon Kayah Chinese and other ethnic languages 143 Philippines Filipino Tagalog English Bisayan languages Aklanon Cebuano Kinaray a Capiznon Hiligaynon Waray Masbateno Romblomanon Cuyonon Surigaonon Butuanon Tausug Ivatan Ilocano Ibanag Pangasinan Kapampangan Bicolano Sama Bajaw Maguindanao Maranao Chavacano The Philippines has more than a hundred native languages most without official recognition from the national government Spanish and Arabic are on a voluntary and optional basis Malay Bahasa Malaysia Bahasa Indonesia Mandarin Lan nang Hokkien Cantonese Hakka Japanese and Korean are also spoken in the Philippines due to immigration geographic proximity and historical ties See Languages of the Philippines Singapore English Malay Mandarin Chinese Tamil Hokkien Teochew Cantonese Hakka Telugu Malayalam Punjabi Hindi Sinhala Javanese Balinese Singlish creole and others Thailand Thai Isan Northern Khmer Malay Karen Hmong Teochew Minnan Hakka Yuehai Burmese Mien Tamil Bengali Urdu Arabic Shan Lue Phutai Mon and others 144 Vietnam Vietnamese Khmer Cantonese Hmong Tai Cham and others 145 Cities Edit See also List of cities in ASEAN by population Jabodetabek Jakarta Bogor Depok Tangerang South Tangerang Bekasi Indonesia Metro Manila Manila Quezon City Makati Taguig Pasay Caloocan and 11 others Philippines Bangkok Metropolitan Region Bangkok Nonthaburi Samut Prakan Pathum Thani Samut Sakhon Nakhon Pathom Thailand Eastern Economic Corridor Chachoengsao Chonburi Rayong Thailand Gerbangkertosusila Surabaya Sidoarjo Gresik Mojokerto Lamongan Bangkalan Indonesia Greater Kuala Lumpur Klang Valley Kuala Lumpur Selangor Malaysia Greater Penang Penang Kedah Perak Malaysia Sijori Triangle Singapore Johor Bahru Batam Singapore Malaysia Indonesia Ho Chi Minh City Metropolitan Area Ho Chi Minh City Vũng Tau Binh Dương Đồng Nai Vietnam Hanoi Capital Region Ha Nội Hải Phong Hạ Long Vietnam Da Nang City Đa Nẵng Hội An Huế Vietnam Yangon Region Yangon Thanlyin Myanmar Greater Bandung Metropolitan Area Bandung Cimahi Indonesia Metro Cebu Cebu City Mandaue Lapu Lapu City Talisay City and 11 others Philippines Metro Davao Davao City Digos Tagum Island Garden City of Samal Philippines Metro Iloilo Guimaras Iloilo City Pavia Oton Leganes Zarraga San Miguel Guimaras Philippines Metro Cagayan de Oro Cagayan de Oro El Salvador and 13 others Philippines Phnom Penh City Phnom Penh Kandal Cambodia Vientiane Prefecture Vientiane Don Noun Tha Ngon Laos Brunei Muara Bandar Seri Begawan Muara Brunei Dili Dili East TimorNight skylines Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Bangkok Thailand Singapore Ho Chi Minh City Vietnam Jakarta Indonesia Jakarta Bangkok Hồ Chi Minh City Ha Nội Singapore Yangon Surabaya Quezon City Medan Hải Phong Manila Davao City Palembang Kuala Lumpur Makassar Phnom Penh Cần Thơ Mandalay Batam Pekanbaru Bogor Đa Nẵng Bandar Lampung Cebu City Padang Zamboanga City Denpasar Malang Samarinda George Town Penang Tasikmalaya Cagayan de Oro Banjarmasin Ipoh Balikpapan General Santos Bacolod Nay Pyi Taw Vientiane Nha Trang Chiang Mai Thanh Hoa Jambi PontianakMost populous cities in Southeast Asia 500 000 inhabitants Culture EditSee also Southeast Asian cinema Southeast Asian Games and Southeast Asian music Burmese puppet performance The culture in Southeast Asia is very diverse on mainland Southeast Asia the culture is a mix of Burmese Cambodian Laotian and Thai Indian and Vietnamese Chinese cultures While in Indonesia the Philippines Singapore and Malaysia the culture is a mix of indigenous Austronesian Indian Islamic Western and Chinese cultures Also Brunei shows a strong influence from Arabia Vietnam and Singapore show more Chinese influence 146 in that Singapore although being geographically a Southeast Asian nation is home to a large Chinese majority and Vietnam was in China s sphere of influence for much of its history Indian influence in Singapore is only evident through the Tamil migrants 147 which influenced to some extent the cuisine of Singapore Throughout Vietnam s history it has had no direct influence from India only through contact with the Thai Khmer and Cham peoples Moreover Vietnam is also categorized under the East Asian cultural sphere along with China Korea and Japan due to a large amount of Chinese influence embedded in their culture and lifestyle Paddy field in Vietnam Rice paddy agriculture has existed in Southeast Asia for millennia ranging across the subregion Some dramatic examples of these rice paddies populate the Banaue Rice Terraces in the mountains of Luzon in the Philippines Maintenance of these paddies is very labour intensive The rice paddies are well suited to the monsoon climate of the region Stilt houses can be found all over Southeast Asia from Thailand and Vietnam to Borneo to Luzon in the Philippines to Papua New Guinea The region has diverse metalworking especially in Indonesia This includes weaponry such as the distinctive kris and musical instruments such as the gamelan Influences Edit The region s chief cultural influences have been from some combination of Islam India and China Diverse cultural influence is pronounced in the Philippines derived particularly from the period of Spanish and American rule contact with Indian influenced cultures and the Chinese and Japanese trading era As a rule the peoples who ate with their fingers were more likely influenced by the culture of India for example than the culture of China where the peoples ate with chopsticks tea as a beverage can be found across the region The fish sauces distinctive to the region tend to vary Arts Edit The Royal Ballet of Cambodia Paris France 2010 The arts of Southeast Asia have an affinity with the arts of other areas Dance in much of Southeast Asia includes movement of the hands as well as the feet to express the dance s emotion and meaning of the story that the ballerina is going to tell the audience Most of Southeast Asia introduced dance into their court in particular Cambodian royal ballet represented them in the early 7th century before the Khmer Empire which was highly influenced by Indian Hinduism Apsara Dance famous for strong hand and feet movement is a great example of Hindu symbolic dance Puppetry and shadow plays were also a favoured form of entertainment in past centuries a famous one being Wayang from Indonesia The arts and literature in some of Southeast Asia are quite influenced by Hinduism which was brought to them centuries ago Indonesia despite conversion to Islam which opposes certain forms of art has retained many forms of Hindu influenced practices culture art and literature An example is the Wayang Kulit Shadow Puppet and literature like the Ramayana The wayang kulit show has been recognized by UNESCO on 7 November 2003 as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity It has been pointed out that Khmer and Indonesian classical arts were concerned with depicting the life of the gods but to the Southeast Asian mind the life of the gods was the life of the peoples themselves joyous earthy yet divine The Tai coming late into Southeast Asia brought with them some Chinese artistic traditions but they soon shed them in favour of the Khmer and Mon traditions and the only indications of their earlier contact with Chinese arts were in the style of their temples especially the tapering roof and in their lacquerware Music Edit Main article Music of Southeast Asia Angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Traditional music in Southeast Asia is as varied as its many ethnic and cultural divisions Main styles of traditional music can be seen Court music folk music music styles of smaller ethnic groups and music influenced by genres outside the geographic region Of the court and folk genres Gong chime ensembles and orchestras make up the majority the exception being lowland areas of Vietnam Gamelan and Angklung orchestras from Indonesia Piphat Pinpeat ensembles of Thailand and Cambodia and the Kulintang ensembles of the southern Philippines Borneo Sulawesi and Timor are the three main distinct styles of musical genres that have influenced other traditional musical styles in the region String instruments also are popular in the region On 18 November 2010 UNESCO officially recognized angklung as a Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity and encourage the Indonesian people and government to safeguard transmit promote performances and to encourage the craftsmanship of angklung making Writing Edit Main articles Writing systems of Southeast Asia Baybayin Jawi script S E A Write Award and Thai alphabet Thai manuscript from before the 19th century writing system The history of Southeast Asia has led to a wealth of different authors from both within and without writing about the region Originally Indians were the ones who taught the native inhabitants about writing This is shown through Brahmic forms of writing present in the region such as the Balinese script shown on split palm leaf called lontar see image to the left magnify the image to see the writing on the flat side and the decoration on the reverse side Sign in Balinese and Latin script at a Hindu temple in Bali The antiquity of this form of writing extends before the invention of paper around the year 100 in China Note each palm leaf section was only several lines written longitudinally across the leaf and bound by twine to the other sections The outer portion was decorated The alphabets of Southeast Asia tended to be abugidas until the arrival of the Europeans who used words that also ended in consonants not just vowels Other forms of official documents which did not use paper included Javanese copperplate scrolls This material would have been more durable than paper in the tropical climate of Southeast Asia In Malaysia Brunei and Singapore the Malay language is now generally written in the Latin script The same phenomenon is present in Indonesian although different spelling standards are utilised e g Teksi in Malay and Taksi in Indonesian for the word Taxi The use of Chinese characters in the past and present is only evident in Vietnam and more recently Singapore and Malaysia The adoption of Chữ Han in Vietnam dates back to around 111 B C when it was occupied by the Chinese A Vietnamese script called Chữ Nom used modified Chữ Han to express the Vietnamese language Both Chữ Han and Chữ Nom were used up until the early 20th century However the use of the Chinese script has been in decline especially in Singapore and Malaysia as the younger generations are in favour of the Latin Script Sports Edit Association Football is the most popular sport in the region with the ASEAN Football Federation the region s primary regulatory body formed on 31 January 1984 in Jakarta Indonesia AFF Championship is the highest football competition in the region since its inaugural in 1996 with Thailand becoming the most title in the competition with 5 titles The reigning winner is Vietnam who defeated Malaysia in the 2018 final Thailand is the most numerous appearance in AFC Asian Cup with 7 while the highest ranked result in the Asian Cup for a Southeast Asian team is 2nd place in the 1968 by Myanmar in Iran Indonesia is the only Southeast Asian team to be played at the FIFA World Cup in 1938 FIFA World Cup See also Edit Asia portal Indonesia portal Singapore portal Malaysia portal Thailand portal Philippines portal Vietnam portal Cambodia portal Laos portal Southeast Asian Games List of Southeast Asian leaders Northeast Asia South Asia Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Tiger Cub Economies Military build up in Southeast Asia ASEAN List of firsts in Southeast AsiaNotes Edit The great temple complex at Prambanan in Indonesia exhibit a number of similarities with the South Indian architecture 76 References EditCitations Edit World Population prospects Population division population un org United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 Overall total population World Population Prospects The 2019 Revision xslx population un org custom data acquired via website United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division Retrieved 9 November 2019 ASEAN Community in Figures ACIF 2013 PDF 6th ed Jakarta ASEAN February 2014 p 1 ISBN 978 602 7643 73 4 Archived from the original PDF on 4 September 2015 Retrieved 9 May 2015 a b c d World Economic Outlook Database October 2021 IMF org International Monetary Fund 12 October 2021 Retrieved 3 September 2019 1Transcontinental country Klaus Kastle 10 September 2013 Map of Southeast Asia Region Nations Online Project One World Nations Online Retrieved 10 September 2013 Southeast Asia is a vast subregion of Asia roughly described as geographically situated east of the Indian subcontinent south of China and northwest of Australia The region is located between the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal in the west the Philippine Sea the South China Sea and the Pacific Ocean in the east Shaffer Lynda Norene 18 February 2015 Maritime Southeast Asia to 500 Routledge ISBN 978 1 317 46520 1 Chester Roy 16 July 2008 Furnace of Creation Cradle of Destruction A Journey to the Birthplace of Earthquakes Volcanoes and Tsunamis 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Factbook Central Intelligence Agency cia gov Retrieved 11 November 2019 East Asia Southeast Asia Singapore The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency cia gov Retrieved 11 November 2019 East Asia Southeast Asia Thailand The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency cia gov Retrieved 11 November 2019 East Asia Southeast Asia Vietnam The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency cia gov Retrieved 11 November 2019 United Nations Statistics Division Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications M49 United Nations Statistics Division 6 May 2015 Retrieved 24 July 2010 Southeast Asia Encyclopaedia Britannica Baruah Sanjib 2005 Durable Disorder Understanding the Politics of Northeast India Oxford University Press Friborg Bastian 2010 Southeast Asia Myth or Reality pg 4 Inoue Yukiko 2005 Teaching with Educational Technology in the 21st Century The Case of the Asia Pacific Region The Case of the Asia Pacific Region Idea Group Inc IGI p 5 ISBN 978 1 59140 725 6 a b Bellwood Peter 10 April 2017 First Islanders Prehistory and Human Migration in Island Southeast Asia 1 ed Wiley Blackwell ISBN 978 1 119 25154 5 Lipson Mark Reich David April 2017 A Working Model of the Deep Relationships of Diverse Modern Human Genetic Lineages Outside of Africa Molecular Biology and Evolution 34 4 889 902 doi 10 1093 molbev msw293 ISSN 0737 4038 PMC 5400393 PMID 28074030 a b c Larena Maximilian Sanchez Quinto Federico Sjodin Per McKenna James Ebeo Carlo Reyes Rebecca Casel Ophelia Huang Jin Yuan Hagada Kim Pullupul Guilay Dennis Reyes Jennelyn 30 March 2021 Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50 000 years Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 118 13 e2026132118 doi 10 1073 pnas 2026132118 ISSN 0027 8424 PMC 8020671 PMID 33753512 Kiona N Smith 11 9 2018 What the world s oldest figurative drawing reveals about human migration Morwood M J Brown P Jatmiko Sutikna T Wahyu Saptomo E Westaway K E Rokus Awe Due Roberts R G Maeda T Wasisto 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the Edge of the World Magellan s Terrifying Circumnavigation of the Globe HarperCollins Publishers 2003 hardcover 480 pages ISBN 978 0 06 621173 2 Genetic map of Asia s diversity BBC News 11 December 2009 Geneticist clarifies role of Proto Malays in human origin Malaysiakini 25 January 2012 Retrieved 27 August 2017 Solheim Journal of East Asian Archaeology 2000 2 1 2 pp 273 284 12 Vietnam Tours Archived 26 April 2013 at the Wayback Machine Nola Cooke Tana Li James Anderson The Tongking Gulf Through History Page 46 2011 Nishimura actually suggested the Đong Sơn phase belonged in the late metal age and some other Japanese scholars argued that contrary to the conventional belief that the Han invasion ended Đong Sơn culture Đong Sơn artifacts Vietnam Fine Arts Museum 2000 the bronze cylindrical jars drums Weapons and tools which were sophistically carved and belonged to the World famous Đong Sơn culture dating from thousands of years the Sculptures in the round the ornamental architectural 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Religion Cultures and Their Beliefs in Worldwide Context Routledge ISBN 978 1 315 43388 2 Timme Elke 2005 A Presenca Portuguesa nas Ilhas das Moluccas 1511 1605 GRIN Verlag p 3 ISBN 978 3 638 43208 5 Church Peter 2017 A Short History of South East Asia John Wiley amp Sons ISBN 978 1 119 06249 3 The Global Religious Landscape 2010 The Pew Forum Global Religious Landscape The Pew Forum Retrieved 4 May 2014 Roszko Edyta 1 March 2012 From Spiritual Homes to National Shrines Religious Traditions and Nation Building in Vietnam East Asia 29 1 25 41 CiteSeerX 10 1 1 467 6835 doi 10 1007 s12140 011 9156 x ISSN 1096 6838 S2CID 52084986 Baldick Julian 15 June 2013 Ancient Religions of the Austronesian World From Australasia to Taiwan London I B Tauris ISBN 978 1 78076 366 8 Hall Kenneth R 2010 A History of Early Southeast Asia Maritime Trade and Societal Development 100 1500 Rowman amp Littlefield Publishers ISBN 978 0 7425 6762 7 Mahbubani Kishore Sng Jeffery 2017 The ASEAN Miracle A Catalyst for Peace NUS Press p 19 ISBN 978 981 4722 49 0 Postma Antoon 27 June 2008 The Laguna Copper Plate Inscription Text and Commentary Philippine Studies 40 2 182 203 Viet Nam social sciences 2002 Page 42 Ủy ban khoa học xa hội Việt Nam 2002 The first period of cultural disruption and transformation in and around the first millennium CE that is the period of Bac thuoc all of Southeast Asia shifted into strong cultural exchanges with the outside world on the one hand with Chinese Malik Preet 2015 My Myanmar Years A Diplomat s Account of India s Relations with the Region SAGE Publications p 28 ISBN 978 93 5150 626 3 Aung Thwin 2005 31 34 Htin Aung 1967 15 17 Iguchi Masatoshi 2017 Java Essay The History and Culture of a Southern Country Troubador Publishing Ltd p 116 ISBN 978 1 78462 885 7 R C Majumdar 1961 The Overseas Expeditions of King Rajendra Cola Artibus Asiae 24 3 4 pp 338 342 Artibus Asiae Publishers Mukherjee Rila 2011 Pelagic Passageways The Northern Bay of Bengal Before 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Bible and the Quran TEACH Services Inc ISBN 978 1 4796 0544 6 Anderson James 21 March 2013 Daily Life Through Trade Buying and Selling in World History ABC CLIO ISBN 978 0 313 36325 2 Ayoub Mahmoud 2013 Islam Faith and History Oneworld Publications ISBN 978 1 78074 452 0 Wang Ma Rosey 2003 Chinese Muslims in Malaysia History and Development Center for Asia Pacific Area Studies Academia Sinica a b c Prabhune Tushar 27 December 2011 Gujarat helped establish Islam in SE Asia The Times of India Ahmedabad Baten Jorg 2016 A History of the Global Economy From 1500 to the Present Cambridge University Press p 282 ISBN 978 1 107 50718 0 Baten Jorg 2016 A History of the Global Economy From 1500 to the Present Cambridge University Press p 286 ISBN 978 1 107 50718 0 Library of Congress 1992 Indonesia World War II and the Struggle For Independence 1942 50 The Japanese Occupation 1942 45 Access date 9 February 2007 John W Dower War Without Mercy Race and Power in the Pacific War 1986 Pantheon ISBN 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