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Wikipedia

Southern Cone

"Cono Sur" redirects here. For the area of Lima, see Cono Sur (Lima). For the region of Cochabamba, see Cono Sur (Cochabamba). For the vineyards and winery, see Cono Sur Vineyards & Winery. For the congregation of monasteries, see Cono-Sur Congregation.

Coordinates:39°06′00″S67°54′00″W /39.1000°S 67.9000°W /-39.1000; -67.9000

The Southern Cone (Spanish: Cono Sur, Portuguese: Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn. Traditionally, it covers Argentina, Chile and Uruguay, bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean. In terms of social, economic and political geography, the Southern Cone comprises Argentina, Chile, and Uruguay, and sometimes includes Brazil's four southernmost states (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo). In its broadest definition, taking into account common history and geography, it also includes Paraguay, another Spanish-speaking country.

Southern Cone
Regions always included in all definitions
Regions sometimes included
States of Brazil not generally included
Area5,712,034 km2 (2,205,429 sq mi)
Population135,707,204 (July 2010 est.)
Density27.45/km2 (71.1/sq mi)
Countries
Dependencies
LanguagesSpanish, Portuguese, Mapuche and Guarani
DemonymSouth American
Largest urban agglomerations1. São Paulo
2. Buenos Aires
3. Santiago
4. Curitiba
5. Porto Alegre
6. Córdoba
7. Montevideo
8. Guarulhos
9. Campinas

High life expectancy, the highest Human Development Index of Latin America, high standard of living, low fertility rates, significant participation in global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous subregion in Latin America.

Contents

Köppen Climate Zone Classification map of Uruguay, Argentina, Chile and Falkland Islands

The climates are mostly temperate, but include humid subtropical, Mediterranean, highland tropical, maritime temperate, sub-Antarctic temperate, highland cold, desert and semi-arid temperate regions. Except for northern regions of Argentina (thermal equator in January), the whole country of Paraguay, the Argentina-Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama Desert, the region rarely suffers from heat. In addition to that, the winter presents mostly cool temperatures. Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter. The Atacama is the driest place on Earth.

One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree, which can be found in Brazil, Chile and Argentina. The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone. Araucaria angustifolia, once widespread in Southern Brazil, is now a critically endangered species, protected by law. The prairies region of central Argentina, Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas.

Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and a Mediterranean climate, grading southward into an oceanic climate. The Atacama, Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands, croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile. Apart from the desert diagonal, the north–south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute, for most of its part in the southern cone, the Argentina–Chile border. In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea-lanes between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.

Brazil

Köppen climate classification of South Brazil and São Paulo.

Southern Brazil has a temperate climate. The annual average temperatures vary between 12 °C (53.6 °F) and 22 °C (71.6 °F).[citation needed] During the months of June, July and August, high altitude areas in the South Region can receive snowfall. When it comes to the state of São Paulo, it covers seven distinct climatic types. In the mountain areas of the state, there are subtropical climate (Cfa). In areas of high altitude, the average temperature is below 18 °C (64 °F). Oceanic (Cfb and Cwb) on the coast, the climate is super-humid tropical type (Af), without a dry season. The tropical climate of altitude (Cwa), predominant in the state territory, specifically in the center, is characterized by a temperature above 22 °C (72 °F) in the hottest month of the year. The occurrence of snow is rare, but has been recorded in Campos do Jordão and there are also reports that the phenomenon has occurred in several parts in the south.[citation needed]

Average temperatures for some urban areas of the Southern Cone
Location January April July October
Buenos Aires 30.1 °C (86.2 °F)
20.1 °C (68.2 °F)
22.9 °C (73.2 °F)
13.8 °C (56.8 °F)
15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
7.4 °C (45.3 °F)
22.6 °C (72.7 °F)
13.3 °C (55.9 °F)
Santiago de Chile 30.1 °C (86.2 °F)
13.4 °C (56.1 °F)
22.3 °C (72.1 °F)
6.5 °C (43.7 °F)
14.3 °C (57.7 °F)
1.6 °C (34.9 °F)
22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
8.4 °C (47.1 °F)
Montevideo 28.1 °C (82.6 °F)
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
21.7 °C (71.1 °F)
12.9 °C (55.2 °F)
14.6 °C (58.3 °F)
6.9 °C (44.4 °F)
20.3 °C (68.5 °F)
11.5 °C (52.7 °F)
Córdoba 31.1 °C (88.0 °F)
18.1 °C (64.6 °F)
24.9 °C (76.8 °F)
12.3 °C (54.1 °F)
18.5 °C (65.3 °F)
5.5 °C (41.9 °F)
26.1 °C (79.0 °F)
12.6 °C (54.7 °F)
Valparaiso 21.4 °C (70.5 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
18.3 °C (64.9 °F)
11.4 °C (52.5 °F)
14.3 °C (57.7 °F)
9.2 °C (48.6 °F)
17.0 °C (62.6 °F)
10.5 °C (50.9 °F)
Concepción 22.8 °C (73.0 °F)
10.9 °C (51.6 °F)
18.3 °C (64.9 °F)
8.1 °C (46.6 °F)
13.2 °C (55.8 °F)
5.8 °C (42.4 °F)
17.2 °C (63.0 °F)
7.4 °C (45.3 °F)
Mar del Plata 26.3 °C (79.3 °F)
14.3 °C (57.7 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
9.1 °C (48.4 °F)
13.1 °C (55.6 °F)
3.8 °C (38.8 °F)
18.5 °C (65.3 °F)
7.6 °C (45.7 °F)
Neuquén 32.0 °C (89.6 °F)
16.2 °C (61.2 °F)
22.0 °C (71.6 °F)
7.0 °C (44.6 °F)
12.2 °C (54.0 °F)
0.0 °C (32.0 °F)
23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
8.2 °C (46.8 °F)
Iquique 25.3 °C (77.5 °F)
19.2 °C (66.6 °F)
22.7 °C (72.9 °F)
16.9 °C (62.4 °F)
18.0 °C (64.4 °F)
14.0 °C (57.2 °F)
20.1 °C (68.2 °F)
15.4 °C (59.7 °F)
Bariloche 21.4 °C (70.5 °F)
6.5 °C (43.7 °F)
14.8 °C (58.6 °F)
1.8 °C (35.2 °F)
6.4 °C (43.5 °F)
−1.3 °C (29.7 °F)
13.9 °C (57.0 °F)
1.3 °C (34.3 °F)
Ushuaia 13.9 °C (57.0 °F)
5.4 °C (41.7 °F)
9.6 °C (49.3 °F)
2.3 °C (36.1 °F)
4.2 °C (39.6 °F)
−1.7 °C (28.9 °F)
10.5 °C (50.9 °F)
2.3 °C (36.1 °F)
Porto Alegre 30.2 °C (86.4 °F)
20.5 °C (68.9 °F)
25.2 °C (77.4 °F)
16.3 °C (61.3 °F)
19.4 °C (66.9 °F)
10.7 °C (51.3 °F)
24.4 °C (75.9 °F)
15.0 °C (59.0 °F)
Planisphere of moderate latitudes in which the equivalent location of most of the Southern Cone can be observed as if it was in the Northern Hemisphere (over latitudes corresponding to the south end of the United States up to the south end of Alaska).
Mate, as shown in the picture, is a typical beverage from the Southern Cone.

Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage, the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football, with top-notch teams competing in the sport. Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice; they are the only national teams along with Brazil outside Europe to have won the cup. Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup. Additionally, national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football. Also, football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South-American competitions, Pan-American competitions, and world-FIFA Club World Cup-level competitions.

The asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone. The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region, more specifically from the gauchos of Argentina, Uruguay and Southern Brazil (and Southern Chile) and the huasos of Central Chile. In the Southern Cone, horsemen are considered icons of national identity; they are featured in the epic poem Martín Fierro. Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone.

In this area, there was extensive European immigration during the 19th- and 20th-centuries, who, with their descendants, have strongly influenced the culture, social life and politics of these countries. Immigration reshaped the modern-day societies of both Argentina and Uruguay, countries where the influx of newcomers was massive.

In a social survey, residents rated their countries as 'good places for gay or lesbian people to live;' the following percentages said 'yes' in Uruguay (71%), Argentina (68%), Brazil (68%), and Chile (52%). By contrast, fewer people in the following countries agreed: Bolivia (31%) and Peru (35%).

The overwhelming majority, including those of recent immigrant background, speak Spanish (in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay) or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil. The Spanish-speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects:

  • Castellano Rioplatense (River Plate Spanish), spoken in Argentina and Uruguay, where the accent and daily language is heavily influenced by 19th-20th century Italian immigrants, has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world. It is sometimes erroneously referred to as "Castellano Argentino/Argentinean Spanish" due to the majority of the speakers (by population) being Argentinians. Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish, has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region, and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish. Buenos Aires, Rosario, and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid-19th until mid-20th centuries. Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a relatively recent phenomenon, developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration.
  • Castellano Chileno (Chilean Spanish)

These dialects share common traits, such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words.

Minor languages and dialects include Cordobés, Cuyo, and Portuñol, a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese that is spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil.

Native American languages

Some Native American groups, especially in rural areas, continue to speak autochthonous languages, including Mapudungun (also known as Mapuche), Quechua, Aymara, and Guarani. The first is primarily spoken in Araucanía and adjacent areas of Patagonia, in southern Argentina and Chile. Guarani is an official language of Paraguay, the most widely spoken language in that country, and in 2010, the city of Tacuru, in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul, adopted Guarani as the official language, besides Portuguese. It is also a co-official language in the northeastern Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones.

Non-Iberian immigrant languages

English is spoken in the Falkland Islands, a British Overseas Territory (disputed by Argentina), and by descendants of British settlers in Argentina and Chile. Welsh is spoken by descendants of immigrants in the Patagonia region of Argentina.

Italian (mostly its Northern dialects, such as Venetian), is spoken in rural communities across Argentina, Southern Brazil, and São Paulo where immigrants had settled. German in some dialects is mostly spoken in Southern Chile and Southern Brazil. German dialects are the second most spoken mother tongue in Brazil.Polish, Dutch and Ukrainian are also spoken in Southern Brazil. Dutch is spoken in Chile as well, Ukrainian is used in Argentina as well. Croatian and other Slavic languages are also spoken in the southernmost areas of Chilean Patagonia, reflecting patterns of immigration and settlement.

Yiddish can be heard mainly in Buenos Aires, Argentina and São Paulo, Brazil.

In Brazil, Japanese is mostly common in the states of São Paulo and Paraná.

Selected words in the dialects of Southern Cone countries

Below there are selected words to show the similarities in vocabulary in the dialects of the countries of the Southern Cone.

Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguay
apricot damasco damasco damasco damasco damasco
cashew castaña de cajú castanha de caju castaña de cajú castaña de cajú castaña de cajú
cell phone celular celular celular celular celular
computer computadora computador computador computadora computadora
parking lot estacionamiento estacionamento estacionamiento estacionamiento estacionamiento

Below there are selected words to show how vocabulary in the dialects of the countries of the Southern Cone and other Spanish-speaking countries in South America and the Portuguese from Brazil.

Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuela
apartment departamento departamento apartamento departamento apartamento departamento departamento departamento apartamento apartamento
artichoke alcaucil alcachofa alcachofra alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcaucil alcachofa
avocado palta palta abacate palta aguacate aguacate aguacate palta palta aguacate
banana banana plátano banana plátano banano banano banana plátano banana cambur
butter manteca mantequilla manteiga mantequilla mantequilla mantequilla manteca mantequilla manteca mantequilla
car auto auto carro auto carro auto auto auto auto carro
grapefruit pomelo pomelo toranja pomelo toronja toronja pomelo toronja pomelo toronja
jacket campera chamarra jaqueta chaqueta chaqueta chompa campera casaca campera chaqueta
papaya papaya papaya mamão papaya papaya papaya mamón papaya papaya lechosa
sneakers zapatillas tenis tênis zapatillas tenis deportivos championes zapatillas championes gomas
swimming pool pileta piscina piscina piscina piscina piscina pileta piscina piscina piscina
t-shirt remera polera camiseta polera camiseta camiseta remera polo remera franela
washing machine lavarropas lavadora lavadora lavadora lavadora lavadora lavarropas lavadora lavarropas lavadora
A history of Catholicism has left landmarks like the Churches of Chiloé (pictured) in the Southern Cone

Like the rest of Latin America, most residents of the Southern Cone are members of the Catholic Church, with a minority of Protestants, including a significant Lutheran population in south Brazil. Other religions also present in the southern cone include Islam, Anglicanism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Buddhism, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and Daoism. Jewish communities have thrived in cities of Argentina and Uruguay.

While the Southern Cone has been conservative in some aspects of religion, it has had a tradition of social reform and liberation theology has been followed by many in the Catholic Church. Uruguay, where agnosticism and atheism is common, has a policy of strong separation of church and state; it is one of the most secular countries in the Americas. Uruguay, Chile and Argentina, in that order, have the least religious residents in South America, according to their responses about the significance of religion in their lives. According to the Pew Research Center, 28% of Uruguayans, 43% of Argentines, and 41% of Chileans think of religion 'very important in their lives,' contrasting with the higher values given by the residents of countries such as Peru (72%), Colombia (77%) and Ecuador (76%).

The Southern Cone produced the first pope from the Western Hemisphere, Pope Francis, elected in 2013, born in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Religion in the Southern Cone
Area Catholic (%) Protestant (%) Irreligious (%) Others
Unspecified (%) Source
Argentina 62.9 15.3 18.9 2.6 0.3
Chile 66.7 16.4 11.5 4.5 1.1
Paraná, Brazil 69.6 22.2 4.6 3.6 0.0
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 68.8 18.3 5.3 5.2 0.0
Santa Catarina, Brazil 73.1 20.4 3.2 3.3 0.0
São Paulo, Brazil 60.1 24.1 8.1 7.7 0.0
Uruguay 42.0 15.0 37.0 6.0 0.0
Country Area
(km2)
Population
(2020)
Population density
(per km2)
HDI (2019) Capital
Argentina 2,780,092 (3,761,274) 45,195,774 16.26 (12.02) 0,830
(very high)
Buenos Aires
Chile 756,102 (2,006,360) 19,116,201 25.28 (9.53) 0.847
(very high)
Santiago
Uruguay 176,215 3,473,730 19.71 0.808
(very high)
Montevideo
Total 3,712,409 (5,943,849) 67,785,705 18.26 (11.40) (very high)

Brazil

Brazil, being a country of continental dimensions, presents great internal regional differences.

While its 4 southernmost states (Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and São Paulo) share characteristics with Argentina, Chile and Uruguay (high standard of living, subtropical and temperate climate, high levels of industrialization and strong European ethnic component due to immigration), the other states are more similar to the other South American countries in these issues.

For this reason, Brazil is included in some meanings when speaking in Southern Cone, but excluded in others.

When the definition is not limited to entire countries, the states of the South Region and the state of São Paulo are generally included.

State Area
(km2)
Population
(2019)
Population density
(per km2)
HDI (2017) Capital
Paraná 199,314 11.434.000 59.80 0.796
(high)
Curitiba
Rio Grande do Sul 291,748 11.378.000 39.10 0.792
(high)
Porto Alegre
Santa Catarina 95,346 7.165.000 71.18 0.808
(very high)
Florianópolis
São Paulo 248,222 45,920,000 95.83 0.826
(very high)
São Paulo
Total 834,630 75.897.000 90.35 0.806
(very high)

Paraguay

Due to the geographical proximity, common history, geography and political cycles, Paraguay is usually included in what is meant by Southern Cone. However, it contrasts strongly with other countries given the strong influence of guarani culture and due to the fact that it has not received a comparable amount of European immigration and foreign investment, though in the last few years this seems to be changing partly due to the political and macro-economical stability the country has experienced since the early 2000s

Population density of the Southern Cone by first level national administrative divisions. Population/km2
View of the Southern Cone at night, where there are population densities in the accumulation of light from cities.

The population of Argentina, Chile and Uruguay is 40, 16.8 and 3.6 million respectively. Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area at 13.1 million and Santiago, Chile has 6.4 million. Uruguay's capital and largest city, Montevideo, has 1.8 million, and it receives many visitors on ferry boats across the Río de la Plata from Buenos Aires, 50 km (31 mi) away.

By contrast, the Patagonia region of southern Chile and Argentina is very sparsely populated, with a population density of less than two people per square kilometer.

Ethnicity

Italian ancestry in the population of the Southern Cone
Area Italian (%)
Argentina 62.5
Paraná, Brazil 39.4
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil 22.1
Santa Catarina, Brazil 60.0
São Paulo, Brazil 29.9
Uruguay 44.0
Chile 3.0

The population of the Southern Cone has been strongly influenced by waves of immigration from Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. People of European descent, make up 85% of the total population of Argentina, 88% of total population of Uruguay and 60% of total population of Chile. In São Paulo, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina self-identify White people are 61.3%; 70.0%; 82.3%; and 86.8% of the population respectively, with people of Italian and German ancestry predominating.

Italians started to emigrate to the Southern Cone as early as the second half of the 17th century, and it became a mass phenomenon between 1880 and 1920 when Italy was facing social and economic disturbances. As a consequence of mass Italian immigration, the Southern Cone has the largest Italian diaspora in the world, with people of Italian descent being the majority in many places, with the highest percentage being in Argentina (62.5% Italian), and in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina (60% Italian). Among all Italians who immigrated to Brazil, 70% went to the State of São Paulo. In consequence, the State of São Paulo has more people with Italian ancestry than any region of Italy itself, with São Paulo city being the most populous city with Italian ancestry in the world, of the 10 million inhabitants of São Paulo city, 60% (6 million people) have full or partial Italian ancestry (the largest city of Italy is Rome, with 2.5 million inhabitants). Small towns, such as Nova Veneza, have as much as 95% of their population of Italian descent.

The region also has a large German diaspora (second largest after the United States), with People of German descent being 25% of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and 35% of the population of Santa Catarina.

Mestizos make up 15.8% of the population and are a majority in Paraguay. Native Americans make up 3% of the population, most live in Chile. Mulattoes (people of European and African ancestry) mostly in Uruguay (0.2%), and Asians (1.0%), mostly in Argentina, the remaining 1.2%.

There is also a strong Arab presence in the Southern Cone, with people of full or at least partial Arab ancestry being 5% of the population of Uruguay and Chile, 9.8% of the population of Brazil, and 11% of the population of Argentina. Brazil has the largest number of Arabs outside the Middle East, with 20 million Brazilians being descendants of Arabs, while the Palestinian community in Chile is considered the largest outside the Arab world.

Genetic and historical roots

Since interethnic marriages are widespread in Latin America, complex ethnic classifications emerged, including more than a dozen of "racial" categories created in 18th century Hispanic America, with notorious examples being castizo, morisco and cambujo. In Brazil, about 190 "racial" categories were detected by the Census of 1976.

Blacks made up 25% of the population of Buenos Aires in 1810, 1822 and 1838. In 1887, the government decided to cease asking Argentine citizens about their race. According to Laura López, it was a way to "hide" the Black population, not only from the Census, but also from the public opinion. Chile does not ask its citizens about race, but a study from the University of Chile concluded that Whites make 60% of the Chilean population, while the CIA World Factbook described 88.4% of the population as white and mestizo.

A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach, has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79% from different European ethnicities (mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities), 18% of different indigenous ethnicities, and 4.3% of African ethnic groups, in which 63.6% of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous. An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found the composition of the Argentine population to be 78,50% European, 17,30% Mixed Race, and 4,20% Sub-Saharan African (SSA).

A DNA study from 2009, published in the American Journal of Human Biology, showed the genetical composition of Uruguay to be mainly European, but with Native American (which varies from 1% to 20% in different parts of the country) and also SSA (7% to 15% in different parts of the country).

An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found out Chile to be 44.34% (± 3.9%) Native American, 51.85% (± 5.44%) European and 3.81% (± 0.45%) African.

In the case of Chile,"The use of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome" test results show the following: The European component is predominant (91.0%, versus 9.0% of the aboriginal one) in the Chilean upper class, the middle classes, 66.8%-62.3% European component and 37.7%-33.2 of mixed aboriginal and lower classes at 55%-52.9% European component and 47.1%-45% mix of Aboriginal.

Similar to the rest of Latin America, the genetic ancestry of the population of the Southern Cone reflects the history of the continent: the Iberian colonizers were mostly men who arrived without women. In consequence, they had children with the local Indigenous or enslaved African women. A European immigration to this part of the World in the late 19th and early 20th centuries (massive in Argentina, Uruguay, and south and southeastern Brazil, modest in elsewhere in Brazil, Chile and Paraguay) brought more European and northern Middle Eastern components to the local population – mainly Spaniards in Chile, Italians and Spaniards in Argentina and Uruguay, Italians in São Paulo, Italians, Germans and Poles in southern Brazil.

The other conspicuous characteristic of the Southern Cone is its relatively high standard of living and quality of life. Argentina's, Chile's, and Uruguay's HDIs — (0.827), (0.847) and (0.804) — are the highest in Latin America, similar to countries in Eastern Europe, such as Hungary, Croatia or Romania. Uruguay, where illiteracy technically does not exist, reaches the same level in this area, even considering that it faces restrictions to its industrial and economic growth. The Southern Cone is the most prosperous macro-region in Latin America. It has high life expectancy, access to health care and education. From an economic and liberal point of view the region has been praised for its significant participation in the global markets, and its "emerging economy" profile. More troubling are high levels of income inequality.

Summary of socio-economic performance indicators for Latin American countries
Country GDP per
capita
(PPP)
(2015 estimates)

USD
Income
equality
(2015)

Gini index
Human
Develop.
(2014 estimates)

HDI
Environmental
Perform.
(2014)
EPI
Failed States Index
2014
Lack of Corruption
2014
Economic Freedom
2015
Peace
2014
Democracy
2010
Brazil 15,518 52.7 0.759 (H) 52.9 64.8 43 56.6 2.073 7.12
Central America 10,502 49.7 0.678 (M) 51.0 68.8 37 62.2 2.058 6.45
Mexico 18,714 48.1 0.774 (H) 55.0 71.1 35 66.4 2.500 6.91
South America 11,955 47.5 0.715 (H) 50.3 76.7 31 55.0 2.233 6.01
Southern Cone 22,493 45.2 0.820 (VH) 57.7 42.4 60 1.648 7.60 7.84

During the second half of 20th century, these countries were in some periods ruled by right-wing juntas, military nationalistic dictatorships. Around the 1970s, these regimes collaborated in Plan Cóndor against leftist opposition, including urban guerrillas. However, by the early 1980s Argentina and Uruguay restored their democracies; Chile followed suit in 1990.

Governments

Timeline of presidents

  1. Only Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo are sometimes included.
  2. Sometimes included.
  3. Spanish and Guaraní are co-official in Paraguay, with the vast majority of the population being bilingual
  4. Excluding Belize and Clipperton Island.
  5. Excluding The Guianas and Bouvet Island.
  6. Excluding the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
  1. This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 4,944,081sq km
  2. Steves, F. (September 2001). "Regional Integration and Democratic Consolidation in the Southern Cone of Latin America". Democratization. 8 (3): 75–100. doi:10.1080/714000210. S2CID 42956310.
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  5. Lazcano, Luis. "Climatología". 164.77.222.61. Archived from the original on 2016-09-16. Retrieved2015-05-25.
  6. Mccarthy, Justin (27 August 2014). "Nearly 3 in 10 Worldwide See Their Areas as Good for Gays". Gallup. Retrieved6 January 2021.
  7. Colantoni, Laura; Gurlekian, Jorge (August 2004). "Convergence and intonation: historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish". Bilingualism: Language and Cognition. 7 (2): 107–119. doi:10.1017/S1366728904001488. S2CID 56111230.
  8. "Official languages include indigenous" Archived 2012-02-20 at the Wayback Machine, IPS News
  9. "Hunsrückish". Ethnologue. Retrieved20 July 2015.
  10. "Standard German". Ethnologue. Retrieved20 July 2015.
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Media related to Southern Cone at Wikimedia Commons

Southern Cone
Southern Cone Article Talk Language Watch Edit Cono Sur redirects here For the area of Lima see Cono Sur Lima For the region of Cochabamba see Cono Sur Cochabamba For the vineyards and winery see Cono Sur Vineyards amp Winery For the congregation of monasteries see Cono Sur Congregation Coordinates 39 06 00 S 67 54 00 W 39 1000 S 67 9000 W 39 1000 67 9000 The Southern Cone Spanish Cono Sur Portuguese Cone Sul is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America mostly south of the Tropic of Capricorn Traditionally it covers Argentina Chile and Uruguay bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the east by the Atlantic Ocean In terms of social economic and political geography the Southern Cone comprises Argentina Chile and Uruguay and sometimes includes Brazil s four southernmost states Parana Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo In its broadest definition taking into account common history and geography it also includes Paraguay another Spanish speaking note 3 country 2 Southern Cone Regions always included in all definitions Regions sometimes included States of Brazil not generally includedArea5 712 034 km2 2 205 429 sq mi Population135 707 204 July 2010 est Density27 45 km2 71 1 sq mi 1 Countries3 5 Argentina Brazil note 1 Chile Paraguay note 2 UruguayDependencies2 note 2 Falkland Islands UK South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands UK LanguagesSpanish Portuguese Mapuche and GuaraniDemonymSouth AmericanLargest urban agglomerations1 Sao Paulo 2 Buenos Aires 3 Santiago 4 Curitiba 5 Porto Alegre 6 Cordoba 7 Montevideo 8 Guarulhos 9 Campinas High life expectancy the highest Human Development Index of Latin America high standard of living low fertility rates significant participation in global markets and the emerging economy of its members make the Southern Cone the most prosperous subregion in Latin America 2 3 Contents 1 Geography and extent 1 1 Brazil 2 Culture 3 Language 3 1 Native American languages 3 2 Non Iberian immigrant languages 3 3 Selected words in the dialects of Southern Cone countries 4 Religion 5 Countries 6 Inclusion of other regions 6 1 Brazil 6 2 Paraguay 7 Demography 7 1 Ethnicity 7 2 Genetic and historical roots 8 Education and standards of living 9 Politics 9 1 Governments 10 See also 11 Notes 12 References 13 External linksGeography and extent Edit Koppen Climate Zone Classification map of Uruguay Argentina Chile and Falkland Islands The climates are mostly temperate but include humid subtropical Mediterranean highland tropical maritime temperate sub Antarctic temperate highland cold desert and semi arid temperate regions Except for northern regions of Argentina thermal equator in January the whole country of Paraguay the Argentina Brazil border and the interior of the Atacama Desert the region rarely suffers from heat In addition to that the winter presents mostly cool temperatures Strong and constant wind and high humidity is what brings low temperatures in the winter The Atacama is the driest place on Earth One of the most peculiar plants of the region is the Araucaria tree which can be found in Brazil Chile and Argentina The only native group of conifers found in the southern hemisphere had its origin in the Southern Cone Araucaria angustifolia once widespread in Southern Brazil is now a critically endangered species protected by law The prairies region of central Argentina Uruguay and southern Brazil is known as the Pampas Central Chile has Mediterranean vegetation and a Mediterranean climate grading southward into an oceanic climate The Atacama Patagonian and Monte deserts form a diagonal of arid lands separating the woodlands croplands and pastures of La Plata basin from Central and Southern Chile Apart from the desert diagonal the north south running Andes form a major divide in the Southern Cone and constitute for most of its part in the southern cone the Argentina Chile border In the east the river systems of the La Plata basin form natural barriers and sea lanes between Argentina Brazil Paraguay and Uruguay Satellite images of the Southern Cone month by month The extensive temperate prairies of the Pampas in the center of Argentina Located in Argentina Aconcagua almost 7000 meters high is the highest mountain on Earth besides the Himalayas and continues to rise Landforms in the Monte Desert at Ischigualasto Argentina Much of the southern cone is covered by the Arid Diagonal of which Monte Desert is part Autumn in Bariloche Argentina Snow in the winter of the Alps of the state of Santa Catarina southern Brazil Snow in the winter in Curarrehue Chile Jacarandas in bloom in Buenos Aires Argentina during spring Brazil Edit Koppen climate classification of South Brazil and Sao Paulo Southern Brazil has a temperate climate The annual average temperatures vary between 12 C 53 6 F and 22 C 71 6 F citation needed During the months of June July and August high altitude areas in the South Region can receive snowfall When it comes to the state of Sao Paulo it covers seven distinct climatic types In the mountain areas of the state there are subtropical climate Cfa In areas of high altitude the average temperature is below 18 C 64 F Oceanic Cfb and Cwb on the coast the climate is super humid tropical type Af without a dry season The tropical climate of altitude Cwa predominant in the state territory specifically in the center is characterized by a temperature above 22 C 72 F in the hottest month of the year The occurrence of snow is rare but has been recorded in Campos do Jordao and there are also reports that the phenomenon has occurred in several parts in the south citation needed Average temperatures for some urban areas of the Southern Cone Location January April July OctoberBuenos Aires 4 30 1 C 86 2 F 20 1 C 68 2 F 22 9 C 73 2 F 13 8 C 56 8 F 15 4 C 59 7 F 7 4 C 45 3 F 22 6 C 72 7 F 13 3 C 55 9 F Santiago de Chile 5 30 1 C 86 2 F 13 4 C 56 1 F 22 3 C 72 1 F 6 5 C 43 7 F 14 3 C 57 7 F 1 6 C 34 9 F 22 8 C 73 0 F 8 4 C 47 1 F Montevideo 28 1 C 82 6 F 18 0 C 64 4 F 21 7 C 71 1 F 12 9 C 55 2 F 14 6 C 58 3 F 6 9 C 44 4 F 20 3 C 68 5 F 11 5 C 52 7 F Cordoba 31 1 C 88 0 F 18 1 C 64 6 F 24 9 C 76 8 F 12 3 C 54 1 F 18 5 C 65 3 F 5 5 C 41 9 F 26 1 C 79 0 F 12 6 C 54 7 F Valparaiso 21 4 C 70 5 F 13 5 C 56 3 F 18 3 C 64 9 F 11 4 C 52 5 F 14 3 C 57 7 F 9 2 C 48 6 F 17 0 C 62 6 F 10 5 C 50 9 F Concepcion 22 8 C 73 0 F 10 9 C 51 6 F 18 3 C 64 9 F 8 1 C 46 6 F 13 2 C 55 8 F 5 8 C 42 4 F 17 2 C 63 0 F 7 4 C 45 3 F Mar del Plata 26 3 C 79 3 F 14 3 C 57 7 F 20 5 C 68 9 F 9 1 C 48 4 F 13 1 C 55 6 F 3 8 C 38 8 F 18 5 C 65 3 F 7 6 C 45 7 F Neuquen 32 0 C 89 6 F 16 2 C 61 2 F 22 0 C 71 6 F 7 0 C 44 6 F 12 2 C 54 0 F 0 0 C 32 0 F 23 4 C 74 1 F 8 2 C 46 8 F Iquique 25 3 C 77 5 F 19 2 C 66 6 F 22 7 C 72 9 F 16 9 C 62 4 F 18 0 C 64 4 F 14 0 C 57 2 F 20 1 C 68 2 F 15 4 C 59 7 F Bariloche 21 4 C 70 5 F 6 5 C 43 7 F 14 8 C 58 6 F 1 8 C 35 2 F 6 4 C 43 5 F 1 3 C 29 7 F 13 9 C 57 0 F 1 3 C 34 3 F Ushuaia 13 9 C 57 0 F 5 4 C 41 7 F 9 6 C 49 3 F 2 3 C 36 1 F 4 2 C 39 6 F 1 7 C 28 9 F 10 5 C 50 9 F 2 3 C 36 1 F Porto Alegre 30 2 C 86 4 F 20 5 C 68 9 F 25 2 C 77 4 F 16 3 C 61 3 F 19 4 C 66 9 F 10 7 C 51 3 F 24 4 C 75 9 F 15 0 C 59 0 F Planisphere of moderate latitudes in which the equivalent location of most of the Southern Cone can be observed as if it was in the Northern Hemisphere over latitudes corresponding to the south end of the United States up to the south end of Alaska Culture Edit Mate as shown in the picture is a typical beverage from the Southern Cone Besides sharing languages and colonial heritage the residents of the states of the Southern Cone are avid players and fans of football with top notch teams competing in the sport Argentina and Uruguay have both won the FIFA World Cup twice they are the only national teams along with Brazil outside Europe to have won the cup Argentina Chile Uruguay and Brazil have all hosted the World Cup Additionally national teams from the region have won several Olympic medals in football Also football clubs from the Southern Cone countries have won large numbers of club competitions in South American competitions Pan American competitions and world FIFA Club World Cup level competitions The asado barbecue is a culinary tradition typical of the Southern Cone The asado developed from the horsemen and cattle culture of the region more specifically from the gauchos of Argentina Uruguay and Southern Brazil and Southern Chile and the huasos of Central Chile In the Southern Cone horsemen are considered icons of national identity they are featured in the epic poem Martin Fierro Mate is popular throughout the Southern Cone In this area there was extensive European immigration during the 19th and 20th centuries who with their descendants have strongly influenced the culture social life and politics of these countries Immigration reshaped the modern day societies of both Argentina and Uruguay countries where the influx of newcomers was massive In a social survey residents rated their countries as good places for gay or lesbian people to live the following percentages said yes in Uruguay 71 Argentina 68 Brazil 68 and Chile 52 By contrast fewer people in the following countries agreed Bolivia 31 and Peru 35 6 Language EditThe overwhelming majority including those of recent immigrant background speak Spanish in Argentina Chile Paraguay and Uruguay or Portuguese in the case of Southern Brazil The Spanish speaking countries of the Southern Cone are divided into two main dialects Castellano Rioplatense River Plate Spanish spoken in Argentina and Uruguay where the accent and daily language is heavily influenced by 19th 20th century Italian immigrants has a particular intonation famously recognized by Spanish speakers from around the world It is sometimes erroneously referred to as Castellano Argentino Argentinean Spanish due to the majority of the speakers by population being Argentinians Preliminary research has shown that Rioplatense Spanish has intonation patterns that resemble those of Italian dialects in the Naples region and differ markedly from the patterns of other forms of Spanish 7 Buenos Aires Rosario and Montevideo had a massive influx of Italian immigrant settlers from the mid 19th until mid 20th centuries Researchers note that the development of this dialect is a relatively recent phenomenon developing at the beginning of the 20th century with the main wave of Italian immigration 7 Castellano Chileno Chilean Spanish These dialects share common traits such as a number of Lunfardo and Quechua words Minor languages and dialects include Cordobes Cuyo and Portunol a hybrid between Rioplatense and Brazilian Portuguese that is spoken in Uruguay on the border with Brazil Native American languages Edit Some Native American groups especially in rural areas continue to speak autochthonous languages including Mapudungun also known as Mapuche Quechua Aymara and Guarani The first is primarily spoken in Araucania and adjacent areas of Patagonia in southern Argentina and Chile Guarani is an official language of Paraguay the most widely spoken language in that country and in 2010 the city of Tacuru in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul adopted Guarani as the official language besides Portuguese It is also a co official language in the northeastern Argentine provinces of Corrientes and Misiones 8 Non Iberian immigrant languages Edit English is spoken in the Falkland Islands a British Overseas Territory disputed by Argentina and by descendants of British settlers in Argentina and Chile Welsh is spoken by descendants of immigrants in the Patagonia region of Argentina Italian mostly its Northern dialects such as Venetian is spoken in rural communities across Argentina Southern Brazil and Sao Paulo where immigrants had settled German in some dialects is mostly spoken in Southern Chile and Southern Brazil German dialects are the second most spoken mother tongue in Brazil 9 10 11 Polish Dutch and Ukrainian are also spoken in Southern Brazil Dutch is spoken in Chile as well Ukrainian is used in Argentina as well Croatian and other Slavic languages are also spoken in the southernmost areas of Chilean Patagonia reflecting patterns of immigration and settlement Yiddish can be heard mainly in Buenos Aires Argentina and Sao Paulo Brazil In Brazil Japanese is mostly common in the states of Sao Paulo and Parana Selected words in the dialects of Southern Cone countries Edit Below there are selected words to show the similarities in vocabulary in the dialects of the countries of the Southern Cone Argentina Brazil Chile Paraguay Uruguayapricot damasco damasco damasco damasco damascocashew castana de caju castanha de caju castana de caju castana de caju castana de cajucell phone celular celular celular celular celularcomputer computadora computador computador computadora computadoraparking lot estacionamiento estacionamento estacionamiento estacionamiento estacionamiento Below there are selected words to show how vocabulary in the dialects of the countries of the Southern Cone and other Spanish speaking countries in South America and the Portuguese from Brazil Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Uruguay Venezuelaapartment departamento departamento apartamento departamento apartamento departamento departamento departamento apartamento apartamentoartichoke alcaucil alcachofa alcachofra alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcachofa alcaucil alcachofaavocado palta palta abacate palta aguacate aguacate aguacate palta palta aguacatebanana banana platano banana platano banano banano banana platano banana camburbutter manteca mantequilla manteiga mantequilla mantequilla mantequilla manteca mantequilla manteca mantequillacar auto auto carro auto carro auto auto auto auto carrograpefruit pomelo pomelo toranja pomelo toronja toronja pomelo toronja pomelo toronjajacket campera chamarra jaqueta chaqueta chaqueta chompa campera casaca campera chaquetapapaya papaya papaya mamao papaya papaya papaya mamon papaya papaya lechosasneakers zapatillas tenis tenis zapatillas tenis deportivos championes zapatillas championes gomasswimming pool pileta piscina piscina piscina piscina piscina pileta piscina piscina piscinat shirt remera polera camiseta polera camiseta camiseta remera polo remera franelawashing machine lavarropas lavadora lavadora lavadora lavadora lavadora lavarropas lavadora lavarropas lavadoraReligion Edit A history of Catholicism has left landmarks like the Churches of Chiloe pictured in the Southern Cone Like the rest of Latin America most residents of the Southern Cone are members of the Catholic Church 12 with a minority of Protestants including a significant Lutheran population in south Brazil Other religions also present in the southern cone include Islam Anglicanism Eastern Orthodoxy Buddhism the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints and Daoism Jewish communities have thrived in cities of Argentina and Uruguay While the Southern Cone has been conservative in some aspects of religion it has had a tradition of social reform and liberation theology has been followed by many in the Catholic Church Uruguay where agnosticism and atheism is common has a policy of strong separation of church and state it is one of the most secular countries in the Americas 13 Uruguay Chile and Argentina in that order have the least religious residents in South America according to their responses about the significance of religion in their lives According to the Pew Research Center 28 of Uruguayans 43 of Argentines and 41 of Chileans think of religion very important in their lives contrasting with the higher values given by the residents of countries such as Peru 72 Colombia 77 and Ecuador 76 14 The Southern Cone produced the first pope from the Western Hemisphere Pope Francis elected in 2013 born in Buenos Aires Argentina 15 Religion in the Southern Cone Area Catholic Protestant Irreligious Others Unspecified Source Argentina 62 9 15 3 18 9 2 6 0 3 16 Chile 66 7 16 4 11 5 4 5 1 1 17 Parana Brazil 69 6 22 2 4 6 3 6 0 0 18 19 Rio Grande do Sul Brazil 68 8 18 3 5 3 5 2 0 0 18 19 Santa Catarina Brazil 73 1 20 4 3 2 3 3 0 0 18 19 Sao Paulo Brazil 60 1 24 1 8 1 7 7 0 0 18 19 Uruguay 42 0 15 0 37 0 6 0 0 0 14 Countries EditCountry Area km2 Population 2020 20 Population density per km2 HDI 2019 21 Capital Argentina 2 780 092 3 761 274 45 195 774 16 26 12 02 0 830 very high Buenos Aires Chile 756 102 2 006 360 19 116 201 25 28 9 53 0 847 very high Santiago Uruguay 176 215 3 473 730 19 71 0 808 very high MontevideoTotal 3 712 409 5 943 849 67 785 705 18 26 11 40 very high Inclusion of other regions EditBrazil Edit Brazil being a country of continental dimensions presents great internal regional differences While its 4 southernmost states Parana Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo share characteristics with Argentina Chile and Uruguay high standard of living subtropical and temperate climate high levels of industrialization and strong European ethnic component due to immigration the other states are more similar to the other South American countries in these issues For this reason Brazil is included in some meanings when speaking in Southern Cone but excluded in others When the definition is not limited to entire countries the states of the South Region and the state of Sao Paulo are generally included State Area km2 22 Population 2019 22 Population density per km2 HDI 2017 21 Capital Parana 199 314 11 434 000 59 80 0 796 high Curitiba Rio Grande do Sul 291 748 11 378 000 39 10 0 792 high Porto Alegre Santa Catarina 95 346 7 165 000 71 18 0 808 very high Florianopolis Sao Paulo 248 222 45 920 000 95 83 0 826 very high Sao PauloTotal 834 630 75 897 000 90 35 0 806 very high Paraguay Edit Due to the geographical proximity common history geography and political cycles Paraguay is usually included in what is meant by Southern Cone However it contrasts strongly with other countries given the strong influence of guarani culture and due to the fact that it has not received a comparable amount of European immigration and foreign investment though in the last few years this seems to be changing partly due to the political and macro economical stability the country has experienced since the early 2000sDemography EditMain article Demographics of the Southern Cone Population density of the Southern Cone by first level national administrative divisions Population km2 View of the Southern Cone at night where there are population densities in the accumulation of light from cities The population of Argentina Chile and Uruguay is 40 16 8 and 3 6 million respectively Buenos Aires is the largest metropolitan area at 13 1 million and Santiago Chile has 6 4 million Uruguay s capital and largest city Montevideo has 1 8 million and it receives many visitors on ferry boats across the Rio de la Plata from Buenos Aires 50 km 31 mi away By contrast the Patagonia region of southern Chile and Argentina is very sparsely populated with a population density of less than two people per square kilometer Ethnicity Edit Italian ancestry in the population of the Southern Cone Area Italian Argentina 62 5 23 Parana Brazil 39 4 24 Rio Grande do Sul Brazil 22 1 24 Santa Catarina Brazil 60 0 24 Sao Paulo Brazil 29 9 24 Uruguay 44 0 25 Chile 3 0 26 The population of the Southern Cone has been strongly influenced by waves of immigration from Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries People of European descent make up 85 of the total population of Argentina 88 of total population of Uruguay and 60 of total population of Chile 27 28 29 30 In Sao Paulo Parana Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina self identify White people are 61 3 70 0 82 3 and 86 8 of the population respectively with people of Italian and German ancestry predominating 31 32 33 Italians started to emigrate to the Southern Cone as early as the second half of the 17th century 34 and it became a mass phenomenon between 1880 and 1920 when Italy was facing social and economic disturbances 35 As a consequence of mass Italian immigration the Southern Cone has the largest Italian diaspora in the world 32 with people of Italian descent being the majority in many places with the highest percentage being in Argentina 62 5 Italian 23 and in the southern Brazilian state of Santa Catarina 60 Italian 24 Among all Italians who immigrated to Brazil 70 went to the State of Sao Paulo In consequence the State of Sao Paulo has more people with Italian ancestry than any region of Italy itself 36 with Sao Paulo city being the most populous city with Italian ancestry in the world 37 of the 10 million inhabitants of Sao Paulo city 60 6 million people have full or partial Italian ancestry the largest city of Italy is Rome with 2 5 million inhabitants 38 39 Small towns such as Nova Veneza have as much as 95 of their population of Italian descent 40 The region also has a large German diaspora second largest after the United States 41 with People of German descent being 25 of the population of Rio Grande do Sul and 35 of the population of Santa Catarina 42 43 Mestizos make up 15 8 of the population and are a majority in Paraguay Native Americans make up 3 of the population most live in Chile Mulattoes people of European and African ancestry mostly in Uruguay 0 2 and Asians 1 0 mostly in Argentina the remaining 1 2 44 There is also a strong Arab presence in the Southern Cone with people of full or at least partial Arab ancestry being 5 of the population of Uruguay and Chile 9 8 of the population of Brazil and 11 of the population of Argentina 45 46 47 48 Brazil has the largest number of Arabs outside the Middle East with 20 million Brazilians being descendants of Arabs 47 49 while the Palestinian community in Chile is considered the largest outside the Arab world 50 Genetic and historical roots Edit Since interethnic marriages are widespread in Latin America complex ethnic classifications emerged including more than a dozen of racial categories created in 18th century Hispanic America with notorious examples being castizo morisco and cambujo In Brazil about 190 racial categories were detected by the Census of 1976 51 Blacks made up 25 of the population of Buenos Aires in 1810 1822 and 1838 In 1887 the government decided to cease asking Argentine citizens about their race According to Laura Lopez it was a way to hide the Black population not only from the Census but also from the public opinion 52 53 Chile does not ask its citizens about race but a study from the University of Chile concluded that Whites make 60 of the Chilean population 54 while the CIA World Factbook described 88 4 of the population as white and mestizo 55 A study conducted on 218 individuals in 2010 by the Argentine geneticist Daniel Corach has established that the genetic map of Argentina is composed by 79 from different European ethnicities mainly Spanish and Italian ethnicities 18 of different indigenous ethnicities and 4 3 of African ethnic groups in which 63 6 of the tested group had at least one ancestor who was Indigenous 56 57 An autosomal DNA study from 2009 found the composition of the Argentine population to be 78 50 European 17 30 Mixed Race and 4 20 Sub Saharan African SSA 56 A DNA study from 2009 published in the American Journal of Human Biology showed the genetical composition of Uruguay to be mainly European but with Native American which varies from 1 to 20 in different parts of the country and also SSA 7 to 15 in different parts of the country 58 An autosomal DNA study from 2014 found out Chile to be 44 34 3 9 Native American 51 85 5 44 European and 3 81 0 45 African 59 In the case of Chile The use of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosome test results show the following The European component is predominant 91 0 versus 9 0 of the aboriginal one in the Chilean upper class 60 the middle classes 66 8 62 3 European component 60 61 and 37 7 33 2 of mixed aboriginal 60 62 and lower classes at 55 52 9 European component 60 61 and 47 1 45 mix of Aboriginal 60 61 Similar to the rest of Latin America the genetic ancestry of the population of the Southern Cone reflects the history of the continent the Iberian colonizers were mostly men who arrived without women In consequence they had children with the local Indigenous or enslaved African women A European immigration to this part of the World in the late 19th and early 20th centuries massive in Argentina Uruguay and south and southeastern Brazil modest in elsewhere in Brazil Chile and Paraguay 28 63 64 brought more European and northern Middle Eastern components to the local population mainly Spaniards in Chile Italians and Spaniards in Argentina and Uruguay Italians in Sao Paulo Italians Germans and Poles in southern Brazil 65 Education and standards of living EditThe other conspicuous characteristic of the Southern Cone is its relatively high standard of living and quality of life Argentina s Chile s and Uruguay s HDIs 0 827 0 847 and 0 804 are the highest in Latin America similar to countries in Eastern Europe such as Hungary Croatia or Romania 66 Uruguay where illiteracy technically does not exist reaches the same level in this area even considering that it faces restrictions to its industrial and economic growth The Southern Cone is the most prosperous macro region in Latin America It has high life expectancy access to health care and education 67 From an economic and liberal point of view the region has been praised for its significant participation in the global markets and its emerging economy profile 67 More troubling are high levels of income inequality 68 Summary of socio economic performance indicators for Latin American countries Country GDP per capita PPP 69 2015 estimates USD Income equality 70 2015 Gini index Human Develop 71 2014 estimates HDI Environmental Perform 72 2014 EPI Failed States Index 73 2014 Lack of Corruption 74 2014 Economic Freedom 2015 Peace 2014 Democracy 75 2010Brazil 15 518 52 7 0 759 H 52 9 64 8 43 56 6 2 073 7 12Central America note 4 10 502 49 7 0 678 M 51 0 68 8 37 62 2 2 058 6 45Mexico 18 714 48 1 0 774 H 55 0 71 1 35 66 4 2 500 6 91South America note 5 11 955 47 5 0 715 H 50 3 76 7 31 55 0 2 233 6 01Southern Cone note 6 22 493 45 2 0 820 VH 57 7 42 4 60 1 648 7 60 7 84 Brazil Central America Costa Rica El Salvador Guatemala Honduras Nicaragua Panama Mexico South America Bolivia Colombia Ecuador Paraguay Peru Venezuela Southern Cone Argentina Chile UruguayPolitics EditSee also Politics of Argentina Politics of Chile and Politics of Uruguay During the second half of 20th century these countries were in some periods ruled by right wing juntas military nationalistic dictatorships Around the 1970s these regimes collaborated in Plan Condor against leftist opposition including urban guerrillas 76 However by the early 1980s Argentina and Uruguay restored their democracies Chile followed suit in 1990 Governments Edit Timeline of presidentsSee also EditNorthern Triangle of Central AmericaNotes Edit Only Parana Rio Grande do Sul Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo are sometimes included a b Sometimes included Spanish and Guarani are co official in Paraguay with the vast majority of the population being bilingual Excluding Belize and Clipperton Island Excluding The Guianas and Bouvet Island Excluding the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands References Edit This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 4 944 081sq km a b Steves F September 2001 Regional Integration and Democratic Consolidation in the Southern Cone of Latin America Democratization 8 3 75 100 doi 10 1080 714000210 S2CID 42956310 Krech III Shepard Merchant Carolyn McNeill John Robert eds 2004 Encyclopedia of World Environmental History 3 O Z Index Routledge pp 1142 ISBN 978 0 415 93735 1 Servicio Meteorologico Nacional smn gov ar Lazcano Luis Climatologia 164 77 222 61 Archived from the original on 2016 09 16 Retrieved 2015 05 25 Mccarthy Justin 27 August 2014 Nearly 3 in 10 Worldwide See Their Areas as Good for Gays Gallup Retrieved 6 January 2021 a b Colantoni Laura Gurlekian Jorge August 2004 Convergence and intonation historical evidence from Buenos Aires Spanish Bilingualism Language and Cognition 7 2 107 119 doi 10 1017 S1366728904001488 S2CID 56111230 Official languages include indigenous Archived 2012 02 20 at the Wayback Machine IPS News Hunsruckish Ethnologue Retrieved 20 July 2015 Standard German Ethnologue Retrieved 20 July 2015 Olivet Second Most Spoken Languages Around the World olivet edu 7 April 2015 Retrieved 29 March 2016 Analysis 19 December 2011 Global Christianity Pew Research Center Retrieved 17 August 2012 Latin American Area Studies Uruguay Archived 2010 07 14 at the Wayback Machine University of Minnesota a b Religion in Latin America Widespread Change in a Historically Catholic Region Pew Research Center 13 November 2014 Retrieved March 4 2015 Stefon Matt Francis Encyclopaedia Britannica Segunda Encuesta Nacional Sobre Creencias y Actitudes Religiosas en Argentina 2019 Population 15 years of age or older by religion region sex and age groups censused population PDF in Spanish 7 September 2015 Archived from the original pdf on 7 February 2017 Retrieved 23 March 2018 a b c d Censo 2010 IBGE a b c d Analise dos Resultados IBGE Censo Demografico 2010 Caracteristicas gerais da populacao religiao e pessoas com deficiencia PDF Population by Country 2021 Worldometer www worldometers info Retrieved 2021 01 29 a b 2018 Human Development Report PDF United Nations Development Programme 2018 Retrieved 14 September 2018 a b Land areas and population estimates are taken from The 2008 World Factbook which currently uses July 2008 data unless otherwise noted a b Departamento de Derecho y Ciencias Politicas de la Universidad Nacional de La Matanza 14 November 2011 Historias de inmigrantes italianos en Argentina in Spanish infouniversidades siu edu ar Se estima que en la actualidad el 90 de la poblacion argentina tiene alguna ascendencia europea y que al menos 25 millones estan relacionados con algun inmigrante de Italia a b c d e Imigracao italiana por Estados e Regioes do Brasil Retrieved 2 December 2014 https web archive org web 20160304093807 http www2 factum edu uy estpol analisis 2001 ana01035 html Parvex R 2014 Le Chili et les mouvements migratoires Hommes amp migrations Nº 1305 2014 doi 10 4000 hommesmigrations 2720 Fernandez Francisco Lizcano 2007 Composicion Etnica de las Tres Areas Culturales del Continente Americano al Comienzo del Siglo XXI in Spanish ISBN 978 970 757 052 8 a b SOCIAL IDENTITY Marta Fierro Social Psychologist Archived February 25 2009 at the Wayback Machine unreliable source in Spanish massive immigration of European Argentina Uruguay Chile Brazil permanent dead link unreliable source Waiss Oscar 1983 La literatura hispanoamericana y el exilio Spanish American literature and exile Anales de Literatura Hispanoamericana in Spanish 12 228 234 Sintese de Indicadores Sociais Uma Analise das Condicoes de Vida da Populacao Brasileira 2010 PDF 15 September 2010 Archived from the original PDF on 4 January 2012 Retrieved 12 July 2014 a b Angel Garcia Miguel 2003 Immigrazione Italiana nell America del Sud Argentina Uruguay e Brasile PDF Archived from the original PDF on 2011 02 21 Levy Maria Stella Ferreira June 1974 O papel da migracao internacional na evolucao da populacao brasileira 1872 a 1972 Revista de Saude Publica 8 49 90 doi 10 1590 S0034 89101974000500003 Archived copy Archived from the original on 2014 06 12 Retrieved 2011 09 19 CS1 maint archived copy as title link O N I Department of Education of Argentina Archived 2008 09 15 at the Wayback Machine Pereira Liesio A capital paulista tem sotaque italiano in Portuguese radiobras gov br Archived from the original on 28 July 2006 Retrieved 10 September 2008 Brazil the Country and its People PDF www brazil org uk Archived from the original PDF on October 21 2014 Retrieved November 26 2014 Pereira Liesio A capital paulista tem sotaque italiano in Portuguese Archived from the original on 2008 06 23 Tudo sobre Sao Paulo SP EncontraSP Archived from the original on March 23 2016 Retrieved March 25 2016 Nova Veneza in Portuguese Archived from the original on August 19 2008 Wilhelm Bleek 2003 Auslandsdeutsche Germans abroad in German German Federal Agency for Civic Education Archived from the original on 2011 03 10 Final da Copa tem torcida especial de descendentes de alemaes e imigrantes argentinos no Estado in Portuguese 2014 Santa Catarina PDF in Portuguese O Estado de S Paulo 2015 Historia de las republicas de la Plata Manuel Gonzalez Llana Arabs In The Andes Chile The Unlikely Long Term Home Of A Large Palestinian Community International Business Times 10 October 2013 Retrieved 7 January 2021 Les Libanais d Uruguay la troisieme communaute du pays apres les Espagnols et les Italiens in French L Orient Le Jour 2008 a b Silvia Ferabolli 25 September 2014 Arab Regionalism A Post Structural Perspective Routledge p 151 ISBN 978 1 317 65803 0 According to estimates by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics IBGE countersigned by the League of Arab States Brazil has the largest Arab colony outside their countries of origin There are estimated 15 million Arabs living in Brazil today with some researchers suggesting numbers around 20 million Inmigracion sirio libanesa en Argentina in Spanish Fearab org ar Archived from the original on 20 June 2010 Retrieved 13 April 2010 Paul Amar 15 July 2014 The Middle East and Brazil Perspectives on the New Global South Indiana University Press p 40 ISBN 978 0 253 01496 2 there are according to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs more than sixteen million Arabs and descendants of Arabs in Brazil constituting the largest community of Arabs descent outside of the Middle East Los palestinos miran con esperanza su futuro en Chile sin olvidar Gaza e Irak El Economista 2009 02 11 retrieved 2009 07 29 Salzano Francisco M 24 July 2014 Interethnic variability and admixture in Latin America social implications Revista de Biologia Tropical 1 2 405 15 doi 10 15517 rbt v1i2 15273 PMID 17361535 Clarin com 2 April 2005 Negros en el pais censan cuantos hay y como viven Cahoon Ben Argentina www worldstatesmen org 5 2 6 Estructura racial La Universidad de Chile Archived from the original on 2007 10 16 Retrieved 2007 08 26 Main page Archived 2009 09 16 at the Wayback Machine The World Factbook Central Intelligence Agency www cia gov a b Corach Daniel Lao Oscar Bobillo Cecilia Van Der Gaag Kristiaan Zuniga Sofia Vermeulen Mark Van Duijn Kate Goedbloed Miriam Vallone Peter M Parson Walther De Knijff Peter Kayser Manfred January 2010 Inferring Continental Ancestry of Argentineans from Autosomal Y Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Genetic Ancestry in Extant Argentineans Annals of Human Genetics 74 1 65 76 doi 10 1111 j 1469 1809 2009 00556 x PMID 20059473 S2CID 5908692 Avena Sergio A Goicoechea Alicia S Rey Jorge Dugoujon Jean M Dejean Cristina B Carnese Francisco R April 2006 Mezcla genica en una muestra poblacional de la ciudad de Buenos Aires Gene mixture in a population sample from Buenos Aires City Medicina Buenos Aires in Spanish 66 2 113 118 PMID 16715758 Bonilla Carolina Bertoni Bernardo Gonzalez Susana Cardoso Horacio Brum Zorrilla Nadir Sans Monica 2004 Substantial native American female contribution to the population of Tacuarembo Uruguay reveals past episodes of sex biased gene flow American Journal of Human Biology 16 3 289 297 doi 10 1002 ajhb 20025 PMID 15101054 S2CID 34341356 Fuentes Macarena Pulgar Ivan Gallo Carla Bortolini Maria Catira Canizales Quinteros Samuel Bedoya Gabriel Gonzalez Jose Rolando Ruiz Linares Andres Rothhammer Francisco March 2014 Geografia genica de Chile Distribucion regional de los aportes geneticos americanos europeos y africanos Gene geography of Chile regional distribution of American European and African genetic contributions Revista medica de Chile in Spanish 142 3 281 289 doi 10 4067 S0034 98872014000300001 PMID 25052264 a b c d e Zemelman Viviana von Beck Petra Alvarado Orlando Valenzuela Carlos Y August 2002 Dimorfismo sexual en la pigmentacion de la piel color de ojos y pelo y presencia de pecas en adolescentes chilenos en dos estratos socioeconomicos Sexual dimorphism in skin eye and hair color and the presence of freckles in Chilean teenagers from two socioeconomic strata Revista medica de Chile in Spanish 130 8 879 84 doi 10 4067 S0034 98872002000800006 PMID 12360796 a b c Acuna M Jorquera H Cifuentes L Armanet L 30 June 2002 Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849 D3S1744 D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors Genetics and Molecular Research 1 2 139 46 hdl 2250 163988 PMID 14963840 M Acuna1 H Jorquera L Cifuentes and L Armanet Frequency of the hypervariable DNA loci D18S849 D3S1744 D12S1090 and D1S80 in a mixed ancestry population of Chilean blood donors CS1 maint multiple names authors list link Juan Bialet Masse en su informe sobre El estado de las clases obreras en el interior del pais Archived September 27 2011 at the Wayback Machine Caribe Comision Economica para America Latina y el 27 October 2014 Etnicidad y ciudadania en America Latina la accion colectiva de los pueblos indigenas www cepal org Archived from the original on 2017 09 01 Retrieved 2016 05 06 Demografia Imigracoes 4 A imigracao alema Passeiweb www passeiweb com Human Development Reports PDF hdr undp org a b 4 September 2006 https web archive org web 20060904085421 http www hiru com es geografia geografia 05000 html Archived from the original on 4 September 2006 Missing or empty title help CS1 maint bot original URL status unknown link Science London School of Economics and Political Department of Economic History PDF World Economic Outlook Database imf org International Monetary Fund October 2014 Retrieved February 15 2015 UNDP UNDP Human Development Report 2015 Update Table 1 Human Development Index Trends PDF Retrieved 2015 12 15 page 25 26 Yale Center for Environmental Law amp Policy Center for International Earth Science Information Network at Columbia University Environmental Performance Index 2014 Archived from the original on 2014 01 26 Retrieved 2015 02 15 Failed States Index Scores 2014 The Fund for Peace 2015 02 15 Archived from the original on February 15 2015 Retrieved 2015 02 15 e V Transparency International How corrupt is your country www transparency org Democracy Index 2010 PDF Retrieved 2011 01 07 Victor Flores Olea Editoriales El Universal 10 de abril 2006 Operacion Condor in Spanish El Universal Mexico Archived from the original on 2007 06 28 Retrieved 2009 03 24 External links Edit Media related to Southern Cone at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern Cone amp oldid 1050442635, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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