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Southern Hemisphere

This article is about the southern half of planet Earth. For use of the term describing astronomical observations, see Southern celestial hemisphere.

The Southern Hemisphere is the half (hemisphere) of Earth that is south of the Equator. It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific), New Zealand and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania. Its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, and it contains 32.7% of Earth's land.

The Southern Hemisphere from above the South Pole
The Southern Hemisphere highlighted in yellow. The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image because Antarctica is not shown and the equator slightly too low, but in reality are the same size.

Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to February (inclusive) and winter is from June to August (inclusive). September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox. The South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region.

Contents

Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic. This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much less land; water heats up and cools down more slowly than land. The differences are also attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping.

Aurora australis appearing in the night sky of Swifts Creek, 100 km (62 mi) north of Lakes Entrance, Victoria, Australia
Aurora australis appearing from Stewart Island / Rakiura in the south of New Zealand

In the Southern Hemisphere, the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday. The Sun follows a right-to-left trajectory through the northern sky unlike the left-to-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun (see, for example, photos with timings of the solar eclipse of November 13, 2012), while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer (i.e., in the Northern Hemisphere), the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses.

The Coriolis effect causes cyclones and tropical storms to spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere (as opposed to anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere).

The southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic.

The Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation as well as both Magellanic Clouds. This, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars.

Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, and New Zealand has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora. The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now also planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production, and increasingly, biofuel uses.

A photo of Earth from Apollo 17 (Blue Marble) with the south pole at the top and the continent of Africa.

More than 800 million people live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing around 10–12% of the total global human population. Of those 800 million people, more than 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 145 million live on the island of Java, the most populous one in the world. The most populous country in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 267 million people (roughly 30 million of whom live north of the Equator on the northern portions of the islands of Sumatra, Borneo, and Sulawesi, as well as the most of North Maluku, while the rest of the population lives in the Southern Hemisphere).[citation needed] Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, with over 230 million speakers in eight countries.

The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are Jakarta (33 million people), São Paulo (22 million), Kinshasa-Brazzaville (17 million), Buenos Aires (16 million), Rio de Janeiro, Surabaya (12 million each), Johannesburg (11 million), Nairobi, Lima (10 million each), Bandung (9 million), Luanda (8 million), Dar es Salaam (7 million), Santiago, Semarang (6 million each), Sydney, Belo Horizonte and Melbourne (5 million each). Important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere include São Paulo, where the B3 (stock exchange) is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, Jakarta, seat of the Indonesia Stock Exchange, Johannesburg, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere.

Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere is Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,885 and a Human Development Index (HDI) of 0.944, the eighth-highest in the world as of the 2020 report. New Zealand is also well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,675 and an HDI of 0.931, putting it at number 14 in the world in 2020. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Mozambique and Burundi at the lowest ends of the HDI, at 0.456 (number 181 in the world) and 0.433 (number 185 in the world), respectively. The nominal GDPs per capita of these two countries do not go above US$550, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders.

The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, Southern Africa, Australia and Oceania, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, and Hinduism, which is mostly concentrated on and around the islands of Bali, Mauritius and Lombok.

The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, which was founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. However, some evidence shows that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants off the coast of Tanzania, may be older than Bogor. A Greco-Roman text written between 1 and 100 CE, the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, mentioned the island of Menuthias (Ancient Greek: Μενουθιάς) as a trading port on the east African coast, which is probably the small Tanzanian island of Unguja on which Zanzibar is located. The oldest monumental civilizations in the Southern Hemisphere are the Norte Chico civilization and Casma–Sechin culture from the northern coast of Peru. These civilizations built cities, pyramids, and plazas in the coastal river valleys of northern Peru with some ruins dated back to 3600 BCE.

Continents and submerged continent

Countries and territories

Africa
Entirely
Mostly
Partly
Asia
Entirely
Mostly
Australia
Entirely
South America
Entirely
Mostly
Partly
Indian Ocean
Entirely
Partly
South Atlantic Ocean
Entirely
Partly
Southern Ocean
Entirely
South Pacific Ocean
Entirely
Mostly
  1. The entire continental mainland is wholly within the Northern Hemisphere, only the southern portion of Maritime Southeast Asia, plus the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in the Indian Ocean are in the Southern Hemisphere.
  1. "Hemisphere Map". WorldAtlas. Retrieved13 June 2014.
  2. Life on Earth: A - G.. 1. ABC-CLIO. 2002. p. 528. ISBN 9781576072868. Retrieved8 September 2016.
  3. Granite specific heat = 0.79 and water = 4.18 J/g⋅K see Heat capacity#Table of specific heat capacities.
  4. Kang, Sarah M.; Seager, Richard. "Croll Revisited: Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere?"(PDF). Columbia University.
  5. "Surface Ocean Currents". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved13 June 2014.
  6. "90% Of People Live In The Northern Hemisphere - Business Insider". Business Insider. 4 May 2012. Retrieved10 November 2015.
  7. "GIC - Article". galegroup.com. Retrieved10 November 2015.
  8. "Potencial Económico da Língua Portuguesa"(PDF). University of Coimbra.

Southern Hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere Language Watch Edit This article is about the southern half of planet Earth For use of the term describing astronomical observations see Southern celestial hemisphere The Southern Hemisphere is the half hemisphere of Earth that is south of the Equator It contains all or parts of five continents 1 Antarctica Australia about 90 of South America one third of Africa and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia four oceans Indian South Atlantic Southern and South Pacific New Zealand and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania Its surface is 80 9 water compared with 60 7 water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere and it contains 32 7 of Earth s land 2 The Southern Hemisphere from above the South Pole The Southern Hemisphere highlighted in yellow The hemispheres appear to be unequal in this image because Antarctica is not shown and the equator slightly too low but in reality are the same size Owing to the tilt of Earth s rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane summer is from December to February inclusive and winter is from June to August inclusive September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox The South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region Contents 1 Characteristics 2 Demographics and human geography 3 List of continents and countries 3 1 Continents and submerged continent 3 2 Countries and territories 4 See also 5 Notes 6 References 7 External linksCharacteristics EditSouthern Hemisphere climates tend to be slightly milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere except in the Antarctic which is colder than the Arctic This is because the Southern Hemisphere has significantly more ocean and much less land water heats up and cools down more slowly than land 3 The differences are also attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping 4 Aurora australis appearing in the night sky of Swifts Creek 100 km 62 mi north of Lakes Entrance Victoria Australia Aurora australis appearing from Stewart Island Rakiura in the south of New Zealand In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday The Sun follows a right to left trajectory through the northern sky unlike the left to right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky Sun cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun see for example photos with timings of the solar eclipse of November 13 2012 while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer i e in the Northern Hemisphere the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses The Coriolis effect causes cyclones and tropical storms to spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere as opposed to anticlockwise in the Northern Hemisphere 5 The southern temperate zone a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere is nearly all oceanic The Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation as well as both Magellanic Clouds This combined with clearer skies makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere Both Chile and Australia share for example unique beech species or Nothofagus and New Zealand has members of the closely related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora The eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now also planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and increasingly biofuel uses Demographics and human geography Edit A photo of Earth from Apollo 17 Blue Marble with the south pole at the top and the continent of Africa More than 800 million people live in the Southern Hemisphere representing around 10 12 of the total global human population 6 7 Of those 800 million people more than 200 million live in Brazil the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere while 145 million live on the island of Java the most populous one in the world The most populous country in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia with 267 million people roughly 30 million of whom live north of the Equator on the northern portions of the islands of Sumatra Borneo and Sulawesi as well as the most of North Maluku while the rest of the population lives in the Southern Hemisphere citation needed Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere with over 230 million speakers in eight countries 8 The largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are Jakarta 33 million people Sao Paulo 22 million Kinshasa Brazzaville 17 million Buenos Aires 16 million Rio de Janeiro Surabaya 12 million each Johannesburg 11 million Nairobi Lima 10 million each Bandung 9 million Luanda 8 million Dar es Salaam 7 million Santiago Semarang 6 million each Sydney Belo Horizonte and Melbourne 5 million each Important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere include Sao Paulo where the B3 stock exchange is headquartered along with Sydney home to the Australian Securities Exchange Jakarta seat of the Indonesia Stock Exchange Johannesburg home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Buenos Aires headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere is Australia with a nominal GDP per capita of US 51 885 and a Human Development Index HDI of 0 944 the eighth highest in the world as of the 2020 report New Zealand is also well developed with a nominal GDP per capita of US 38 675 and an HDI of 0 931 putting it at number 14 in the world in 2020 The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania with Mozambique and Burundi at the lowest ends of the HDI at 0 456 number 181 in the world and 0 433 number 185 in the world respectively The nominal GDPs per capita of these two countries do not go above US 550 a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America Southern Africa Australia and Oceania followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa and Hinduism which is mostly concentrated on and around the islands of Bali Mauritius and Lombok The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor in western Java which was founded in 669 CE Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded However some evidence shows that Zanzibar an ancient port with around 200 000 inhabitants off the coast of Tanzania may be older than Bogor A Greco Roman text written between 1 and 100 CE the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea mentioned the island of Menuthias Ancient Greek Menoy8ias as a trading port on the east African coast which is probably the small Tanzanian island of Unguja on which Zanzibar is located The oldest monumental civilizations in the Southern Hemisphere are the Norte Chico civilization and Casma Sechin culture from the northern coast of Peru These civilizations built cities pyramids and plazas in the coastal river valleys of northern Peru with some ruins dated back to 3600 BCE List of continents and countries EditContinents and submerged continent Edit Africa about one third from south of Mogadishu in Somalia in the east to south of Libreville in Gabon in the west From the Equator Latitude 0 to Cape Agulhas Latitude 34 50 S Antarctica the entire continent and its associated islands are wholly within the Southern Hemisphere From Prime Head at the northern tip of the Trinity Peninsula Latitude 63 12 48 S to the South Pole Latitude 90 S Asia only the southern portion of Maritime Southeast Asia including East Timor and most of Indonesia plus the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in the Indian Ocean The entire continental mainland is wholly within the Northern Hemisphere From the Equator Latitude 0 to Pamana Island Indonesia Latitude 11 00 S or when Cocos Islands included as part of Southeast Asia then South Island Latitude 12 04 S Australia the entire continent and its associated islands such as Tasmania and New Guinea are wholly within the Southern Hemisphere From the Equator Latitude 0 to Bishop and Clerk Islets Tasmania Australia Latitude 55 03 S South America mostly from south of the Amazon River mouth in Brazil in the east to north of Quito in Ecuador in the west From the Equator Latitude 0 to Aguila Islet Diego Ramirez Islands Chile Latitude 56 32 16 S or if the South Sandwich Islands are included as part of South America Cook Island South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Latitude 59 29 20 S Zealandia the entire submerged continent including New Caledonia New Zealand Norfolk Island and other associated low lying islands above sea level is wholly within the Southern Hemisphere From Belep New Caledonia France Latitude 19 45 00 S to Jacquemart Island Latitude 52 37 S Countries and territories Edit Africa EntirelyAngola Botswana Burundi Eswatini Lesotho Malawi Mozambique Namibia Rwanda South Africa Tanzania Zambia ZimbabweMostlyDemocratic Republic of the Congo Gabon Republic of the CongoPartlyKenya Somalia UgandaAsia note 1 EntirelyEast TimorMostlyIndonesiaAustralia EntirelyAustraliaSouth America EntirelyArgentina Bolivia Chile Paraguay Peru UruguayMostlyBrazil Ecuador Galapagos IslandsPartlyColombia Indian Ocean EntirelyAshmore and Cartier Islands Australia British Indian Ocean Territory Administered by the United Kingdom Claimed by Mauritius Australian Indian Ocean Territories Australia Christmas Island Cocos Keeling Islands Comoros East Timor French Southern Territories France Heard Island and McDonald Islands Australia Madagascar Mauritius Mayotte France Prince Edward Islands South Africa Reunion France SeychellesPartlyMaldivesSouth Atlantic Ocean EntirelyAnnobon Equatorial Guinea Bouvet Island Norway Falkland Islands Islas Malvinas Administered by the United Kingdom Claimed by Argentina Saint Helena Ascension and Tristan da Cunha United Kingdom Ascension Island Saint Helena Tristan da Cunha Gough Island South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Administered by the United Kingdom Claimed by Argentina PartlySao Tome and Principe most of Rolas Island Southern Ocean EntirelyAntarctic islands Balleny Islands Antarctic Treaty signatories Claimed by New Zealand Peter I Island Antarctic Treaty signatories Claimed by Norway South Orkney Islands Antarctic Treaty signatories Claimed by Argentina and the United Kingdom South Shetland Islands Antarctic Treaty signatories Claimed by Argentina Chile and the United Kingdom Mainland AntarcticaSouth Pacific Ocean EntirelyAmerican Samoa United States Cook Islands New Zealand Coral Sea Islands Australia Easter Island Chile Salas and Gomez Island Fiji Rotuma French Polynesia France Tahiti Jarvis Island United States Nauru New Caledonia France New Zealand Niue New Zealand Norfolk Island Australia Papua New Guinea Bougainville Pitcairn Henderson Ducie and Oeno Islands United Kingdom Samoa Solomon Islands Tokelau New Zealand Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu Wallis and Futuna France MostlyKiribati Western New Guinea Indonesia Papua West PapuaSee also EditLand and water hemispheresNotes Edit The entire continental mainland is wholly within the Northern Hemisphere only the southern portion of Maritime Southeast Asia plus the British Indian Ocean Territory and two out of 26 atolls of Maldives in the Indian Ocean are in the Southern Hemisphere References Edit Hemisphere Map WorldAtlas Retrieved 13 June 2014 Life on Earth A G 1 ABC CLIO 2002 p 528 ISBN 9781576072868 Retrieved 8 September 2016 Granite specific heat 0 79 and water 4 18 J g K see Heat capacity Table of specific heat capacities Kang Sarah M Seager Richard Croll Revisited Why is the Northern Hemisphere Warmer than the Southern Hemisphere PDF Columbia University Surface Ocean Currents National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Retrieved 13 June 2014 90 Of People Live In The Northern Hemisphere Business Insider Business Insider 4 May 2012 Retrieved 10 November 2015 GIC Article galegroup com Retrieved 10 November 2015 Potencial Economico da Lingua Portuguesa PDF University of Coimbra External links EditSouthern Hemisphere Countries 2021 Media related to Southern Hemisphere at Wikimedia Commons Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern Hemisphere amp oldid 1043472585, wikipedia, wiki, book,

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