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Wikipedia

Southern Leyte

Southern Leyte (Cebuano: Habagatang Leyte; Tagalog: Timog Leyte) is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. Its capital is the city of Maasin. Southern Leyte comprised the third congressional district Leyte until it was made into an independent province in 1959. Southern Leyte includes Limasawa, an island to the south where the first Roman Catholic Mass in Philippine soil is believed to have taken place and thus considered to be the birthplace of Roman Catholicism in the Philippines.

Southern Leyte
Timog Leyte(Filipino)
Province of Southern Leyte
Seal
Location in the Philippines
Coordinates:10°20′N125°05′E /10.33°N 125.08°E /10.33; 125.08Coordinates: 10°20′N125°05′E /10.33°N 125.08°E /10.33; 125.08
CountryPhilippines
RegionEastern Visayas
FoundedMay 22, 1959
CapitalMaasin
Government
• TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan
GovernorDamian G. Mercado
Vice GovernorChristopherson M. Yap
Area
• Total1,798.61 km2 (694.45 sq mi)
Area rank65th out of 81
Highest elevation965 m (3,166 ft)
Population
(2020 census)
• Total429,573
• Rank62nd out of 81
• Density240/km2 (620/sq mi)
• Density rank40th out of 81
Divisions
Independent cities0
Component cities
Municipalities
Barangays500
DistrictsTwo (2) Districts
Time zoneUTC+8 (PHT)
ZIP code
6600–6618
IDD: area code+63 (0)53
ISO 3166 codePH-SLE
Spoken languages
Websitewww.southernleyte.gov.ph

The province ranks as the second least populated in the region. According to the 2020 census, the province has a population of 429,573.

Southern Leyte's geological features created several issues in the province after the flooding of the Subangdaku River and the 2006 mudslide in Guinsaugon. Organizations warned the province it was susceptible to natural occurrences like landslides and floods.[failed verification]

Southern Leyte forms an important part of the inter-island transportation system of the country, with ferries transporting people and goods between Liloan and Surigao del Norte in Mindanao. The province is well known for its quality abaca products and is the country's major producer of abaca fiber.

In September 2017, Representative Roger Mercado authored House Bill 6408, proposing to change the name of the province to Leyte del Sur.

Contents

Precolonial history

This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by . Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(December 2019) ()

The province, being part of Leyte island, is believed to be influenced by Datu Ete, ruler of the historic community of Mairete, meaning Land of Ete, which was centered in Tacloban. The area which is to be Southern Leyte is believed to have been occupied by animist Visayan ethnic groups from Bohol. There is no proof that the indigenous animist Warays of Samar, who at the time occupied northeast Leyte, ever occupied Southern Leyte.

Early settlement

As early as 1898 during the Spanish and American periods, there existed a "sub-province" consisting of the municipalities from Palompon to Hinunangan, with Maasin as the center. Some government offices had already been established in Maasin on the southwestern part of Leyte to govern the area.

Historically, the governing city was the depository of cedula tax collections from Palompon to Hinunangan. This was administered by the office of the Administrado de Hacienda, equivalent to the Provincial Treasurer, a position under the Secretario de Hacienda.

There was also established in Maasin a Court of First Instance, then known as the Promoter Fiscal, where all minor administrative and other cases from Palompon to Hinunangan were heard.

During the Spanish colonization, the province was sparsely populated. The continued raiding of Moro slaves discouraged the province from growing and developing. However, in the 19th century immigrants from adjacent provinces like Bohol and Cebu populated the area.[citation needed]

In 1942, Ruperto Kangleon held a conference in the town of Sogod, when the first meeting attempt in Malitbog, a town to the east, failed due to many leaders staying away. He was trying to unify all guerrillas helping the Philippine Commonwealth troops during World War II.

From 1944 to 1945, the Allied Philippine Commonwealth Army soldiers and Filipino guerrillas attacked the Japanese Imperial forces in an effort to liberate Southern Leyte, and American troops landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944.

Independent province

Due to a change of sovereign powers, all the offices in Maasin except the Fiscal's Office were abolished and reverted to Tacloban, the capital of Leyte. This created a major problem because of the dearth of transportation, the difficulty in managing the affairs of government in Tacloban and the language barrier between the Cebuano-speaking South-westerners and the Waray-speaking North-easterners. The difficulty of managing the entire island from the main city suggested a need to separate the island into two provinces.

At first there was a general movement for a Western Leyte and soon after, many prominent men and leaders rallied behind the movement. Six attempts to pass a law for the division of Leyte were made. On the sixth attempt, then Congressman Nicanor Yñiguez introduced into the House a division law similar in substance to that of the Kangleon Bill, but recognizing the impossibility of creating an East-West Division, he instead opted to make his own district a province.

Abandoning the first bill, Congressman Nicanor Yñiguez presented House Bill No. 1318 proposing a new province of Southern Leyte comprising Third Congressional District of Leyte to include sixteen municipalities, from Maasin to Silago in the mainland, and in the Panaon Island.

The bill became Republic Act 2227 otherwise known as an "Act Creating the Province of Southern Leyte" and was signed into Law by President Carlos P. Garcia on May 22, 1959. On July 1, 1960, Southern Leyte was inaugurated as a province with sixteen municipalities and Maasin as the capital town. Thus, the third District of Leyte became the Province of Southern Leyte and the Lone District of Southern Leyte.

Mudslides

In December 2003, a landslide in San Francisco, Southern Leyte destroyed most of the town, killing 200 people.

2006 Southern Leyte mudslide

On February 17, 2006, several mudslides caused by heavy rains, amounting over 200 cm (79 in), and a minor earthquake destroyed at least one town and many commercial and residential infrastructures, leaving hundreds dead. The municipality of Saint Bernard was one of the worst hit areas with 23 confirmed deaths, up to 200 estimated deaths and another 1,500 missing. Barangay Guinsaugon, a mountain village on the said municipality with 2,500 people, was almost completely destroyed, killing 1,800 of its 1,857 residents. Many rescuers from national and international responded to the incident. However, rescue efforts were greatly hampered by poor road conditions and lack of heavy equipment. Survivors reported also lack of coordination of rescue efforts. The few handful of Guinsaugon citizens which escaped the mudslide were put up in emergency shelters without adequate nutrition and care despite the National Government collecting millions of dollars worth of donations.[citation needed]

Southern Leyte occupies the southern quarter of the island of Leyte. It is bounded by the province of Leyte to the north, by Surigao Strait to the east, Bohol Sea to the south, and Canigao Channel, across from Bohol, to the west. Its total land area is 1,798.61 square kilometres (694.45 sq mi). The central portion of the province is dominated by the Sogod Bay, a long bay that cuts deep into the island.

Topography

A view of Sogod Bay and the town of Sogod

Southern Leyte is characterized by relatively flat lands along the coastal areas where population centers lie, but rugged mountains towards the interior.

The province has inland water features. Based on national data, the province has altogether 93 rivers, including 18 major ones, namely the Amparo River in Macrohon, the Canturing River in Maasin City, the Das-ay and Pondol Rivers in Hinunangan, the Divisoria River in Bontoc, the Hitungao and Lawigan Rivers in Saint Bernard, the Maag River in Silago, and the Subangdaku River in Sogod which is the biggest of all. The province has an inland lake called Lake Danao located in the mountains of San Juan and Anahawan, towns in the eastern region.

Green grass covering mountains in Maasin City

Subangdaku, the province's largest river, created an issue over the area. It can be considered a braided river composed of several channels from near areas that divide and reunite forming an alluvial fan with a very wide floodplain. As such, the river usually became hazardous during typhoons after heavy rains. The river has overflowed, spilling its waters on the low-lying towns of Liloan and San Vicente and destroyed an ongoing flood control project worth millions of pesos. The river meanders along its course, ever changing its way over time. During the time it floods, it destroys every side of its course. In 2001, portions of the road and banks in Barangay San Miguel along the river were destroyed, including part of the Philippine National Road. Local officials blamed the rechannelization and uncontrolled quarrying of gravel and sand at the side of river as the cause of the flood. At a meeting on March 18, 2002, one of the representatives of a government agency alleged that the reason of the incidents of flood and other environmental problems in the river was due to the "Philippine Fault" which caused rocks to rumble down. However, the reason was contended because the fault is a geological feature and environmental problems in the province just occurred that time.

Along with other mountain forms in the province, Mount Nacolod in Hinunangan town has the highest peak with an elevation of 948 metres (3,110 ft) above sea level. Young volcanic rocks are discovered in the terrain areas, which cover the top of the southern mountain ranges of Mount Cabalian in the Pacific Area and Mount Nelangcapan in Panaon Area.

The province lies within the Philippine Fault System. The major fault lines traverse the municipalities of Sogod, Libagon, Saint Bernard and San Juan to Panaon Island. Based on Mines and Geosciences Bureau Region 8 data, these areas had experienced strong earthquakes in 1907 and 1948 with a magnitude of 6.9 and on July 5, 1984, with a 6.4 scale. The Mines and Geosciences Bureau warned that Southern Leyte's natural and geological features make it susceptible to landslides and floodings. The affiliated group stated that there are four contributory reasons: unusually heavy rains; numerous faults and badly broken rocks; steep slopes; and absence of effective vegetative cover.

The province has numerous types of soil. Soil types within the Maasin Clay, Guimbalaon Clay, Himay-angan Clay, Bolinao Clay, Quingua Clay and Malitbog Clay series serve as raw materials for ceramics and pottery made by local residents.[citation needed]

Climate

Southern Leyte has two types of climate according to the Coronas Classification. These are Type II and Type IV.

Type II is characterized by the absence of dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period occurring from November to January. This type prevails in the eastern half of the province that includes the municipality of Sogod, Libagon, Liloan, San Francisco, Pintuyan, San Ricardo, Saint Bernard, San Juan, Anahawan, Hinundayan, Hinunangan and Silago. On the other hand, Type IV has a rainfall that is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year. This type prevails in the western part of the province that includes the City of Maasin and the municipalities of Macrohon, Padre Burgos, Limasawa, Malitbog, Tomas Oppus, Bontoc and little part of Sogod.

In 2004, the province recorded a maximum temperature of 30.95 °C (87.71 °F) and a minimum temperature of 24.09 °C (75.36 °F). In addition, mean minimum temperature was 25.24 °C (77.43 °F). The province has 163 rainy days per year and total rainfall of 1,729.20 millimetres (68.079 in).

Vegetation and biodiversity

A bluespotted stingray seen in the coasts of the province

Inhabitants of the province plant rice, white corn, bananas, root crops, sugar cane, coconut and abacá. They also plant various types of vegetables.

A three-year project was established in Sogod Bay conducted by the Southern Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project (SLCRCP) to surveyed coral reefs in the area. The undertaking was to provide local residents educational opportunities to have knowledge on protecting the province's biodiversity as well as to have a long-term sustainability.

Administrative divisions

Southern Leyte is subdivided into 18 municipalities and 1 city, all encompassed by a double legislative districts and further subdivided into 500 barangays.

The province originally comprised 16 municipalities and 349 barangays, with four islands: Panaon Island, Limasawa Island, San Pedro Island and San Pablo Island. After the inauguration of the province, three more municipalities were subsequently created: San Ricardo from Pintuyan, Tomas Oppus from Malitbog and Limasawa from Padre Burgos.

In 2000, Maasin was converted into a city as capital of Southern Leyte. The remaining component municipality classes ranges from 2nd to 5th level in the province. From 2nd class belongs Sogod municipality which is the center of trade, commerce and industry among municipalities within the Sogod Bay. Hinunangan, which holds the distinction as the "Rice Granary of the Province" for its vast plain land that is entirely planted with rice, Liloan, Malitbog, Saint Bernard, and Macrohon, are in the 4th level. The remaining municipalities—Anahawan, Hinundayan, Libagon, Padre Burgos, Pintuyan, San Francisco, San Juan (formerly Cabalian), San Ricardo, Silago, Tomas Oppus and Limasawa, a component island to the south—are under 5th level.

Political divisions
Cityor municipality Population ±% p.a. Area Density(2015) Barangay
(2015) (2010) km2 sqmi /km2 /sqmi
10°16′26″N125°15′28″E /10.2740°N 125.2578°E /10.2740; 125.2578 (Anahawan) Anahawan 1.9% 8,211 7,942 +0.64% 58.09 22.43 140 360 14
10°21′21″N124°58′09″E /10.3559°N 124.9693°E /10.3559; 124.9693 (Bontoc) Bontoc 6.9% 28,905 28,079 +0.55% 102.10 39.42 280 730 40
10°23′41″N125°11′55″E /10.3946°N 125.1985°E /10.3946; 125.1985 (Hinunangan) Hinunangan 7.1% 29,976 28,415 +1.02% 170.58 65.86 180 470 40
10°21′04″N125°15′04″E /10.3511°N 125.2510°E /10.3511; 125.2510 (Hinundayan) Hinundayan 2.9% 12,285 11,890 +0.62% 59.90 23.13 210 540 17
10°17′48″N125°03′02″E /10.2968°N 125.0505°E /10.2968; 125.0505 (Libagon) Libagon 3.6% 15,169 14,352 +1.06% 98.62 38.08 150 390 14
10°09′29″N125°07′31″E /10.1581°N 125.1253°E /10.1581; 125.1253 (Liloan) Liloan 5.7% 23,981 22,817 +0.95% 50.30 19.42 480 1,200 24
9°55′27″N125°04′28″E /9.9243°N 125.0744°E /9.9243; 125.0744 (Limasawa) Limasawa 1.4% 6,061 5,835 +0.73% 6.98 2.69 870 2,300 6
10°08′01″N124°50′46″E /10.1335°N 124.8460°E /10.1335; 124.8460 (Maasin) Maasin 20.3% 85,560 81,250 +0.99% 211.71 81.74 400 1,000 70
10°04′36″N124°56′24″E /10.0766°N 124.9401°E /10.0766; 124.9401 (Macrohon) Macrohon 6.2% 26,244 25,386 +0.63% 126.39 48.80 210 540 30
10°09′29″N125°00′04″E /10.1581°N 125.0012°E /10.1581; 125.0012 (Malitbog) Malitbog 5.4% 22,923 22,009 +0.78% 74.97 28.95 310 800 37
10°01′47″N125°01′01″E /10.0296°N 125.0170°E /10.0296; 125.0170 (Padre Burgos) Padre Burgos 2.6% 11,091 10,525 +1.00% 25.65 9.90 430 1,100 11
9°56′41″N125°14′57″E /9.9446°N 125.2492°E /9.9446; 125.2492 (Pintuyan) Pintuyan 2.3% 9,826 9,261 +1.13% 36.98 14.28 270 700 23
10°16′48″N125°08′18″E /10.2801°N 125.1383°E /10.2801; 125.1383 (Saint Bernard) Saint Bernard 6.7% 28,395 25,169 +2.32% 100.20 38.69 280 730 30
10°03′27″N125°09′27″E /10.0575°N 125.1576°E /10.0575; 125.1576 (San Francisco) San Francisco 3.2% 13,402 12,528 +1.29% 68.60 26.49 200 520 22
10°15′51″N125°10′25″E /10.2641°N 125.1735°E /10.2641; 125.1735 (San Juan) San Juan(Cabalian) 3.5% 14,858 14,073 +1.04% 96.12 37.11 150 390 18
9°54′47″N125°16′35″E /9.9130°N 125.2763°E /9.9130; 125.2763 (San Ricardo) San Ricardo 2.5% 10,494 10,078 +0.77% 47.56 18.36 220 570 15
10°31′42″N125°09′46″E /10.5284°N 125.1627°E /10.5284; 125.1627 (Silago) Silago 3.0% 12,775 12,310 +0.71% 215.05 83.03 59 150 15
10°23′08″N124°58′50″E /10.3856°N 124.9806°E /10.3856; 124.9806 (Sogod) Sogod 10.7% 44,986 41,411 +1.59% 192.70 74.40 230 600 45
10°15′17″N124°59′08″E /10.2548°N 124.9856°E /10.2548; 124.9856 (Tomas Oppus) Tomas Oppus 3.9% 16,608 15,807 +0.95% 56.11 21.66 300 780 29
Total 421,750 399,137 +1.05% 1,798.61 694.45 230 600 500
Provincial capital and component city Municipality
  1. Former names are italicized.
  2. The globe icon marks the city/town center.

A graphical presentation of Southern Leyte's 1903–2000 population depicting the negative growth rate in 1999‑2000 records
Population census of Southern Leyte
YearPop.±% p.a.
1903 72,369
1918 121,871+3.54%
1939 172,552+1.67%
1948 187,581+0.93%
1960 209,608+0.93%
1970 251,425+1.83%
1975 276,418+1.92%
1980 296,294+1.40%
1990 321,940+0.83%
1995 317,565−0.26%
2000 360,160+2.73%
2007 390,847+1.13%
2010 399,137+0.77%
2015 421,750+1.06%
2020 429,573+0.36%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

The population of Southern Leyte in the 2020 census was 429,573 people, with a density of 240 inhabitants per square kilometre or 620 inhabitants per square mile.

The 1980 national census recorded the province of Southern Leyte with a population of 296,294 from the historic record in 1903 of 72,369. In 1990, the population of the province increased to 321,940 which was caused by in-migration and increasing rate of birth over death. In 2000, population increased to 360,160 with a rate of 2.73 from the negative growth rate recorded in 1995 period with 317,565. The sudden decrease of the 1995 records was due to the late census in the province. While regular censuses were done in May where most of the students were at their respective places of residence, in 1995 the census on population was done in September where the students were out for schooling in nearby provinces. The decrease in population was also, theoretically, attributed to out-migration of the rural population to cities to seek better employment and livelihood opportunities. A corresponding increase on the number of households was also recorded at 72,894 households higher by 7,327 households over the 1995 figure. Southern Leyte ranked fifth in terms of population among the six provinces in Eastern Visayas with 9.98 percent of the 3.6 million persons of the region. On the contrary, it was the fastest-growing province in the region. At the national level, the province contributed 0.47 percent to the total population of the Philippines with 76.5 million.

Ethnicity

Population by ethnicity (2000)
Ethnicity Number
Bisaya
290,460(80.74%)
Boholano
45,458(12.64%)
Cebuano
18,543(5.15%)
Waray
711(0.20%)
Tagalog
536(0.15%)

Others
2,689(0.75%)
Other foreign ethnicity
76(0.02%)
Not Reported
1,265(0.35%)

According to the 2000 census survey, of the total provincial population of 359,738, about80.74% (290,460) were Bisaya,12.64% (45,458) Boholano,5.15% (18,543) Cebuano,0.2% (711) Tagalogs, and0.15% (536) Waray.

In Panaon, an island situated in the southernmost part of the province, a certain aboriginal folk are found locally known as kongking or variously called mamanwa which means "mountain people". They were believed to be migrants from Mindanao, inhabiting the portions of Agusan, after their migration from the island to evade militarization and the logging/mining corporations’ intrusion to their ancestral domains in the early 1980s. They have a dark complexion and curly hair, and they are short in stature. Hunting and gathering, mat weaving and rattan craft are among the main economic activities of the Mamanwas, so they prefer to inhabit the forested areas in the newfound Southern Leyte mountains. However, they were again displaced by the recent landslides in the province.

Language

The native language is a Boholano dialect variant of Cebuano. Waray is sometimes spoken (concentrated in some barrios near Waray speaking towns such as Abuyog and Mahaplag), while Tagalog and English are used as second languages. Kinabalian, a type of "rare, unique language", is spoken alongside Cebuano in the towns of San Juan and Anahawan.

Religion

Our Lady of Assumption Cathedral in Maasin City

Limasawa, an island municipality to the south, is believed to be the site of the first Christian mass in Philippine soil and the birthplace of Christianity in the Philippines, when Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator and explorer landed on March 28, 1521. The first Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was held on March 31, 1521, led by Friar Pedro de Valderrama, the chaplain of Ferdinand Magellan during the expedition. The mass marked the start of Christian propagation.

Beliefs

Although most people are Christians, a very few who live in remote villages of the province hold on to pre-Hispanic influences and make offerings and sacrifices before planting their crops. Farmers ritually sacrifice chickens and pigs to ensure that the spirits or elementals which they believe to be the cause of good harvest will grant them one.

Religious events

Fiesta, a Spanish term meaning "festivity", is celebrated in the province with prayer, food, drinking, dance and music. Every barangay of every town in the province has its own celebration date. For instance, Hinunangan celebrates a town fiesta on the 29 June with the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Fluvial boat parade the day before. The kuratsa – a courtship dance-drama – highlights every occasion.

The province also holds its own festivals. "Sinulog sa malitbog" is an annual religious street pageant in Malitbog to pay homage to the Holy Child Jesus (Santo Niño), the town's patron saint. Similarly, the historic and religious coming of the Spaniards is commemorated every 31 March in Limasawa with a cultural presentation and anniversary program dubbed "Sinugdan", meaning "beginning." Other festivals held in the province to highlight events are the Pagkamugna Festival and Pabulhon Festival in Maasin City, Karomata Festival in Beunavista, Pintuyan, Tangka-tangka Festival in Tangkaan, Padre Burgos and Manha‑on Festival in Macrohon.

Poverty Incidence of Southern Leyte
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority

Farming

Coconut

Most of the people in Southern Leyte go into coconut planting, a widely distributed industry, especially in mountainous and even plain regions. The GIZ of the German Development Cooperation has embarked on a value chain study on one of the most important products in Region 8 – the coconut, particularly in Leyte and Southern Leyte.

In the year 2004, a beetle pest threatened the Philippine coconut industry including Visayas. Brontispa longissima causes great damage to seedlings and mature coconut trees and ornamental palms, killing the young spears and eventually the entire trees.

Abaca

People in Southern Leyte also go into abaca planting. The province is one of the major producer of abaca fiber in the country along with Catanduanes, Leyte, Davao Oriental, Northern Samar, Sorsogon, Sulu, Davao del Sur, and Surigao del Sur. The fibers from Leyte and the province are recognized as having the best quality. On the year 1990 to 1999, Southern Leyte produced abaca with a rate of 17 percent.

In 2003, Abaca bunchy top virus threatened the abaca industry in the province. Almost all of the abaca-producing municipalities in the area namely Maasin City, Padre Burgos, Malitbog, Tomas Oppus, Bontoc, Sogod, St. Bernard, San Juan, Hinunangan and Silago were greatly affected by the deadly virus except from the municipalities at Panaon Island. Eighty percent of the province's abaca, particularly in Sogod town, was greatly affected while Maasin City was estimated to suffer about 30 percent in damages.

Tourism

Some 200,000 tourists visit Southern Leyte each year.[citation needed]

Domestic tourism is mostly those wishing to enjoy the sandy beaches, hotels and resorts along the coastline. Significant numbers also visit for religious festivals such as Sinulog and Limasawa

Most international travellers visit Southern Leyte for reef diving and snorkeling, from just outside Maasin City, all the way around Sogod Bay via Padre Burgos. There are also an increasing number of non-divers who come to see the whale sharks between October and April.

In recent years[when?] there has been a drive to promote tourism in the region.[citation needed] There is a new Zoo and Wildlife Park in Barangay Danao in Maasin City. Not far from Sogod is a zip line over the tallest bridge[vague] in the Philippines.

With this increase in numbers, there are a selection of new[when?] hotels along the coast.

Parks

  • Napantao Marine Sanctuary
  • Puting Buhangin Island
  • Banahaw Cold Spring

Beaches

  • Santa Sofia Beach
  • Bituon Beach
  • Silago Beach
  • Tangkaan Beach

Landmarks

Industries

Abaca fiber helps livelihood in the province. Women in the selected areas go into abaca-based handicrafts, which is widely known in the area as tagak or spooled abaca fiber. Natives usually called it as tinagak or continuous spooled abaca fiber. The half-finished product is then made into sinamay or hand woven clothe out of tinagak ready to be made into other sinamay‑based products. Products are being exported by Leyte to Japan. Because of a wide distribution of an industry called tagak, provincial sectors taught farmers on how to cultivate a suitable variety locally called laylay.

In Bontoc, a project was successfully established with a mudcrab hatchery with eleven hatchery tanks at the RKKMAFTI Compound. Initially, 25 spawners are being worked-on by the project.

Aside from abaca-based products, ceramics and handicraft items made from coconut and bamboo are also the province's industry. Among the province's economic activities are fishing, livestock and poultry raising.

Generally, rice is the staple food of the province, and corn is also used. Mountain‑living folks, however, prefer root crops, which are abundant. Native delicacies of the province include tres marias, bocarillo, 'salvaro, bibingka, and starhoy. They also have their own kinilaw.

Communication

Postal communication is the main mode of communication in the province. There are five telephone exchange companies operating in the province and two radio stations. These two radio stations (Radio Natin and DYSL) are located in Sogod.[citation needed]

Transportation

The road network of Southern Leyte consists of major arterial highways that link the province to Leyte, passing through two major outlets. On the western part is theMaasin-Mahaplag-Baybay and the central part by the Mahaplag‑Sogod road via the Maharlika Highway. On the eastern part of the province, the opening of the new[when?] AbuyogSilago Roads provides fast and convenient travel to the eastern towns of Southern Leyte. Maharlika road contributes to the development of the province.

There are six designated bus terminals in Southern Leyte: Maasin, Liloan, Sogod, San Juan, Hinunangan and Silago. However, these terminals are open spaces used by buses as parking areas and are therefore not equipped with buildings and other facilities.

The province has only one existing airport that is located in Panan‑awan in Maasin.

Southern Leyte has a total of 11 seaports, two of which are declared as national ports, the Maasin and Liloan ports, and the 10 are municipal ports. Of these 10 ports, five are operational: Maasin, Liloan, Saint Bernard, San Juan and Sogod. By sea, travel to Cebu from Maasin port takes an average of six hours and a maximum of two hours. A ferryboat from Liloan to Surigao takes three hours.

Southern Leyte has one existing airport, Panan-awan Airport located in Maasin City. At present,[when?] however, the airport does not service any commercial flight. It has no terminal and can only accommodate aircraft for general aviation weighing 12,000 pounds (5,400 kg) and below at daytime. It is considered a feeder airport with a total runway length of 1,200 metres (3,900 ft) and width of 30 metres (98 ft).[citation needed]

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Southern Leyte
Southern Leyte Language Watch Edit Southern Leyte Cebuano Habagatang Leyte Tagalog Timog Leyte 3 is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region Its capital is the city of Maasin Southern Leyte comprised the third congressional district Leyte until it was made into an independent province in 1959 Southern Leyte includes Limasawa an island to the south where the first Roman Catholic Mass in Philippine soil is believed to have taken place and thus considered to be the birthplace of Roman Catholicism in the Philippines 4 Southern Leyte Timog Leyte Filipino ProvinceProvince of Southern LeyteFlagSealLocation in the PhilippinesCoordinates 10 20 N 125 05 E 10 33 N 125 08 E 10 33 125 08 Coordinates 10 20 N 125 05 E 10 33 N 125 08 E 10 33 125 08CountryPhilippinesRegionEastern VisayasFoundedMay 22 1959CapitalMaasinGovernment TypeSangguniang Panlalawigan GovernorDamian G Mercado Vice GovernorChristopherson M YapArea 1 Total1 798 61 km2 694 45 sq mi Area rank65th out of 81Highest elevation Mount Bitanjuan 965 m 3 166 ft Population 2020 census 2 Total429 573 Rank62nd out of 81 Density240 km2 620 sq mi Density rank40th out of 81Divisions Independent cities0 Component cities1 Maasin Municipalities18 AnahawanBontocHinunanganHinundayanLibagonLiloanLimasawaMacrohonMalitbogPadre BurgosPintuyanSaint BernardSan FranciscoSan JuanSan RicardoSilagoSogodTomas Oppus Barangays500 DistrictsTwo 2 DistrictsTime zoneUTC 8 PHT ZIP code6600 6618IDD area code 63 0 53ISO 3166 codePH SLESpoken languagesCebuanoWarayBaybayanonKinabalianTagalogEnglishWebsitewww wbr southernleyte wbr gov wbr ph The province ranks as the second least populated in the region According to the 2020 census the province has a population of 429 573 5 Southern Leyte s geological features created several issues in the province after the flooding of the Subangdaku River and the 2006 mudslide in Guinsaugon Organizations warned the province it was susceptible to natural occurrences like landslides and floods 6 failed verification Southern Leyte forms an important part of the inter island transportation system of the country with ferries transporting people and goods between Liloan and Surigao del Norte in Mindanao The province is well known for its quality abaca products and is the country s major producer of abaca fiber In September 2017 Representative Roger Mercado authored House Bill 6408 proposing to change the name of the province to Leyte del Sur 7 Contents 1 History 1 1 Precolonial history 1 2 Early settlement 1 3 Independent province 1 4 Mudslides 2 Geography 2 1 Topography 2 2 Climate 2 3 Vegetation and biodiversity 2 4 Administrative divisions 3 Demographics 3 1 Ethnicity 3 2 Language 3 3 Religion 4 Culture 4 1 Beliefs 4 2 Religious events 5 Economy 5 1 Farming 5 1 1 Coconut 5 1 2 Abaca 5 2 Tourism 5 2 1 Parks 5 2 2 Beaches 5 2 3 Landmarks 5 3 Industries 5 4 Communication 5 5 Transportation 6 Colleges and universities 7 References 8 External linksHistory EditPrecolonial history Edit This section does not cite any sources Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources Unsourced material may be challenged and removed December 2019 Learn how and when to remove this template message The province being part of Leyte island is believed to be influenced by Datu Ete ruler of the historic community of Mairete meaning Land of Ete which was centered in Tacloban The area which is to be Southern Leyte is believed to have been occupied by animist Visayan ethnic groups from Bohol There is no proof that the indigenous animist Warays of Samar who at the time occupied northeast Leyte ever occupied Southern Leyte Early settlement Edit As early as 1898 during the Spanish and American periods there existed a sub province consisting of the municipalities from Palompon to Hinunangan with Maasin as the center Some government offices had already been established in Maasin on the southwestern part of Leyte to govern the area 8 Historically the governing city was the depository of cedula tax collections from Palompon to Hinunangan This was administered by the office of the Administrado de Hacienda equivalent to the Provincial Treasurer a position under the Secretario de Hacienda There was also established in Maasin a Court of First Instance then known as the Promoter Fiscal where all minor administrative and other cases from Palompon to Hinunangan were heard 9 During the Spanish colonization the province was sparsely populated The continued raiding of Moro slaves discouraged the province from growing and developing However in the 19th century immigrants from adjacent provinces like Bohol and Cebu populated the area citation needed In 1942 Ruperto Kangleon held a conference in the town of Sogod when the first meeting attempt in Malitbog a town to the east failed due to many leaders staying away He was trying to unify all guerrillas helping the Philippine Commonwealth troops during World War II 10 From 1944 to 1945 the Allied Philippine Commonwealth Army soldiers and Filipino guerrillas attacked the Japanese Imperial forces in an effort to liberate Southern Leyte and American troops landed on Leyte on October 20 1944 Independent province Edit Due to a change of sovereign powers all the offices in Maasin except the Fiscal s Office were abolished and reverted to Tacloban the capital of Leyte This created a major problem because of the dearth of transportation the difficulty in managing the affairs of government in Tacloban and the language barrier between the Cebuano speaking South westerners and the Waray speaking North easterners The difficulty of managing the entire island from the main city suggested a need to separate the island into two provinces At first there was a general movement for a Western Leyte and soon after many prominent men and leaders rallied behind the movement Six attempts to pass a law for the division of Leyte were made On the sixth attempt then Congressman Nicanor Yniguez introduced into the House a division law similar in substance to that of the Kangleon Bill but recognizing the impossibility of creating an East West Division he instead opted to make his own district a province Abandoning the first bill Congressman Nicanor Yniguez presented House Bill No 1318 proposing a new province of Southern Leyte comprising Third Congressional District of Leyte to include sixteen municipalities from Maasin to Silago in the mainland and in the Panaon Island The bill became Republic Act 2227 otherwise known as an Act Creating the Province of Southern Leyte and was signed into Law by President Carlos P Garcia on May 22 1959 11 On July 1 1960 Southern Leyte was inaugurated as a province with sixteen municipalities and Maasin as the capital town Thus the third District of Leyte became the Province of Southern Leyte and the Lone District of Southern Leyte 8 9 Mudslides Edit In December 2003 a landslide in San Francisco Southern Leyte destroyed most of the town killing 200 people 12 13 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide Main article 2006 Southern Leyte mudslide On February 17 2006 several mudslides caused by heavy rains amounting over 200 cm 79 in and a minor earthquake destroyed at least one town and many commercial and residential infrastructures leaving hundreds dead The municipality of Saint Bernard was one of the worst hit areas with 23 confirmed deaths up to 200 estimated deaths and another 1 500 missing Barangay Guinsaugon a mountain village on the said municipality with 2 500 people was almost completely destroyed killing 1 800 of its 1 857 residents Many rescuers from national and international responded to the incident However rescue efforts were greatly hampered by poor road conditions and lack of heavy equipment Survivors reported also lack of coordination of rescue efforts The few handful of Guinsaugon citizens which escaped the mudslide were put up in emergency shelters without adequate nutrition and care despite the National Government collecting millions of dollars worth of donations citation needed Geography EditSouthern Leyte occupies the southern quarter of the island of Leyte It is bounded by the province of Leyte to the north by Surigao Strait to the east Bohol Sea to the south and Canigao Channel across from Bohol to the west Its total land area is 1 798 61 square kilometres 694 45 sq mi 14 The central portion of the province is dominated by the Sogod Bay a long bay that cuts deep into the island Topography Edit A view of Sogod Bay and the town of Sogod Southern Leyte is characterized by relatively flat lands along the coastal areas where population centers lie but rugged mountains towards the interior The province has inland water features Based on national data the province has altogether 93 rivers including 18 major ones namely the Amparo River in Macrohon the Canturing River in Maasin City the Das ay and Pondol Rivers in Hinunangan the Divisoria River in Bontoc the Hitungao and Lawigan Rivers in Saint Bernard the Maag River in Silago and the Subangdaku River in Sogod which is the biggest of all 15 The province has an inland lake called Lake Danao located in the mountains of San Juan and Anahawan towns in the eastern region Green grass covering mountains in Maasin City Subangdaku the province s largest river created an issue over the area It can be considered a braided river composed of several channels from near areas that divide and reunite forming an alluvial fan with a very wide floodplain As such the river usually became hazardous during typhoons after heavy rains 16 The river has overflowed spilling its waters on the low lying towns of Liloan and San Vicente and destroyed an ongoing flood control project worth millions of pesos 17 The river meanders along its course ever changing its way over time 18 During the time it floods it destroys every side of its course In 2001 portions of the road and banks in Barangay San Miguel along the river were destroyed 16 including part of the Philippine National Road Local officials blamed the rechannelization and uncontrolled quarrying of gravel and sand at the side of river as the cause of the flood 19 At a meeting on March 18 2002 one of the representatives of a government agency alleged that the reason of the incidents of flood and other environmental problems in the river was due to the Philippine Fault which caused rocks to rumble down However the reason was contended because the fault is a geological feature and environmental problems in the province just occurred that time 16 Along with other mountain forms in the province Mount Nacolod in Hinunangan town has the highest peak with an elevation of 948 metres 3 110 ft above sea level Young volcanic rocks are discovered in the terrain areas which cover the top of the southern mountain ranges of Mount Cabalian in the Pacific Area and Mount Nelangcapan in Panaon Area 9 Hinunangan Beach The province lies within the Philippine Fault System The major fault lines traverse the municipalities of Sogod Libagon Saint Bernard and San Juan to Panaon Island Based on Mines and Geosciences Bureau Region 8 data these areas had experienced strong earthquakes in 1907 and 1948 with a magnitude of 6 9 and on July 5 1984 with a 6 4 scale 9 The Mines and Geosciences Bureau warned that Southern Leyte s natural and geological features make it susceptible to landslides and floodings 20 The affiliated group stated that there are four contributory reasons unusually heavy rains numerous faults and badly broken rocks steep slopes and absence of effective vegetative cover 6 The province has numerous types of soil Soil types within the Maasin Clay Guimbalaon Clay Himay angan Clay Bolinao Clay Quingua Clay and Malitbog Clay series serve as raw materials for ceramics and pottery made by local residents citation needed Climate Edit Southern Leyte has two types of climate according to the Coronas Classification These are Type II and Type IV Type II is characterized by the absence of dry season with a very pronounced maximum rain period occurring from November to January This type prevails in the eastern half of the province that includes the municipality of Sogod Libagon Liloan San Francisco Pintuyan San Ricardo Saint Bernard San Juan Anahawan Hinundayan Hinunangan and Silago On the other hand Type IV has a rainfall that is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year This type prevails in the western part of the province that includes the City of Maasin and the municipalities of Macrohon Padre Burgos Limasawa Malitbog Tomas Oppus Bontoc and little part of Sogod In 2004 the province recorded a maximum temperature of 30 95 C 87 71 F and a minimum temperature of 24 09 C 75 36 F In addition mean minimum temperature was 25 24 C 77 43 F The province has 163 rainy days per year and total rainfall of 1 729 20 millimetres 68 079 in Vegetation and biodiversity Edit A bluespotted stingray seen in the coasts of the province Inhabitants of the province plant rice white corn bananas root crops sugar cane coconut and abaca 21 They also plant various types of vegetables 22 A three year project was established in Sogod Bay conducted by the Southern Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project SLCRCP to surveyed coral reefs in the area The undertaking was to provide local residents educational opportunities to have knowledge on protecting the province s biodiversity as well as to have a long term sustainability 23 Administrative divisions Edit Southern Leyte is subdivided into 18 municipalities and 1 city all encompassed by a double legislative districts and further subdivided into 500 barangays 14 The province originally comprised 16 municipalities and 349 barangays with four islands Panaon Island Limasawa Island San Pedro Island and San Pablo Island 9 After the inauguration of the province three more municipalities were subsequently created San Ricardo from Pintuyan Tomas Oppus from Malitbog and Limasawa from Padre Burgos In 2000 Maasin was converted into a city as capital of Southern Leyte 24 The remaining component municipality classes ranges from 2nd to 5th level in the province From 2nd class belongs Sogod municipality which is the center of trade commerce and industry among municipalities within the Sogod Bay Hinunangan which holds the distinction as the Rice Granary of the Province for its vast plain land that is entirely planted with rice Liloan Malitbog Saint Bernard and Macrohon are in the 4th level The remaining municipalities Anahawan Hinundayan Libagon Padre Burgos Pintuyan San Francisco San Juan formerly Cabalian San Ricardo Silago Tomas Oppus and Limasawa a component island to the south are under 5th level Political divisions City or municipality i ii Population p a Area 14 Density 2015 Barangay 2015 5 2010 25 km2 sq mi km2 sq mi10 16 26 N 125 15 28 E 10 2740 N 125 2578 E 10 2740 125 2578 Anahawan Anahawan 1 9 8 211 7 942 0 64 58 09 22 43 140 360 1410 21 21 N 124 58 09 E 10 3559 N 124 9693 E 10 3559 124 9693 Bontoc Bontoc 6 9 28 905 28 079 0 55 102 10 39 42 280 730 4010 23 41 N 125 11 55 E 10 3946 N 125 1985 E 10 3946 125 1985 Hinunangan Hinunangan 7 1 29 976 28 415 1 02 170 58 65 86 180 470 4010 21 04 N 125 15 04 E 10 3511 N 125 2510 E 10 3511 125 2510 Hinundayan Hinundayan 2 9 12 285 11 890 0 62 59 90 23 13 210 540 1710 17 48 N 125 03 02 E 10 2968 N 125 0505 E 10 2968 125 0505 Libagon Libagon 3 6 15 169 14 352 1 06 98 62 38 08 150 390 1410 09 29 N 125 07 31 E 10 1581 N 125 1253 E 10 1581 125 1253 Liloan Liloan 5 7 23 981 22 817 0 95 50 30 19 42 480 1 200 249 55 27 N 125 04 28 E 9 9243 N 125 0744 E 9 9243 125 0744 Limasawa Limasawa 1 4 6 061 5 835 0 73 6 98 2 69 870 2 300 610 08 01 N 124 50 46 E 10 1335 N 124 8460 E 10 1335 124 8460 Maasin Maasin 20 3 85 560 81 250 0 99 211 71 81 74 400 1 000 7010 04 36 N 124 56 24 E 10 0766 N 124 9401 E 10 0766 124 9401 Macrohon Macrohon 6 2 26 244 25 386 0 63 126 39 48 80 210 540 3010 09 29 N 125 00 04 E 10 1581 N 125 0012 E 10 1581 125 0012 Malitbog Malitbog 5 4 22 923 22 009 0 78 74 97 28 95 310 800 3710 01 47 N 125 01 01 E 10 0296 N 125 0170 E 10 0296 125 0170 Padre Burgos Padre Burgos 2 6 11 091 10 525 1 00 25 65 9 90 430 1 100 119 56 41 N 125 14 57 E 9 9446 N 125 2492 E 9 9446 125 2492 Pintuyan Pintuyan 2 3 9 826 9 261 1 13 36 98 14 28 270 700 2310 16 48 N 125 08 18 E 10 2801 N 125 1383 E 10 2801 125 1383 Saint Bernard Saint Bernard 6 7 28 395 25 169 2 32 100 20 38 69 280 730 3010 03 27 N 125 09 27 E 10 0575 N 125 1576 E 10 0575 125 1576 San Francisco San Francisco 3 2 13 402 12 528 1 29 68 60 26 49 200 520 2210 15 51 N 125 10 25 E 10 2641 N 125 1735 E 10 2641 125 1735 San Juan San Juan Cabalian 3 5 14 858 14 073 1 04 96 12 37 11 150 390 189 54 47 N 125 16 35 E 9 9130 N 125 2763 E 9 9130 125 2763 San Ricardo San Ricardo 2 5 10 494 10 078 0 77 47 56 18 36 220 570 1510 31 42 N 125 09 46 E 10 5284 N 125 1627 E 10 5284 125 1627 Silago Silago 3 0 12 775 12 310 0 71 215 05 83 03 59 150 1510 23 08 N 124 58 50 E 10 3856 N 124 9806 E 10 3856 124 9806 Sogod Sogod 10 7 44 986 41 411 1 59 192 70 74 40 230 600 4510 15 17 N 124 59 08 E 10 2548 N 124 9856 E 10 2548 124 9856 Tomas Oppus Tomas Oppus 3 9 16 608 15 807 0 95 56 11 21 66 300 780 29Total 421 750 399 137 1 05 1 798 61 694 45 230 600 500 Provincial capital and component city Municipality Former names are italicized The globe icon marks the city town center Demographics Edit A graphical presentation of Southern Leyte s 1903 2000 population depicting the negative growth rate in 1999 2000 records Population census of Southern LeyteYearPop p a 190372 369 1918121 871 3 54 1939172 552 1 67 1948187 581 0 93 1960209 608 0 93 1970251 425 1 83 1975276 418 1 92 1980296 294 1 40 1990321 940 0 83 1995317 565 0 26 2000360 160 2 73 2007390 847 1 13 2010399 137 0 77 2015421 750 1 06 2020429 573 0 36 Source Philippine Statistics Authority 5 25 25 The population of Southern Leyte in the 2020 census was 429 573 people 2 with a density of 240 inhabitants per square kilometre or 620 inhabitants per square mile The 1980 national census recorded the province of Southern Leyte with a population of 296 294 from the historic record in 1903 of 72 369 In 1990 the population of the province increased to 321 940 which was caused by in migration and increasing rate of birth over death In 2000 population increased to 360 160 with a rate of 2 73 from the negative growth rate recorded in 1995 period with 317 565 26 The sudden decrease of the 1995 records was due to the late census in the province While regular censuses were done in May where most of the students were at their respective places of residence in 1995 the census on population was done in September where the students were out for schooling in nearby provinces The decrease in population was also theoretically attributed to out migration of the rural population to cities to seek better employment and livelihood opportunities A corresponding increase on the number of households was also recorded at 72 894 households higher by 7 327 households over the 1995 figure Southern Leyte ranked fifth in terms of population among the six provinces in Eastern Visayas with 9 98 percent of the 3 6 million persons of the region On the contrary it was the fastest growing province in the region At the national level the province contributed 0 47 percent to the total population of the Philippines with 76 5 million 26 Ethnicity Edit Population by ethnicity 2000 26 Ethnicity NumberBisaya 290 460 80 74 Boholano 45 458 12 64 Cebuano 18 543 5 15 Waray 711 0 20 Tagalog 536 0 15 Others 2 689 0 75 Other foreign ethnicity 76 0 02 Not Reported 1 265 0 35 According to the 2000 census survey of the total provincial population of 359 738 about 80 74 290 460 were Bisaya 12 64 45 458 Boholano 5 15 18 543 Cebuano 0 2 711 Tagalogs and 0 15 536 Waray 26 In Panaon an island situated in the southernmost part of the province a certain aboriginal folk are found locally known as kongking or variously called mamanwa which means mountain people 27 They were believed to be migrants from Mindanao inhabiting the portions of Agusan after their migration from the island to evade militarization and the logging mining corporations intrusion to their ancestral domains in the early 1980s 28 29 They have a dark complexion and curly hair and they are short in stature Hunting and gathering mat weaving and rattan craft are among the main economic activities of the Mamanwas so they prefer to inhabit the forested areas in the newfound Southern Leyte mountains However they were again displaced by the recent landslides in the province 28 Language Edit The native language is a Boholano dialect variant of Cebuano Waray is sometimes spoken concentrated in some barrios near Waray speaking towns such as Abuyog and Mahaplag while Tagalog and English are used as second languages Kinabalian a type of rare unique language is spoken alongside Cebuano in the towns of San Juan and Anahawan Religion Edit Our Lady of Assumption Cathedral in Maasin City Limasawa an island municipality to the south is believed to be the site of the first Christian mass in Philippine soil and the birthplace of Christianity in the Philippines when Ferdinand Magellan a Portuguese navigator and explorer landed on March 28 1521 The first Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was held on March 31 1521 led by Friar Pedro de Valderrama the chaplain of Ferdinand Magellan during the expedition The mass marked the start of Christian propagation 30 Culture EditBeliefs Edit Although most people are Christians a very few who live in remote villages of the province hold on to pre Hispanic influences and make offerings and sacrifices before planting their crops Farmers ritually sacrifice chickens and pigs to ensure that the spirits or elementals which they believe to be the cause of good harvest will grant them one 21 Religious events Edit Fiesta a Spanish term meaning festivity is celebrated in the province with prayer food drinking dance and music Every barangay of every town in the province has its own celebration date For instance Hinunangan celebrates a town fiesta on the 29 June with the Saint Peter and Saint Paul Fluvial boat parade the day before 31 The kuratsa a courtship dance drama highlights every occasion 32 The province also holds its own festivals Sinulog sa malitbog is an annual religious street pageant in Malitbog to pay homage to the Holy Child Jesus Santo Nino the town s patron saint Similarly the historic and religious coming of the Spaniards is commemorated every 31 March in Limasawa with a cultural presentation and anniversary program dubbed Sinugdan meaning beginning 33 Other festivals held in the province to highlight events are the Pagkamugna Festival and Pabulhon Festival in Maasin City Karomata Festival in Beunavista Pintuyan Tangka tangka Festival in Tangkaan Padre Burgos and Manha on Festival in Macrohon Economy EditPoverty Incidence of Southern LeyteSource Philippine Statistics Authority 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 Farming Edit Coconut Edit Most of the people in Southern Leyte go into coconut planting a widely distributed industry especially in mountainous and even plain regions The GIZ of the German Development Cooperation has embarked on a value chain study on one of the most important products in Region 8 the coconut particularly in Leyte and Southern Leyte 41 In the year 2004 a beetle pest threatened the Philippine coconut industry including Visayas Brontispa longissima causes great damage to seedlings and mature coconut trees and ornamental palms killing the young spears and eventually the entire trees 42 Abaca Edit People in Southern Leyte also go into abaca planting The province is one of the major producer of abaca fiber in the country along with Catanduanes Leyte Davao Oriental Northern Samar Sorsogon Sulu Davao del Sur and Surigao del Sur The fibers from Leyte and the province are recognized as having the best quality 43 On the year 1990 to 1999 Southern Leyte produced abaca with a rate of 17 percent 44 In 2003 Abaca bunchy top virus threatened the abaca industry in the province Almost all of the abaca producing municipalities in the area namely Maasin City Padre Burgos Malitbog Tomas Oppus Bontoc Sogod St Bernard San Juan Hinunangan and Silago were greatly affected by the deadly virus except from the municipalities at Panaon Island Eighty percent of the province s abaca particularly in Sogod town was greatly affected while Maasin City was estimated to suffer about 30 percent in damages 45 Tourism Edit Some 200 000 tourists visit Southern Leyte each year citation needed Domestic tourism is mostly those wishing to enjoy the sandy beaches hotels and resorts along the coastline Significant numbers also visit for religious festivals such as Sinulog and Limasawa Most international travellers visit Southern Leyte for reef diving and snorkeling from just outside Maasin City all the way around Sogod Bay via Padre Burgos There are also an increasing number of non divers who come to see the whale sharks between October and April In recent years when there has been a drive to promote tourism in the region citation needed There is a new Zoo and Wildlife Park in Barangay Danao in Maasin City Not far from Sogod is a zip line over the tallest bridge vague in the Philippines With this increase in numbers there are a selection of new when hotels along the coast 46 Parks Edit Napantao Marine Sanctuary Puting Buhangin Island Banahaw Cold SpringBeaches Edit Santa Sofia Beach Bituon Beach Silago Beach Tangkaan BeachLandmarks Edit Monte Cueva Shrine Agas Agas Bridge Our Lady of the Assumption Maasin CathedralIndustries Edit Abaca fiber helps livelihood in the province Women in the selected areas go into abaca based handicrafts which is widely known in the area as tagak or spooled abaca fiber Natives usually called it as tinagak or continuous spooled abaca fiber The half finished product is then made into sinamay or hand woven clothe out of tinagak ready to be made into other sinamay based products 47 Products are being exported by Leyte to Japan Because of a wide distribution of an industry called tagak provincial sectors taught farmers on how to cultivate a suitable variety locally called laylay In Bontoc a project was successfully established with a mudcrab hatchery with eleven hatchery tanks at the RKKMAFTI Compound Initially 25 spawners are being worked on by the project 48 Aside from abaca based products ceramics and handicraft items made from coconut and bamboo are also the province s industry Among the province s economic activities are fishing livestock and poultry raising 49 Generally rice is the staple food of the province and corn is also used Mountain living folks however prefer root crops which are abundant Native delicacies of the province include tres marias bocarillo salvaro bibingka andstarhoy They also have their own kinilaw Communication Edit Postal communication is the main mode of communication in the province There are five telephone exchange companies operating in the province and two radio stations These two radio stations Radio Natin and DYSL are located in Sogod citation needed Transportation Edit The road network of Southern Leyte consists of major arterial highways that link the province to Leyte passing through two major outlets On the western part is the Maasin Mahaplag Baybay and the central part by the Mahaplag Sogod road via the Maharlika Highway On the eastern part of the province the opening of the new when Abuyog Silago Roads provides fast and convenient travel to the eastern towns of Southern Leyte Maharlika road contributes to the development of the province There are six designated bus terminals in Southern Leyte Maasin Liloan Sogod San Juan Hinunangan and Silago However these terminals are open spaces used by buses as parking areas and are therefore not equipped with buildings and other facilities The province has only one existing airport that is located in Panan awan in Maasin Southern Leyte has a total of 11 seaports two of which are declared as national ports the Maasin and Liloan ports and the 10 are municipal ports Of these 10 ports five are operational Maasin Liloan Saint Bernard San Juan and Sogod By sea travel to Cebu from Maasin port takes an average of six hours and a maximum of two hours A ferryboat from Liloan to Surigao takes three hours 15 Southern Leyte has one existing airport Panan awan Airport located in Maasin City At present when however the airport does not service any commercial flight It has no terminal and can only accommodate aircraft for general aviation weighing 12 000 pounds 5 400 kg and below at daytime It is considered a feeder airport with a total runway length of 1 200 metres 3 900 ft and width of 30 metres 98 ft citation needed Colleges and universities EditThis section reads like a directory Wikipedia policy generally considers directories in articles to be unencyclopedic and potential spam Please help rewrite it to better conform with the Wikipedia Manual of Style standards on lists If it cannot be properly modified it may be considered for deletion September 2018 Learn how and when to remove this template message College of Maasin Maasin Maasin City College Maasin Saint James College Padre Burgos Saint Joseph College Maasin Saint Thomas Aquinas College Sogod Southern Leyte Business College Maasin Southern Leyte State University Bontoc Campus Southern Leyte State University Hinunangan Campus Southern Leyte State University San Juan Campus Southern Leyte State University Sogod main campus Southern Leyte State University Tomas Oppus Campus STI College Maasin Maasin Christian Academy MaasinReferences Edit List of Provinces PSGC Interactive Makati City Philippines National Statistical Coordination Board Archived from the original on 21 January 2013 Retrieved 2 July 2013 a b Census of Population 2020 Region VIII Eastern Visayas Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 8 July 2021 Mapa ng mga Wika Rehiyon Rehiyon VIII in Tagalog Commission on the Filipino Language Retrieved 23 September 2021 Travel Southern Leyte GlobalPinoy Archived from the original on 10 April 2005 Retrieved 28 July 2016 a b c Census of Population 2015 Region VIII Eastern Visayas Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay PSA Retrieved 20 June 2016 a b Policy and Advocacy Haribon House Bill No 6408 PDF Congress of the Philippines Retrieved 7 May 2018 a b Southern Leyte Attractions Archived from the original on 2003 10 24 Retrieved 2003 10 24 a b c d e The Province of Southern Leyte National Statistical Coordination Board Regional Division VIII Eastern Visayas Archived from the original on 27 January 2008 Retrieved 10 July 2016 Villamor Col Jesus A 1982 They Never Surrender Quezon City Philippines Vera Reyes Inc p 127 Republic Act No 2227 An Act Creating the Province of Southern Leyte The LawPhil Project 22 May 1959 Retrieved 10 January 2016 Landslide tragedy stuns Philippines BBC News 21 December 2003 Retrieved 18 April 2016 Up to 200 people may have died in landslides triggered by heavy rains in the central Philippines officials say 200 feared dead in Philippine landslides The Guardian 22 December 2003 Retrieved 18 April 2016 Rescuers worked with their bare hands and crowbars to dig out victims after the mudslides began on Friday night Officials fear at least 200 people are dead and many more are homeless a b c Province Southern Leyte PSGC Interactive Quezon City Philippines Philippine Statistics Authority Retrieved 8 January 2016 a b Province of Southern Leyte Department of Agriculture Regional Field Unit VIII 2002 Archived from the original on 5 July 2004 Retrieved 28 July 2016 a b c Regis Emelina G 21 March 2002 Stop Quarrying and Rechanneling Subang Daku of Sogod Southern Leyte Sogod Bay Geocities Archived from the original on 26 October 2009 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Tornado destroys village 50 die in Southern Leyte Samar News Philippine News Service 21 December 2003 Archived from the original on 4 March 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 PIA Information Services Philippine Information Agency Archived February 10 2008 at the Wayback Machine Veridiano Ben M 21 December 2003 Landslides kill 200 in SLeyte Manila Standard Today AP Reuters Archived from the original on 9 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Geologists had warned on Leyte mudslide danger Taipei Times 19 February 2006 Archived from the original on 27 June 2006 Retrieved 28 July 2016 a b The Provincial Profile of Southern Leyte Philippine Provincial Profile Geocities Archived from the original on 25 September 2004 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Quilantang Chichi K The potential of Southern Leyte s Vegetable Industry Deutscher Entwicklungsdienst Archived from the original on 21 August 2006 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Southern Leyte Coral Reef Conservation Project July 2006 update Coral Cay Conservation 11 August 2006 Archived from the original on 16 May 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Republic Act No 8796 An Act Converting the Municipality of Maasin into a Component City of the Province of Southern Leyte to be Known as the City of Maasin PDF House of Representatives of the Philippines 11 July 2000 Archived from the original PDF on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 17 April 2016 a b c Census of Population and Housing 2010 Region VIII Eastern Visayas Total Population by Province City Municipality and Barangay NSO Retrieved 29 June 2016 a b c d Southern Leyte from Negative to a Positive Growth Rate in the Late 90S Philippine Statistics Authority 3 September 2002 Archived from the original on 7 February 2012 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Mamanwa National Commission for Culture and the Arts Archived from the original on 21 March 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 a b Arpon Johann Hein B Victims of the Killer Landslide Bulatlat Archived from the original on 10 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Places of Interest MaasinCity com Archived from the original on 24 April 2010 Retrieved 28 July 2016 A short Philippine History before the 1898 Revolution Society of St Pius X in Asia 2001 Archived from the original on 5 July 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Southern Leyte Philippines Select Philippines Archived from the original on 5 October 2006 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Dorado Alegre Joycie The Islands of Leyte and Samar National Commission for Culture and the Arts Archived from the original on 10 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Southern Leyte Is Famous For WOW Philippines Archived from the original on 12 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Poverty incidence PI Philippine Statistics Authority Retrieved 28 December 2020 https psa gov ph sites default files NSCB LocalPovertyPhilippines 0 pdf publication date 29 November 2005 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files 2009 20Poverty 20Statistics pdf publication date 8 February 2011 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 20 20 202006 2C 202009 2C 202012 20and 202015 xlsx publication date 27 August 2016 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority https psa gov ph sites default files Table 202 20 20Updated 20Annual 20Per 20Capita 20Poverty 20Threshold 2C 20Poverty 20Incidence 20and 20Magnitude 20of 20Poor 20Population 20with 20Measures 20of 20Precision 2C 20by 20Region 20and 20Province 2015 20and 202018 xlsx publication date 4 June 2020 publisher Philippine Statistics Authority Martin Bob 20 November 2006 German council embarks on Region 8 value chain study on coconut Nov 20 2006 Archived from the original on 16 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Martin Bob 17 August 2007 Beetle threatens survival of RP s coconut industry Archived from the original on 16 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Felix Rocel C 7 April 2006 Genetic Engineering Eyed to Solve Problems of Abaca Industry NewsFlash org STAR Archived from the original on 3 March 2016 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Abaca Industry Situationer Report Department of Agriculture Agribusiness and Marketing Assistant Service Archived from the original on 19 August 2002 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Erna S Gorne 30 October 2006 Bunchy top virus in Southern Leyte scales down abaca production PIA Information Services Philippine Information Agency Archived from the original on 5 May 2007 Tourism in Southern Leyte SouthernLeyte com Archived from the original on 2011 09 25 Retrieved 2012 09 10 Subang Jane 27 July 2005 Poverty free zones in Southern Leyte Philippine Ventures amp Destinations Blogspot Archived from the original on 8 July 2011 Retrieved 28 July 2016 2002 Annual Report Highlights of Accomplishments Department of Science and Technology Regional Office No 8 Archived from the original on 10 February 2008 Retrieved 28 July 2016 Region VIII Leyte Northern Samar Living in the Philippines Archived from the original on 4 May 2003 Retrieved 28 July 2016 External links EditMap all coordinates using OpenStreetMap Download coordinates as KML Southern Leyte travel guide from Wikivoyage Media related to Southern Leyte at Wikimedia Commons Geographic data related to Southern Leyte at OpenStreetMap Retrieved from https en wikipedia org w index php title Southern Leyte amp oldid 1053506025, wikipedia, 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